Take Your Choice
Separation or Mongrelization

By Theodore G. Bilbo

Chapter X

Lord, what fools these mortals be!
-William Shakespeare
THOSE PEOPLE in the United Sitates today who advocate a mongrelized Nation may be called disciples of Professor Franz Boas, who for many years was a member of the Department of Anthropology of Columbia University. Professor Boas, a Jew, brought considerable notoriety to himself during the early years of this century by his efforts to destroy all concepts of race and to encourage and promote miscegenation in this country.

A naturalized citizen of the United States. Professor Boas did everything in his power to destroy the racial ideals of the Nation which he took for his own. When he arrived on these shores, from the heart of Germany at the age of twenty-one, he saw what the white race had accomplished in the new world. He certainly must have been familiar with the history of the American colonies, and the civilization of this country was proof before him of the ability of the American pioneers and their descendants. Yet for some reason which has never been publicized, this German Jew, a newly-arrived immigrant, wanted to destroy the racial stock which had carved this mighty Nation out of a wilderness. Professor Boas frankly and boldly proclaimed that he was in favor of the miscegenation.of the races. He wrote a number of books and made numerous speeches which were recorded so that there can be no doubt as to what were his beliefs and objectives.

Professor Boas criticized the South for not promoting a general program of amalgamation so that it would become a land of mulattoes. He wished to lighten the Negro race by an infusion of white blood and pointed out that if light Negro men formed unions with darker women, the colored population would tend to become darker which would be "an undesirable condition." His solution was, of course, the intermarriage of the races. He believed that an "increase of unions of white men and colored women would be desirable but as far as we know he never went so far as to practice what he preached. Of course, the failure to practice what they preach is an outstanding characteristic of all white Quislings. Mrs. Roosevelt and many of these hypocritical negrophilistic preachers are shining examples.

In one of his addresses, Professor Boas proclaimed that in instances when white Mohammedans mixed with the native Negro tribes, they were able to "civilize these tribes and to raise them to nearly the same standard" which the white people had attained. Contrary to this policy of the "introduction of culture" by the intermingling of the blood, Boas pointed out that white Europeans have been reluctant to mix with Negroes, and he lamented that "a real amalgamation between the higher types of the whites and the negroes has never taken place." Referring to this particular argument for amalgamation by Professor Boas, Dr. Smith, of Tulane University, has written:

Such is the program for 'influencing' the Negro! Such is the war to introduce 'culture,' whereby, in a thousand years, the 'mixed race' may 'nearly' attain the present Caucasian standard! That is, the only successful 'method of introduction of culture' is to introduce blood, to introduce a new stock, a new germinal principle. Then comes a race of mongrels, of average mental powers higher than the lower breed, with exceptions little lower than the higher. Since the forms of civilization are easily imposed on inferior breeds, the resulting mongrels do what one may be pleased to call 'nearly attaining' to the standard of the higher. Bear witness the West Indies, and Mexico and Central and South America. What interest has any one In contesting such statements? To our mind they give away the case entirely; out of their own mouths such speakers are unappealably condemned. Bornu and Haiti may have attractions for some; but for us, none whatever. (3)
Those people in the United States today, and especially those who call themselves students of science, who contend that the white and black races are equal, should be interested in the fact that even Professor Boas, who longed to see white men taking Negro brides, did not go so far as to plead that the two races were mentally equal. He admitted that "it is true that the average size of the Negro brain is slightly smaller than the average size of the brain of the white race." (4) His explanation that this is off-set by the fact that "a wide range of brain-forms and brain-sizes occur among the white race" (5) as well as among Negroes is wholly inadequate. When Boas is forced to admit that "low brain-weights are slightly more frequent among the Negroes, high brain-weights slightly more frequent among the whites," (6) his case for racial amalgamation is lost. Of course, mental ability does not depend upon the size of the brain alone, but even Professor Boas says: "There is presumably a slight increase of average ability corresponding to a considerable increase in average brain-weight." (7) If the white race, as a group, is mentally superior to the black or if the world's greatest minds, whether they be listed by the tens or hundreds or thousands, have been the products of the exceptional "high brain-weight" of the white race, (8) then this race, as such, is worthy of preservation contrary to all the teachings of Professor Boas and his followers. These advocates of amalgamation have purposely overlooked the fact that in all history the Negro race has produced no men to stand beside the towering geniuses of the white race, and they have utterly failed to show any civilization produced by Negroes to compare with all the great civilizations which have been created by the white man.

It is extremely difficult to understand what kind of reasoning went on in the mind of Professor Boas. He contended that biological analogy and historical evidence "do not favor the assumption of any material inferiority of the mulatto," (9) but he evidently meant inferiority to the Negro race, for there seems to be no record that he was ever so bold as to assert that the mulatto was the equal, much less the superior, of the white man. And while he wrote that he could not predict "what the result of the intermingling of two races will be," (10) he not only advocated but he encouraged the white and black races to mix in the United States so that we would become a Nation of mulattoes and octoroons. Let it be especially noted here that in all of his dangerous, disastrous, and destructive teachings and in all his arguments urging that the white and black races in this Republic commingle in order to produce a Nation of mulattoes and mongrels, Professor Boas never at any time gave us any hope that he could remove from his new brown race of Americans the odoriferous African aroma which forever remains with a human being no matter how small an amount of Negro blood flows in his veins. He could have truthfully proclaimed: "I give you a brown race of mongrels, but the smell and the odor of the true Negro shall be with you always!"

Though he said he did not know what the result would be, Professor Boas advised this great Nation to plunge into a program of amalgamation! He did promise that the "disappearance of the most distinctive type of Negro" would "tend to alleviate the acuteness of race feeling."11 And he held out the glowing hope that "an unbiased examination of conditions as they exist at the present time points to the ultimate result of a levelling of the deep distinctions between the two races and a more and more fruitful co-operation." (12) Co-operation between whom? There would be no two races to co-operate if a scheme of amalgamation, as was advocated by Boas, should make this a Nation of mongrels.

What of the future of the Nation of mongrels of which Professor Boas dreamed? He might not have known, certainly he did not care, what the result of his program would have been (perhaps he preferred not to mention the race mixture of ancient Egypt or the results of miscegenation in South America); but he did know that when racial purity was destroyed, it could never be restored. He advised whites and Negroes in the United States to mix while at the same time he wrote: "All attempts to reconstruct the component elements of a population of mixed ancestry are destined to fail. Supposing, for instance, that we did not know a White race and a Negro race, but only Mulattoes. Could we reconstruct a White race and a Negro race?" (13) of course, we could not; Professor Boas knew that the races could not be reconstructed; he knew that his program would be fatal. He said: "We are not able to predict, even statistically, much less individually, what the result of the intermingling of two races will be. Much less are we able to reverse the process and determine the types from which a population may have sprung." (14) This last statement is certainly true, and the very fact that it is true is sufficient reason within itself why the advice of Professor Boas must never be taken. He may have visualized a Nation of mongrels, but the people of the United States, both white and Negro who believe in racial integrity, must join in a united effort to see that this vision never becomes a reality.

Where is the true, straight-thinking, decent white American man or woman who can read of the dreams and objectives of Professor Boas without becoming nauseated? But we can not dismiss his teachings with a shrug of the shoulders regardless of how much we would like to turn away from them in disgust. As Professor and Dean of Anthropology and Ethnology at Columbia University, this immigrant from Germany - totally un-American to the last - literally pried open Pandora's box. Through the tens of thousands of students who came under his influence and teachings and accepted them, he scattered his evil, disastrous, and racial suicidal preachments and his insane and corrupt doctrines of miscegenation, amalgamation, intermarriage, and mongrelization throughout this broad land. Carefully and deliberately he sowed the seeds for the undermining and destroying of both the white and Negro races in this Nation.

We are today reaping in many ways the evil doctrines and damnable teachings of Professor Boas. We have notorious examples of the writings and philosophies of his students; Strange Fruit by Lillian Smith and Races of Mankind by Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish are examples. Ruth Benedict and other students of the late Professor Boas were employed during the recent World War by the Office of War Information, and they assisted in writing racial equality propaganda which was used for the orientation courses taught in our Army as well as other branches of the Service.

Many of our outstanding colleges and universities throughout this Nation have had and have today deans and professors of anthropology, ethnology, and sociology who were educated at Columbia University and who were vaccinated with the virus of poison of Boas's teachings. Of course, there were thousands of students who were at Columbia University during the days of Professor Boas who never sat in his classrooms; there were thousands who completely disagreed with his racial views and disastrous doctrines of mongrelization. Some of the students who majored in his field did not accept the teachings of Professor Boas and have not taught them in their own classrooms. However, we are sorry to say that large numbers of his students did endorse the doctrines and philosophies of their master and have in the past and are today teaching these infamous theories and advocating mongrelization of the races to the youth of this Nation.

At the present time, Edwin E. Embree, head of the Julius Rosenwald Foundation, is granting fellowships and scholarships in order to place the apostles of Boas's doctrines in some of our best educational institutions, even in some of our Southern colleges and universities. In this manner, the damnable and blighting teachings of these disciples of Boas are being disseminated and inculcated into the minds of the pure-blooded Anglo-Saxon students of Dixie. It is also true that Embree is granting fellowships to Negroes and white Quislings to write books on the subject of Negro or social equality. Many of us believe that Embree, who is in fact the custodian of poor old Rosenwald who is dead, is using the Foundation's funds in a way that violates every thought and intention which Mr. Rosenwald had in mind when he set up the fund for the education of the Negro children of the South. We are sure that he never even dreamed that his money would be used to give scholarships and fellowships to carry out the objectives. paralleling those of Professor Boas, which are now in the mind of the Negrophile Embree.

It is a safe presumption that Professor Ruth Benedict and Dr. Gene Weltfish, who are now members of the Department of Anthropology of Columbia University, were students of the late Professor Boas, since they belong to this same school of thought. In a pamphlet entitled The Races of Mankind, published in 1943, these modern disciples of Professor Boas contend that no one has been able to show that this (race mixture) is necessarily bad, and they conclude that racial intermixture is not harmful. (15) Discussing the mixing of different races, they advise so-called sensible parents not to be guilty of grieving if their children make such unions. It will be noted that Professor Benedict and Dr. Weltfish are not so bold and frank as Boas their master in advocating miscegenation, but in their own subtle manner they endorse the practice. In fact, the underlying purpose of this entire pamphlet which is based on the false assumption that all races of mankind are equal seems to be to further the program of amalgamation in this country.

The booklet is written in language and terms which the authors evidently thought would appeal to the masses of the people and they constantly advise the reader that the authors are scientists whose conclusions are not subject to doubt or contradiction. Using unsupported statements and accepting the opinions of so-called scientists who agree with them, they have attempted to prove that race is a myth and that all men are equal physically and mentally. Their conclusions are not only inaccurate, but many of them are absolutely false. If this be "science," then we weep for its future!

According to the advocates of miscegenation who wrote this pamphlet, they have only stated such facts that they claim have been learned and verified by science. This claim we must refute. In preparing an answer to this booklet, Earnest S. Cox, the distinguished author of White America, has said: "Not only are the conclusions of the authors open to question but a considerable amount of their data set forth as fact is questionable. Some of it is in error. Some of it is inaccurate. It is not sufficient to dogmatically declare that color is determined by climate, for there are dark skinned races at the poles and light skinned races at the equator. Nor is it sufficient to say that 'Blue eyes appeared in the North,' emphasis being placed, presumably, on northern environment. Full fledged anthropologists would know that the 'North' has also produced dark eyed races, and so have the sub-polar regions of the South."

Another example of bold statements made without proof is that there were great Negro states in Africa when Europe was a thinly settled forest and that Negroes made iron tools and wove fine cloth when fair-skinned Europeans wore hides and knew nothing of making iron tools. The story of Egyptian civilization, now generally agreed to have been the product of the white race, (16) has been traced some six thousand years, and if the authors of this pamphlet are familiar with any "great Negro state" in Africa which did not derive what civilization it had from the white Egyptians, they should have made their knowledge public. "Based upon the authority of one writer the booklet asserts that history records that there were great civilizations in Africa in the past, and that Negroes have made important contributions to world culture-a statement that is ridiculous." (17)

According to Professor Benedict and Dr. Weltfish, all the racial differences among the races of mankind are in nonessentials such as texture of hair, quantity of body hair, shape of nose or head, or color of the eyes and the skin. It is probable that these writers would not have admitted these differences had they not been outwardly apparent to everyone who is not blind. When these authors deny any other racial differences except these so-called "nonessentials," they deny the conclusions of their own master, Professor Boas, who wrote: "Thus it may safely be said that there is no anthropological evidence showing inferiority of the Negro race as compared with the white race, although we may assume that differences in mental characteristics of the two races exist." (18)

They are also denying all the great scientists, too numerous to mention, who have in the past found physical, mental, and moral differences between the Caucasian and Negro races. Perhaps they think that their denials are justified by the thought that their unscientific teachings may aid in the fulfillment of the dream of Professor Boas, who wanted to see the white and Negro Americans replaced by chocolate-colored mongrels. Mr. Cox asks: "If the races of mankind are 'equal' as claimed by the authors, what advantage would flow from miscegenation? Like produces like. There could be no biological gain from mixing 'equal' races. If races are 'unequal' there could be no gain in mixing them, for one or the other must suffer loss in the process. But we know that 'inequality' is the iron law of nature. No two people, much less two races, are 'equal.' One or the other is 'superior,' the other 'inferior' under all norms. Why then the zealots' demand for miscegenation?"

On April 27, 1944, The Races of Mankind was denounced by the Military Affairs Subcommittee of the House of Representatives as containing statements ranging "all the way from half truths through innuendos to downright inaccuracies." (19) The Congressmen halted distribution of the pamphlet to members of the armed forces by the United States Army, and they answered the booklet's "basic theme" that the races of mankind "are all brothers" by saying that "even brothers in the same family are not necessarily equal mentally, physically socially, politically, or morally." (20)

The most controversial of the inaccurate statements in this booklet is the table which purports to make an intellectual comparison between Northern Negroes and Southern white people, giving the highest scores to the Negroes. According to the authors, "scientists" compared the scores of Southern whites and Northern Negroes as taken from the intelligence tests made during the First World War. But they not only fail to show how they arrived at these ridiculous figures, but they obviously refrained from listing the complete percentages and the general conclusions which were made from these World War I tests. "The tests showed that . . . in the same section the whites always graded better than Negroes. In fact, in testing 1,500,000 troops the intelligence of the white soldiers proved to be greater than that of the Negroes.... The conclusions drawn by the authors of this pamphlet with respect to the army intelligence test are unjustified," says Stuart O. Landry. (2l)

It is impossible to refrain from pointing out at least one more false assumption made by these two faculty members of Columbia University. Under the title of "What is Being Done" by the government to promote their program, they refer to Abraham Lincoln and his Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln's own speeches and statements deny the whole theory of the equality of the races as espoused by Professor Benedict and Dr. Weltfish. These advocates of miscegenation are evidently ignorant of Lincoln's expressed opposition to amalgamation and his belief, which was embodied in one-half of the Emancipation Proclamation, that the Negroes should be colonized somewhere outside the United States. Mr. Cox has emphatically stated:

Lincoln stood for a white race in a white nation. Professor Boas stood for a mongrel race in a mongrel nation, and so do the authors of the pamphlet "The Races of Mankind."

These hapless authors, seeking to promote a program of race equalization, even to miscegenation, seem to have assumed that Lincoln stood a sponsor for their program. I have said that many of the dogmatic statements in this work lack historical foundation. There may be mitigating circumstance when they err in the less known records of early times and we can bear with them even though they announce their conclusions to be the voice of 'science.' But we cannot acquit them when they deal with Lincoln who preserved the Union and who from the standpoint of the Union would unquestionably be ranked as the foremost of statesmen and the foremost of men. There are many people living who lived in the days of Lincoln and a number who saw him in the flesh. Yet the authors of this pamphlet assume that Lincoln sponsored race equality and race amalgamation, an assumption that is wholly contrary to fact, wholly false, and which brings to question every unsupported statement that they have advanced to bolster their race destroying theories.

And as a conclusion to this discussion of The Races of Mankind, nothing is more appropriate than these closing words from the pen of Mr. Cox:
I have written at length, but before I have finished my estimate of the pamphlet I want to call your attention to an inescapable conclusion so bald and nauseating that it might well be left unrecorded were it not an inseparable reflex from the miscegenation propaganda with which we here deal.

All of us, possibly, have observed the tendency of groups within our nation bringing forward their peculiar problems and asking for immediate relief on the assumption that the inequalities that they endure here are similar to the inequalities in enemy governments against which we are contending. These groups assert that the peculiar inequalities under which they labor should be corrected so that our armed forces may return and find that their ideals have been effected here as well as in enemy countries.

The pamphlet assumes that 'race prejudice' is one of the things against which we are fighting. But the miscegenation ideals are also in the pamphlet, inter-twined with our ideals of liberty and economy. I have stated that the inflammatory material in the pamphlet need not have been a part of it. If it is not disengaged from our war ideals, but left with them, it could be truly said that when our soldiers, white and black, return from the war and find that in their absence their sisters have not conceived a mulatto child they will feel that their sacrifices have been in vain. Could an excess of zeal carry a group to a more pathetic conclusion? And, in the history of America has there been a more 'un-American' assertion, or one more likely to inflame 'race prejudice' rather than eliminate it?

After five years of research sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation, Gunnar Myrdal, a Swedish Professor, with the assistance of Richard Sterner and Arnold Rose, wrote An American Dilemma, a two volume study of the Negro problem. Published in 1944, this work is the most comprehensive and the most elaborate which has been written concerning the Negro in the United States. However, only because of the circumstances under which it was prepared and its verbosity does An American Dilemma differ from other books and pamphlets which have been coming off the press in recent years to promote the campaign for racial equality.

An American Dilemma subscribes to the theory that race is a myth, that the Negro's condition in the United States is not due to any racial inferiority but wholly and completely to race prejudice and the segregation and discrimination inflicted by the white man. With such a doctrine, this wellfinanced book takes its place with the teachings of Professor Boas to aid in bringing about a mongrelized United States.

According to Dr. Myrdal, "The trend of psychology, education, anthropology, and social science is toward environmentalism in the explanation of group differences, which means that the racial beliefs which defended caste are being torn away. It also means, by implication, that the white majority group in power is accused of being the cause of the Negro's deficiencies and unhappiness. Authority and respectability are no longer supporting the popular beliefs. The beliefs are no longer nourished from above. Instead they are increasingly fought." (23) And if this author had the power to solve America's race problem, he would suggest that the campaign for complete equality be "increasingly fought" until all racial barriers and racial lines disappeared and this country turned into a land of mixbreeds.

After pointing out that "the racial inferiority doctrine is beginning to come into disrepute with people of higher education and is no longer supported by the press or by leadinb public figures," (24) An American Dilemma treats the Southerner's fear of intermarriage as if it were emotional, silly, and unfounded. (25) With much discussion of the "American Creed," this book would have us believe that our democracy is a failure and the country approaching fascism unless we solve our race problem by the acceptance of the doctrine of racial equality which would permit the intermarriage of the races. The reader is often reminded that if America would give up her "social definition of 'race,'" (26) and the "unfortunate whites" would cease to "believe in the system of segregation and discrimination and to justify it to themselves," the race problem would solve itself. Of course, the editor of An American Dilemma is a thousand times wrong. If the white people of this Nation should agree with the conclusions of this editor, instead of the race problem solving itself, such a course would complete the destruction of our race and civilization.

In the closing chapter of An American Dilemma, Dr. Myrdal says that America has the opportunity to "demonstrate that justice, equality and cooperation are possible between white and colored people." Then, having no objection to intermarriage and amalgamation, this author concludes that if this country fulfills its destiny, the Negro will finally become "integrated" in our democracy. It is our belief, as has been expressed by W. T. Couch, of the University of North Carolina, that this book "was written under gross misapprehensions of what such ideas as equality, freedom, democracy, human rights, have meant, and of what they can be made to mean. I believe the small measure of these gained by western man is in serious danger of destruction by widespread misunderstanding of the kind represented in An American Dilemma." (29)

Our democracy, our Nation, our people are in danger of destruction by the kind of doctrine presented by Dr. Myrdal. Such a proposed solution of the race problem as would permit amalgamation of the races would bring with it no hope of the future - only utter desolation - for a Nation of mongrels.

Another author who, in his own way, has added his plea for a mongrelized Nation is William B. Ziff, of Chicago, Illinois, a Jewish ex-candidate for Congress and a former chairman of an interracial society, who discusses "The Tragic Struggle of Race" in his book, The Gentlemen Talk of Peace.(30) Although he has no rating as a scholar and little influence, Mr. Ziff has been mixed up in half a dozen ill-fated publishing enterprises. Mr. Ziff says that the colored peoples are convinced that the true meaning of the war is not a battle between the ideals of two contrasting social philosophies, but between the rival imperialisms of the defunct white races, whose brief tenure of world rule is drawing to a close. They see their own appointed task as that of hastening its final conclusion. And he adds that the dark peoples will move to end every type of exclusion, social or economic, and will see such discriminations even where there are none.

Mr. Ziff believes that all racial barriers should be removed, and the fact that this would pave the way for amalgamation in the United States does not seem to bother him at all. This author says that the race question should not be ignored, and he suggests that it could be solved by outlawing racial assault and the violent slander on which it feeds, as was done in the Soviet Union. Although he expresses no objection of his own to this solution which would result in the mixing of the blood of the races, he is wise enough to know that to attempt "to outlaw prejudices by legal enactment" would only increase such prejudices in the long run. This brings him to observe that "a determined effort" to liquidate the basic cause of the race problem in this country would result in the moving of the minority peoples into areas of self-jurisdiction. If this were the solution that he endorsed, then he would be rendering a service to the Negro Americans who, he says, are not received anywhere as the "social equal" of the white people.

Does Mr. Ziff believe that the future American should be the product of miscegenation? He does not say that he would welcome such a condition, as did Professor Boas, but he warns that it is a process which the Caucasian cannot stop whether he wills it or not.

We absolutely and emphatically disagree with those who believe that the white American would be improved by an infusion of Negro or any other type of colored blood. And we believe that the great majority of white Americans and self-respecting Negroes also disagree with those who plead for a mongrelized Nation. We might suggest to these advocates of miscegenation that they go to some of the South American countries or elsewhere where there is general racial intermixture and preach their infamous doctrine to their heart's content.

Frank H. Hankins, who wrote a series of articles in The Progressive entitled "Meaning of Race and Race Superiority," (31) is another writer who is doing his part for a mongrelized Nation. Mr. Hankins says that he is a "scientist more devoted to the facts than to worthy propaganda." He denies that he belongs to the group of scientists who assert that there is no such thing as race" or to the group who claim that "all races are equal in cultural potentialities." From this position, he continues the development of his own theory which is indeed abundant with fallacies.

Acknowledging that there are distinct races of people and that they have racial characteristics, this writer says: "Even an ignorant man can tell the difference between a white man and a black one at a glance" and "the contention that the Jews are not a race will continue to fall on deaf ears, so far as the mass man is concerned, so long as many of them are racially visible, that is, carry the marks of their genetic descent in their faces." Yet the doctrine which Hankins expounds says that we must treat "all persons as individuals" and ignore the fact of race. He could have made a better argument for "dealing with each person" as an individual, not as a member of a race had he not made so many admissions of racial differences.

Mr. Hankins evidently belongs to a school of thought similar to that entertained by Professor Boas and the authors of the pamphlet, The Races of Mankind. It has been noted in his biography that he was a student at Columbia University; therefore, it is a safe presumption that he was there infected by the Boas poison from which he has never recovered. However, his arguments are even less founded than those of Professor Boas and the authors of The Races of Mankind for he does not state, much less attempt to prove, that the races of mankind are equal. He is thus in the position of admitting the inequality of the races, while setting forth a doctrine that would permit the intermarriage of the white and black races in the United States.

When he discusses the "moot question of White-Negro intelligence," Mr. Hankins is forced to admit that those who argue "that there is no difference in the average of the two groups" rest their case "on doubtful evidence." But he is quick to add that "Democracy does not require that a man be equal to the average" - a statement which has no relation whatsoever to the comparison of the mental qualities of the white and Negro races.

After illogical and fallacious reasoning, this author summarizes: "From all this it follows that there is not in the logic of either race or democracy any ground for discrimination against the Negro as a race, unless it can be shown that all Negroes are inferior to all whites and thus wholly incapable of profiting by opportunity for self-development." Has there ever been a more ridiculous statement? It would be just as logical to say that because there was one man who, because of some fatal disease of the mind, was absolutely void of any mental power or control and thus unable to respond to directions as would a trained dog, then it followed as a natural conclusion that there must be no difference in the treatment of men and beasts. Such a presumption is not worthy of an answer!

After the above statement which has been quoted from Mr. Hankins, he says: "Now since the lower level of whites are idiots, imbeciles, and morons, this amounts to a reductio ad absurdum." Therefore, he contends, since every white person, including the mentally defective, can not be said to be superior to every Negro, we must abolish all racial barriers in the United States. This argument, if it can justly be called an argument, is utterly absurd. But somehow from such reasoning he justifies his theory which is to treat all persons "as an individual, not as a member of a race." This is the view, he says, that the "man on the street can be made to understand."

If the doctrine of Mr. Hankins should be accepted, then the color line which he says causes Virginia to class "all persons with one drop of Negro blood as Negro" would no longer exist. If his infamous theory should be adopted, the twenty-eight states, which according to his analysis, "prohibit the marriage of white and black regardless of genetic constitution or personality development, thus checking that amalgamation which is the only final solution of any race problem" would wipe the legal restrictions on intermarriage from their statute books and open the flood gates for the amalgamation of the Nation.

Action which could only be designed to promote the mongrelization of this country has been demanded of the Junior Hostesses at the Stage Door Canteen in New York City. In the summer of 1943, Margaret Halsey, captain of the Junior Hostesses, ordered the white girls serving as hostesses to the service men at this canteen to dance with Negro soldiers and to accept them as their social equals.

The author of an article which was distributed to the Junior Hostesses regarding "Dancing with Negro servicemen at the Stage Door Canteen" and was reprinted in the newspaper PM, Miss Halsey told these girls that the Canteen was giving them "a golden opportunity to come into contact with Negroes under the best possible circumstances." She dismisses the question of intelligence, saying: "Actually, I don't believe any of you are very deeply concerned with Negro intelligence. What worries you more is the fear of rape. You unconsciously, but very arrogantly, assume that no male Negro can so much as glance at you without wanting to get you with child. The truth is, that while you are an extremely attractive group of young women, there isn't one of you who's that good." And from this absurd statement, she concludes that there is no reason at all why the white girls and Negro men should not mingle on terms of social equality.

Miss Halsey continues her article with a discussion of the "machine age" which, in her opinion, is going to make it necessary for white girls to "spend an increasing amount" of their time "mingling with Negroes" so some of them "might as well get used to it here and now, on Sunday nights at the Canteen." While our fighting men were dying and facing the enemy's bullets all over the world so that mankind could again know peace, Miss Halsey attempted to destroy the social customs in this country so that they may return home to find the way prepared for the mongrelization of the Nation. Any white woman who would give such advice, as did Miss Halsey, to the young girls of her race, should forever be ostracized from the people of her own blood.

Another attempt to encourage amalgamation was made in the Nation's Capital in February, 1944, when the Congress of Industrial Workers opened a canteen for service men and women. On opening night there were some two hundred members of the armed forces present. About an equal number of white and Negro soldiers were in attendance, and white and colored girls served as hostesses in about equal numbers. Discussing the opening of this canteen, Congressman McKenzie of Louisiana asked: "How can anyone be a party to encouraging white girls into the arms of Negro soldiers at a canteen while singing 'Let Me Call You Sweetheart'?"

The sponsors of this place of entertainment where whites and Negroes mingled on terms of social equality declared that the "plan was proving successful." And Joseph Phillips, president of the C.I.O. Washington Industrial Union Council, said that his organization was proud to sponsor the "first effective non-Jim Crow canteen in Washington." He added that "when people come to our dances they dance with whomever they choose."

If we have reached the place in this country that we are going to permit white girls to attend social functions with Negro soldiers, then we can no longer profess to be surprised at whatever may happen. Such practices of social equality, which is communism in its worst form, can only result in harm to both races and the furtherance of the scheme of the mongrelization of the Nation. Denouncing the "uninformed agitators and starry-eyed, half-baked theorists in other sections" who are attempting to meddle with the question of race relations in the South, Congressman Joseph R. Bryson, of South Carolina, made the following remarks:

Some days ago you doubtless read reports published in the newspapers of the country of the opening of a local United Service Organizations unit in Washington for service men and women, regardless of color. The stories published at the time noted the presence at the opening of outstanding officials and semiofficials of the United States, and indicated that they joined with others of both races in singing such songs as Let Me Call You Sweetheart.

No member of this House has greater respect for our leaders than I, but one can be pardoned if he questions the wisdom of such officials participating in these festivities. I unhesitatingly brand that affair as a distinct disservice to the Negro race - one to which our sanction should not be given. Whatever the intent of those responsible for the creation of this particular U. S. O. unit, its continued operation can result only in the intensification of the race problem, with which we of the South must constantly struggle.

Negroes in the armed services who visit Washington or other centers do not lack U. S. O. units of their own, as well organized and conducted as any for white service men and women. In all conscience, why not permit them to patronize the units created especially for them. They are always happier among themselves on social occasions, most of them preferring not to mingle with white folks. The race problem is grave enough without deliberately aggravating it by promoting the intermingling of Negroes and whites on such occasions. (32)

Perhaps those who operate and sponsor the "non-Jim Crow" canteen in Washington believe, as does Gluseppe Antonio Borgese, in promoting any scheme which will increase the number of interracial marriages in the United States. This white Professor of Italian literature at the University of Chicago has expounded his ideas on the race question in an article entitled "A Bedroom Approach to Racism," which appeared in the magazine, Negro Digest. (33) "EQUALITY," says Professor Borgese, "IS NOT YET BROTHERHOOD, WHICH IS CHARITY, OTHERWISE NAMED LOVE ... THIS ALTAR OF CHARITY IS IN THE BEDROOM." And thus, he declares, the race problem which confronts this Nation can be solved only in the bedroom!

Professor Borgese admits that it will be difficult to abolish racial lines, but he thinks that everything possible should be done to bring about the "demolition of the color line." He is forced to acknowledge that the miscegenation in South America "has failed anyhow to bring forth so far a pattern of social civilization and intellectual culture unquestionable enough to affect with its prestige the rigor of Anglo-Saxon racialism." But this does not dampen the ardor of this Professor for a mongrelized United States. Instead, he laments that the process cannot be hastened so that Negroes could see the destruction of the color line in this generation.

Giuseppe Antonio Borgese was born in Polsizzi, Genorosa (Palerma, Italy), in 1882 and came to this country in 1931 at the age of 49. He was naturalized in 1938. This immigrant w ho entertains and preaches such racial doctrines which are foreign to every suggestion of true Americanism in this white man's country should be promptly deported as a public enemy. He should immediately and most certainly be ostracized by all decent, white American citizens regardless of their nationality. Nationalities have nothing whatsoever to do with the race question which we are discussing in this book provided that the nationality belongs to the white race. This is a white man's fight for his perpetuation and involves every white man in this country regardless of what his nationality might be.

"Slow melting pots that may keep simmering for centuries" before finally producing a Nation of octoroons in North America will involve too much time, according to this Professor who advocates miscegenation. Therefore, he suggests that all legal restrictions, all forms of segregation, and all social customs which now separate the races in this country be removed, because "only when the bedrooms open and the two bloods mix freely in many marriages, free from blame and bane" will the race question, in his opinion, be solved.

The civilization and culture of the Caucasian race mean nothing to this Italian immigrant Professor at the University of Chicago. He does not place any value whatsoever on the accomplishments of the white race from which all races of mankind have benefited, and he evidently is far from being proud of the blood which flows in his own veins. What type of man is this who wishes to bequeath to his posterity the destruction of the race of his fathers?

When a white man pleads for the mongrelization of his country, places his stamp of approval on miscegenation, and denies that the white-skinned, blue-eyed, blonde women of his own race are more beautiful than the dull-skinned half-breeds, then we are forced to exclaim:

Do I sleep? Do I dream?
Do I wonder and doubt
Are things what they seem?
Or is visions about?
Is our civilization a failure?
Or is the Caucasian played out?
Professor Borgese claims that "the snow-white, blue-eyed archetype of Aryan beauty" is in "a process of revision" and gradually losing its "exclusive purity." This, of course, he views with satisfaction and looks forward to the day when an infusion of Negro blood will give all white people the "extrapigmentation of the creole or mulatto." "A 'global' color, somewhere midway between sun and shade, light and earth, that should narrow and smooth the distances across which we are allowed or forbidden to look at our fellow-creatures as brothers and sisters" is his aim. We can but wonder if Professor Borgese has carried out his doctrine and contributed his part to the lightening of the Negro race by forming a union with a colored woman.

Now we come to the pitfall which this writer has dug, and we can only hope that his teachings will be forever buried therein. After pleading for white-Negro marriages and a mongrelized people, he says that science should find some means "to discolor the Negro." Professor Borgese evidently thinks that Almighty God made a grave mistake when He made the Negro black; and if this race can not be bleached right away by a sufficient mixture of white blood, then science must speed the process by finding a way to make the colored man white. With this suggestion, the author admits that there is not only some kind of superiority but also beauty attached to a white skin. And since this cannot follow from his plea for the destruction of the white race, then his reasoning is not only fallacious but utterly ridiculous.

This advocate of a bedroom approach to racism is forced to admit that race is more than skin deep. Even though a Negro might be made white by "science," Professor Borgese does know that he would become the parent of a colored child. And then the whitening would have to be done all over again. He says:

Mixed marriages would be insured against racial nemesis by the know]edge that the treatment that was inexpensive and successful for the parent will be no less so for the progeny, with the other and less definite differential characteristics of the races merging by-and-by much more easily in the multiple miscegenation of the border zones.

This it is that would make a substantial and positive - not nominal, not utopian - bequest by us to children and grandchildren. The color line should blur almost past recognition in the course of the very next generations.

Every white man and woman in the United States who has any pride in the Caucasian race will condemn the teachings of Professor Borgese. Likewise, every Negro who has racial pride, and whose race has been insulted by the suggestion that scientists should make the Negro white, will condemn the doctrines of this advocate of miscegenation. Such a theory as that advanced by Professor Borgese is revolting and nauseating to everyone who believes in racial integrity, and anyone who espouses such a doctrine is a disgrace to his own race.

Without a doubt, the above and foregoing recital of thoughts, beliefs, sentiments, and teachings of this Italian immigrant, Gluseppe Antonio Borgese, who is now a Professor of Italian literature at the University of Chicago, will come as a shocking surprise to every white man and woman in America who chances to read this book. The young men and women throughout this Nation who are planning to finish their education at the University of Chicago, as well as the mothers and fathers who are planning to send their sons and daughters to this great Institution, should certainly be apprised of the fact that the minds of the young men and women who come under the tutorage of this member of the faculty may be subjected to his baneful, criminal, disastrous, and racial suicidal teachings and philosophies.

If the President of the University of Chicago and the members of the Board of Trustees are informed of such damnable and un-American teachings which are being disseminated by Professor Borgese and refuse to take prompt action by discharging him from the faculty, then they are thereby condoning, endorsing, and sponsoring a philosophy which will mongrelize white America. If they refuse to remove such a cancerous sore from their great educational Institution, every white American who believes in the integrity of his blood and race will be forced to say that the University of Chicago needs a complete and thorough house cleaning.

In this chapter, we have called attention to only a few of the individuals who have followed the teachings of Professor Boas by promoting the campaign for the amalgamation, miscegenation, and mongrelization of the white and black races in the United States. The arguments used by the few are typical of those used by the many who are aiding in this scheme of racial mongrelization. The clock has struck, the hour is here - to delay is fatal - when every white man and white woman in the South and North, in the East and West, regardless of his nationality, must take drastic steps to stop these enemies of the white race from spreading their damnable doctrines of destruction. They would destroy the white race through the process of social equality which leads to miscegenation and intermarriage of the two races which are so widely and vitally divergent. We must denounce, condemn, and ostracize from white society any person and every person regardless of station or position - high or low - in religion, in politics, or in society - who by word or deed endorse or encourage the mongrelization of the Nation. To do this is not bias, bigotry, prejudice, un-American, or undemocratic. It is merely the white race fighting for the protection of its purity and integrity and for the perpetuation of the white man's culture and civilization.

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  1. Boas, Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man (New York: The Macmillan and Company, Inc., 1938), p. 272.

  2. Boas, Franz, Anthropology and Modern Life (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1928), p. 75.

  3. Smith, William B., The Color Line, p. 127. Professor Smith has forcefully and adequately answered the doctrines of Professor Boas in Chapter Four, "Plea and Counterplea," of his book The Color Line. Using science and history, this able Southern writer and scientist has refuted what he terms the plea for the "backward races" which was made by the Jewish professor of Columbia University.

  4. Boas, Franz, The Real Race Problem (New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1910), p. 2.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Boas, Franz, The Real Race Problem, p. 3.

  7. Ibid.

  8. "'We might, therefore, anticipate a lack of men of high genius, but should not anticipate any great lack of faculty among the great mass of negroes living among whites and enjoying the advantages of the leadership of the best men of that race.' (Boas) These words seem to surrender everything. They admit a sensible inferiority of the Negro. This defect may be slight as expressed in ounces, and yet, as measured by achievement, it may be inexpressibly great." _Smith, William B. The Color Line, p. 146.

  9. Boas. Franz, The Real Race Problem, p. 6.

  10. Boas, Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man, p. 71.

  11. Boas, Franz, The Real Race Problem, p. 8.

  12. lbid.

  13. Boas Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man, p. 70.

  14. Boas, Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man, p. 71.

  15. Benedict, Ruth and Weltfish. Gene, The Races of Mankind (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1943), p. 14.

  16. See Chapter II.

  17. Landry, Stuart 0., The Cult of Equality, p. 17.

  18. Boas, Franz, The Real Race Problem, p. 4.

  19. The Evening Star (Washington, D. C.), April 27, 1944.

  20. Ibid.

  21. Landry, Stuart 0., The Cult of Equality, p. 17.

  22. Ira Calvin had ample reason to state that "if you are a decent person you will need a clothes pin on your nose while you study it (The Races of Mankind), for it stinks. Imagine trying to convince sensible white people that they are no different from Negroes, Japanese, Chinese, and Indians." _Calvin Ira, The Lost White Race, p. 115.

  23. Myrdal Gunnar, An American Dilemma (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1944), 2 vols., p. 1003.

  24. Id. at p. 583.

  25. Id. at p. 1012, 587.

  26. Myrdal, Gunnar, An American Dilemma, p. 117.

  27. Id. at p. 660.

  28. Id. at p. 1021.

  29. Logan, R. W., What the Negro Wants, p. xv (from the Publisher's Introduction).

  30. Ziff, William B., The Gentlemen Talk of Peace (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1944), p. 379.

  31. The Progressive (Madison, Wisconsin), April 16, 1945, p. 8.

  32. The Congressional Record (Daily), March 8, 1944.

  33. Borgese, G. A., "A Bedroom Approach to Racism," Negro Digest, December, 1944, p. 31.