Watchman Willie Martin Archive



                                                                                 North America Was Inhabited By Israelites

                                                                                         1000 Years Or More Before 1492

When embarking upon a study such as this, one will find that there are archeological discoveries that have been made which show a strong correlation to the Bible. For when people think of Israel in the Bible they assume that all the events which happened to Israel did so in the little country known as Palestine; today it is called Israel.

Subject:

           [ID‑L] [Fwd: Settlers may have crossed Atlantic]

     Date:

           Fri, 05 Nov 1999 20:34:29 ‑0500

     From:

          Walter Kenaston <[email protected]>

 Reply‑To:

          identity‑[email protected]

‑‑‑‑‑‑‑‑ Original Message ‑‑‑‑‑‑‑‑

Subject: Settlers may have crossed Atlantic

Date: Fri, 05 Nov 1999 20:32:09 ‑0500

Settlers May Have Crossed Atlantic

By JOSEPH B. VERRENGIA

The Associated Press

SANTA FE, N.M. (AP) ‑ In a radical new view of pre‑history, two prominent

archeologists say North America's first inhabitants may have crossed the

icy

Atlantic Ocean some 18,000 years ago from Europe's Iberian Peninsula.

The theory, presented at a weekend conference, is at odds with the

long‑held

notion that the continent's first settlers came across a land bridge from

Asia.

The conventional view is the stuff of college entrance exams and Far Side

cartoons ‑ wandering cavemen wrapped in animal hides and lugging enormous

spears, crossing the land bridge from Asia to hunt woolly mammoths.

Archeologists say some nomads almost certainly made their way into Alaska

and found an ice‑free highway down into the continent some 13,500 years

ago.

Their culture has been named Clovis for their distinctive weapons that have

been found in digs nationwide.

But according to the new theory, the continent's first inhabitants may have

crossed the Atlantic more than 18,000 years ago from Europe's Iberian

Peninsula ‑ the area that is now Spain, Portugal and southwestern France.

Belonging to a group known as the Solutreans, these pre‑modern explorers

are

believed to have originally settled the Eastern Seaboard, according to the

researchers. Over the next six millennia, their hunting and gathering

culture

may have spread as far as the American deserts and Canadian tundra, and

perhaps into South America.

The researchers, Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley, concede the Solutreans

may not have been the only paleo‑explorers to reach the Western Hemisphere.

But judging by their distinctive style of projectile points and other clues

in the archeological record, they may have been the first settlers who

brought to North America what, until now, has been considered the Clovis

culture.

``There is very little in Clovis ‑ in fact, nothing ‑ that is not found in

Solutrea,'' said Stanford, who is anthropology curator at the Smithsonian

Institution. ``Their blades are virtually indistinguishable.''

Stanford and Bradley, an independent researcher from Cortez, Colo., offered

their stunning reinterpretation of the standard settlement theory at an

archeology conference in Santa Fe.

The meeting was devoted to re‑examining Clovis research seven decades after

it was accepted as historical bedrock.

Other scientists say the Solutrean alternative is such a radical departure

that it might take years to adequately evaluate. Stanford and Bradley's new

explanation, they noted, is based primarily on comparisons of projectile

points and other artifacts already discovered on both sides of the

Atlantic.

No unequivocal Solutrean settlement remains have been found in North

America,

they said.

Researchers who believe Clovis and the Bering Sea land‑bridge theory is

outdated point to sites at Monte Verde, Chile as well as Pennsylvania,

Virginia and South Carolina as being settled in 12,500 B.C. to 16,000 B.C.

But Clovis defenders say many artifacts from those digs are so crude that

they may be rocks that have broken naturally rather than actual stone tools

fashioned by prehistoric hands.

Still, observers said, the older Solutrean projectile points from Europe

and

the more recent Clovis points from the Americas closely resemble each

other.

That's what makes the new ``Out of Iberia'' theory so tantalizing.

``There is no question about it,'' Kent State University archeologist

Kenneth

Tankersley said. ``There are only two places in the world and two times

that

this technology appears ‑ Solutrean and Clovis.''

How seafaring Solutreans could have arrived in North America is unknown.

Based on his knowledge of modern native cultures above the Arctic Circle,

Stanford said it is not farfetched to imagine Solutreans sailing to the New

World in skin boats. With a strong current and favorable weather, the trip

might have taken as little as three weeks, he calculated.

By this time in pre‑history, he said, South Pacific islanders had been

sailing open waters for at least 20,000 years.

‑‑

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Subject:

          [SonsofLiberty] Fwd: Excavations In the Grand Canyon

     Date:

           Wed, 24 Nov 1999 19:17:08 ‑0500 (EST)

     From:

          [email protected] (Colleen Jones)

 Reply‑To:

          [email protected]

       To:

          [email protected]

 Subject:

        Excavations In the Grand Canyon

   Date:

         Wed, 24 Nov 1999 07:24:51 ‑0500 (EST)

   From:

         Jon Locke <[email protected]>

      To:

        [email protected]

www.sightings.com/earthchanges/grandcanyon_e.htm

         SIGHTINGS

Fabulous Secrets Said Discovered In Grand Canyon 90 Years Ago

                                             11‑19‑99

The Phoenix Gazette April 5, 1909

EXPLORATIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON

Mysteries of Immense Rich Cavern Being Brought to Light J

ORDAN IS ENTHUSED

REMARKABLE FINDS INDICATE ANCIENT PEOPLE MIGRATED FROM ORIENT

                                    ___________

The latest news of the progress of the explorations

or what is now regarded by Scientists as not only

the oldest archaeological discovery in the United

States, but one of the most valuable in the world,

was brought to the city yesterday by G.E. Kinkaid,

the explorer who found the great underground citadel

of the Grand Canyon during a trip from Green river,

Wyoming, town the Colorado, in a wooden boat, to

Yuma, several months ago. According to he story

related to the Gazette by Mr. Kinkaid, the

archaeologists of the Smithsonian institute, which

is financing the expeditions, have made discoveries

which almost conclusively prove that the race which

inhabited this mysterious cavern, hewn in solid rock

by human hands, was of oriental origin, possibly

from Egypt, tracing back to Ramses. If their

theories are borne out by the translation of the

tablets engraved with hieroglyphics, the mystery of

the prehistoric peoples of North America, their

ancient arts, who they were and whence they came

will be solved. Egypt and the Nile, and Arizona and

the Colorado will be linked by a historical chain

running back to ages, which staggers the wildest

fancy of the fictionist.

        A THOROUGH INVESTIGATION

Under the direction of Professor. SA. Jordan, the

Smithsonian Institute is now prosecute‑ing the most

thorough explorations, which will be continued until

the last link in the chain is forged. Nearly a mile

underground, about 1480 feet below the surface, the

long main passage has been delved into, to find

another mammoth chamber from which radiates scores

of passageways, like the spokes of a wheel. Several

hundred rooms have been discovered, reached by

passageways running from the main passage, one of

them having been explored or 854 feet and another

634 feet. The recent finds include articles, which

have never been known as native to this country and

doubtless they had their origin in the orient. War

weapons, copper instruments, sharp ‑ edged and hard

as steel, indicate the high state of civilisation

reached by these strange people. So interested have

the scientists become that preparations are being

made to equip the camp for extensive studies, and

the force will be increased to thirty or forty

persons. "Before going further into the cavern,

better facilities for lighting will have to be

installed, for the darkness is dense and quite

impenetrable for the average flashlight. In order to

avoid being lost, wires are being strung from the

entrance to all passageways leading directly to

large chambers. How far this cavern extends no one

can guess, but it is now the belief of many that

what has already been explored is merely the

"barracks", to use an American term, for the

soldiers, and that far into the under‑world will be

found the main communal dwellings of the families.

The perfect ventilation of the cavern, the steady

draught that blows through, indicates that it has

another outlet to the surface.

                MR. KINKAID'S REPORT

Mr. Kinkaid was the first white child born in Idaho

and has been an explorer and hunter all his life,

thirty years having been in the service of the

Smithsonian Institute. Even briefly recounted, his

history sounds fabulous, almost grotesque. First, I

would impress that the cavern is nearly

inaccessible. The entrance is 1,486 feet down the

sheer canyon wall. It is located on government land

and no visitor will be allowed there under penalty

of trespass. The scientist's wish to work

unmolested, without fear of the archaeological

discoveries being disturbed by curio or relic

hunters. A trip there would be fruitless, and the

visitor would be sent on his way. The story of how I

found the cavern has been related, but in a

paragraph: I was journ‑eying down the Colorado River

in a boat, alone, looking for mineral. Some forty

two miles up the river from the El Tovar Crystal

canyon, I saw on the east wall, stains in the

sedimentary formation about 2,000 feet above the

river bed. There was no trail to this point, but I

finally reached it with great difficulty. Above a

shelf, which hid it from view from the river, was

the mouth of the cave. There are steps leading from

this entrance some thirty yards to what was, at the

time the cavern was inhabited, the level of the

river. When I saw the chisel marks on the wall

inside the entrance, I became interested, securing

my gun and went in. During that trip, I went back

several hundred feet along the main passage till I

came to the crypt in which I discovered the mummies.

One of these I stood up and photographed by

carried down the Colorado to Yuma, from whence I

shipped them to Washington with details of the

discovery. Following this, the explorations were

undertaken.

                                   THE PASSAGES

"The main passageway is about 12 feet wide,

narrowing to nine feet toward the far‑her end. About

57 feet from the entrance, the first side‑passages

branch off to the right and left, along which, on

both sides, are a number of rooms about the size of

ordinary living rooms of today, though some are 30

by 40 feet square. These are entered by oval‑shaped

doors and are ventilated by round air spaces through

the walls into the passages. The walls are about

three feet six inches in thickness. The passages are

chiselled or hewn as straight as could be laid out

by an engineer. The ceilings of many of the rooms

converge to a centre. The side‑passages near the

entrance run at a sharp angle from the main hall,

but toward the rear, they gradually reach a right

angle in direction.

                                       THE SHRINE

"Over a hundred feet from the entrance is the

cross‑hall, several hundred feet long in which am

found the idol, or image, of the people's god,

sitting cross‑legged, with lotus flower or lily in

each hand. The cast of the face is oriental, the

carving shows a skilful hand, and the entire is

remarkably well preserved, as is everything in this

cavern. The idol almost resembles Buddha, though the

scientists are not certain as to what religious

worship it represents. Taking into consideration

everything found thus far, it is possible that this

worship most resembles the ancient people of Tibet.

Surrounding this idol are smaller images, some very

beautiful in form; others crooked‑necked and

distorted shapes, symbolical probably, of good and

evil. There are two large cactus with protruding

arms, one on each side of the dais on which the god

squats. All this is carved out of hard rock

resembling marble. In the opposite corner of this

cross‑hall were found tools of all descriptions,

made of copper. These people undoubtedly knew the

lost art of hardening this metal, which has been

sought by chemists for centuries without result. On

a bench running around the workroom was some

charcoal and other material probably used in the

process. There is also slag and stuff similar to

matte, showing that these ancients smelted ores, but

so far, no trace of where or how this was done has

been discovered, nor the origin of the ore. "Among

the other finds are vases or urns and cups of copper

and gold, made very artistic in design. The pottery

work includes enamelled ware and glazed vessels.

Another passageway leads to granaries such as are

found in the oriental temples. They contain seeds of

various kinds. One very large storehouse has not yet

been entered, as it is twelve feet high and can be

reached only from above.

Two copper hooks extend on the edge, which indicates

that some sort of ladder was attached. These

grannies are rounded, as the materials of which they

are constructed, I think is a very hard cement. A

Gray metal is also found in this cavern, which

puzzles the scientists, for its identity has not

been established. It resembles platinum. Strewn

promiscuously over the floor everywhere are what

people call 'cats eyes,' a yellow stone of no great

value. Each one is engraved with the head of the

Malay type.

THE HIEROGLYPHICS

"On all the urns, or walls over doorways, and

tablets of stone which were found by the image are

the mysterious hieroglyphics, the key to which the

Smithsonian Institute hopes yet to discover. The

engraving on the tablets probably has something to

do with the religion of the people. Similar

hieroglyphics have been found in southern Arizona.

Among the pictorial writings, only two animals are

found. One is of prehistoric type.

                                          THE CRYPT

"The tomb or crypt in which the mummies were found

is one of the largest of the chambers, the walls

slanting back at an angle of about 35 degrees. On

these are tiers of mummies, each one occupying a

separate hewn shelf. At the bead of each is a small

bench, on which is found copper cups and pieces of

broken swords. Some of the mummies are covered with

clay, and all are wrapped in a bark fabric. The urns

or cups on the lower tiers are crude, while as the

higher shelves are reached, the urns are finer in

design, showing a later stage of civilisation. It is

worthy of note that all the mummies examined so far

have proved to be male, no children or females being

buried here. This leads to the belief that this

exterior section was the warriors' barracks.

"Among the discoveries no bones of animals have been

found, no skins, no clothing, no bedding. Many of

the rooms are bare but for water vessels. One room,

about 40 by 700 feet, was probably the main dining

hall, for cooking utensils are found here. What

these people lived on is a problem, though it is

presumed that they cam south in the winter and

farmed in the valleys, going back north in the

summer. Upwards of 50,000 people could have lived in

the caverns comfortably. One theory is that the

present Indian tribes found in Arizona are

descendants of the serfs or slaves of the people,

which inhabited the cave. Undoubtedly a good many

thousand of years before the Christian era a people

lived here which reached a high stage of

civilisation. The chronology of human history is

full of gaps. Professor Jordan much enthused over

the discoveries and believes that the find will

prove of incalculable value in archaeological work.

"One thing I have not spoken of, may be of interest.

There is one chamber, the passageway to which is not

ventilated, and when we approached it a deadly,

snaky smell struck us. Our light would not penetrate

the gloom, and until stronger ones are available, we

will not know what the chamber contains. Some say

snakes, but other boo‑hoo'd this idea and think it

may contain a deadly gas or chemicals used by the

ancients. No sounds are heard, but it smells snaky

just the same. The whole underground installation

gives one of shaky nerves the creeps. The gloom is

like a weight on one's shoulders, and our

flashlights and candles only make the darkness

blacker. Imagination can revel in conjectures and

ungodly daydreams back through the ages that have

elapsed till the mind reels dizzily in space."

                          AN INDIAN LEGEND

In connection with this story, it is notable that

among the Hopi Indians the tradition is told that

their ancestors once lived in an underworld in the

Grand Canyon till dissension arose between the good

and the bad, the people of one heart and people of

two hearts. Machetto, who was their chief,

counselled them to leave the under world, but there

was no way out. The chief then caused a tree to grow

up and pierce the roof of the underworld, and then

the people of one heart climbed out. They tarried by

Paisisvai (Red River), which is the Colorado, and

grew grain and corn. They sent out a message to the

Temple of the Sun, asking the blessing of peace,

good will and rain for people of one heart. That

messenger never returned, but today at the Hopi

villages at sundown can be seen the old men of the

tribe out on the housetops gazing toward the sun,

looking for the messenger. When he returns, their

lands and ancient dwelling place will be restored to

them. That is the tradition.

Among the engravings of animals in the cave is seen

the image of a heart over the spot where it is

located.

The legend was learned by W.E. Rollins the artist,

during a year spent with the Hopi Indians.

There are two theories of the origin of the

Egyptians.

One is that they came from Asia; another that the

racial cradle was in the upper Nile region.

Heeren, an Egyptologist, believed in the Indian

origin of the Egyptians.

The discoveries in the Grand Canyon may throw

further light on human evolution and prehistoric

ages.

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The Wave of the 21st Century

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         In his Report on the Mound Explorations of

the Bureau of Ethnology for the Smithsonian's twelfth

annual report (published in 1894), Cyrus Thomas

relates the following discoveries:

          Cave burials occur in this district

[referring to the Tennessee District] in the

following counties: In Grayson, Hart, Edmonson,

Barren, Warren, and Fayette counties, Kentucky;

Smith, White, Warren, Giles, Marion, and Fentress

counties, Tennessee, and Bartow county, Georgia.

These localities lie mostly in a belt extending in a

north and south direction through the center of the

district.

          In most of these caves, both in Kentucky

and Tennessee, the bodies appear to have been laid on

the floor of the cave, sometimes in beds of ashes,

sometimes on a pavement of flat stones. There are,

however, some instances in which the bodies have been

found incased in stone slabs, and afterwards imbedded

in clay or ashes. In Smith and Warren counties,

Tennessee, and in Warren and Fayette counties,

Kentucky, the flesh of the bodies was preserved and

the hair was yellow and of fine texture. In some

cases the bodies were enveloped in several

thicknesses of coarse cloth with an outer wrapping of

deer skin. Some of the bodies were wrapped in a kind

of cloth made of bark fiber, into which feathers were

woven in such a manner as to form a smooth surface.

In two cases the bodies, placed in a sitting or

squatting posture, were incased in baskets. In one of

the caves in Smith county the body of a female is

said to have been found, having about the waist a

silver girdle, with marks resembling letters.

          This article first appeared in

          The Wizard's World of Unusual Choices

Newsletter

          April 26, 2001

And therefore the Israelites could not have been very important in the ancient world. However, Daniel told us that knowledge would increase in the latter days: "But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased." (Daniel 12:4) Also, Daniel tells us that many things will be kept secret until the latter days: "And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end." (Daniel 12:9)

Many of these recent archeological discoveries combined with secular and Biblical history give us a shockingly different perspective of the ancient world in general and ancient Israel in particular. In this chapter we will attempt to show you evidence which will prove ancient Israel was an empire. It had a homeland in Palestine, and a far-flung empire much the same as Britain did until just a few decades ago. Britain once ruled over a far-flung empire from a small homeland, located in the British Isles.

In The History of the Jews (Read that Israelites, as Dr. Margoliouth was a Jew, so he would naturally say Jew instead of Israel) in Great Britain, Dr. Moses Margoliouth, 1846, p. 12, he states that Israel was "trained to be a wandering nation" with "a peculiar migratory disposition" (The History of the Jews in Great Britain, Dr. Moses Margoliouth, 1846, p. 13) in preparation for "their mighty dispersion" over the earth. Israel's progenitor, Abraham, was "a type of the same," or example to those who followed after. Not only that, but Israel was "trained to be a maritime nation," as well, and "the first colonizing expeditions were performed by water, not by land."

"Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed." (Genesis 12:1-3)

These statements have proven true in history. Other scholars (such as Aylett Sammes in the 17th century), have noted the Hebrew‑Phoenician language of the early colonists of Britain, yet want to give the Phoenicians all of the credit by saying that the Hebrews were never known to colonize!

On pages 16 to 21, Pastor Margoliouth comments on this Hebrew‑Phoenician connection with ancient Britain, and says, "...the conclusion is inevitable, the Israelites must have visited the western countries in the days of Solomon." (see also page 31)

Israel and Phoenicia both spoke the same language in ancient times, but since the nation of Israel far outnumbered the Phoenicians, it is obvious that most "Phoenician" colonization was in reality Israelite. An excellent and authoritative discussion of this subject is covered in Stephen M. Collins recent book, "The Ten Tribes of Israel...Found!"

Pastor Margoliouth sums up this issue well in saying, "I see no reason for disbelieving that there were [Israelites] in Spain in the time of David and Solomon ‑ startling as it may appear...there existed colonies of Hebrews all over the world, in the reigns of David and Solomon..." (page 30)

A fascinating discussion of the language connection with ancient Israel appears beginning on page 32. The name "Britain" itself "is a corruption of the Hebrew words Barat Anach," or islands of tin. We read that "an eminent Cornish scholar of last century, who devoted a great deal of his time to prove the affinity between the Hebrew and Welsh languages, observes, 'It would be difficult to adduce a single article or form of construction in the Hebrew grammar, but the same is to be found in Welsh, and that there are many whole sentences in both languages exactly the same in the very words.'" Two columns of quotations follow, showing the connection between the Hebrew and Welsh languages, after which Pastor Margoliouth asks, "where could [the early Britons] have got hold of such whole Hebrew, purely Hebrew, sentences?"

Proper names are next referenced. Kings of ancient Britain often had Hebrew names, such as Solomon (three different kings!), Daniel, Abraham, Asaph, and Adam, "from which circumstance some antiquarians attempted to prove that the Welsh are descendants of the children of Israel." Pastor Margoliouth expresses that he is being "very moderate" in establishing that at the very least, ancient Israelites had been "mixing with the Britons" in forming the foundation of the modern British people.

Biblical prophetic references to Britain are discussed beginning on page 37. "The command is to declare the Lord's purpose concerning Israel" in "The isles afar off," in Jeremiah 31:10 These "were supposed by the ancients to have been Britannia, Scotia, and Hibernia (Ireland)." Again, in Jeremiah 31:7, "For thus saith the Lord, sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout among the chief of the nations...save thy people, the remnant of Israel." Pastor Margoliouth avers that, "The prophet seems to behold Britain in his vision. There can be no doubt that Britain is now the chief of the nations. Her monarch's territory is one upon which the sun never sets." Yet a third Biblical term is also tied to the British isles. "The expression, 'The end of the world,' mentioned in Isaiah 62:11, is also supposed to mean Britain, which was a common appellation for this island in remote ages."

In the year 1670, a contractor digging the basement for a house in Mark‑lane, London, came across an old underground Roman‑era vault beneath the pavement. The vault was sealed with a large old Roman‑style brick "of curious red clay, and in bas‑relief on the front hath the figure of Samson putting fire to the foxes' tails, and driving them into a field of corn." An antiquarian of the time, writing about the find, asked, "How the story of Samson should be known to the Romans, much less to the Britains, so early after the propagation of the gospel, seems to be a great doubt, except, it should be said, that some Jews, after the final destruction of Jerusalem, should wander into Britain..."

Lastly, the spread of the Gospel into Britain during the time of the Apostles, is a matter of historical record. "As to St. Paul's being one of the first heralds of salvation in this island, there can scarcely be any doubt on the subject. Indeed, if we do not believe it we must make up our minds to reject all the hitherto authentic historians."

Dr. Burgess, late Bishop of Sarum, has shown that St. Paul laid the foundation of Britain's national church. Clemens Romanus, "who was an intimate friend and fellow‑laborer of St. Paul, declares in his Epistle to the Corinthians, that 'St. Paul having been a herald of the Gospel both in the east and in the west, he received the noble crown of faith, after teaching righteousness to the whole world, and gone even. to the utmost bounds of the west'; an expression, well‑known to every scholar, that always designated, or at least included, the British Islands."

Theodoret, a learned church historian of the fourth century, 'mentions Britain among the nations which had received the Gospel.' He states that "Paul carried salvation to the islands which lie in the ocean." Jerome soon after said that "St. Paul's diligence in preaching extended as far as the earth itself." Venentius Fortunatus, fifth century Bishop of Poitiers, said, "Paul having crossed the ocean, landed and preached in the countries which the Britons inhabit."

Pastor Margoliouth observes that "the greatest men...who spent a great part of their lives in such researches... the learned Ussher, Parker, Stillingfleet, Cave, Camden, Gibson, Godwin, Rapin, and a great many others ‑ have clearly shown that St. Paul was the founder of the British church...yea, the government of the British Christian Church was established and set in proper scriptural order by [Israelites] themselves, be they who they may ‑ Peter, Paul, Simon Zealotes, Joseph of Arimathea."

However, Daniel told us that knowledge would increase in the latter days: "But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased." (Daniel 12:4) Also, Daniel tells us that many things will be kept secret until the latter days: "And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end." (Daniel 12:9) Many of these recent archeological discoveries combined with secular and Biblical history give us a shockingly different perspective of the ancient world in general and ancient Israel in particular.

Following we will attempt to show you evidence which will prove ancient Israel was an empire. It had a homeland in Palestine, and a far-flung empire much the same as Britain did until just a few decades ago. Britain once ruled over a far-flung empire from a small homeland, located in the British Isles. In the years from about 1050-850 B.C. Israel was the dominant power of the world with an empire that rivaled and perhaps exceeded that of the Caesars. The empire included areas of the world now inhabited by the Israelite people and that included portions of North America. We full well understand this is a bold statement, but the evidence will follow. In this study we will examine the real extent of Israel's power and empire in the ancient world; the Israelite presence in North America with considerable specifics.

The impact of the drought of Elijah's day on the weakening of Israel and the rise of Cartage, which we will show was an Israelite colony. Cartage continued Israel's presence in the New World, very possibly even during Christ's lifetime here on earth. The time of Israel's greatness really began with King David and its rise to empire status. This happened in about the year 1050 B.C. 2 Samuel 8 discusses David's defeat of the Philistines, Moab, Amalek, Edom, and the Syrians for example lost more than 80,000 men in just three battles. (2 Samuel 8:5, 13, 10:18) That is more men than the United States lost in the 14 years of the Vietnam War. To give you a perspective of the ferocity of the battles.

1 Chronicles 21 shows that David could mobilize over 1½ million men. With an army of that size you are not insignificant, not even in this age, this day and time. In 1 Chronicles 18:3 it states the border of his dominion went to the Euphrates River which bordered the area of Assyria and Babylon; or Mesopotamia who viewed David as an upstart rival.

The Phoenicians were the city states of Tyre and Sidon, and had a far flung empire on land and sea. They were the best sailors in the ancient world at that time, and they saw the rise of David and Israel and made an alliance with them. They were a common race of Semitic people; they also had a common language. There were only dialectic differences between Hebrew and the Phoenician tongue. 1 Kings 17:9-16 relates where Elijah met with a Phoenician or Zidonan widow, and they had immediate discourse, with no difficulty at all in communication.

King Hiram the king of Tyre made David a palace and they became very close allies as 1 King 5:1 shows. The Israelite Phoenician alliance was an ancient super power, with all twelve tribes of Israel united they sat astride the area where three continents met; they had the world's greatest navy in the Phoenicians combined with David's one and one-half million man army. And David was not the least bit reluctant to use it. They were challenged by Assyria and Mesopotamia, which is almost totally unknown by most and yet it is related in the Bible. There was a revolt in Amon which is a pretext for war between many nations and the Israelites.

It is discussed in 1 Chronicles 19 and 20 in some detail. There were 32 thousands chariots from Mesopotamia alone (1 Chronicles 19:7) that came to fight David's army in this battle. There was also an unknown number of men from Mesopotamia and Syria which included a number of different people which fought with Ammon against Israel. In verse 9 we can see it was a national effort with a number of different nations to destroy Israel as it states their kings came to watch the battle. "And the children of Ammon came out, and put the battle in array before the gate of the city: and the kings that were come were by themselves in the field." (1 Chronicles 19:9)

So, we can clearly see, this was not just a mercenary effort, this was a matter of national commitment against Israel. Israel won the first round and also the second which left them with no one in the area to challenge them. If you will look at Psalm 83, which was likely written by David at this time where he lists many nations that come to help the children of Lot, which also included Ammon to destroy Israel from off the face of the earth. "Keep not thou silence, O God: hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee: The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes; Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre; Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen the children of Lot. Selah. Do unto them as unto the Midianites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kison: Which perished at Endor: they became as dung for the earth. Make their nobles like Oreb, and like Zeeb: yea, all their princes as Zebah, and as Zalmunna: Who said, Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession. O my God, make them like a wheel; as the stubble before the wind. As the fire burneth a wood, and as the flame setteth the mountains on fire; So persecute them with thy tempest, and make them afraid with thy storm. Fill their faces with shame; that they may seek thy name, O Lord. Let them be confounded and troubled for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish: That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth." (Psalm 83:1-18)

Secular history has recorded that Assyria's Empire went into eclipse or confusion, some encyclopedias call it, between 1100-900 B.C. Halley's Bible Handbook comments on it also, and states that ancient Israel was much stronger than Assyria, Babylon or Egypt. This is the same period as Israel's golden age under David and Solomon. And is glossed over in almost all historical texts, if they even cover it at all. What happened to Assyria? It was defeated badly in a war against Israel's army, as we learn from 1 Chronicles and Psalm 83. The texts of ancient history will not tell you this nor will it give great credibility as the Bible is the Word of God. Assyria and other nations had provoked Ammon to start this war, and this will give you a little indication of how large an area that David ruled.

In Psalm 83 he named the nations that became a part of this war, which included Assyria and in all likelihood became a vassal state to David. It included the Ishmaelites, which included the Arabian Peninsula and people we don't know where they lived in the east, so we really don't know how large an are David actually ruled. But he did rule from Egypt to somewhere about the middle of the modern nation of Iran. Ether directly or through vassal states as a result of that war. But Israel was the dominant super power of the ancient world at this time.

Is there evidence of an Israelite Empire? The answer is Yes! But the secular historians will rarely call it an Israelite Empire, they will call it a Phoenician Empire. Most people who do not realize the difference between Judah and Israel balk at this major role for Israel because they think the Jews were the Israelites and the Jews have always been few in number, but they don't realize that the men from Judah were only a small part of David's army at this time. It is true that David was of the tribe of Judah but he, also, had eleven other tribes to provide manpower.

The Phoenician Empire is credited by historians as being dominant in the Mediterranean Sea; as being present in substantial numbers in the British Isles, the West Coast of Europe and Africa in the period of about 1100-800 B.C. and they are not at all bashful in calling it a Phoenician Empire. This coincides with the exact time that Assyria was put down and the Bible tells us that David had defeated the Assyrians. It coincides with Israel's greatness and the allegiance of the Phoenician city Israelites; show Phoenicia took pains to join with them because they did not wish to be their enemy. 1 Chronicles 22 relates that David accumulated for the Temple of God iron and brass beyond calculation. (1 Chronicles 22:3) Warrner Keller in his book "The Bible is History" states: "Israel was using the Bessemer system of smelting, which was not re-discovered until recently in the modern era...Essian Gebar was the Pittsburgh of ancient Palestine." That nowhere else in the fertile crescent which includes Mesopotamia could such a large smelting facility be found. We see by this that Israel was not just an agriculture only nation but they were also the industrial power house of the ancient world.

Dr. Berry Fells book "Bronze Age America" cites evidence that ½ billions of copper ore was taken from mines near Lake Superior in North America, in roughly 2000-1000 B.C. The dates include the time of David's reign, at the tail end of it, as the ore apparently ran out for they have no evidence that it was mined after that. It could be that the Israelites simply worked the mines to death, or to where they could not be mined economically at that point. Which Fell states that this New World copper mine output there is no evidence what became of it. There is no evidence it was used in this hemisphere at all. And they have no idea where the copper came from which was smelted in Palestine during this time.

Putting this evidence together and one comes up with the assumption that this copper was shipped from North America to Palestine by boat and was used by Israel in its huge smelting facilities in Palestine. The Phoenician/Israelite presence in America has abundantly shown to be real. At this point, we must, in all fairness, present just one of the many stories which abound which make reference to our Israel ancestors coming to America thousands of years before Columbus. The following is taken from an article in National Geographic, December 1977:"The New World: Who, from the Old first touched its shore? Historians held for centuries that it was Christopher Columbus. By current consensus, it was Norse voyagers of a thousand years ago. But perhaps it was a group of shadowy, yet very real, Irish seafaring monks who predated even the Vikings by more than four centuries. In the great pantheon of New World explorers no name is more intriguing, or more clouded in controversy, than that of Ireland's St. Brendan. His legend, today more tantalizing than ever, has persisted through the centuries in the form of a Christians imram, an Irish saga: Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis, Voyage of Saint Brendan the Abbot. With 17 fellow monks, it relates, Brendan sailed to Terra Repromissionis Sanctorum, the land promised to the saints, somewhere beyond the far reaches of the Western Atlantic. Was the Promised Land North America? Did St. Brendan actually reach it in the sixth century? Neither history nor archeology offers proof." (National Geographic, Vol. 152, No. 6, December 1977, pp. 769)

This statement is totally untrue, and I believe the publishers of National Geographic knew it at the time of the publication. Most of us have read (from reputable history books) of the adventures of Lief Eriksson and his party in the founding of Vinland circa A.D. 800-1400 in the area of the St. Lawrence River in the North-eastern United States and Canada. Although they predated the Columbus voyage by many centuries, were the expeditions of Lief Eriksson the first discovery of what is now known as the United States? There were Christians living in America over 100 years before Columbus arrived in the Caribbean. The official historians of this country have known this for many, many years. Yet, none of this is discussed as a national heritage. Why is this?

Those of us who are interested in finding petroglyphs, or ancient symbols and pictures engraved on stones, have wondered about the meaning of them. All we could do was wonder and speculate until the science of deciphering ancient and unknown languages was developed. The science is called Epigraphics and it has been developed into a rather sophisticated science. Symbols, for example, mean something, but what?

Epigraphics: Until a few years ago geologists told us that the numerous short and repetitive lines inscribed on rocks found in the Northeastern United States and Canada were simply scratches made from the movement of ice and rocks during the recent ice-age. Because of Epigraphics, we now know that it was a language and it has been deciphered.

The Celts: This language is that of the Celts from Ireland, Scotland, England, France and the Rhineland country of Germany. The language dates from long before Christ and was in use in Ireland and England at the time of Celtic Druids. It is called Ogam script and has been found all over America, from the West Indies to Newfoundland and west into Oregon and British Columbia. We know that Julius Caesar described the vessels that the Celts had built and used.

In Book III of his De Bello Gallico he described these vessels against which his small, puny (by comparison), ships of the Roman fleet fought. He described them as being capable of sailing "upon the vast open sea." This is exactly what they did. It appears that there were many different expeditions and migrations by the Celts during the period of many centuries before Christ until circa 400-800 A.D. They came, not only just once to colonize, but they came and returned to Europe on a repetitive basis.

The Vikings: The Vikings were here in America when King Woden-lithi sailed the Atlantic seventeen centuries before Christ and entered the St. Lawrence River. He established a trading post at a site near where Toronto now stands. It became a religious and commercial center that is now known as Petroglyph Park at Peterborough, Canada. King Woden-lithi's home was in Norway. He remained in Canada for five months, from April to September and traded his woven fabrics for copper ingots obtained from the European settlers. He called these people Wal, which is a word cognate with Wales and Welsh. He gave these Celts his religious beliefs, the ability to measure woven cloth and an astronomical observatory for measuring the Nordic calendar and for determining the dates of the pagan Yale and Ishtar festivals. Remember, this was seventeen centuries (1700-years) before Christ!

Ogam Script: The Celts were already here when King Woden-lithi arrived. What was their written language like? We have already shown that they wrote with the Ogam script which can be described simply as an alphabet, comprising fifteen consonants and five vowels, together with a few other signs representing double letters such as diphthongs. The letters are made by inscribing single parallel strokes placed in sets of one to five, in position above, across, or below a guide line.

The Languages: But what words were made from this Ogam alphabet? Here again the science of Epigraphics gives us the answer. We know that there is no language of any of the American Indians that is made up of the Greek language. And yet the ancient Celts in the area of the St. Lawrence River spoke a language that was directly derived from the Greek! As we shall see, the different Celts in America spoke yet other languages!

The type of Greek that was spoken by the Celts of the area is known as Ptolemaic which means that it is a dialect of Greek that was spoken in Egypt, Palestine and the other countries in the area that Alexander conquered. Alexander forced upon the area his idea of one-world government, one-world people, one-world religion and one-world language. It was this Ptolemaic dialect that Alexander forced upon the citizens of the area. The dialect was composed of Greek, Egyptian and Aramaic. This is why Jesus spoke Aramaic and Greek, instead of Hebrew. We will study the effect that Alexander had on Israel and Christianity in a future lesson.

The obvious question from the previous paragraph is, who were the Celts? Did the Celts from Iberia (The Spanish Peninsula) and the Rhineland go to Egypt and Palestine and learn the Greek spoken language at the time of Alexander or did the Israelites (Not Jews) learn the Greek and Aramaic when they were in Palestine and then go to the new world to escape the dictatorship of Alexander? Remember, Israel lost the knowledge of ancient Hebrew (not modern Yiddish) before and during the time of Alexander.

The language of the Celts who were already here in the St. Lawrence River Valley when King Woden-lithe arrived has since been lost. Why has the language disappeared? This is probably at least partly because through the subsequent years they intermixed with other peoples and in the process the language was lost.

It doesn't take much to lose a language. Notice the difference between American English and the English language spoken in England. But that doesn't account for the fact that a race of people totally vanished from the continent. Some of the Ogam Script is with the Gaelic influence. The Gaelic language came from the highlands of Scotland. In the New England area, artifacts such as grave headstones have been found, all with Ogam script in Gaelic script. (To this date no one has found the remains of the bodies because of the acid content of the soil which destroys all remains in less than 100 years. Additionally, our early American settlers removed the headstones from the burial sites and placed them in hedgerows along the sides of the fields and so the headstones are not now located near the actual graves) The Celts with the Gaelic dialect came from the highlands of Scotland. According to the Scottish Declaration of Independence written by Robert Bruce and his noblemen, the Scotland people came from ancient Israel through the Rhineland area of France and Germany and then through Iberia or Spain.

The Mariners from Tarshish: Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs. (Ezekiel 27:12) The Celts were well established in foreign trade. In 1780, Ezra Stiles, who later became the president of Yale College, found and recorded a Tartessian inscription on a rock along the seashore near Mount Hope Bay, Rhode Island. The deeply cut inscription clearly shows the outline of a typical high-sterned ship from Tarshish. Under the outline of the ship are the words in Tartessian (Tarshish) Punic, "Mariners of Tarshish this rock proclaims."

Near Union, New Hampshire, another Tartessian inscription was found with a similar Tarshish ship hull and the words, "Voyagers from Tarshish this Stone Proclaims."

On Mohegan Island, off the coast of Maine, is, in Ogam script in Gaelic dialect, an inscription showing that the Celts traded with the traders from Tarshish. It is obvious that the mariners from Tarshish were not residents of the area as were the Celts. They were trading with the Celts for their furs and raw materials from the mining done by the Celts.

Thus, there was a lively trade being conducted between the Japhetic sons of Tarshish (Genesis 10:4) and the Celtic sons of Shem. Some of the trading was done with goods in exchange for the furs and metals of the Celts. But there was also an exchange for coins. It seems that modern historians won't believe the facts of history such as the Ogam inscriptions.

They only like to see the money! Well, there is that, too!

Coins: From about the fourth century B.C. the ancient mariner traders brought coins in addition to goods. In the year 1787, Pastor Thaddeus Madson Harris came upon a group of men working on a road known as the Cambridge-Malden road (now Route 16) in Massachusetts. The workers had uncovered a flat stone underneath the surface. Under the stone was a cache of ancient coins, nearly two quarts of them. The coins were square pieces made of a copper-silver alloy. Each coin was stamped on both sides with an unknown script.

Pastor Harris recorded the incident in a letter to John Quincy Adams. The inscriptions were taken to the Harvard Library for translation but with no success. The letter was then buried in the archives for nearly two hundred years until James Whittall, of the Early Sites Research Society, re-discovered the letter with the inscriptions and researched them with the American Numismatic Society and with Epigraphic scientists.

The inscriptions proved to be that of Kufic origin which is a form of Arabic. Undoubtedly, one of the trading mariners brought the coins to America to purchase the Celtic goods which were for sale. After the newly designed steel plow was invented by Charles Newbold in 1797, the earth could be turned over to a much greater depth. The furrow that the plow made opened up the soil and there, by the thousands, were found Roman coins!

In the days of early America, the extensive study of Latin and Roman history was required for a college degree. Thus, the people of America readily knew that Europeans came to America and lived in America much earlier than Christopher Columbus.

But later, from American history books, our school children were taught the Columbus mystique and they were taught that the world was considered flat by all educated people until Columbus discovered America! All of those Roman coins that were discovered were ignored and it has remained that way until very recently. As we continue our studies, we will realize why the truth was buried.

In 1961, Frederick J. Pohl raised the nagging question of the Roman coins in his book Atlantic Crossings Before Columbus. He describes notable finds of Roman coins in the United States. Other scientists have carried on the task of proving the European travels to this continent long before Columbus. One of the notable men in this field is Professor Cyclone Covey of Wake Forest University. Much will be discussed about his investigations later in this lesson.

Roman coins are not the only money found in America. Carthaginian, Celto-Iberian, Greek, Libyan and Norse coins have been found in locations all over the United States. Near Castle Gardens, Wyoming a petroglyph was found, written in Celto-Gaelic, describing the location of what would be the description of a bank.

Yes, the petroglyph says that this was the first money-changing location to reach the area and that the bank operated with no usury! Undoubtedly, this was a location for exchanging the value of one coin for another for the purpose of trading and traveling. The petroglyph written in Celto-Gaelic undoubtedly means that the Celts were located in Wyoming and the fact that they operated in Wyoming and the fact that they operated with no usury is significant. We will shortly discuss the type of law the Celts exercised.

From 400 B.C. to 1100 A.D., the Western world realized six maritime powers. They all came out of the Mediterranean area except for the last one. They are, in order of their appearance, (1) the Carthaginians of Tunisia; (2) the Greeks and Libyans of North Africa; (3) the Romans; (4) the Byzantine Greeks who succeeded Rome; (5) the Islamic powers of North Africa and Asia; and (6) the Norse sea-rovers.

Although the Celts were never realized as a maritime power, since they were a people scattered over many countries, their ocean-going ships were among the best. These ships were huge in comparison to the Roman ships.

They were two thousand tons in capacity as compared to about four hundred tons of the average Roman ship. The ships that the uncle of Jesus, Joseph of Aramathea, used to haul lead and tin from the Glastonbury area of England for sale to the Romans were Celtic in design and operation. Again, Julius Caesar spoke very highly of the sea-going prowess of the Celts and their ships. Throughout this period, each of these maritime powers sent ships all over the high seas and to America.

But it was the Libyans who transcended all of the others in the span of their voyage. A Libyan, named Eratosthenes of Cyrene, accurately calculated the earth's circumference. He reasoned that the earth's oceans had to be continuous and consequently a ship could sail around the world in either direction and return to the starting point. The date was approximately 239 B.C.!

Eratosthenes developed the system of the meridian circles of the map of the globe. The meridian circles are simply the points on the globe where the USN is directly overhead at noon at the local time. He set these meridian circles in a grid in such a way that a mariner could accurately locate his position. He drew the primary meridian circle to pass through Alexandria.

The Libyans then set sail in their ocean-going vessels to prove that Eratosthenes was right. Their ships were equipped with magnetic compasses. Their compass consisted of a ceramic bowl with the compass points engraved around the edge. A lodestone (a strongly magnetic variety of the mineral magnetie) was floated on the water in the bowl.

Sometimes, a magnetized iron strip was suspended in the bowl. They also had a device for navigation that was the forerunner of the modern sextant. The Libyans traveled eastward, through the Suez Canal that King Darius had built, then sailed down the Red Sea, and then around the tip of India, through the Indonesian straits and then into the Pacific Ocean. They arrived on the West Coast of America, disembarked and traveled inland to Nevada.

These ancient Libyans settled in the arid Nevada country because it was very similar to their own home country. In various locations in Nevada are petroglyphs, written in Aramaic-Libyan and Celto-Gaelic which reflect their mariner skills. There is a map of North America, showing the outline of both coasts from the Hudson Bay country of Canada to Panama in the South. It was obviously taken from one of their meridian circle navigation charts that Eratosthenes developed. In addition, examples of their mathematics is displayed along with oceanography. Their alphabet was written in stone for us to see. Astronomy as a science is displayed.

Remember, before the fall of the Roman Empire, the Center of Western Civilization rested along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The modern day epigraphic scientists are puzzled as to what happened to all of these people, from the Celts, to the Carthaginians, to the Libyans and all the other original settlers who have come to this land. Certainly educated people in the sciences and mathematics lived here many years ago, that is now obvious. But when the American colonists arrived, the natives had no written language nor any knowledge of higher education.

For example, the Paiute and Shoshone tribesmen of Nevada were asked where all of the petroglyphs we now know to have been scribed by the Libyans came from, they could tell the archaeologists and epigraphists nothing except that neither they nor their forebears had cut them. However, some of the methods and style of living that were taught by these ancient settlers have come down through the centuries by the indigenous peoples who were here and then remained after the mysterious disappearance. For example, in the modern, Libyan North African region there are two Distinct ecological groups.

1). The first is the modern Berber who is of lighter skin with obvious and European features with many having blond hair and blue eyes. He prefers to live in the mountainous regions where there is more water and better soil. He is an agriculturist and he builds his home pueblo style out of sun-dried mud which he calls in Arabic attobi which in America is called adobe.

Their buildings are multi-level with the floors and ceilings strengthened with wooden beams which project beyond the outer walls. His dress code calls for the women not to wear the face veil but to tattoo their chins. The mens custom was to cover their heads and faces with a scarf-like cloth, showing only their eyes to strangers. Even today, these modern Berbers still speak the Berber language which came to them from their Celto-Iberian background.

2). The second ecological group is the Arabs. They are nomadic, moving their herds from place to place in the lowlands. They live in tents. The women cover their heads with veils and are not tattooed. The men do not veil the face. Their language is Arabic.

In the Peabody Museum of Harvard University are ancient bowls made by these Libyan mariners who built their temporary colonies in the Southwestern United States. The bowls very clearly show a man and woman painted on the sides of each. The women have no veil but have their chins tattooed.

The men have the Berber type of scarf covering their faces with only the eyes showing! Beyond a doubt, these people were a part of the Libyan expeditions into the Western United States. They, too, suddenly disappeared in the 10th to 12th century A.D., after having been here from about 500 B.C. All of these people abandoned their towns and simply vanished.

The ancient Berbers were of Celto-Iberian origin. They spoke a Gaelic Celto-Iberian language. When we again return to the Scottish Declaration of Independence and read that they traveled through Iberia (The Spanish Peninsula) on their way to Scotland and Ireland, it would account for the Celto-Iberian-Gaelic dialect. It is in this language that the great majority of the petroglyphs are written. It is obvious that the Libyan Berbers associated with the Celts of the Eastern and Northern United States during the apex of their civilization here.

It is apparent that they had a flourishing trade with their home countries of Europe. Not only did they travel to and from Europe on occasion in their own ships, they conducted commerce with the traders from Tarshish and Cartage. Just as the Celts in the Glastonbury and Avalon areas of England mined for tin and lead and shipped the finished metal to Rome in Joseph of Aremathea's ships, the same Celts conducted mining operations in America and either sold or traded their metal with Europe. But it all vanished around the end of the first millennium A.D.

Christianity and the American Celts: When the first Celts arrived in America, they were as pagan as their brothers in Europe. Many of the earlier inscriptions in America depicted Baal worship and classical Phallic worship. Then, all of sudden, there came the appearance of Christian inscriptions. In fact, whenever it was possible, the later Christian inscriptions were inscribed over the top of the earlier pagan writing. This was obvious to the epigraphic scientists because the later inscriptions were cut deeper and partially obliterated the earlier work. In Cripple Creek, Colorado there is a memorial in Greek that states, "Herein is the last resting place of Palladis (a priest), the servant of God."

At Oak Island, Nova Scotia is found an inscription in Libyan dialect of the North African Coptic Church, which states, "To escape contagion of plague and winter hardships, he is to pray for an end or mitigation, the arif: The people will perish in misery if they forget the Lord, alas. (The arif was a precentor in charge of a small congregation lacking an ordained priest of the North African Coptic Church)

Wherever Christianity has gone, the Laws of God have been adapted into the legal system of the community. The Christian Celts of Iberia, Ireland, Scotland as well as the Christian Celts of America had a legal system that reflected the teachings of the Christian Bible.

The system was called the Tanistry which means the administration of law by deputies of the king. The system as it is preserved from ancient times is rather lengthy so here are just a few examples to show the influence of the Christian Bible:

1). "In the obscurity of the mists of olden time a desire would arise to replace armed combat by arbitration. (1 Kings 3:16-28; 1 Corinthians 6:1-8)

2). And it would seem a desirable thing that land boundaries should be fixed without recourse to moats. (Deuteronomy 19:14; 27:17; Job 24:2; Proverbs 22:28; 23:10; Joshua 5:10)

3). Henceforth cases involving wrongdoing are to be made over to the wisest men. (Exodus 18:21-22; 22:9; Leviticus 19:15; Deuteronomy 1:13-15)

4). Any case is to be brought to judgment without delay.

5). Henceforth in any case involving false utterances let amends be paid in compensation for the harm. (Deuteronomy 19:16-20; Proverbs 6:16-19; and Leviticus 19:16)

6). Henceforth if a complainant be merciful, let the judges also be merciful. (2 Samuel 22:26; Psalm 18:25)

7). If a malicious man utter lying words that another declares to be slanderous, to the measure of his tongue-loose recklessness shall he transport heavy burdens for the other man. (Leviticus 6:2-6)

8). The common people may eat corn, together with game bird but they may not hunt bears. They may kill stags, goats and red deer." (Leviticus 1-30)

There is much more to the Tanistry but this gives you information that the early Celts became Christian and this was imparted to those Celts living in the United States long before Columbus "discovered" America.

The Norsemen: The Columbus mystique has been so impressed on the American people that we are blinded to facts. Such again is the case of the colonists from Norway. When Thormod Torfason wrote his authenticated works titled Historia Vinlandae Antiquae in 1705, very few historians and other scholars knew anything of the many trips to America by the Norse mariners and colonists.

For over two more centuries, nearly everyone continued to disbelieve Torfason's studies. The American's minds were made up, don't confuse us with facts! We will understand why we have been misled by the conclusion of the next lesson in history.

On May 24, 1934, a mining prospector named James Edward Dodd was blasting in the Great Lakes region of Canada and his dynamite uncovered a sword and a shield. These artifacts were taken to the royal Ontario Museum and they were accurately dated to the first quarter of the eleventh century, about 1025 A.D.

It was at this time that Leif Eriksson began his first ventures to the land that he called Vinland. The name itself was given to the St. Lawrence River area because of the abundance of wild grapes that the Norsemen found to make a very good grade of wine. Because of the find of the sword and shield, along with much other evidence, we Americans began to believe that the Norsemen did, indeed, predate Columbus' discovery.

In the 1930's, we began to learn about the tremendous amount of European travel and commerce predating Eriksson by many centuries. Then in 1940, we were reconvinced that Eriksson didn't exist and that there was absolutely nobody who proceeded Columbus. Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison was an author who appeared to be "puffed" by the establishment. His style of writing was light and airy and he was very capable of mixing legends in with archaeological and historical facts in such a way that it became easy to question the technical analysis.

In 1940, from his Harvard position, he was adamant in his position that Columbus was the first and in 1942 he wrote Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus to prove his point. By 1961 the Royal Ontario Museum was obliged to re-evaluate their analysis of the sword and shield by stating that it "was not possible to authenticate the story of the alleged discovery."

In Admiral Morison's book The European Discovery of America, he refutes the Vinland story by stating that nearly all of the seacoast towns from Newfoundland to the Virginia Capes boast in their histories that Lief Eriksson was there.  But he says that there have been no artifacts to prove his presence. He states that the Newport stone tower which is cherished as the first Christian Church in America is a fake and that it was built around 1675 by a colonial governor of Rhode Island. Yet, in 1946 an authenticated inscription was found on one of the rocks of the tower. The inscription is in Nordic Runes and simply declares the tower to be the "cathedral church" and the "Bishop's Seat."

The Newport Tower is a part of the church that the Norsemen built in the early 1300's. To further authenticate this, the Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazano in 1524 sailed up the East coast of the United States from Florida to Labrador.

He rediscovered Long Island Sound and the Hudson River. He drew a map, which is officially shown in the Archives, of the Narragansett coast and in his writings he described the stone' built "Norman Villa." He went ashore and found friendly Indians who knew nothing of the building of the villa. Verrazano recognized it to be Norse because of the style of architecture and other evidence. An English document (of the period of the Pilgrims) proposed a settlement in Rhode Island. The document gave the location of the Norman Tower as the place where the settlement should be made.

In Rhode Island today, the local name for the tower is often given as "Governor Arnold's Mill," because the first governor made use of the tower as a flour mill. Here is an example of how a historian can take partial facts, along with legend, and make it fit the "politically correct thing to say."

There is evidence now being discovered that shows the Norsemen to have sailed South, along the Eastern seashore, into the Gulf of Mexico and then up the Mississippi River. Not only have Viking Battle Axes been found but more inscriptions to prove their presence.

The Heavener runestone inscription in the Oklahoma State Park on Poteau Mountain has been definitely judged to be Nordic script of the Viking Age of not later than 1350 A.D. Viking inscriptions have also been found in Colorado. No longer can we deny the presence of the Norsemen in America several hundred years before Columbus.

We have left for last what is perhaps the most striking evidence of pre-Columbus Europeans in America. In the Southwestern part of the United States the climate is generally arid or semi-arid and the soil is more alkaline. As a result of these conditions artifacts, including human remains, are left intact for a very long time.

There is mounting evidence that Europeans, in significant numbers, colonized a portion of the Southwestern United States during the period from approximately 700 A.D. until about 1300 A.D. It is very significant that all of the colonies in North America, including this one under discussion, appeared to simply vanish within an approximate 100 year time frame. We may never know the exact reasons and there could have been several. We know that the Europeans transmitted diseases that were specific to Europe to the indigenous natives who were vulnerable to them. Conversely, the natives gave the Europeans specific diseases to which they were vulnerable, such as some of the social diseases. Or, there could have very easily been a universal uprising and this is even probable. Whatever the reasons were, we must believe that the ventures did not please God. There had to be things that were done that were seriously breaking some of His Laws.

About 700 A.D. there appeared in the area of West Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Nevada, a literal empire apparently made up of a city-state system. The empire was Christian and they had succeeding kings. The people came from the British Isles, Gaul (France), Germany, Rome and apparently North Africa.

Undoubtedly, the North Africans were the Berbers who had already arrived from Libya and had previously taught the natives to build the pueblo style structures and to irrigate for farming. Some of the ancient ruins that were very skillfully built of stone masonry that are dotted over the Southwest are probably associated with the empire. Some of these ancient ruins have been rebuilt with later construction over the top of the original. The modern Amerindian knows nothing about the builders of these ancient cities. However, they have given a name to these earlier inhabitants. They call them the Hohokam, which means "Those who have gone" or "The old ones."

After the Spaniards occupied Mexico in the early 1500's, they headed north to investigate the persistent stories of the fabulously wealthy "Seven Cities of Cibola." Of course they never found them because the empire had simply vanished a couple of hundred years earlier. Even in 1300 A.D. the empire had already waned in its importance as a kingdom so there wasn't much left.

In New Mexico, south of Albuquerque and west of Los Lunas about 14 miles, is a huge Basalt (volcanic) boulder. The rock is nestled in a small draw on the side of a group of hills which overlooks the stream called Rio Puerco. The front side, protruding from the soil, is very flat and provides a perfect place for an inscription. On this boulder, inscribed in old Hebrew with a Greek influence, is the Decalog or The Ten Commandments!

As early as 1850, when New Mexico became a territory, people knew of the inscription but it was not until a century later when Professor Robert Pfeiffer of Harvard University, an authority on the Old Testament, determined it to be The Ten Commandments. The inscription was then re-authenticated as being The Ten Commandments by Dr. Barry Fell, the country's foremost epigraphic scientist.

The most revealing discoveries of this ancient kingdom came from the Tucson, Arizona area. Along the Santa Cruz River, in the vicinity of Tucson, beneath six or more feet of undisturbed cliché soil, were found many artifacts that unquestionably prove that European people lived in the area. Cliché soil is made up of crusted calcium carbonate mixed with ordinary dirt.

Through many years, water mixes with the combination and turns it into a very hard, concrete like, soil. After it is once formed, if it is then removed, the soil never returns to the original configuration. Thus, when the artifacts were found, it is certain that they are of ancient origin and not a recent fraud.

The artifacts included lead swords, spears, a patriarchal monstrance or shrine used in the religious ceremonies, and eight heavy crosses. All of the artifacts were made of molded lead which was mined in the area.

This is known because some of the molds were also found. Each of the crosses was actually two thin lead crosses which were riveted together with lead rivets. When the two halves were separated, it was found that the inner sides were protected with wax in order to preserve the inscriptions which were on the inside parts. It became obvious that the crosses were made for the purpose of a permanent recording of events that were taking place at the time. The swords were not to be used for combat. They were made of lead and also contained inscriptions. They were for ceremonies of some sort. The inscriptions contained words in Hebrew, Latin and Greek. Following are some of the translations: On one of the crosses, at the top are the words "In Memoriam."

On the cross arm at the left is a profile of a head with the words "Britain, Albion, Jacob." In the center is another head profile with the words "Romans, Actim, Theodore."  On the right is another head profile with the words "Gaul, Seine, Israel." On the vertical beam of the lead cross is this inscription. "Counsels of great cities together with seven hundred soldiers A.D. 800, Jan. 1."  "We are borne over the sea to Calalus, an unknown land where Toltezus Silvanus ruled far and wide over a people. Theodore transferred his troops to the foot of the city Rhoda and more than seven hundred were captured. No gold is taken away. Theodore, a man of great courage, rules for fourteen years. Jacob rules for six. With the help of God, nothing has to be feared. In the name of Israel, OL."

The inscriptions on these artifacts is a sort of history of one of the city-states of the European migration to this country. The first inscription reveals that Theodore was the ruling king over the city-state of Rhoda. The Toltecs (which history shows existed in Mexico in this time frame) were under Chief Toltezus Silvanus who ruled over a very large area and people. Theodore was a Roman and he moved his troops to the foot or outskirts of the city Rhoda for defense against the Toltecs. Apparently the troops could not hold against the Toltecs and 700 troops were captured but the Toltecs did not take any gold. Theodore must have been killed in that battle.

The second cross has the following inscription which, of course, has been translated from the Latin and Greek. "Jacob renews the city. With God's help Jacob rules with mighty hand in the manner of his ancestors. Sing to the Lord. May his fame live forever. OL." Jacob a native of Britain and he succeeded Theodore for six years while counterattacking the enemy. He personally fought at the front lines and it appears that he died in battle.

The third cross yielded this inscription. "From the egg (the beginning) A.D. 700 to A.D. 900. Nothing but the cross. While the war was raging, Israel died. Pray for the soul of Israel. May the earth lie light on thee. He adds glory to ancestral glory. Israel, defender of the faith. Israel reigns sixty-seven years."

Israel I was born on the Seine River in France and must have been just a boy when he assumed the throne in 785. These dates are known because of other inscriptions but there are too many of them to include here. The year 790 under Israel I's reign was important because of his decisive victory over the Toltecs. He subjugated them to be under his rule. On January 1, 800 he presided over a council of allied city-states. Because of the present peace, he turned his attention tot he priesthood.

The next inscription. "Israel II rules for six. Israel III was twenty-six years old when he began to rule. Internecine war. To conquer or die. He flourishes in ancestral honor day by day."

The next inscription. "A.D. 880. Israel III, for liberating the Toltezus, was banished. He was first to break the custom. The earth shook. Fear overwhelmed the hearts of men in the third year after he had fled. They betook themselves into the city and kept themselves within their walls. A dead man thou shall neither bury nor burn in the city. Before the city a plain was extending. Hills rung the city. It is a hundred years since Jacob was king. Jacob stationed himself in the front line. He anticipated everything. He fought much himself. Often smote the enemy. Israel turned his attention to the appointment of priests. We have life, a people widely ruling. OL."

The next inscription. "A.D. 895. An unknown land. Would that I might accomplish my task to serve the king. It is uncertain how long life will continue. There are many things which can be said while the war rages. Three thousand were killed. The leader with his principal men are captured. Nothing but peace was sought. God ordains all things. OL."

The author of the book Calalus is a history professor at Wake Forest University. He mistakenly describes the people of Rhoda as Roman Jews. This is undoubtedly because of the names of the individuals.

But again, Dr. Berry Fell, the nation's foremost expert epigraphist shows them to be Christians from England, France, Rome and North Africa. The crosses would have been unacceptable if they were Jews. The use of the chronological term A.D., which was started by Dionesius in 532 A.D., would certainly have been unacceptable to the Jews. To this day they term the present chronological time the "Christian Era" instead of A.D. The Toltecs went on to totally destroy these people. Why didn't these European Christians survive? Why did all of the other Europeans mysteriously vanish with the last of them having been gone since the 1300's? It was for several reasons, all of which are distasteful to God for His Celto-Saxon people. The Apostle Paul summed it all up when he said: "Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you." (Isaiah in 52:11 says the same thing)

For one thing, they had to interbreed themselves out of existence, at least in part. They also apparently came for the riches of gold and silver. In nearly all cases, there appears to be mining as a principle purpose for being here. They also apparently tried to subdue the native population. In other words, use them as slave or cheap labor.

If we will look back into history, all of the great civilizations of the Celto-Saxons fell when they brought in cheap labor or slaves and then mixed with them. The process destroys both cultures. If we will but look at our own history we will see a lesson. That part of our culture that came from the Pilgrims and then moved westward as the needs required used their own labor.

They had large families and the children worked in their enterprises, be it farming or a shop in town. They remained separated from other peoples and they were told in their churches that gold would be used for street paving in the future! As long as our forefathers stayed separate, feared God, loved their neighbor as themselves and did not love mammon more than their gifts form God, they were a peculiar people to Him. Look around us in modern America and what we see speaks for itself. But it is not too late. It is not too late. Not yet. (See the following: Barry Fell, Bronze Age America, Ruggles De Latour, New York; Barry Fell, America B.C., Simon & Schuster, New York; Barry Fell, Saga America, Times Books, New York; Cyclone Covey, Calalus, Vantage Press, New York; Samuel Morison, The European Discovery of America, Oxford University Press; Samuel Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea, Little, Brown & Co., Boston; and Christian Crusade For Truth, Intelligence Newsletter, March-April 1992, Deming, New Mexico)

Now back to where we left off in our story, as related in National Geographics. "Early map makers and explorers gave credence to the legend. Place-names from the Navigatio appear on later charts, and early navigators sought vainly for 'St. Brendan's Isle.' Fact or fantasy, the Navigatio had incalculable impact on the great European voyages of discovery, including that of Columbus.

According to the legend, St. Brendan and his fellow monks set sail from Ireland in a leather-hulled curragh; this same type of boat, now covered with tarred canvas, is still used by Irish fishermen. The voyage lasted seven years and introduced the monks to such wonders as demons who hurled fire at them, a floating crystal column, and a sea creature as great as an island. Scholars wonder today: Might they have been volcanic eruptions...an iceberg...a whale? Finally, Brendan and his shipmates reached the Promised Land, a huge, lush island divided by a mighty river.

Soon afterward they sailed home to Ireland, where Brendan died. There the legend of St. Brendan ends, to be given new vitality in the 1970's by a real-life sequel. In the following article, British author and explorer Timothy Severin recounts his epic Atlantic crossing aboard a leather boat. In proving that such a long-ago voyage could have been made, Tim Severin and his crew have brought one of history's most intriguing takes a giant step closer to the realm of possibility. -- THE EDITOR." (National Geographic, Vol. 152, No. 6, December 1977. p. 769)

When David died as the world emperor, he was ruling over the Mediterranean Sea in conjunction with the Phoenicians; he ruled over conquered territory from Egypt somewhere in the interior of Asia. And Israelites were present in Britain and America. During the reign of King Solomon he inherited a huge domain, great power and he devoted himself to wisdom and good rule during the first part of his reign. 1 Kings 4:20-25 related that Israel dwelt safely all the days of Solomon, indeed, how could they not, there was no one left in that area to challenge them.

1 Kings 5:12 show King Hiram and the Phoenicians were allied to Israel. "And the Lord gave Solomon wisdom, as he promised him: and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon; and they two made a league together."

1 Kings 4:31-34 makes some statements which the world's historians hate. It states that Solomons' wisdom was known to all the nations of the earth. "For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about. And he spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes. And there came of all people to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, which had heard of his wisdom."

2 Chronicles states all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon and brought their tributes year by year and presents to hear his wisdom. "And all the drinking vessels of king Solomon were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold: none were of silver; it was not any thing accounted of in the days of Solomon. For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks. And king Solomon passed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom. And all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon, to hear his wisdom, that God had put in his heart." (2 Chronicles 9:20-23) Is this just some imagination exaggeration of some Hebrew writer? He couldn't actually mean it could he? Well 2 Chronicles 8, 18:9-10 and 1 Kings 9 also show that Israel and Phoenicia joined their navies into one navy, and it mentions they mingled the crews on the same ship.

Berry Fells book "America B.C." has some remarkable revelations of the real extent of just how much the Israelites and the Phoenician alliance was in the area which consists of the United States today. He states in his book "America B.C." that the Phoenicians had a regular port of call of the coast of Maine. Where an old inscription was found which he translates: "Ships of Phoenicia cargo platform."

Fell states: "It is obvious that the flat topped island would not have been set aside for the loading and unloading of Phoenician ships were they not regular visitors to America, with a predictable time table of ports of arrival and departure and expected dates."

He adds: "These inscriptions suggest that international maritime commerce was well established in what he calls the late bronze age. That North American ports were listed on a sailing timetable of the overseas vessels of the principle Phoenician shipping companies. And that the same information was circulated to customers in America." This, along with the above information, gives us an entirely different perspective on just how wide spread was international commerce in the ancient world, and just how intelligent these people were. These people were not cavemen or neanderthals or some people evolutionary revolving from some primitive background, they were intelligent. How permanent were these settlements in the new world?

The book "America B.C." also shows the evidence that the Phoenicians had a twenty acre temple site to Baal and pagan deities in New Hampshire. This is not the evidence of people who were just coming for just a few years to trade with the Indians and go. They had very substantial settlements here.

Israel, as we know, quickly joined itself to the Baal worship of the Phoenicians, so it is not surprising that the Baal worship was dominating the old world colonies of the Israelites and the Phoenicians. There were, also, worshipers of the True God of Israel were present in the new world.

In "Saga America" another book by Berry Fell in two issues of the occasional publications of the Uppergrafic Society of which he was president, showed that the Ten Commandments were written in the ancient Hebrew and they were carved into the rock in New Mexico, as we have shown above.

A tablet which contained the Ten Commandments was also found in Ohio; this was found in 1860 at the opening of the Civil War or it very likely would have gotten much more attention. So, obviously, there were Israelites who were serving the True God in America. How many is very difficult to guess, since the worshipers of the True God did not build pagan temples or leave monuments to the pagan gods, as the Phoenicians did.

Soon after Solomon became king, Egypt joined the Israelites Phoenician alliance, which is discussed in 1 Kings 3:1. "And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about."

The Pharaoh of Egypt conquered a city it states: "For Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a present unto his daughter, Solomon's wife." (1 Kings 9:16) Which was dowry for his daughter who was Solomon and was apparently his first wife. So, we can see that both King Hiram and Egypt's Pharaoh took the classic action of lesser powers toward a greater power, initiating the efforts to try to bind themselves to a superior power. Egypt's sailors were a fair skinned group of maritime people who settled in the area of ancient Lybia. This is covered in "America B.C." and "Bronze Age America" where he goes into the classical writers, and it is not his own idea. There is evidence of ancient Egyptians found in Maine, they were known as the Knickknack Indians which Dr. McDonald states was the Algonquian or Iroquois Race.

There have also been Egyptian hieroglyphics found on Long Island. While the ancient Libyan language of their sailors has been found in Quebec, Canada, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, California, Texas and New York. This may sound like a roll call for a lot of people in these areas but we highly recommend these books so that you can see for yourself.

There are other states where a person by the name of Gloria Sally has found evidence of inscriptions left by the Celts, the Libyans and the Phoenicians who ascended the Mississippi, Cimmeron and Arkansas Rivers. The Bible does tell us that the Israelites, Phoenicians and the Egyptians were allied in the first millennium B.C. so we should not be shocked to find that these groups were the ones found in the North American Continent.

Is it any coincidence that the Archeological discoveries of America's past have shown these three groups were working together and exploring what has become the territory called the United States? There is a smoking gun to show that these groups were working together, the new world equivalent of the Rosette Stone has been sitting, largely unappreciated in a Davenport, Iowa museum. Its a trilingual parallel ancient inscription recording a pagan ceremony which looked very much like a May Pole or May Day celebration.

It had joint inscriptions of Egyptian hieroglyphics, the ancient Libyan, which was the language of their sailors and what is now called an Iberian Tunic. This is a language which was descended from the Hebrew Phoenicians. It was found in 1874; so it was not found just yesterday, it has been here and ignored for a long time. But it proves these groups were working together in the new world and it was in inscriptions that could be understood by anyone in those three groups of people.

Another artifact found in Oklahoma refers to the Phoenician god Baal and the Egyptian god Ra, and is dated by Fells to be about 800 B.C. Comment has to be made on the closeness of the Israelite Hebrew and the Phoenician language of Tyre and Sidon to show that the Phoenician inscriptions are also Hebrew or Israelite.

George Wellington a famous British historian of the late 1800s comments in his book "Phoenicia:" "The words most commonly in use, particles, the pronoun, the forms of the verb, the principle inflections and we may add the numerals in Phoenician are identical or near identical to the pure Hebrew. Many other sources comment on the similarity as well; and many sources reflect that the English language came from the Hebrew."

In the book "Short History of the Near East" by Philip Piffy, he states: "The Phoenician trade on an international scale on textiles, metals, glass, pottery and etc., gave the country three centuries, beginning around 1000 B.C. a prosperity unmatched in its history."

Now the world recognizes the Phoenicians had an empire at that time, but they do not wish to acknowledge that in 1000 B.C. which was the time that David and Solomon rose to power and three centuries later when the Phoenician power seem to disappear was when the Israelites left the area of Palestine. The Phoenicians did not have them around to be allied to. Ecclesiastes Two mentions that Solomon collected the best that the world had to offer in architecture, music, art, etc., and there was no bounds to his wisdom.

The Bible says that God had given him a heart as big as a sea-shore. It also states that the kings when they brought their gifts to Solomon year by year, included animals, gold, silver, many types products and artwork. Which very likely occurred during the feast of tabernacles, which Israel was keeping at that time.

There were several types of the millennium that parallel the prophecies at that time. For the world was at peace during the time that Solomon was a righteous king living by God's Laws. He was a peaceful king of kings, living in Jerusalem, and the rest of the world was flowing to Israel; he was preceded by an era of great wars, just like the millennium will be, when he and David his father put down many enemies.

So we can see that Solomon ruled an area greater than the Caesars of Rome. The Mediterranean was an Israelites lake; it was ruled by Israel and its allies the Phoenicians and Egyptians; he was in charge of the Mid-East and the Mesopotamians were ruled by Israel; but we don't know how far that went into Asia; Egypt was his ally and he had extensive presence in the new world; America was extensively explored and colonized.

Historians also record that Cadez, a city in Spain that is called Cadez now, was founded by the Phoenicians about 1000 B.C., which, again, was during the reign of David and Solomon.

When one looks at the historic records of the Phoenicians the period of 1000 B.C. is very common when they mark their ascension to greatness, which the Bible also identifies as the time when David and Solomon began their golden age. Early British historians record that the Phoenicians were heavily involved in colonizing and mining in the British Isles. In Raymond Capt's book "The Traditions of Glastenbury" mentions some of the early historical accounts of the Tribe of Asher of Israel overseeing the mining operations in Britain.

Now when Israel split into Israel and Judah this alliance weakened. Wars were fought between the Israelites and the Judeans, and yes at times they were allied. But Israel went very deep into the Baal worship of Phoenicia and around 870-850 B.C. Israel was ruled by King Ahab, who was married to a Phoenician princess by the name of Jezebel from the city state of Sidon. Which shows that the Phoenician/Israelites alliance was still followed.

When God sent a prophet name Elijah in the middle of the ninth century B.C. Israel's King Ahab had gotten to a point where he was so evil that Elijah had prayed for a drought on the land of Israel. James 5 shows that it lasted 3½ years. "Elias (Elijah) was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain: and it rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months." (James 5:17) 1 Kings 17 and 18 show that the drought was so severe that the creeks dried up, and there was no vegetation was left for the animals. Starvation was prevalent in both Israel and the Phoenician city states as we can see from the example of Elijah when he was sent to the home of the Sidonian widow. 1 Kings 18 states that King Ahab had searched for Elijah in all the nations. "As the Lord thy God liveth, there is no nation or kingdom, whither my lord hath not sent to seek thee: and when they said, He is not there; he took an oath of the kingdom and nation, that they found thee not." (1 Kings 18:10)

Now that we know those international maritime routes included the area now known as the United States in the new world, that takes on new meaning as it was not just in the mid-east where the search took place. For Israel was still among the great nations of the earth with a large population. During this drought, they had one choice, they could either stay and starve or they could migrate elsewhere and live.

Now Israel had a colonial empire that was quite large, and they had many places to go. However, when one has women and children you do not want to put them on a boat and cross the ocean to America, or Great Britain or even to Spain, you wanted to take them somewhere as close to home as possible, to avoid the rigors of distant travel, yet was away from the drought.

History records that Cartage was founded by the Phoenicians in the middle of the 9th century B.C. Which coincides, roughly with the same time that Israel was experiencing its drought. Alfred Church's book called "Cartage" written in 1890 shows that the name Cartage was the Roman name for the city but that is not the name the Carthagenians called themselves.

They called the city, according to Alfred Church's book, the Carthegians called themselves Cherjaf-habashaf, which Hebrew meaning "new town." A very appropriate name for a new colony, which was being started. Now several historians of Cartage records the magistrates were called the Saphetes by the Romans, but again, that is not the name they called their own magistrates.

In the Carthagenian language when looking at their artifacts, they called them the Shepheta, which is also Hebrew for the word judges. The name of one of the Books of the Bible - Judges. One of their early kings was named Marcus, a Hebrew name, still present during the time of Christ, when the High Priests servant was named Marcus. Remember, he's the one who had his ear cut off, when Peter tried to cut off his head but got his ear instead. Also they had a reference to the Hebrew El, which is depicted in Carthagian artifacts as sitting between the Cherubims.

In the book "Daily Life in Cartage" it states the priestly laws of Cartage was: "A very significant resemblance to the Book of Leviticus, and many of the sacrifices corresponded exactly to those of the Hebrews."

Many historians have noticed the similarity of the Carthagenians or as the Romans called it the Tunic tongue, to Hebrew. As late as the fourth century A.D., which was many centuries after Cartage fell, remnants of the Tunic culture were recognized by early church writers such as St. Augustine and St. Jerome as having their roots in the Hebrew language.

The Encyclopedia Judicia, when it talks about the fall of Samaria, to the Assyrians it mentions that the Africans, which was their word for the Carthagenans contested with the Jews over the rights of Arab-Israel, or the land of Israel.

Now this would make no sense at all if Cartage did not consist of the descendent of the Tribes of Israel. Who had gone into captivity, or had left that area. But they clearly recognized that the land of Palestine was a cultural heritage to the people of Cartage, since they claimed that land as their own at that time.

Cartage became very powerful in the middle of the first millennium B.C. In their early days they were much stronger than Rome and imposed a treaty on Rome, which basically forbade them from sailing in the Western Mediterranean and telling them where they could sail their ships.

They were the enemies of Greece and Rome, they kept them out of the Atlantic Ocean with the Carthagenian Navy. But the Greeks did record some information about what Cartage had found in their Atlantic voyages. And a lot of this will probably be quite new to you. The Greeks record: "In the sea outside the pillars of Hercules, that's Gibraltar, an island was found by the Carthagians, a wilderness having wood of all kinds, and navigatable rivers; remarkable for various kinds of fruit, many sailing distance day away. When the Carthagenians, who were the masters of the western ocean, observed that many traitors and other men were attracted by the fertility of the soil and the pleasant climate, they frequented it. And some resided there. They feared that knowledge of the land would reach other nations."

You can check the historical accounts and see that Cartage at that point became very protective of what was going on west of the Atlantic Ocean, and did not allow the sailors of other nations past Gibraltar.

A Greek, in the first century by the name of Diatrous, wrote: "Over against Africa, on the other side of Africa lies a very great island in the vast ocean. Many days sail westward of Libya or from Libya westward, the soil is very fruitful, a great part is mountainous and much likewise is a plane. It has several navagatable rivers, it has very large woods, fresh water and all sorts of wild beasts to hunt."

If one will take a globe of the earth and go westward from Libya to that part of the globe, you will come right into the heartland of what is now called the United States. This land was obviously America; and it stayed in the hands of the Israelite Carthageians for many many years after Cartage fell. It was the secret of Cartage's wealth, and Cartage is acknowledged as a very wealthy city at that time. In giving America's land to the Carthagians God was passing on to them the promises to Abraham's seed.

Also they inherited the promise of possessing the gates of their enemies. And they held a lock-hold on Gibraltar during much of this time. Heroticus a Greek historian records that, "the Carthagenians sent an expedition westward from Gibraltar, which included 30,000 men and women, sixty ships, in a time frame of 500-480 B.C. that was when Cartage was much stronger. Westward through the pillars of Hercules to a destination he did not know."

Think for a moment, 30,000 men and women; that's a colonizing expedition, in 60 ships: by doing a little math that is 500 people per ship. Which will give you an idea of the size of the vessel, which even the Greeks acknowledge the Carthagenians were sailing. This also gives us an idea of the size of the ships the Phoenicians and Israelites had during the reign of David and Solomon's time.

Carthagian coins and artifacts have been found in North America, which is a story that is basically not told anywhere. It is in Berry Fells book, but the typical academic writers do not want to really deal with what he has discovered.

These coins have been found in Colorado, New York, Alabama, Connecticut and Nevada. You can even take some of the Carthagenan inscriptions which Fell discusses in his book; you can get a Hebrew Lexicon out of your Concordance and you can come to the exact same translation that Fell does by using those Hebrew Lexicons.

Most people do not realize this because history has been taught from the Greco-Roman perspective but America was long known about, in ancient history. And that Cartage was Israelite in it inception. However, in later years they became a pyelograph people, they became very degenerate. How long they had worshipers of the True God we do not know. But they became extremely evil; indulging in child sacrifice, mass sacrifices of human beings - they became extremely violent.

When Rome in the second Tunic war, finally won that war it was actually God's judgment against Cartage and its Israelite people as punishment for their sins. But even in that second Tunic War Cartage came very close to exterminating Rome from off the face of the earth. When Hannibal, who was named after Baal, took an army into the Italian area and was therefore years waging war against the Romans, conquering city after city trying to start a revolt but they were not blessed with victory.

When Cartage fell in the middle of the 2nd century B.C., where did its people go? Since some of the historians talk about the population of Cartage being some 600,000, it also relates that only a few thousand stayed to fight the Romans to the bitter end. Some of them probably sought a new life in Cartage's secret territories in America. For America has been a land of refuge for a long time before the Pilgrims came.

These people which came at that time, were Baal worshipers as the remains in America shows. They had gotten degenerate also, and likely died out in wars, intermarriage with the Indians and possibly from VD from their wild sexual practices; which their monuments testify to.

The Carthagenian Israelites in their empire had Southern Spain including the area of Gibraltar, parts of West Africa, and America in their domain. They traded exclusively in the British Isles.

The book "Judah's Scepter and Joseph's Birthright," goes into the story of how Dan and Simeon arriving in Wales and Ireland. The Carthagenians traded extensively with these people, but there is no evidence that those areas were part of Cartage Empire, they were only mercantile contacts. Let's repeat, America was given to the Israelites by God in the 1600 and 1700s as the British and European Israelite settlers came again. Historians ignore this part of history because it proves their ideas of evolution as a bunch of bologna. (This entire chapter was taken from "Intelligence Newsletter," written by Pastor Earl F. Jones, and a much more complete and informative book by Pastor Jones can be purchased from: "Christian Crusade For Truth," HC 66 Box 39, Deming, NM 88030, (505) 895-5365)



Reference Materials