More Bible History
The Revised Standard Version of the Bible is an authorized revision of the American Standard Version, published in 1901, which was a revision of the King James Version, published in 1611, which was a revision of the Geneva Bible.
The first English version of the Scriptures made by direct translation from the original Hebrew and Greek, and the first to be printed, was the work of William Tyndale. He met with bitter opposition. He was accused of willfully perverting the meaning of the Scriptures, and his New Testaments were ordered to be burned as “untrue translations.” He was finally betrayed into the hands of his enemies, and in October 1536, was publicly executed and burned at the stake.
Yet Tyndale’s work became the foundation of subsequent English versions, notably those of Coverdale, 1535; Thomas Matthew (Probably a pseudonym for John Rogers), 1537; The Great Bible, 1539; the Geneva Bible, 1560; and the Bishops’ Bible, 1568. In 1582 a translation of the New Testament, made from the Latin Vulgate by Roman Catholic scholars, was published at Rheims.
The translators who made the King James Version took into account all of these preceding versions; and comparison shows that it owes something to each of them. It kept felicitous phrases and apt expressions, from whatever source, which had stood the test of public usage. It owed most, especially in the New Testament, to Tyndale.
The King James Version had to compete with the Geneva Bible in popular use; but in the end it prevailed, and for more than two and half centuries no other authorized translation of the Bible into English was made. The King James Version became the “Authorized Version” of the English speaking peoples.
The King James Version has with good reason been termed “the noblest monument of English prose.” Its revisers in 1881 expressed admiration for “its simplicity, its dignity, its power, its happy turns of expression...the music of its cadences, and the felicities of its rhythm.” It entered, as no other book has, into the making of the personal character and the public institutions of the English speaking peoples. We owe to it an incalculable debt.
Yet the King James Version has grave defects. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the development of Biblical studies and THE DISCOVERY OF MANY MANUSCRIPTS MORE ANCIENT THAN THOSE UPON WHICH THE KING JAMES VERSION WAS BASED, MADE IT MANIFEST THAT THESE DEFECTS ARE SO MANY AND SO SERIOUS AS TO CALL FOR REVISION OF THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION. The task was undertaken, by authority of the Church of England, in 1870. The English Revised Version of the Bible was published in 1881-1885; and the American Standard Version, its variant embodying the preferences of the American scholars associated in the work, was published in 1901.
Because of unhappy experience with unauthorized publications in the two decades between 1881 and 1901, which tampered with the text of the English Revised Version in the supposed interest of the American public, the American Standard Version was copyrighted, to PROTECT THE TEXT FROM UNAUTHORIZED CHANGES. In 1928 this copyright was acquired by the International Council of Religious Education, and thus -passed the ownership of the churches of the United States and Canada which were associated in this Council through their boards of education and publication.
The Council appointed a committee of scholars to have charge of the text of the American Standard Version and to undertake inquiry as to whether further revision was necessary. For more than two years the Committee worked upon the problem of whether or not revision should be undertaken and if so, what should be its nature and extent. In the end the decision was reached that there is need for a thorough revision of the version of 1901 which will stay as close to the Tyndale-King James tradition as it can in the light of our present knowledge of the Hebrew and Greek texts and the meaning on the one hand, and our present understanding of English on the other.
In 1937 the revision was authorized by vote of the Council, which directs that the resulting version should “embody the best results of modern scholarship as to the meaning of the Scriptures, and express this meaning it preserves those qualities which have given to the King James Versions a supreme place in “English literature.”
Thirty-two scholars have served as members of the Committee charged with making the revision, and they have secured the review and counsel of an advisory Board of fifty representatives of the cooperating denominations. The Committee worked in two sections, one dealing with the Old Testament and one with the New Testament. Each section has submitted its words to the scrutiny of the members of the other section; and the charter of the Committee requires that all changes be agreed upon by a two-thirds vote of the total membership of the Committee. The Revised Standard Version of the New Testament was published in 1946. The publication of the Revised Standard Version of the Bible, containing the Old and New Testament was authorized by vote of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. in 1951.
The problem of establishing the correct Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Old Testament is very different from the corresponding problem in the New Testament. FOR THE NEW TESTAMENT WE HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF GREEK MANUSCRIPTS, PRESERVING MANY VARIANT FORMS OF THE TEXT. Some of them were made only two or three centuries later than the original composition of the books. For the Old Testament only late manuscripts survive, all (with the exception of the Dead Sea texts of Isaiah and Habakkuk and some fragments of other books) based on a standardized form of the text established many centuries after the books were written.
The present revision is based on the consonantal Hebrew and Aramaic text as fixed early in the Christian era and revised by (Jewish scholars) (the “Masoretes”) of the sixth to ninth centuries. The vowel signs, which were added by the MASORETES, are accepted in the main, but where a more probable and convincing reading can be obtained by assuming different vowels, this has been done. No notes are given in such cases, because the vowel points are less ancient and reliable than the consonants.
Departures from the consonantal text of the best manuscripts have been made only where it seems clear that errors in copying had been made before the text was standardized. Most of the corrections adopted are based on the ancient version (translations into Greek, Aramaic, Syriac, and Latin), which were made before the time of the MASORETIC revision and therefore reflect earlier forms of the text. In every such instance a footnote specifies the version or versions from which the correction has been derived, and also gives a translation of the MASORETIC TEXT.
SOMETIMES IT IS EVIDENT THAT THE TEXT HAS SUFFERED IN TRANSMISSION, but none of the versions provides a satisfactory restoration. Here we can only follow the best judgment of competent scholars as to the most probable reconstruction of the original text. Such corrections are indicated in the footnotes by the abbreviation Cn, and a translation of the MASORETIC Text is added.
The discovery of the meaning of the text, once the best readings have been established, is aided by many new resources for understanding the original languages. Much progress has been made in the historical and comparative study of these languages. A vast quantity of writings in relative Semitic languages, some of them only recently discovered, has greatly enlarged our knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. Sometimes the present translation will be found to render a Hebrew word in a sense quite different from that of the traditional interpretation. It has not been held necessary in such cases to attach a footnote, because no change in the text is involved and it may be assumed that the new rendering was not adopted without convincing evidence.
The analysis of religious texts from the ancient Near East has made more clear the significance of ideas and practices recorded in the Old Testament. Many difficulties and obscurities, of course, remain. Where the choice between two meanings is particularly difficult or doubtful, we have given an alternative rendering in a footnote. If in the judgment of the committee the meaning of a passage is quite uncertain or obscure, either because of corruption in the text or because of the inadequacy of our present knowledge of the language, that fact is indicated by a note. It should be assumed, however, that the Committee was entirely sure or unanimous concerning every rendering not so indicated. To record all minority views was obviously out of the question.
A major departure form the practice of the American Standard Version is the rendering of the Divine Name, the “Tetragrammation.” The American Standard Version used the term “Jehovah;” the King James Version had employed this in four places, but everywhere else, except in three cases where it was employed as part of a proper name, used the English word Lord (or in certain cases God) printed in capitals. The present revision returns to the procedure of the King James Version, which follows the precedent of the ancient Greek and Latin translators and the long established practice in the reading of the Hebrew scriptures in the synagogue. WHILE IT IS ALMOST IF NOT QUITE CERTAIN THAT THE NAME WAS ORIGINALLY PRONOUNCED “YAHWEH,” THIS PRONUNCIATION WAS NOT INDICATED WHEN THE MASORETES ADDED VOWEL SIGNS TO THE CONSONANT HEBREW TEXT. TO THE FOUR CONSONANTS YHWH OF THE NAME, WHICH HAD COME TO BE REGARDED AS TOO SACRED TO BE PRONOUNCED. THEY ATTACHED VOWEL SIGNS INDICATING THAT IN ITS PLACE SHOULD BE READ THE HEBREW WORD “ADONIA” MEANING “LORD” (or Elohim meaning “God”). The ancient Greek translators substituted the word “kyrios” (Lord) for the Name. The vulgate likewise used the Latin word “Dominus.” THE FORM “JEHOVAH” IS OF LATE MEDIEVAL ORIGIN; IT IS A COMBINATION OF THE CONSONANTS OF THE DIVINE NAME AND THE VOWELS ATTACHED TO IT BY THE MASORETES BUT BELONGING TO AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT WORD. The sound of “Y” is represented by “J” and the sound of “W” by “V,” as in Latin. For two reasons the Committee has returned to the more familiar use of the King James Version: (1) The word “JEHOVAH” DOES NOT ACCURATELY REPRESENT ANY FORM OF THE NAME EVER USED IN HEBREW; and (2) the use of any proper name for the one and only God, as though there were other gods from whim He had to be distinguished, was discontinued in Judaism before the Christian era and is entirely inappropriate for the universal faith of the Christian Church.
The King James Version of the New Testament was based upon a Greek text that was marred by mistakes, CONTAINING THE ACCUMULATED ERRORS OF FOURTEEN CENTURIES OF MANUSCRIPT COPYING...
The King James Version uses the word “kept” in the sense of “hinder,”“prevent” to mean “precede,”“allow” in the sense of “approve,”“communicate” for “share,”“conversion” for “conduct,”“comprehend” for “overcome”“ghost” for “spirit,”“WEALTH” or “WELL-BEING,”“allege” for “purchase a good degree” for “GAIN A GOOD STANDING,” etc. The Greek word “immediately” and “straightway” but also by the terms “anon,”“by and by,” and “presently.” THERE ARE MORE THAN THREE HUNDRED SUCH ENGLISH WORDS WHICH ARE SED IN THE KING JAMES VERNON IN A SENSE SUBSTANTIALLY DIFFERENT FROM THAT WHICH THEY NOW CONVEY. It not only does the King James they understood and expressed, to retain these words which now convey meanings they did not intend...
THE BIBLE IS MORE THAN A HISTORICAL DOCUMENT TO BE PRESERVED. And it is more than a classic of English literature to be cherished and admired. It is a record of God’s dealing with men, of God’s revelation of Himself and His will. It records the life and work of Him in whom the WORD OF GOD BECAME FLESH AND DWELT AMONG MEN. The Bible carries its full message, not to those who disregard it simply as a heritage of the past or phrase its literary style, but to those who rad it that they may discern and understand God’s Word to men. That Word must not be disguised in phrases that are no longer clear, or hidden under words that have changed or lost their meaning. IT MUST STAND FORTH IN LANGUAGE THAT IS DIRECT AND CLEAR AND MEANINGFUL TO PEOPLE TODAY. It is our hope and our earnest prayer that this Revised Standard Version of the Bible may be used by God to speak to men in these momentous times, and to help them to understand and believe and obey His Word. (Self-Pronouncing Edition, The Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version, containing the Old and New Testaments, translated from the original tongues being the version set forth A.D. 1611 Revised A.D. 1881-1885 and A.D. 1901 compared with the most ancient authorities and revised A.D. 1946-1952, The World Publishing Company, Cleveland and New York, Preface, iii - vii)