Watchman Willie Martin Archive

                                                                A New Generation of Vipers

"The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means; and my people love to have it so: and what will ye do in the end thereof?" (Jeremiah 5:31)

Ruling class conspiracy research has long neglected one key facet, and therefore the over arching theme - indeed, the very raison d'etre of the principals - has been missed. Economic and political maneuvers are secondary considerations to the ultimate scenario.

A spiritual dimension underlies ruling class aspirations for world supremacy without exception. First and foremost, Masonry, ("Lucifer, the Light‑bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it 'he' who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish Souls? Doubt it not! For traditions are full of Divine Revelations and Inspirations: and Inspiration is not of one Age nor of one Creed. Plato and Philo, also, were inspired. The Apocalypse, indeed, is a book as obscure as the Sohar...The Sephar Yezirah, the Sohar [Two books of the Jewish Talmud], and the Apocalypse are the completest embodiments of Occultism. (Morals and Dogma, by Albert Pike, p. 321)) Judaism, (

"Internationalizing the worst Antichrist stereotypes, he incorporated them into his early revolutionary vision, identifying Jews as symbols of the system of private property and bourgeois democracy he wanted to further. 'THE GOD OF THE JEWS HAD BEEN SECULARIZED AND HAS BECOME THE GOD OF THIS WORLD,' Marx wrote. 'MONEY IS THE JEALOUS GOD OF THE JEWS, BESIDE WHICH NO OTHER GOD MAY STAND.' Once the Revolution succeeds in 'destroying the empirical essence of Christianity, he promised, 'the Jew will become the rulers of the world. This early Marxist formulation is the transparent seed of the mature vision, causing Paul Johnson to characterize Marxism as 'the Antichristian of the intellectuals.' (David Horowitz, Human Events)) and the Roman Catholic Church are all religions. Each uses the same book - the Bible, or parts thereof - to create an aura of legitimacy for their designs upon the hearts men.

"Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves."

America is suffering from a plague of false prophecy teachers, most of whom are, without a doubt, "Prophets for Profit."

One of these false teachers tells his radio listeners to tar out and throw away entire passages of the 16th chapter of the Gospel of Mark. "That section should never have been put in the Bible," he assures his gullible followers. Another "Prophet for Profit" pridefully calls himself the "Walking Bible," then he quotes "Mother Mary" to his huge TV audience and praises the Pope. A third, modern-day false teacher hired a ghostwriter to pen a best selling book on "Revelation," then deceitfully claimed to be the book's sole author.

Regrettably, there's more. How about the teacher who conducts lucrative and well-attended prophecy conferences at which book tables are set up? At these book tables, he and his guest speakers have offered for sale the blasphemous new bible versions. Also marketed: Books claiming that the astrological signs of the Zodiac are of God.

One of the guest speakers for this man's Orlando, Florida prophecy conference gave a rapturously positive talk on the Egyptian pyramids. "They are," he trumpeted, "God's prophetic Word in stone."

     Heresies Regarding Israel and the Jews: Most of the clergy today, whether of organized religion, or evangelical, or fundamentalists, catholic priests and other teachers mislead and out right lie to their flocks about Israel and the Jews. They tell Christians that the Jews are Israel, when nothing could be further from the truth. The Jews are not Israel at all, but are the children of the devil: For Christ told us this in John 8:44.

Promoting the Jews while down playing and disregarding the gospel message can prove highly profitable. You can see those who have been generously rewarded for their avid support of the Jews when the Prime Minister of Israel presented one of theirs with the expensive gift of a luxurious executive jet aircraft, paid for at American Taxpayer expense.

These men proclaim their undying devotion and love for the Jews, but can a person truly love the Lord Jesus Christ and wish the best for His enemies while denying Christian men, women, and children the unfathomable benefits of the everlasting Gospel? Can a man love the Jews and the Lord Jesus Christ, their most hated enemy at the same time? The Scriptures clearly tell us one cannot love two masters; they must love one and hate the other.

It is an outrage for men who claim to serve God in a prophetic teaching role wand work craftily and deceitfully. It is a disgrace for them to dishonestly handle the Word of God. By doing so, they cast discredit on the precious Christian faith we all so deeply cherish.

One of the more prominent of today's prophecy teachers: Arno Froese, the distributor of Midnight Call and News From Israel Magazines, has called the King James Bible a "pagan translation." He claims that the word "virgin" in the Bible (describing Mary) is a mistranslation, and that the name "Lucifer," as recorded in Isaiah 14:12, is not a name of the devil but, instead, is an invention of men.

Even more startling is Arno Froese's assertion that the Holy Bible is flawed with "hundreds, if not thousands" of clear discrepancies and contradictions. Mr. Froese's ministry is strongly endorsed by Peter Lalonde of Trinity Broadcasting Network's "This Week in Bible Prophecy" program. At conferences Froese sponsors around the nation, prophecy teachers - ranging from Dave Hunt, Ray Brubaker, Dave Breese, John Ankerberg, and Hal Lindsey, have eagerly attended as paid speakers.

While Masonic, Romish, and Jewish scholars labor unceasingly to discredit the Bible in the minds of the masses, they all stake their claims to the Kingdom of God (and their own anticipated thrones) upon the Scriptures. Using end-time Bible prophecies to substantiate their own doctrines, they loudly condemn others for doing the same.

This is not to say that the Bible agrees with interpretations emanating from these false theologians. Although each lays claim to the Kingdom, it is only by textual malfeasance on their part and scriptural illiteracy on the part of their followers that has permitted this folly to continue.

And continue it has, to the point that soon we shall all be caught in the swirling vortex of their voracious ambitions, supported by manipulated Scriptures and a tragically misguided flock. Collusion between these former opponents has brought to birth the Beast, and they now move forth with one voice, toward a common goal - to impose upon us in their own "Kingdom of God."

Let it be clear from the outset that we are not facing a benevolent journey into the Promised Land, but instead a forced march into cruel bondage. Irrespective of the scenarios playing out for our benefit on the world stage, all of the real action is happening in the religious sphere where Rome now enjoys the full support of her erstwhile opponents. Impossible

you say? Let us weight the evidence.

"Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit." (Jeremiah 7:8)

The attack upon the West is the battle for its soul. Our religious foundations are crumbling, and upon that basis the West will be destroyed. This has been done with the conscious cooperation of the Judeo-Christian religions. The greatest enemy of the West is her own corrupted religious leadership. Their utter misrepresentation of the God of the Bible (undeniably the God of the West) pinpoints the spiritual nature of the battle. This betrayal by religious leaders will inevitably rob the West of her pre-eminent global position, and reduce her station to one more in keeping with the desired New Order.

But the decline of Western Civilization an only be fully discerned by perceiving the ongoing manipulation of man's spiritual desires. Conspiracy theories are useless without the knowledge of history (where this scenario has been played out before), without the knowledge of religions (which fleshes out their true nature hidden in secret doctrines and coded symbols), and without knowledge of the Scriptures (for without understanding of the sacred, no sense can be made of the profane).

In particular, four false theologies are bearing fruit of a most malevolent variety; liberation theology, ecumenical-interfaith theology, the theology of death, and (for want of a better term) dirty-sex theology. Once these are understood, the ultimate conspiracy scenario comes sharply into focus.

"Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee." (Hebrews 13:5)

Liberation theology is theology straight from hell: the intentional seeding of world revolution. It is also the official social teaching of Roman Catholicism, which sees itself as the Kingdom of God on earth. "Liberation" is the means of destroying that which stands in the way of Rome's Kingdom, that is, secular governments. In the U.S., the National Council of Churches (NCC) is the official Protestant spearhead for liberation theologians.

"The real goal of all religion is political and economic liberation from the bondage of Western capitalism, imperialism, colonialism, racism, sexism, and classism." (Class warfare is the hallmark and centerpiece of all liberation theology)

In league with Judaism and Roman Catholicism, the NCC is fighting for "social justice," and creating an ecumenical-interfaith octopus whose influence is well-nigh all-encompassing. But the NCC's reach exceeds its grasp, and it is now seeking,

"a stronger role of churches in guiding the nation's international affairs." (Where is separation of church and state when it is really needed?)

To foster the austere lifestyle planned for the manmade "Kingdom of God," the Western consciousness is receiving a drubbing of a distinctly Catholic bent, and suffering massive doses of guilt for having received the blessing promised by and inherited from the God of the West. Both churches and schools are major conduits for re-education of the masses. (One program developed for grades K through 2 teaches schoolchildren a song called "O Scarcity" to the tune of "O Christmas Tree.”) Capitalism is no longer an extension of the Protestant work ethic, but instead a dragon that must be slain. Ruling class corporations are not the real target; it is the middle class who will largely take the hit.

This religious attack upon capitalism is a classic work of deception when one considers the Vatican's heavy corporate presence in the West, that Vatican real estate holdings exceed most, if not all others, and the hypocrisy of anti-capitalist rhetoric coming from a man living in unparalleled wealth amidst the unseemly opulence and gaudy splendor of Vatican City - a clear-cut case of "conspicuous consumption" if ever there was one! The Church continuously assails the faithful for the "greed" of the West, but conveniently ignores the fact that Western taxpayers are already footing a bill of untold billions for every manner of aid to foreign lands, supporting the world, generously sustaining a growing immigrant population, propping up failing regimes, heavily subsidizing emerging democracies and underwriting the manifold global efforts of the U.N. as well as the total support of the Murderous Zionist State of Israel.

But the Church (as ecumenically understood; Rome and her ilk) well understands the spiritual longings of humanity, and finds success where Marxism previously failed.

"The Church reaches deep into the innermost part of man."

The inability to "marxise" the inner man left a void that socialism could not fill. In order to liberate the middle-class West from its prosperous lifestyle, the Christian message has been twisted beyond recognition to serve the interests of the one-worlders. (Obviously, the rest of the world will not be elevated to the level of the West; in particular, the U.S., so they must be humbled and brought down to their level) Thus, under a mask of human rights and dignity, the Church is subtly weaving ideas of class warfare and rebellion into the fabric of society. Even the Denver World Youth Day's official litany was spiked, invoking a God unfamiliar to most Americans:

"Justice Seeker...Parent of the Poor...God of Struggle...Justice Seeker...Liberating and Loving Friend...God of Our Struggle... Liberating Friend...Liberator...God of Justice...Seeker of Justice and Joy."

Queerly out of sync with its youthful, privileged audience, this litany was clearly a brainwashing exercise. The mass-consciousness, by repetitious use of liberation buzzwords, is being seeded for revolution. (Notably absent were any links to a personal God - not a clue! - but any true knowledge of the Living God is withheld to increase dependency upon religious leaders and to promote blind obedience to the Church) And what of the poor? Instead of dignity, liberation theology instills a debilitating morbidity and a mindset of implacable discontent. Liberation messages corrupt the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Luke 3:14 give the precise command to, "...Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages," not to mention the call to personal (not collective) holiness found throughout the New Testament. This same gospel applies to both rich and poor. The rich Christian is exhorted to voluntarily minister to the poor out of his abundance, but the Bible was never meant to be used as the wealth-equalization plan envisioned by liberation theologians.

Correctly understood, a personal relationship with God exists for each person individually, and consists of two elements - responsibility towards god for one's own behavior, and utter dependence upon Him for one's own needs. But this kind of teaching is dangerous. The widespread practice of such reliance upon God as truly Lord of one's life would render much of what passes as religious ministry entirely useless; taken to its fullest extent, the Church would be powerless.

By perpetuating the illusion that one is responsible to the Church, and that by the Church one subsists, a continuous and artificial dependency upon the Church is established where none is necessary. The Church must usurp the relationship between God and man to maintain its worldly economic power and political control. Therefore it is the Church that needs the poor, not vice versa.

Rome's recently issued catechism

"justifies armed resistance to repression by political powers if the oppression is severe and prolonged."

Armed Resistance! This catechism (specifically a teaching document to be spread tot he remotest areas of the world) sanctifies bloody violence, while pretending to speak as God Almighty. But for whose sake?

"For the poor he pleads, but himself is the poor he means well to."

The Church's "prefential option for the poor" and "apologies" to native groups are transparent ploys proffered to gain the confidence of the alienated. Sustained by a rage born of self-pity, the malleable underclass can be summoned in opposition to western governments when the time is right. (Like the preaching from the altar of dismissed-but-not-defrocked Aristide: "During mass, he always talked about killing the bourgeois." The bourgeois is, of course, the middle class)

The Roman Catholic New Jerome Bible Commentary states that,

"Satan is the personification of all disorder, dissension and scandal in the community."

Thus the Church is hoisted upon her own petard: found engaging in Satanism by her own definition. Disorder, dissension and scandal in the community? One would be hard-pressed to find a more fitting description of liberation theology.

"O my people, they which lead thee cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths." [1]

From antiquity, as early as Babylon, ruling class control over the masses has been accomplished by carefully and cleverly devised myths. In this way, elitist power was exerted over all spheres of everyday life. Throughout history, only one serious threat to this control has existed - the knowledge and dissemination of truth. Yet the ruling class formula's efficacy is evident in that it continues quite successfully even to this day, and remains basically unchanged.

The foundation of today's ruling lass myth is the second of four malevolent theologies under consideration: the cloying and brainless ecumenical-interfaith theology (prima facie evidence of the generation's inexcusable doltishness). The myth itself emanated from and was maintained exclusively by manipulations of religious belief. The Babylonian priesthood regularly tinkered with religious belief in order to create the oneness necessary for complete control. When Babylon dominated Mesopotamia, the priesthood worked to shore up its own power by incorporating the various local deities in "a process of syncretism and ecumenical fervor."

As historian Michael Grant notes of a later culture using the same technique,

"It was in vain that the Epicureans attacked this conception of religion and mythology as an improper means of bolstering the power of priests and rulers. The priests and rulers, and the imaginative writers who were their friends, knew just what they were doing."

This syncretism occurs over and over throughout history. The cult of Serapis was created by Ptolemy Soter who used it

"in an attempt to blend the existing Egyptian concepts with those of the Greeks who settled in Egypt after the conquest of Alexander the Great."

In combining the old Greek worship of Hades with the Egyptian religion, Ptolemy attempted to undermine his conquerors by capturing the souls of Greeks established in Egypt. Religious belief transcends even patriotism.

"In his Laws, Plato advocates a cult of Apollo and Helios, so as to combine ancient ritual and rational thought."

Neo-Platonic and Neo-Pythagorean authors proclaimed the unity of all mysteries. The Caesars embraced their interpretatio Romans, laying claim to all foreign gods worshipped in the Empire, and exporting emperor-worship to the provinces.

Constantine attempted to combine the worship of Appolo (god of the Caesars) with the worship of Christ. Philo syncretized Greek philosophy with Judaism and medieval Jews worked to harmonize Greco-Arabic philosophy with Kabbalah. Origen tried to synthesize Stoicism and Neoplatonic philosophy with Christianity. Augustine sought to lump the Mithraic Mystery cult with the Christians.

The patriarchs of Roman Catholicism (Justin Martyr, Origen, Clement, Augustine, etc.) mixed Platonism with Christianity; later, Aquinas endeavored to reconcile Aristotle's philosophy with Augustine's platonic brew. None of these religious hybrids elevated man spiritually, but rather served ruling class regimes (and hopefuls) ever seeking to consolidate their power through spiritual control. Recently, John Paul II congratulated Voodoo priests for their "faith in the one and good God." Is this a small matter difference? [2]

The pontiff calls Muslims "brothers and sisters in faith in our God," and even Billy Graham's evangelical Christianity Today has christened the Muslims "estranged half-brothers and sisters." Graham also in his fear-mongering, environmentalist propaganda book, "Earth in the Balance," Vice President Al Gore writes, "Nature, in its fullest, is God." But how many know that the theology of world-acclaimed evangelist Billy Graham fits in well with that of Al Gore, a fellow Southern Baptist?

In "McCall's Magazine" (January 1978), Billy Graham told an interviewer that his views on salvation had changed.

"I used to believe that pagans in far-off countries were lost; were going to hell," said Graham. "I no longer believe that. I believe that there are 'other ways' of recognizing the existence of God, 'through nature,' for instance."

Thus, New Agers who preach nature worship and who exalt Gala, the planetary deity, will find great comfort in these words from Billy Graham.

     Jews Don't Need Jesus, Either: And there's more. According to Graham, heaven not only awaits earth worshippers but also Christ-rejecting Jews. The popular celebrity told "McCall's" that Jews who reject Jesus may, nevertheless, still go to heaven. (What an unmitigated liar Billy Graham, who by the way is himself Jewish. His real name is "Frank.")

Graham a Catholic?: "What about Catholics?," the "McCall's" interviewer asked. Yes, said Graham, sincere Catholics will also be saved. Indeed, Billy Graham revealed that his own beliefs "are essentially the same as those of Orthodox Roman Catholics." The evangelist even stated that he would soon go to Rome and preach at a Catholic cathedral. He had been invited to Rome, he revealed, by a top Vatican official.

A Man Loved By the World: Amazingly, these facts, from Billy Graham's own mouth, were revealed almost 20 years ago in "McCall's," a popular women's magazine read by millions and sold in supermarkets and convenience stores everywhere.

Billy Graham's adoption and promotion of these satanically-inspired philosophies explains why a decadent and admiring, yet unsaved and sinful, populace holds the Baptist evangelist in such high esteem. If he were to preach the hard truth, like Jeremiah, Elijah, and John the Baptist did, the evangelist would surely be hated and ostracized by the world. But because he speaks the lukewarm, politically correct, unity-in-diversity, Judeo-Christian language of modern "Mystery Babylon," Billy Graham consistently ranks among "America's Ten Most Admired Men" in opinion polls.

One sure sign of a false prophet is that he is praised by the world. Billy Graham is a man who proudly trumpets his friendship with presidents and prime ministers. He has said, "I no longer believe in a literal hell." He refrains from saying clearly that homosexuality is wickedness. Graham has also stated that he does not complain about abortion because, "No one really knows when life begins." All this has made him a friend of the world [3], a man respected and touted even by the liberal media. How stark a contrast with our Lord Jesus Christ who, the Bible records, "made himself of no reputation." It would be wise for Billy Graham and his legions of supporters to carefully consider these powerful words of the Apostle James:

"Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God." [4]

Obviously, Billy Graham's teaching that men can be saved through nature or by false religion cannot be squared with Scripture. The Bible tells us that "only" through faith in Jesus Christ and His finished work on the stake can men and women be saved. Not through trees, rocks, and babbling brooks, and not by church traditions as taught by the Pope of Rome and his Catholic minions:

"For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." [5]

It cannot be overemphasized that Billy Graham's public statements over the years have already caused many of God's Israel people in untold numbers to be separated from their God. Millions of people believe the false teachings of Graham; many place utmost confidence in his every word. If Billy Graham tells them they need not be born again [6] through faith in Jesus Christ to enter into His Kingdom, they believe him rather than God's word. However, trusting man instead of God, they will ultimately perish.

Billy Graham is not alone in his guilt. Isn't it strange and more than a little curious that leaders of the Christian establishment have consistently refused to expose or even to mildly criticize Billy Graham's unscriptural satanic inspired views? Why haven't the editors at "Christianity Today, Moody's," and "Charisma Magazines" and the hundreds of owners and managers of the 1,500 Christian radio stations affiliated with the "National religious Broadcasters," spoken out in protest against Billy Graham's heretical statements? What about the leaders of such powerful denominations as the Southern Baptist Convention, the Assemblies of God, the Lutheran Church, and the Church of God? and the other Christian Churches, so-called, spoken out? Why this massive conspiracy of silence? The answer is found in the Scriptures. There we are told that just before the return of Christ, the knowledge of the truth will be in short supply. Men will love the pleasures of this world and the applause of men more than they love God. Thus,

"...evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived." [7]

Billy Graham has told columnist Cal Thomas that saving babies by fighting abortion is not "a big thing" to him [8]. But, says the famed evangelist, he "is" concerned about saving Mother Earth. To him, that's a big thin. Indeed, Graham is so upset about the environmental harm being done to planet Earth that he recently vowed to begin actively speaking out on this issue.

Graham has long maintained that the pro-life movement is irrelevant since "No one really knows when life begins" [9]. Again and again, he has refused to become involved in speaking out against abortion. "It's not an issue I wish to pursue," Graham arrogantly informed CNN talk show host Larry King in 1993. "I try to stay away from these things that are so emotional," Graham told the "Philadelphia Inquirer Newspaper," in 1992.

Neither is homosexuality a hot button for Billy Graham. "It's not a big sin," the evangelist recently told startled reporters at a national press conference. On the "Larry King Show" (December 1994), Graham justified this by explaining that homosexuals and lesbians are just "born that way."

But apparently, while the popular North Carolina Baptist Evangelist doesn't want to expend his energies battling abortion, homosexuality, pornography, New Ageism and Humanism in public schools, the New World Order, and other rampant evils, he does not feel the same way about environmentalism.

Interviewed recently on Cal Thomas' television program on Cable TV's CNBC Network, Graham insisted that protecting the environment is more important than protecting the unborn. Here's the exchange between Billy Graham and Cal Thomas [10]:

"Mr. Thomas: 'You've been reluctant to speak out on the top social issue of our time, abortion. Why?'" "Mr. Graham. 'I think the top social issue of our time may be ecology (the environment). I think that's more dangerous...and I'm going to start speaking out on that.'"

So, to Billy Graham, the murder of 40-million babies through abortion since 1963, in the U.S.A. alone, is not "a big thing" he needs to deal with. Admittedly, Graham is a politically astute liberal. He well knows that fighting abortion is politically incorrect, and he realizes that, were he to support the saving of unborn babies, the famous evangelist would not make the next published list of "America's Ten Most Admired Men."

Graham, also knows, however, that saving Mother Earth is politically correct. After all, every good liberal wants to save the environment and kill the unborn babies, all at the same time! Graham says that his beliefs "are essentially the same as orthodox Roman Catholics." Graham has frequently praised Pope John Paul II. During his recent crusade in North Korea, the evangelist even delivered, straight from the pulpit, a personal message to the Korean people from the Pope.

For years Roman Catholic priests and nuns have worked closely with Billy Graham and his top ministry associates. They gladly help to sponsor and promote his evangelistic crusades. In return, many people (thousands) who come forward at invitation time are referred by Graham's altar call team to local Catholic churches and priests. Since Billy Graham, in his own words, professes to embrace orthodox Roman Catholicism, it is only fair to list just a few of his, and their, beliefs. Here, then, is what Billy Graham believes, by his own admission:

   1). Christians may pray to Mary or to any of thousands of dead saints, as well as to Jesus and God the Father.

   2). Mary, in heaven, is the Mother of God and appears today to faithful Christians who pray to her and say the rosary.

   3). Through infant baptism, babies are regenerated; that is, saved.

   4). The Bible is not sufficient in itself as the final authority for Christians. Church tradition and official papal teachings are to be accepted as well.

   5). Donations and offerings are to be given to Catholic priests so that masses can be conducted for the dead who suffer in purgatory.

   6). These rituals, plus prayers and rosaries, are necessary so that deceased relatives and friends who died in sin can be released early from their pain and suffering in purgatory and go on to paradise.

   7). The Pope is infallible (inerrant) in his doctrines and teachings. However, the Bible, though inspired, is not inerrant.

   8). When greeting the Catholic pope, cardinals, bishops, and other eminences, Christians should kneel before them and kiss their rings.

   9). Salvation is not achieved through grace alone. Faith simply begins the process of being save. Ultimately, salvation is dependent on one's continued faith and good works.

   10). Jesus is not coming again to set up His millennial kingdom , and there is no such thing as a coming rapture of the Bride of Christ.

   11). In the Catholic mass, the bread and wine literally become the flesh and blood of Christ. These elements must be worshipped and adored just as if they are Jesus' very presence. Only a Catholic priest may touch these elements and then only with one finger and his thumb.

   12). Christians can gain special favor with God by scourging, ravaging, and torturing their bloodied bodies with metal-tipped whips and by other painful, self-inflicted suffering.

   13). Statues, idols, and images of Mary, Joseph, and thousands of other dead saints are to be bowed to, knelt to, and venerated by Christians.

   14). Relics of saints, actual bits of the bones, skin, flesh and hair of dead people are to be deposited in the cornerstone of every Christian church as it is built. In U.S. military chapels, the bit of bone, flesh, or hair is to be sewn into the Greek Antimensium (a white linen cloth) and placed on the altar during the Catholic mass.

Now you know some of the things in which Billy Graham and his Roman Catholic colleagues believe. These teachings, and thousands more, taken as a whole, also constitute what Chuck Colson, Bill Bright, Hank Hanegraaff, James Dobson, Paul Crouch, J.I. Packer, Jack Van Impe, W.A. Criswell, Pat Robertson, and others now say is authentic, true Christianity.

Billy Graham is deceived. That's why he believes that "nature" can save men's souls. That's why he refuses to evangelize lost Jews and Roman Catholics. That's why he arrogantly stands by idly, silently, while millions of precious babies are slaughtered through abortion. Regrettably, in his deceit he is bringing thousands of needy and lost souls down with him. May the one true and merciful God cause the uncaring, lukewarm leaders of the Christian establishment who have long covered up and hidden Billy Graham's great apostasy from the true Gospel.

What might God have to say about Graham's pandering to satanic baby-killers? In Psalm 94:16, God implores:

"Who will rise up for me against the evildoers? or who will stand up for me against the workers of iniquity?"

Now comes Billy Graham, one of the most liked and most popular men on Earth, to whine and cry out,

"Not me, Lord, not me!"

Do you agree with Billy Graham, Jack Van Impe and the others that Catholicism is authentic, true Christianity? Or instead, do you fervently believe, as we do, that this tragic collection of abominations and falsehoods is exactly what God warned about in His Holy Word when He solemnly declared:

"Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils." [11]

Surely, this is not "the faith once delivered to the saints" [12] but instead a pernicious mutation with an evil end. It behooves us, then, to examine elitist structures purveying the controlling myth for our time. Let us first recognize that all ruling class contestants, the leaders of the Jews [13], Masons, and Romanists alike, have been promoting spiritual integration for some time now. This not only identifies the controlling myth, but confirms that harmony is afoot among the elite (an absolute perquisite for any world government).

Interfaith and ecumenical organizations abound, but one particularly worth noting is the Temple of Understanding, connected to the Cathedral of St. John the Divine (seat of the Episcopal bishop of New York and a recipient of Rockefeller money). With the creation of "a spiritual United Nations" as the Temple's goal, it is a principal prolocuter of today's controlling myth. [14]

The Temple of Understanding's founders included Eleanor Roosevelt, Orthodox Patriarch Athenagorus, the Dalai Lama, "Father" Thomas Merton, Jawaharial Nehru, Anwar Sadat, Dr. Albert Schweitzer, former UN Secretary General U-Thant, and Pontiffs John XXIII and Paul VI. Its current Board of Advisors includes Hans Kung, Robert Muller, Dalai Lama, and Hasidic Rabbi Zalman Schachter. Henry Luce III and Iroquois Chief Oren R. Lyons are on the Board of Directors; Bill Moyers and "Mother" Teressa are among its cheerleaders. With such notables involved from its inception and with an agenda exclusively devoted to the one world religion [15] so essential to their New World Order, the Temple is undeniably a ruling class entity. This pseudo-religion needs come first, because the controlling myth must initially lay the groundwork by establishing behavioral norms for the governed, and later serve as a bulwark during the World Government's potentially difficult implementation period. [16] The ecumenical-interfaith controlling myth has been upon us for some time now. Malachi Martin similarly identifies J.D. Rockefeller IV, Yehudi Menuhin, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John Foster Dulles, Henry R. Luce, George Meany, Queen Elizabeth II, the Duke of Edinburg, Earl Mountbatten, Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre Trudeau, Robert McNamara, and Cardinal Leo Suenens as past and present "Mega-Religionists."

From this it appears that, apart from minor skirmishes, the struggle for world supremacy was over some time ago. The die was cast much earlier than most conspiracy-watchers realize. [17] The current Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, is an ecumencist. With ecumenical bliss in such abundance, the recent flap about Anglican women pastors is likely a disagreement scripted to dissipate traditional British abhorrence of Catholicism and to tilt conservative believers toward Rome.

The Temple of Understanding was established in 1959. During the sixties, major thrusts such as Vatican II propelled the controlling ideology forward. Today, people are positively giddy with this warm, fuzzy deception and are ripe for the main event. Lyndon LaRouche is a big booster of ecumenicism; curiously, both LaRouche and the Masonic-Theosophist organization World Goodwill have recently been singing the praises of 15th century Catholic ecumenicist, Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa. [18]

Any lingering doubts concerning ecumenical-interfaith theology as indoctrination engineered to control mankind are completely dispelled with a speech given by John D. Rockefeller Jr., to the Baptist Social Union in December 1917.

"Would that I had the power to bring to your minds the vision as it unfolds before me! I see all denominational emphasis set aside. I see cooperation, not competition. In the large cities I see great religious centers...In small places, instead of half a dozen dying churches, competing with each other, I see one or two strong churches, uniting the Christian life of the town."

This goes only slightly beyond the standard ecumenical palaver. But then Rockefeller brazenly announced his intended result:

"I see the church molding the thought of the world, as it has never done before, leading in all great movements as it should. I see it literally establishing the Kingdom of God on earth."

Long before ecumenicism was fashionable, Rockefeller had openly identified the design to control the whole world, the brainwashing required to establish the New World Order (a.k.a. "the Kingdom of God"), and the means to do so through the use of religious myth to achieve and sustain control by elites.

Rockefeller pursued his vision. By the early thirties, he had become "the most important financier of literal and ecumenical Protestantism." His money was spread hither and you - into the coffers of famous evangelists (such as Billy Sunday [19]) as well as to seminaries like Union Theological Seminary and Jewish Theological Seminary. Rockefeller set about to gut Christian mission work abroad by perverting the Gospel of Jesus Christ (and substituting instead an agenda corresponding to global goals of the CFR and other internationalist groups), contributing over $1-million to the Interchurch World Movement, and also making substantial donations to the National Council of Churches.

77 years later, today's elitists have neither abandoned nor deviated from this plan, but are vigorously preparing the manmade "Kingdom of God" on the strength of their exceedingly popular religious myth. The Episcopal Cathedral of St. John the Divine is a veritable hotbed of ruling class schemes.

Besides its Temple of Understanding, the Cathedral has spawned other powerful ecumenical-interfaith groups to purvey the controlling myth, such as the Joint Appeal by Religion and Science for the Environment, and the National Religious Partnership for the Environment. Founded in 1992, the Joint Appeal brought together Roman Catholics, Orthodox, Native Americans, Protestants and Jews from 400,000 congregations in order to invade the national consciousness at its most vulnerable level - that is, the soul. Vice President Al Gore is "playing a central role" in the organization. And in 1993, Vice President Al Gore also established the National Religious Partnership for the Environment - with its offices also located at the Cathedral. The Partnership is composed of the U.S. Catholic Conference, the National Council of Churches, the Evangelical Environmental Network, and the Consultation of Jewish Life and the Environment - and has received a multimillion-dollar commitment from "The Rockefeller Foundation" and others to fund a major ecumenical/eco-spiritual broadside aimed at churchgoers. Every Roman Catholic Church in America will soon be the object of ruling class largesse. [20]

The Temple of Understanding is also closely associated with the Green Cross, an ecumenical/eco-spiritual organization headed by Mikhail Gorbachev. The Green Cross, aimed at Christian schools and colleges, seeks to supplant traditional studies with "ethical and moral issues relating to ecology." In addition, Gorbachev (in his Green Cross capacity) will compose the UN Earth Charter, creating an international environmental regulatory code. Documentation supplied by Leading Edge Research [21] describes the Earth Charter as a statement of

     "the principles by which people should conduct themselves in relation to each other and the environment. The Earth Charter will be developed under the auspices of Agenda 21, a far-reaching agreement springing from the Earth Summit of 1992. In other words, 172 nations signed on to a binding agreement (Agenda 21) that had not been wholly written (Earth Charter section) at the time. The wisdom of our wise men has truly perished.

     Regrettably, the public was greatly deceived about Agenda 21; the media convinced the masses that nothing of substance had been accomplished, when in fact Agenda 21 proposes an array of actions which are intended to be implemented by every person on Earth. Effective execution of Agenda 21 will require a profound orientation of all human society unlike anything the world has ever experienced."

The Temple of Understanding also founded the Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Participants at a conference held by the Forum in Oxford during 1988 included Dalai Lama, "Mother" Teresa, Anglican Archbishop Robert Runcie, Carl Sagan, members of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, the Chief Rabbi of Romania, the Metropolitan of Moscow's Russian Orthodox Church, goddess-worshipping James Lovelock, Forum founder Dean Parks Morton (president of the Temple of Understanding), plus senators, cabinet ministers, and the media. In a later interview about the conference, Morton said that participants

"recognized that the much touted separation of church and state is a very recent part of the history of the human family...there is a profound sense in which this separation is very artificial."

Consider the manifold fruits from the Temple of Understanding's labors. Through the Earth Charter and Agenda 21, the ruling class will overthrow the prosperous lifestyle of the West by means of extremely dubious "environmental reforms." Through its National Religious Partnership, Joint Appeal, and Green Cross, Christianity is being infiltrated with pagan doctrines as old as Babylon. [22] Through its Global Forum, important religious rights are being insidiously subverted. Every significant improvement arising from the Protestant Reformation is being stolen away. We shall all rue the day when Rockefeller's "Kingdom of God" comes to pass. J.D. Rockefeller's [23] plan rested upon his assurance of the widespread ignorance of Scripture. His scheme would have been seriously hobbled if Christians took responsibility for their own understanding of God's word, instead of relinquishing their brains to the ministers of Church traditions.

The Bible quite plainly states that the shortlived Kingdom of Antichrist comes immediately prior to the Kingdom of the true God. In 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12, Paul writes that the time of Christ - and thus, his Kingdom would follow only after certain events:

"Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition." [24]

There can be no mistaking that we are living in the time of "the falling away." This refers specifically to Christianity, the church in apostasy, with Christians departing from their God to follow idolatrous mythology. [25] The man of sin heralds Satan's kingdom on earth. Only after the reign of the Antichristian world government does Jesus Christ return to earth to establish the true Kingdom of God.

While all other religions currently await their messiah, the Christian Scriptures teach that the legitimate Kingdom of God comes only after a time of real terror, when the One World Government (Mystery Babylon) rules the earth. Because this information does not suit the purposes of empire-building tyrants, and indeed, identifies the very nature of their plan, this part of the Bible has been furiously denied from the days of Eusebius, "that great falsifier of history." Roman Catholicism and every major denomination of our time, plus many nominal churches, prefer to ignore and deny the Words of the God they pretend to serve. [26]

The Church disavows any relevancy of endtime Bible prophecies, thus fostering the Kingdom of Antichrist, "the seat of violence." [27] The ecumenical Church instead subscribes to and supports Rockefeller's Kingdom of a very strange god indeed, the Antichrist. In August, 1993 when the Parliament for the World's Religions gathered in the name of "brotherhood" and the "unity of all faiths," Rockefeller dollars subsidized the event. [28] The 1993 Parliament received the Temple of Understanding's stamp of approval and (of course) worldwide media coverage.

Along with pagans of every stripe, the attendance and approbation of ruling class players gave the Parliament its requisite whiff of respectability and importance. It has been reported that a number of high-level Masons attended, along with the ubiquitous Dalai Lama, Hans Kung, Louis Farrakhan, Vatican officials including Chicago Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, and assortment of Jewish Rabbis and Muslims, plus the inevitable hodge-podge of theosophists, Hindus, Kabbalists, Native American shamans and goddess-worshipping New Agers.

The Parliament's sheer entertainment value made its motley crew appear less dangerous than they are. Let us not be deceived that this New Age nincompoopery is merely harmless treacle. These minions are the foot-soldiers bringing the controlling myth into fruition on behalf of the elite. Biblical Christianity are targeted for extinction (because it upholds principles of liberty and freedom). [29] During approximately 600 lecutes, demonstrations and presentations, Christianity is presented only as it has been newly invented ("renewed") by the controlling myth. "Toward an Eco-Kosher Judaism?"

Or how about

"Judaism Beyond God: A New Way of Being Jewish?"

The Parliament's

"plenaries by politicians and technocrats made it clear that the organizers had a preprogrammed agenda 'to create liberal-humanistic unity' (and) 'facilitators were primed to ensure that nothing...would stop the parliament from realizing its unstated goal.'"

The Temple of Understanding's philosophy clearly dominated the Parliament. Temple of Understanding president Dr. Karan Singh told the Parliament: "...we need not a linear progression in thinking but a paradigm shift in consciousness." Temple of Understanding founder Robert Muller beseeched the Parliament's religions, "You must give humanity the divine for cosmic rules for our behavior on this planet." Without missing a beat, Temple of Understanding board member Hans Kung (who is, coincidentally, a Roman Catholic priest) drew up the Parliament's Declaration of Global Ethics.

Kung came prepared for his starring role. In his book "Global Responsibility: In Search of a New World Ethic," Kung, typically overflowing with elitist anguish expresses fears that survival is quite impossible unless "spheres of differing, contradictory or even conflicting ethics cease to exist." Kung heroically offers a rather unremarkable solution: "This one world needs one ethic...(consisting of) binding norms, values, ideas and goals." Elected government is clearly insufficient for Kung. What we really need are binding norms, values, ideals and goals perpetrated by self-appointed elitists who will decide what is best for us, on a universal basis. Ruling class self-aggrandizement knows no bounds.

The Parliament's Declaration of a Global Ethic echoed Kung's book, calling for "Binding values, irrevocable standards and fundamental moral attitudes," "binding values, convictions, and norma..." "binding values, irrevocable standards and personal attitudes..." and "Irrevocable, unconditional ethical norms..." [30]

The so-called "ancient wisdom" of the religious traditions is invoked repeatedly as a standard, an unlikely source of good in the mind of a Christian, or anyone else familiar with the history of religion. But Kung sees truth where others see lies, and in the end, it is the truth that will be sacrificed for The Big Lie - The Controlling Myth. Kung warns that any dissent regarding this religious deception (those troublesome personal attitudes) will receive "the condemnation of humankind."

And what are the binding values, irrevocable standards and personal attitudes of this New Age ruling class bondage? What control will their Myth exert upon us? What manner of yoke do they now approach us with? According to Kung's Declaration of a Global Ethic for the Parliament,

"Every form of egoism should be rejected. All selfishness, whether individual or collective, whether in the form of class thinking, racism, nationalism or sexism." [31]

Unmixed collectivism is the bitter fruit of "liberation" theology and ecumenicism, and we shall all soon partake of it if they have their way.

Kung's "noble" goals were presented earlier with a somewhat different spin. A writer in the Cleveland Plain Dealer on April 14, 1991 proclaimed;

"What society needs a noble lie, a myth that deceives us, tricks us, compels us beyond self-interest, beyond ego, beyond family, nation, race, even beyond the self-evident truth that human beings are the crown of reaction. The noble lie will deceive us into placing other people, or the Earth as a whole, above self."

This call is identical to Kung's vision in the Parliament's Declaration, but frankly describes such goals as "a lie." The Global Ethic being foisted upon the world by its religious leaders is, by the above definition, lies and mythology with the sole purpose to deceive us, to trick us. Kung ignores the ancient wisdom of the Holy Scriptures in the process. He declares that

"wherever those ruling threaten to repress those ruled, wherever institutions threaten persons, and wherever might oppresses right, we are obligated to resist, whenever possible nonviolently."

Blood shed is evidently anticipated in Kung's Camelot. Here the liberation theology of Rome's Universal Catechism kicks in with the threat of violence to deal with recalcitrant nations preferring to remain aloof from the New Order. The Parliament's Global Ethic puts such governments on notice that they face internal disorder and violence orchestrated by the religious leaders. [32]

But in Romans 13:1-2, Paul writes:

"Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation."

Rebellion is not the business of Christians. Kung (who presumably considers himself Christian) not only advocates the destruction of civil governments, but the damnation of souls with this perverse document. Kung calls this declaration

"a moral foundation for a new global order: and within the Global Ethic cites the UN Declaration of Human Rights. The first item of business in the Parliament's declaration is 'No new global order without a new global ethic!'"

Thus he unmistakably links religion to the UN and provides the basis for the Beast of Revelation: One World Government, One World Religion, all to be ruled by "Mystery Babylon."

Joining Kung in his vision for our future were 250 other "religious leaders" who signed the document. Chicago Cardinal Joseph Bernardin called it "a wonderful framework in which to continue discussions on further issues." This "wonderful framework" will mark the extinction of our every liberty. Bernardin's smug remark breezily dismisses the constitutional premise of the separation of church and state as if it is a mere passing annoyance.

Is it not astonishing what is being done here, without the consent of the governed, by a group of unelected, self-serving, self-styled "religious leaders?" And they are succeeding for the simple reason that people in the West no longer know their own God: these "religious leaders" are succeeding because they "hold (back) the truth in unrighteousness" [33] from the people and substitute, instead, the traditions of men. Without exaggeration, the Bible is a thoroughly unknown book in our time, to our distinct disadvantage. It's the book they use to justify their own position among us by "handling the word of God deceitfully." [34]

Having forfeited our God, who will save the West: The White Man? Indeed, Kung's Statement of Global Ethics for the Parliament of the World's Religions could not even include the word "God" because no agreement could be reached on the meaning, or the propriety, of this term! Although breathtaking in its arrogance, this move betrays their "Kingdom" as, in the last analysis, a "Kingdom" without God. [35]

In order to lure evangelical Christians into the fold, Vatican point-man and self-styled "agenda-setter" Chuck Colson received the million-dollar Templeton Prize at the University of Chicago's Rockefeller Chapel in conjunction with the Parliament. [36] Colson is purportedly being groomed to assume Billy Graham's mantle and purveys the controlling myth with as much vigor as Graham, who greatly accelerated the ruling class cause with his scandalous visits to Russia and his papal bootlicking.

The near-deified Graham previously received the Templeton Prize, and like his predecessor Billy Sunday, he is also a past recipient of Rockefeller money. Early on, Graham also gained generous publicity when publishing tycoon William Randolph Hearst wired his newspapers throughout the U.S. to "Puff Graham." [37]

During the parliament, a Chicago Sun-Times reporter neatly skewered Colson and his constant call for education in "moral values" (the conservative drum beat for a New Moral Order a la Kung's Global Ethic). Colson, defending the morals imparted to him as a child, could not then adequately explain his subsequent crimes in the Watergate affair.

Another elitist organization worthy of scrutiny is the World Council of Churches (WCC). According to Texe Marrs in Dark Majesty, the president of the WCC's financial affairs is a senior Skull and Bonesman. Perhaps this is why ex-presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan have accepted co-chairmanship of a fund-raising drive for the Ecumenical Development Initiative of the World and National Councils of Churches.

The money ($150-million by 2000 A.D.) is being earmarked for the "churches" cooperative efforts in the social and political arena. Former U.S. Presidents stumping for world religion (operating in the social and political arena) again confirms the existence and the nature of the ruling class controlling myth.

Highlights from the WCC Conference on Faith and Order held in August, 1993 hint at the shape of things to come. Top Vatican ecumenicist Cardinal Edward Cassidy reasserted the non-negotiable primacy of the papacy; Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu called for "symbolic and honorary" papal primacy over other Christians; a Nigerian Roman Catholic bishop said that "he discerned a readiness among some churches to acknowledge some sort of papal leadership."

Ecumenical and interfaith overtures mark the path to a New Dark Age of papal Romanism.

"By her relationship with Christ, the Church is a kind of sacrament of intimate union with God, and of the unity of all mankind, that is she is a sign and an instrument of such union and unity."

In The 1993 Directory for Ecumenicism [38], Catholic doctrine remains untouched; it is other Christians that must give up their every gain.

This follows the directive of Vatican II: "(The faithful's) ecumenical activity must not be other than fully and sincerely Catholic." and "Nothing is so foreign to the spirit of ecumenicism as a false conciliatory approach which harms the purity of Catholic doctrine." Vatican II called for a "full visible communion of all Christians" but it is a unity most decidedly crated in the image of Rome (a fact largely misunderstood by the sleepy-headed Protestants).

Ecumenical agreements made by Protestants with Rome are sometimes cloaked in secrecy. One major accord between Lutheran theologians and Rome underscored the mysterious nature of these agreements: "the document itself was not made public, nor would participants in the dialogue spell out the specific areas of agreement and disagreement."

Lest anyone minimize the scope of the threat, there is also a Pontifical Council for Dialogue with Non-Believers. The World Religion must be all-inclusive to achieve the total domination desired by the ruling class.

So, the New Dark Age will resemble the earlier papal Dark Ages. At the pinnacle of Rome's power, Boniface VIII issued the papal bull Unam Sanctum. [39]

"Moreover we declare, affirm, define, and pronounce that it is altogether necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff."

Roman Catholicism has always taught this very dogma; it is the crux of the whole matter.

Rome rose to her greatest power under circumstances that parallel our own time: "No control but that of religion appeared sufficient to restrain the abuses of society..." Just as today's Vatican frequently offers itself as intermediary and negotiator, Innocent III stepped in as the "general arbiter of differences and conservator of peace." Within a very few years, Innocent began Rome's bloody massacres with the execution of 30,000 Albigenses, a war of extermination with scarcely a parallel in history; until the massacre of more than 20-million Christians by the Jews when they took control of Russia in 1917. "Rome inspired...all the terror of her ancient name. She was once more mistress of the world, and kings were her vassals." Under the banner of moral order, Rome's unspeakable cruelty reached new heights.

The very same "moral order" tactic is being foisted upon us today, with ruling class accommodation across-the-board. it is being sold to the conservative middle-class disguised as "traditional family values," and to others as "spiritual renewal," etc. These are mere variations on a theme; the tune that they are calling us to dance to is one and the same.

The ruling class carefully adheres to a script that can only be described as relentless brainwashing. Consider the following;

   Mikhail Gorbachev: "We need spiritual values [40]. We need a revolution of the mind. this is the only way toward an new culture and a new politics that can meet the challenge of our time." [41] Also, "...along with this 'new way of thinking' will come 'universal values to take advantage of man's spiritual capital.'" [42]

   Robert Muller, Temple of Understanding member: Calls for a "new code of behavior which will encompass all races, nations, religions and ideologies. It is the formulation of these new ethics which will be the greatest challenge for the new generation."

   Alice Bailey, Louis Trust/World Goodwill (deceased disciple of theosophist Madame Blavatsky): "The objective of the new social order, of the new politics, the new religion, bring in the Kingdom."

   Livieu Gota, Vice Director General of the UN to members of the Lucis Trust and its partner organization World Goodwill in 1990: "man must end his individual will and conform to common aspirations." According to Gota, a universal spirituality must be achieved. Gota also said that, "the United Nations will play a great part in developing these common aspirations. Spirituality, Gota stresses, is to be the keystone of the work of strengthening the United Nations."

   Javier Perez de Cuellar, former Secretary General of the UN: "On many occasions debates arise between the partisans of a strictly individual morality and those who believe in a community ethic that takes into account community interests. The problem of the relationship between freedom and morality will sooner or later concern the international community." [43]

   William Ruckelshaus, former head of the Environmental Protection Agency: "First, a clear set of values consistent with the consciousness of sustainability must be articulated by leaders in both the public and the private sector. Next, motivations need to be established that will support the values. Finally, institutions must be developed that will effectively apply the motivations...Mere acceptance of a changed value structure, although a prerequisite, does not generate the required change in consciousness."

   Chuck Colson: "You're only going to solve the problem by teaching people moral values early in life."

   Vice President Al Gore: "As Erikson one wrote, 'The possibility of species-wide destruction relates for the first time the necessity of a species-wide ethic."

   Vaclav Havel: Calls for "a global revolution in the sphere of human consciousness. We still don't know how to put morality ahead of politics, science and economics."

   Maurice Strong, UN Earth Summit chief: "...revival of moral and spiritual values (is) the real key to survival of the human species."

   Carl Sagan: "What good is all the data in the world without a steadfast moral compass? It's clear that science alone cannot by any means provide the moral impetus that religion can."

   Jesse Jackson: Calls for "a social values revolution."

   Zbigniew Brzezinski: "(The new era) an emerge only as a consequence of a new historical tide that induces a change both in values and in conduct...The global crisis of the spirit has to be overcome if humanity is to assert command over its destiny."

   Hillary Clinton: America suffers "from a sleeping sickness of the soul...who will lead us out of this spiritual vacuum?...Let us be willing to remold society."

   John Paul II: "The broadcasting industry should develop and follow a moral code that reflects family values."

   Pat Robertson: Encourages Christians to become "a united and effective force for moral renewal in America."

   Teilhard de Chardin: "The fate of mankind, as well as of religion, depends upon the emergence of a new faith in the future." [44]

   President Bill Clinton: "We cannot renew our country unless we are willing to work with the churches." [45]

   Dan Quayle: Wants public assistance to be distributed through churches and synagogues.

The desire to change the values of the West is on the lips of elitists everywhere, no matter how immoral they may be. The agenda that they seek to impose upon us is evil, and the method being used to strip us of our liberties is wicked deceit. How odd that the ruling class imagines itself fit to dictate morals to anyone!

But they are all beholden to Rome. "President Clinton credits the catholic social teaching of (Jesuit Georgetown University) with forming his philosophy of morality and politics." Jesuit newspaper columnist Eugene Kennedy also noted that "The Clinton administration, far more than that of Reagan, parallels the teachings of papal encyclicals on social polices" of a wide variety.

The above use of the word "moral" is not to be understood in the classic Christian sense. Christianity cannot be reduced to a set of values. The faith exists only as a personal commitment to Jesus Christ as Lord and to his words as truth. Pretending that Christianity can be used as a good set of rules (as does Chuck Colson) is deceitful in the extreme. Nothing could be more repugnant to the non-believer. Christianity is not a matter of changed rules, but of changed hearts.

Furthermore, Christianity was never meant to be a popular religion. Christians caught up in worldliness were admonished,

"Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? Whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God." [46]

The verse emphasizes the aspect of separateness that was once well understood. Christian separation was to mark their witness tot he world regarding the true God. The Christians were called adulterers and adulteresses because they loved the system, and were therefore cheating God [47] Any worldly system based upon popular ideas or cutting-edge philosophies cannot honestly be promoted as Christian (Whether by the Roman Catholic Church, Judaism or Chuck Colson, or anyone else for that matter).

What is meant by a new moral order instead resembles the ancient Roman religion, which had no true definition of sin or personal holiness. There was no integrity involved. The whole philosophy of the Roman religion can be summed up as obedience to the State, peace with the gods (achieved only through meticulous ritual), and "goodwill" among men.

Obviously thee is no inner, personal value with this sort of belief system. In fact, it proved so entirely unsatisfactory that Roman rulers were regularly required to import new, depraved religions from the East (whose fashion also soon passed) due to the growing, gnawing spiritual unrest of the people.

Having examined some players and major organizations involved in perpetuating the ruling-class myth, it should be clear that the New Order will much resemble earlier pagan empires, with vast control of the masses given over to a priestly caste. The Book of Revelation indicates that in spite of the struggle that would ensue between ruling-class opponents, Rome would ultimately prevail.

"For God hath put in their hearts to fulfill his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled." [48].

In the end-time separation of the chaff from the wheat, Rome has her day to come.

There has been little disagreement among Bible Christians that the Roman Empire would be resuscitated. Here The Book of Revelation reiterates what was first written in the visions of The Book of Daniel. It is high time that people realized Roman Catholicism is not a Christian faith that borrowed from the ancient Roman religion in order to welcome pagans.

Roman Catholicism as well as Judaism is the ancient Babylonian-Roman religion tricked out in a few Christian trappings to fool the undiscerning. It is "Mystery Babylon's" religion, which a brief glance at history readily confirms. Even the Church's organization is identical to that of the Roman Empire. The political structure of the New Order is that of "Mystery Babylon," according to the Bible.

That the Roman Catholic Church is heir to both is also historical fact; as well it might be because the Jews took total control of the Catholic Church in the 1800s. And well the "Mystery Babylon" religion and governmental order will look like Babylon, Rome, Greco-Roman because God told us in Daniel:

"Then was the iron (Rome), the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold (Babylon), broken to pieces Together, and became like the chaff on the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth." [49]

Then in the story of the Wheat and the tares we see what will happen to these enemies of God and the Lord Jesus Christ.

After the fall of Babylon, the priestly college of Babylon ultimately established itself in Pergamum (called "Satan's seat" by Christ in Revelation 2:13. Attalus III, ruler of Pergamum, bequeathed his kingdom to Rome in 133 B.C. Thereafter, the title of Pontifex Maximus (high priest) of the Babylonian priesthood was bestowed upon Roman emperors. When the title and the office were refused by Gratian in 375 A.D., they were snatched up by the bishop of Rome. To this day, the Roman Catholic pontiffs still retain the title of Pontifex Maximus, for both the Roman and Babylonian religions.

The Babylonian nature of Catholicism and Judaism was boldly attested to by Luther:

"And now farewell, unhappy, hopeless, blasphemous Rome! The wrath of God has come upon you in the end, as you deserved, and not for the many prayers which are made on your behalf, but because you have chosen to grow more evil from day to day! We have cared for Babylon and she is not healed. Let us then leave her that she may be the habitation of dragons, specters, ghosts, and witches, and true to her name Babel, an everlasting confusion, an idol of avarice, perfidy, apostasy, of cynics, lechers, robbers, sorcerers, and endless other impudent monsters, a new pantheon of wickedness."

Luther, a German Catholic monk himself, knew whereof he spoke.

There seem to be few Luthers among us today. Our times can be justly compared to the years preceding Nazi Germany, when

"the German theologian...had deteriorated to an unbelieving liberalism...Understanding the moral treason of churchmen required knowledge of the doctrinal state of much of Europe during the first four decades of this century...the satanic influence."

The outright betrayal of the faith by ecumenically-minded, interfaith-mongering Protestant Christian ministers cannot pass without remark. [50] Theirs is by far the greater sin. Whether by ignorance of by design, they are without excuse.

Today's social woes, in large part, are due to the appalling dereliction of duty by Protestant leadership. These "pious" ones have chosen to set themselves above the fray and to serve as moral and spiritual guides for their fellow men. Yet under their watch, the morals and the strength of the West have collapsed.

This has more to do with what is coming from the pulpits than any combination of social evils; it is the paucity of truth and the dearth of spiritual wisdom on the part of Christian scholars and leaders that is doing us in. They are clothed in shame.

"I have not sent these prophets, yet they ran: I have not spoken to them, yet they prophesied. But if they had stood in my counsel, and had caused my people to hear my words, then they should have turned them from their evil way, and from the evil of their doings...I have heard what the  prophets said, that prophesy lies in my name, saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed. How long shall this be in the heart of the prophets that prophesy lies? yea, they are prophets of the deceit of their own heart; Which think to cause my people to forget my name by their dreams which they tell every man to his neighbor, as their fathers have forgotten my name for Baal. The prophet that hath a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that hath my word, let him speak my word faithfully. What is the chaff to the wheat? saith the Lord...Is not my word like as a fire? saith the Lord; and like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces? Therefore, behold, I am against the prophets, saith the Lord, that steal my words every one from his neighbor. Behold, I am against the prophets, saith the Lord, that use their tongues, and say, He saith. Behold, I am against them that prophesy false dreams, saith the Lord, and do tell them, and cause my people to err by their lies, and by their lightness; yet I sent them not, nor commanded them: therefore they shall not profit this people at all, saith the Lord." [51]

If the current Christian leadership had a valid message, if they had anything to offer spiritually to their flocks, if the hand of God Almighty was truly guiding them, if they spoke the truth, then it is certain, and of this there is no doubt whatsoever, that Western society would be considerably better off than it is now.

Having thoroughly failed and utterly forsaken their own flocks, these religiously compromised gurus now grandly proceed into the international arena, presuming that we anxiously await their solutions to global evils. But these petit princes have no clothes. They parade before us poor, miserable, blind and naked.

"'There is a conspiracy of her prophets in the midst thereof, like a roaring lion ravening the prey; they have devoured souls; they have taken the treasure and precious things; they have made her many widows in the midst thereof.' [52] The ecumenical-interfaith ruling class myth, with its roots stretching from Babylon and its vine choking every succeeding empire, provides insights about conspiracy that are unavailable elsewhere. Given that the very same myth was successfully used by ancient Babylon and her successors for control over populace and rulers alike, history provides a reliable motif for our own future as well. The Babylonian priesthood had much to gain by treating such unity, because their temples served as not only 'the courts of justice and of astronomical and medical science, the official legal archives and (where) extensive science collections were kept,"

but they also contained the public treasury.


"...since the priests attached to the temples remained for all times not only the scribes, but the authors of all literary productions, and the exponents of the entire intellectual life, the literature never lost its association with religion." And "the whole of life was thought of as a unified religious exercise."

The priesthood wielded absolute control over every aspect of life and all knowledge, creating complete dependency with their ecumenical myth which was adjusted as necessary to sustain control. If it appears that the Babylonian priesthood had unparalled power, then mention must be made that the quotes above could almost equally apply to Catholic monks in the papist Dark Ages:

"The medieval spirit, in all its various manifestations, aimed at universal empire by way of external and visible rule...The idea of the State was the Holy Roman Empire actually embracing and dominating over all the countries of Europe; its idea of the Church, that visible and tangible catholicity which existed before the great Reformation; and in the department of knowledge it showed its characteristic quality in its desire to embrace in one system, under one science, the whole of human thought."

The control of human thought processes is the key to human bondage, and is one of the most horrifying aspects of the 1000-year duration of the Dark Ages. When Rome's priestcraft was in the ascendancy, the effect was almost immediate.

"Although personal and institutional libraries were an important feature of Greco-Roman culture, none survived the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire."

Curious, is it not? All libraries vanished.

During the Dark Ages, with very few exceptions, books were kept in churches and monasteries for the singular benefit of the clergy:

"...only a particularly privileged outsider, such as a well-known scholar, might have access to them."

The books were mostly in Latin; when learning was later institutionalized (12th century) education was set forth in the long-dead Latin tongue. In this manner knowledge was sealed in the precincts of the privileged [53]. The Bible, written in Latin, was entirely forbidden. Like a sop thrown to the wretched masses, Roman Catholic images served as "books for the unlearned" in the none-too-generous words of Thomas Aquinas.

So, for hundreds upon hundreds of years, all knowledge was greedily squirrelled away by the Roman Catholic Church. Consequently Western man was reduced to intolerable serfdom and kept under through enforced ignorance. [54] This highly successful technique of control was also used in the Tibetan monasteries formerly ruled by the current Dalai Lama, before his theocracy was overthrown: "Before 1950, secular education was non-existent." Literacy was strictly "the privilege of monks and the nobility."

The lot of the common man, as in the Dark Ages, was predictable:

"a large percentage of the (over one million) people, most of them concentrated in central Tibet, were serfs tied to an estate by birth...95% of the land was held by 3 groups: the fewer than 200 families comprising 10,000 nobles, the monasteries with 120,000 monks and 13,000 nuns, and the government, run by 333 lamas and 280 nobles."

The "religious and administrative power centered in one person": the Dalai Lama, the same Dalai Lama who now compass land and sea seeking to restore his former kingdom.

The essential nature of religious power and those who seek it, hasn't changed one whit. Whether it is travelling under the guise of Rockefeller's beatific vision, or is fostered upon us as the gooey ecumenical-interfaith "unity of all men," ideas of power like tantalizing sugar-plums are dancing under noble brows.

But let us not lose sight of the fact that the common denominator in each case is the spirit of sacerdotalism, which elevates the priesthood to an underservedly lofty position. As one-worlder H.G. Wells wrote in The Shape of Things to Come (1933),

"And it must needs be the work, first of all, of an aggressive order of religiously devoted men and women who will try out and establish and impose a new pattern of living upon our race."

Wells recognized the power of priestcraft over the affairs of men as essential to the success of world government; without it, failure was assured (as witnessed with socialism). Winning the minds of men is not enough, it is the souls that must be captured, it is the spiritual nature that must be manipulated for complete takeover.

The Bible has been subjected to many fabulous accusations, and it seems appropriate here to address the charge that the Scriptures were manufactured for the purpose of ruling-class control. Although this is a convenient concept for those who wish to ignore the Bible and its God, it is a matter of rash, uninformed folly to anyone familiar with history, religion or the Scriptures themselves. In fact, little can be understood about conspiracy, its full history or its chilling ramifications for the future without acknowledging the Bible's significance in history.

The New Testament gives no support to a sacerdotal system of any kind. Church leadership is one thing, the sacerdotalism that characterizes Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy is quite another. Indeed, Peter himself referred to all Christians as "a royal priesthood." It is illogical to conclude that there is a Scriptural basis for human bondage to a priestly caste.

The Bible is not in itself a controlling myth.

"Most Jews and Christians had agreed that God gave humankind in creation the gift of moral freedom."

When freed from the mythic-religious traditions of men (whether rabbinic or so-called Christians), the Bible emphasizes personal (not collective) responsibility towards God. A controlling myth always engenders collectivism. For example, the recent doctrine of societal evils results in collective culpability and consequently requires binding collective solutions. In comparison, the Bible teaches about personal sin with individual responsibility resulting in voluntary personal change. The West operated quite successfully on this basis for some time. As this sense of Christianity is lost, many personal freedoms are being lost along with it. It is absurd to argue that the Bible was written as an instrument of control when the Bible has been consistently forbidden throughout its whole history, by Roman emperors, Roman pontiffs, and other strong-armed dictators. Only recently has the Bible been again allowed in Russia and Eastern Europe. It continues to be banned in Moslem countries. From the time of earliest Christianity, the New Testament has been the bane of despots everywhere because (unlike the lipservice paid to such principles today) it fostered real individual dignity and freedom, and deflated their controlling mythologies.

So great was this threat that "copies were ruthlessly hunted down and destroyed" during the Roman Empire, and the papal Dark Ages. Emperors and popes would brook no knowledge competing with their own prevailing myth. Our English Bible was quite literally born in blood.

Out of the nearly 2,000 years since the New Testament was written, the Bible has been allowed free course in the West for less than 500 years, and during those 500 years, free society has flourished wherever the Scriptures took root. This is a matter of history. Freedom does not prosper under a controlling myth, but just the opposite (as is demonstrated by the full weight of historical evidence).

England's King Henry the VIII delivered the blow that ultimately brought Roman tyranny to an end (and is unceasingly vilified to this day for it) by launching the revolution known as the Reformation. Until Henry's decree in the early 1500s, the Bible was still forbidden under penalty of death.

Not only did Henry break with Rome, but he allowed the Bible to be published in the English language and decreed that the churches must allow the common man to avail himself of it: " the Englyshe tounge, to be fyxed and set vp openlye in euery of the sayd paryshe churches." Henry was the true father of "Protestantism," which is defined as "freedom to dissent." [55] The truth is self-evident; from the fount of the Scriptures, all of our freedoms and prosperity flow. [56] Encouraging such liberties is anathemas to emperors, popes, and the ruling class: "The elevation of individual conscience above the revealed truth taught by the historic Church is a protestant heresy." This one statement exemplifies the spiritual despotism that Rome has always been famous for. It also reveals the nature of all syncretistic, elitist ideology. The individual conscience is one's very soul, which Rome would keep in her fetters; likewise it is the souls of all mankind that will be bound (in their own words!) by the forthcoming Global Ethic. Despite all appearances to the contrary, Hans Kung is truly a loyal son of Rome.

As an inevitable result of the Bible, the Reformation "forwarded the principle of nationality, a principle entirely alien to the Holy Roman Empire." Henry freed the West with a stoke of his pen. A hundred years after Henry's reign, the Empire lay stripped of its power, existing only in barest form. The Romish monster had been laid to rest.

From that time, the Protestant nations (Great Britain, Switzerland, et al) began to uphold a standard of individual liberty so superior to all others that it remains to this day the envy of nations. Having prospered in their climate of moral and intellectual freedom, these countries ultimately increased the opportunities and wealth of the common man, and raised him from abject serfdom to the high standard of living yet commonplace in Protestant lands. (We still have the middle-class to prove it). Arguments about greedy industrialists and global corporate iniquity notwithstanding, look at the lot of the West's common man in comparison to his counterparts elsewhere tells the true story.

On the other hand, the myth-mongering Constantine is credited with "Christianizing" the Roman Empire, but nothing could be further from the truth.

"Constantine was not so much a worshipper of Christ as he was a worshipper of himself...(he) considered himself the incarnation of 'the supreme god, a combination of Apollo, Mithra, Jupiter, the sun and Christ...A contemporary historian said Constantine was more greedy for praise than it is possible to tell.'"

Constantine recognized the threat that Christianity presented to the moribund and unsatisfying religions of the time and therefore, to his own regime. Separation, the hallmark of Christianity, interfered with Constaintine's collectivism. "Let us cherish peace [57] and forbearance" saith Constantine with a deceitful tongue worthy of a true Caesar, "for it would be truly disastrous that we should assail one another. Let us banish strife."

The similarity of Constantine's controlling myth to today's prevailing philosophy is no mere coincidence. We are simply witnessing the latest incarnation of the same Babylonian collectivism that has bedeviled man throughout history. Thus, Constantine put Christianity at the service of the Empire in a wholly corrupted form, in order not to disturb the Empire's pagan, hybridized composition. By the time that heathen religions were banned, Christianity had been reduced to a state that allowed easy absorption of pagans into the Church.

Had the Scriptures been given free rein, the Roman emperors and the Catholic Church would not, with their mythology, have had such wide berth to force conversions or to commit so many other horrors. The Christian is not permitted to force conversions. When a person becomes a Christian, it is a personal commitment made willingly. A forced conversion makes a most unsatisfactory Christian. True Christianity has never been the business of the State, except for the State's attempts to eradicate it.

Nor does Christianity call for the rooting out of pagans, but rather winning pagans with a message of truth. The typical pagan was able to see the superiority of Christianity in preference to his own ghastly heathen rituals and beliefs.

Jesus told his disciples that

"If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free."

Truth! Freedom! His words are a knife in the heart of every elitist. Political necessity moved Constantine to enact laws that grossly mixed Christianity with paganism in order to protect his controlling mythology. Christians preferring to worship in truth according to individual conscience were severely punished: "the authorities practiced violent coercion."

Roman Catholicism followed suit: its earliest teachings would steal away the freedom and liberty that God granted to man. [58] Among the worst of Catholicism's deceptions is that "free will is the cause of our doing evil." Immeasurable grief and sorrow caused by this seminal belief and the hateful traditions springing from it would reverberate throughout the world during the centuries when Rome ruled...that is, until the Protestant Reformation.

Revelation 22:11 says plainly,

"He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still."

Let him, Constantine's moral posturing and oppression of individual conscience before God received no support from the Scriptures. Neither does Rome find justification there for the blood on her hands, for her iniquitous Inquisitions and savage massacres. Not a word of succor can be found for binding Global Ethics or force-fed Moral Orders. Not a chance, not a breath, not a prayer.

These are merely elitist inventions of men, the real meaning and end result of the "Church traditions" that Rome so loves to flaunt in her insufferable, ungodly presumptuousness. Perhaps not telling of all is that

"it was American Roman Catholic bishops in the middle and late 19th Century who demanded the removal of Bible reading from public schools..."

Why? The full weight of history confirms that the Bible has been and continues to be opposed by those seeking to destroy freedom, but those seeking to bring mankind into bondage. This speaks volumes about the worth and the truth of the Bible. The West's tyrants of tomorrow are even now painting heavily against it, and in particular, the 17th-century King James Version used throughout this article. The King James Version is based on the Textus Receptus (also banned by Rome) with Hebrew and Greek texts differing from all other modern verses.

Sadly, it appears that most people would rather return to servile bondage, for there are few who read the Bible, and even fewer who have the courage to decide what it means for themselves. But this will exact a heavy price. By relying upon the words of men about the word of God (instead of relying upon one's own ability, with the help of the Holy Ghost, to understand the Bible) the common man accepts lies about God, because those lies are soothing, sound good, and appeals to their sensibilities, and acquiesces to his own destruction. Having never read the Bible, one is entirely at the mercy of those religious leaders (and they are legion who wish to enslave us.

As the Bible increasingly falls into disfavor, familiar monsters again appear very close to our throats. Advertising for the Jesuit Catholic World Report laments that democracy is destroying Catholicism because in our system, "it is simply one faith among many," dangerously suggesting either that Rome should be the only faith, or that democracy must go. Either would, in fact, result in the other.

To thwart patriots (or more to the point, a Protestant spirit of nationalism), the U.S. Roman Catholic bishops and the Jews have outlawed flags within the churches except for very special occasions. On the subject of world government, the Catholic bishop of Verdun, France stated that

"every nation must renounce its ultimate sovereignty to this universal authority. This is an obligation! If nations, if rules of nations, if public opinion will not accept this renunciation, then they really are voting for war, however beautiful may be their speeches on peace." [59]

Consider again the Parliament's Global Ethic as it trumpets the familiar refrain:

"Every form of egoism should be rejected. All selfishness, whether individual or collective, whether in the form of class thinking, racism, nationalism or sexism."

This skillfully crafted New Order Network brings with it a deliberate confusion of terms to hide the fact that communist tenets have indeed triumphed over the West [60], not vice versa. [61] And nationalism has become the equivalent of egoism and selfishness, instead of a freedom from priestcraft gained from the Reformation. Consequently, through priestraft, the new enslavement comes.

Newly beatified Opus Dei founder Jose Escriva described nationalism as "a disease against the authentic, patriotic Christian spirit." Implicit here is that such "Christian patriotism" extends exclusively towards Rome and Judaism. Even more pointedly, empire-builder John Paul II recently branded nationalist fervor as "a new paganism."

Thus it is clear for all to see if they will only look, the defunct controlling myth has been revived in an even more virulent, evil and wicked form!

"...they have healed the hurt of the daughter of my people slightly, saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace." [62]

In Genesis 4:16‑24 we have Cain's Seed Line named in the Scripture. Cain having married a wife from a Pre‑Adamic Creation, immediately went into the business of building cities. He immediately began to name his offspring by the various names that were also being used by the Seed of the Woman.

In Genesis 4:17‑18 we have an Enoch, Methusael, and a Lamech. The seed of Cain was then as they are now, taking the good Christian names of the seed of the woman and hiding behind these names. It should be noted that the word Cain never appeared in Adam's genealogy.

In Genesis 5:9‑14 the word Cainan should have been translated Kenan, and is so translated in the Authorized King James Version in 1 Chronicles 1:2. Genesis 4:16‑24 takes us through a great expanse of time to the time of Noah's Flood. It should be carefully noted that the Seed Line of Cain [63] is carefully Chronicled in the Bible in Genesis 4. Cain, Enoch, Irad, Mehajael, Methusael, Lamech, Jabel, Jubal and Tubalcain. This Satanic seed line multiplied and grew into a large body of people by the time Noah of the righteous seed line is born.

It is also very important to remember that during the vast time of history, during the pre‑flood years, the Satanic Seed Line of Cain was engaged in bringing forth all manner of evil upon earth including the foundation of what is later called the Mystery Religions of Babylon. All the occult powers of darkness were rampant among this Satanic Seed. The beginning of Cabalism and Black magic can be traced to Cain.  Cain was one of the most powerful and influential persons ever to appear upon the world stage in terms of wicked and evil accomplishments.

Jewish Cabalism had it's beginning with the man Cain. The origin of secret societies and subversive movements all were part of this Satanic Seed Line that began with Cain. All of the secret occult movements in history had their origin with the secret oaths and initiation doctrines promulgated by the Seed Line of Cain.

When we arrive at the time of Noah the earth was apparently well populated with both (1) the Seed of the Woman and (2) the Seed of Cain. Both of the two seed lines of Genesis 3:15 can be clearly traced after the flood because Jesus Christ did so in Matthew 23 and John 8.

The important thing to remember is Christ acknowledged according to the eye witness account of two Disciples, Matthew and John, that the Jewish Pharisees descended from Cain and that this race was responsible for all the righteous blood shed upon earth from righteous Abel down to the Father of John the Baptist. [64] "...In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established." [65]

In Genesis 9:18 we are told that Canaan was the son of Ham. It is also very plain that this Canaan was not a blessed seed of the woman, but apparently was mothered by a Canaanite woman of the Satanic Seed Line. In Genesis 9:25 the man Canaan is cursed by God and this cursed seed of Canaan became a continuation of the Seed of Cain upon earth. This Canaanite Seed Line was all ordered destroyed by Divine Edict as recorded in Deuteronomy 20:16‑18

In Genesis 10:15‑20 we are given the Satanic seed line of Canaan and the names of this Satanic Line are: Canaan, Sidon, Heth, Jebusite, Amorite, Girgasite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, and the Hamathite (Note: there are also 12 tribes of Satan's Seed Line). All of these people were classified as families of the Canaanites [66].

They settled in an area defined in Genesis 10:19 which places them in the very area Abraham found them in as recorded in Genesis 12:6. These Canaanite tribes multiplied in time into the seven nations of Canaan as listed in Deuteronomy 7:1. The Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

These were the Satanic Seed Line that occupied the land wherein Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were told to go. This Satanic Seed practiced every evil and wicked abomination described under heaven. Their idolatry and wickedness was so great and so baneful in the eyes of God that He ordered them all destroyed at the hands of His Israel People.

The wicked seed of the serpent (The Canaanite Nations) were so terrible that God had told Israel (the promised seed of the woman through Isaac) to utterly destroy their altars, break down their images, cut down their groves, burn their cities to the ground, and to utterly consume them. God even told His Israel people that if they failed to utterly destroy this Canaanite seed from the earth that they would according to Joshua 23:13 be snares and traps unto you, and scourges in your side, and thorns in your eyes, until ye perish from off this good land which Yahweh your God hath given you. These Canaanite thorns later plagued the Apostle Paul to no end for they constantly opposed His teaching the truth of Jesus Christ just as they do in America and all over the western world today.

At this point it should be remembered that Esau married into this Satanic Seed Line when he took to wife Judith the Hittite and Bashemath the Hittite [67]. The fusion of Esau and his seed through these Canaanite women becomes important in understanding the subsequent development of this Satanic Seed Line throughout history. In Genesis 36:1‑43 we have an entire chapter devoted to the Seed Line of Esau becoming fused with the Satanic seed of the Canaanite serpent seed line.

You should take particular note of Amalek Esau's grandson. The Amalekites in time became one of the very worst of the Canaanite seed line. Descendants of Esau were called Edomites. From Esau's marriage into the Canaanite seed line we pick up two new name which are very important to subsequent historical developments. These two names are the Edomites and the Amalekites. Exodus 17:8‑16 relates that Israel is to have perpetual warfare against this Amalek branch of the serpent's seed.

Isaiah 34:5 describes a portion of the Esau/Edomite line and calls them Idumea, the people of my curse. The Edom‑Esau portion of the serpent seed line is further discussed in Isaiah 63:16, Jeremiah 49:7‑22, Ezekiel 35:1‑15 and Obadiah 1‑21. This Edomite branch of the serpent seed in time did become and continues to this day to be, the most Satanic vile portion of this evil seed. Herod was an Edomite and he ordered the male children of the seed of promise, of the Woman's Seed destroyed, in an effort to destroy Christ.

The Herodians were Idumeans and the Idumeans were Edomites. The Jewish Encyclopedia states:

"Edom is in modern Jewry," [68]

This is also corroborated by the Biblica Encyclopedia Vol. 2, Col. 1187. This Edomite branch, this Red, Edomite, Idumean seed line is today the guiding mind of the Serpent seed.

Another Canaanite intrusion into the Seed of the Woman took place when Judah took Canaanite wife (Shuah) from this union three sons were born, Er, Onan, and Shelah. Shelah was the only one who lived to bear progeny but the Shelanite faction of the serpent seed line also caused problems for the Seed of the Woman. In fact it was descendants through Esau‑Edom and Judah‑Shelah that stood before Christ in John 8 declared themselves to be the children of Abraham. They claimed descent from Abraham through this type of race‑mixing. Christ however exposed them for what they really were, not the children of Abraham [69], but the children of Satan.

Please keep in mind that the proper dividing of God's Word as to the Seed of the Woman and the seed of the serpent of Genesis 3:15 is what Paul had in mind when he spoke of the True seed of Abraham, the children of the promise in Romans 9. When we fail to properly divide the good seed from the evil seed we make the Word of God of None Effect [70].

It is important to remember that at the time of Joshua and the children of Israel were trying to take the promised land that the Seven Nations of the Canaanite Seed Line of the Serpent [71] were also joined by the Edomite, Amalek, Shelanite, seed line. Thus the serpent seed is rapidly becoming a fusion of the most baneful of the genetic seed line of this earth, and continues to be so Today.

To this very hour the descendants of this same Satanic Seed - The Jews - Sit in High Places in every government in the Western World, and they own and control both the power of money and the printing presses, radio, television, and publishing houses of America and every other country in the Christian Western World!

Israel (the promised seed of the woman) did not utterly destroy the seed of the serpent, the Canaanite nations and a review of the Book of Joshua and Judges will quickly reveal a large number of Canaanite seed were left alive and flourishing. The failure of Israel to expel and destroy this Canaanite Seed from their midst was the reason for Israel's subsequent moral, spiritual, and political fall.

Any nation that permits this Satanic Race to flourish will soon find them in total control of the financial institutions, news media, university chairs, leading governmental positions, and in total power over the very life and direction that a nation takes. The Satanic Canaanite‑ Edomite‑Amalek line flourished in spite of God's order to have them utterly destroyed and they continued to flourish in the Middle East and in Western Asia during Israel's deportation into the Assyrian Captivity.

In fact, ancient Babylon, had long been the stronghold of the seed of Satan. The central seat of Canaanite authority was always located in Babylon until the return of the Judeans and (many Canaanites) to Jerusalem following the Seventy Year Babylonian Captivity [72] for a complete history that the wicked seed line of Satan did attempt to corrupt and mix with the seed of the woman following the end of the Babylonian Captivity. Also read the Book of Nehemiah, especially Chapter 7.

From the last Book written in the Old Testament (Malachi) to the first Book of the New Testament (Matt.) we have about four hundred years of history taking place. To find out what happened during this Biblical silence we must go to sources outside the Bible. There are plenty of records available both in secular and in non‑canonical Books of the Bible. Briefly what is taking place during the four hundred years silence in Bible History with regards to (1) the Seed of the Woman and (2) the Seed of the serpent is this.

The seed of the Woman, was in dispersion, moving slowly across Asia minor, through Europe and on to the appointed homelands of our White Race. Another portion of our Israel Seed of the Woman was living in the very areas of Asia Minor where the Apostle Paul and other Writers of the New Testament did their missionary work and wrote and visited these people.

Another portion of the Seed of the Woman, mostly of Judah and Benjamin, was living in and around Jerusalem and Galilee to fulfill prophecies concerning the birth and ministry of Jesus Christ. During this period the seed of Satan in the form of the Canaanite-Edomite-Amalekite seed line was also flourishing in Palestine, and in Jerusalem in particular, where they had through the Edomite line, ascended into the highest religious, civil and political positions of power, and this wicked seed was spread through the Middle East into all the principal cities and trade areas.

When we arrive at the time of the birth of Christ we find this wicked seed of the serpent in total control of the people in Jerusalem. They had filled Jerusalem with the doctrines of the Talmud which the Jews had carried with them to Jerusalem from Babylon. In fact after about B.C. 536 the Canaanite seed line began to be called by the name Jew. From the time of the return of the Babylonian Captivity the Canaanite seed line is lost in the name Jew and Edomite or Herodians.

The Jewish Pharisees and scribes represented this evil seed line in New Testament times as did King Herod. The Jewish Encyclopedia under the word "Pharisees" we find:

"The Jewish religion as it is today trace descent, without a break, through the centuries, from the Pharisees...The Talmud is the largest and most important single member of that literature...and the study of it is essential for any real understand of Pharisaism."

Let us look into the New Testament and see from selected passages how prominent the Jewish seed line of the serpent was in New Testament times. In Matthew 3:7‑12 we find John the Baptist being opposed by this Satanic Jew seed line and John called them A Race of Vipers. Why did he call them a race of serpents? Was it because they were the seed of the serpent living on earth in A.D. 26?

Notice what Matthew 3:12 says about this chaff (the Jews) being burned with unquenchable fire. Reading through the Four Gospels, chapter after chapter, one is confronted time and time again, with the serpent Jew seed line of Satan attempting to refute and destroy Christ and His Truth. This is that eternal enmity placed between these two seed lines in Genesis 3:15.

In Matthew 13:24‑30, 37‑43 we find a most remarkable Parable and one of the most important parables revealed by Christ. Here in this Parable Jesus plainly declared (for those having eyes to see and ears to hear ‑ understanding) [73] that while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way [74]. Later Christ confirmed in Matthew 13:37‑38 that the good seed, the Wheat, the Seed of the Woman, was sowed by Christ and that the tares, the seed of the wicked one, were sown in this field (the world) by the Devil [75].

Here is a Parable that takes one right back to Genesis and the garden of Eden. Satan sowed his wicked seed in Eve and this seed has been at enmity with the good seed of the woman that "The Son of Man" sowed in earth when He formed Adam and placed him in the Garden eastward from Eden. One cannot spiritualize this Parable away. The word seed as used here has already been discussed and one cannot evade or spiritualize away the literal meaning of this Parable. Christ clearly reveals the entire history of the Seed or the woman and the Seed of the Serpent, from Genesis to the end of the AGE, and they who have eyes to see and ears to hear will discern the truth of this parable.

While those who cannot, will continue to Parrot the same Old Theological, false teachings and Damnable Heresies of the modern church line of the National and World Council of Churches.

In Matthew 16:8‑12 Christ warned His disciples to be aware of the doctrines of the Jewish Pharisees. The leaven of the Pharisees consisted in the teachings of the Jewish Talmud which originated in Babylon was all part of the Cabalistic Teachings of the Seed Line of the Serpent. The entire 23rd Chapter of Matthew is an indictment against the serpent seed by Christ.

In verse 15 Jesus told the Jews that they would compass sea and land to make one proselyte and when "he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves." Who were the Children of Hell? They were the Jews and the Jews are the Seed of Satan.

In Matthew 23:33 Jesus called them a Race of Vipers, and in Matthew 23:35 He charges them with all the righteous blood shed upon the earth for the past four thousand years. Think about it?  What was it that made Christ so hated by the Jews? It was that enmity that God placed between the Seed of the Serpent, and the Seed of the Woman in Genesis 3:15.

In Mark 7 we find Christ again at war with the Seed of the Serpent, the Canaanite Jews. Christ exposed their traditions. The tradition of the Jews was the Babylonian Talmud and all the other Satanic doctrines that had been compiled in Babylon for several thousand years. Again Jesus was at war with the Jews in Luke 11:37‑54.

By the testimony of Luke Jesus laid the blame for all the righteous blood of Abel down to Zacharias, upon the Seed of the Serpent, the Canaanite Jew. Luke 12:1 records Jesus Christ warning His disciples to beware of the leaven (the Talmudic Doctrines) of the Jews. Read the Parable of the Husbandmen [76] where Christ relates and revealed the plot of the Satanic seed of the Serpent to kill Him. In John 6:70 Jesus declared:

"...Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil?"

Keep in mind that Judas Iscariot had something in his genetic makeup that made him a Son of Perdition (he also shows by his life that the Jews cannot be saved). Please remember that Christ never converted on Satanic Jew...because genetically they are the Seed of Satan and cannot be converted to Christ and if anyone thinks they can be converted more power to you ‑ you can do something that the Lord Jesus Christ said could not be done because they could not hear his voice. Judas Iscariot was of the Satanic Seed Line and John 13:27 only confirms that The Spirit of Satan dwells in The Body of the Satanic Seed: THE JEWS!

In John 7:1 Christ could no more walk among the Serpent Seed of Jewry because the Jews sought to kill him. John 8:23 Jesus told the Jews:

"...Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world."

Here is a Truth if you will receive it. The Jews are from beneath, Jesus declared in Matthew 15:13 that every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted (in this earth) shall be rooted up. The Jews were not planted in this earth by the direct creation of Christ but rather by the procreative power of the Serpent, if you have not read Enoch's account of how the higher order of angels mixed their seed with the seed of Adam you have never understood Genesis chapter 6 nor have you considered the fact that the serpent was not an ordinary angel but indeed was an Arch‑Angel fully capable of the power of procreation, not creation, but procreation, producing offspring.

In John 8:38 Jesus plainly told the Jews that He and They had different fathers. Is this not what Genesis 3:15 is telling you? [77] This entire chapter is a continuation of the enmity that was to exist between the seed of the Serpent and the Seed of the Woman.

In John 8:44 Jesus told the Jews (and the Word of God is telling you) that the Jews are of their father the devil and their father is traced back to Cain. Read verse 47. The Jews could not hear God's Word because they were not a direct creation of God, they were the Seed of the Serpent. In John 10:26 Christ told the Jews:

"But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you."

Why could the Jews not believe? Because they were not the genetic seed of God...they were not the offspring or issue of God as was Adam. Remember Jesus said that the good seed, the Seed of the Woman, was sowed in this earth by Jesus Christ [78].

In John 15:22‑27 Jesus is telling why He came to speak to this wicked seed line of the Jews. Because He spoke to them, and because they refused to hear the truth and rejected the truth, they are without a cloak to hide their sins behind. This will be the justification for Luke 19:27 to take place and you can be sure that the gathering of this wicked Jew Seed into Palestine is all to the end that judgment can be pronounced upon them in the very place where they spilled the righteous blood of Jesus Christ. (Remember the old saying the criminal always returns to the scene of the crime).

The Head of the Jewish Serpent Race will be Crushed in the very place where they attempted the Death of Jesus Christ.

"We Jews, who have posed as Saviors of the World, we are today nothing else but the world's seducers, its destroyers, its incendiaries, its executioners." [79]

The entire Book of Acts records the enmity waged between the Jews and the Apostles, or Seed of the Woman. Note Acts 13:10 where Paul called Elymas, a member of the serpent race, the child of the devil, and the enemy of all righteousness.

"We Jews, we, the destroyers, will remain destroyers forever. Nothing that you do will meet our needs and demands. We will forever destroy because we need a world of our own." [80]

As one reads through the narrative of the remainder of the New Testament we find Paul and the Apostles and Writers of the Books of the New Testament, constant warfare with the Jews who are the Seed of the Serpent. In fact Revelation 2:9 and 3:9, calls the Jews the Synagogue of Satan. Why were they called the Synagogue of Satan? Because they were a Seed of the Serpent.

The New Testament reveals two races and two religions. The Seed of the Woman and the True Faith of Jesus Christ and the Seed of the Serpent and the Satanic teachings of the Jewish Talmud. When the Bible closes its record in Revelation the Seed of the Serpent is at total enmity with the Seed of the Woman. As we follow the Seed of the Serpent through history he has left a very vivid trail. For the past nineteen and more centuries this Serpent Race has attacked the foundations of every Christian State on earth and has fought a relentless war with the Seed of the Woman.

After 70 A.D. when the Jews were defeated and banished from Jerusalem by the Roman armies under Titus, they divided into two groups with the Sephardim moving along the coast of North Africa and on into Greece, Rome, and Spain and elsewhere. The Ashkenazim Jews moved North and settled throughout Asia Minor, Eastern Europe, between the Caucasus and the Volga into the Present State of Russia.

In the first centuries of the Christian Era the Jews were rapidly becoming the merchants, the tailors, traffickers, bankers, trader, and usury experts as well as the power behind the throne of many governments. Jewish control of the power of money was largely responsible for the suppressed economic conditions that had settled down over Europe and which resulted in the Dark Ages. When the Jews were expelled from certain key areas of Europe a re‑birth of culture began and the European Renaissance was on. It is vital that you remember that this Ashkenazim branch of Satanic Seed (the Jews) that moved north and west out of Palestine after 70 A.D. made their way gradually into the vast area between the Caucasus and the Volga River and this is the general geographic area our of which the Khazar Empire was spawned.

Remember it was from the Khazaria Empire which stretched from the Caspian to the Black Sea with it's capitol in Ityl, that the branch of the Ashkenazim Jews were to come, and they were composed of that Satanic Seed of Canaanite‑Edomite‑Amalekite seedline together with other Mongol, Turkic Racial affinities. The Khazar Kingdom lasted from about 700 A.D. until 1016 A.D. when it was conquered by the Slavs. From this time forth the khazar peoples who had embraced Judaism, the Talmud, and all the trappings of the Satanic Seed, because they were of this Canaanite/Edomite line of Mongol‑Turko blood affinities, began to move into Poland and other areas of southern and eastern Europe.

It was this branch of the Serpent Seed of the Jewish people that began to migrate en masse, to America in the late 1800's and early 1900's. #7014 in Strong's Concordance tells us that the Canaanite's were an Oriental tribe and so were the Khazars!

In truth, the Serpent Seed of the Jews of today are a mixture of many people. First the Canaanite, then the Edomites, Amalekites, Mongols, Huns and Turks. They have indeed become the most vile Satanic Seed ever to exist upon earth. One merely has to familiarize oneself with their Talmud and other Cabalistic writings and their wrecking of Christian Culture for the past six thousand years to really understand what the Jews have done to us.

This Perfidious Race of Parasites, This Vampire Race of Satanic Seed, has caused rivers of Christian Blood to flow throughout Europe and all over the World, and still our bought and paid for prostitute "Judeo-Christian Ministers" give them the title of the "Chosen People of God," What Blasphemy - Do they know no limits to their cursing of the Lord Jesus Christ and Almighty God?

Now let us deviate to provide you with some information that is not commonly known to Americans. Another Jewish organization which few people know about is the Jewish Kehilla. This super‑secret organization is controlled by a Board consisting of 300 members who meet periodically to chart the International course of the Kehilla (Cahilla).

These 300 Jews in reality chart the financial, political, social, and religious program of most of the nations of the world and they do it with (1) unlimited money, (2) the control of all propaganda and (3) Highly complex organizations. The Jewish Kehilla is the International Jewish network that governs the political destiny of most of the world. At the top of this Satanic organization sits one man, known as the King of the Jews, who is the world wide leader of World Jewry.

The world is divided into Eastern and Western Hemispheres under the Kehilla with one man sitting under the King of the Jews for both the eastern and western Hemisphere. The leader of the eastern and western hemisphere is called a Sponsor. There are only two of these Satanic leaders, one for each hemisphere.

Under each of these two Sponsors sit seven Jews called Arch‑Censors. This first echelon is called the 7th degree of the Kehilla. Each of these know their leader and each other. Each of these seven have another seven under them comprising a total of 49 Satanic Jews. These are called Minister and make up the 6th degree of the Kehilla. Each of these 49 Satanic seed line of Satan have seven men under him called herald making the 5th degree.

Each of these 343 Jews have seven Jews under him called Courtier making 2401 in the 4th degree. The principle of seven is carried all the way to the 1st degree. The 3rd degree echelon is called a Schrivenor, the second degree is called an AUDITOR and the first degree in the seventh echelon is called a Mute.

The Kehilla is so super‑secret that beyond the initial prince of the east or west, the sponsor who knows the seven Jews under him, none of the rest of the Kehilla members know who the others are.

With this super‑secret, highly organized network of Jews, this powerful Kehilla can communicate world wide policies with a very minimum of effort. Each of these Eastern and Western divisions of the Kehilla command about one million Jews. Each man merely calls the seven men below him and in a matter of minutes the entire world wide Jewish Kehilla is moving forth to do whatever is needed at any given time to enhance the serpent seed through ‑ strikes, revolution, student riots, welfare riots, or just about any given act that will increase their concentration of money control, propaganda control, political and social domination of the Seed of the Woman, White Christian Israel Nations of this earth.

The Basic Policies of the Kehilla the Jewish Domination of the world are outlined in the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. This document sets forth the basic policy of the Kehilla and anyone can readily see how history has moved forth during this century to fulfill the policies of these Jewish Protocols. Protocol Number III is introduced with reference to the Jewish symbolic snake representing political Zionism and it's Judaism counterpart.

The head of this Satanic snake was to represent those who were initiated into the very head or top positions of World Jewry with the body of the snake not aware of the vile direction that world Jewry was moving. It is very interesting to note the Jews themselves selected the Serpent as their symbol. Good Bible Students will not be taken by surprise, because they know as do the Jews themselves, that the Jew is the Seed of the Serpent and they trace their beginning back to a Bible character named Cain.

Is it any wonder that the Jews have plundered and wrecked Christian Civilizations for the past six thousand years, with increasing success in the past two hundred years, when most Christian people do not even understand who the enemy is or where he came from.

Genesis 3:15 is intended to arm the Christian with this knowledge. There is no excuse for the true Christian who has "eyes" to see and "ears" to not know his enemy and understand where he came from. The Jew is that Satanic seed of the serpent and the bloody trail that he has left in history as he wages a relentless war against the seed of the woman has been stamped and written in blood in every generation for the past six thousand years of history.

The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion together with the Talmud, and other Jewish Cabalistic writings form the foundation for both Zionism and Judaism. The Talmud is the most vile, antichristian, Satanic books ever written. It consists of 63 volumes of filth and is all directed against Christ and the Christian Faith.  The Talmud not the Old Testament, forms the foundations for political Zionism.

Zionism is the political expression of religious Judaism, and both are hatched out of the most vile, Satanic, mind that ever walked this earth. Satan himself in the form of a shining angel of light. The historical and Biblical record of the seed of the serpent and the seed of the woman would comprise a large volume of many hundreds of pages. This expose' is only intended to be a primer for further research on your part.

Arm yourself with knowledge. Knowledge is power and the Jew does not want White Christians, the Seed of the Woman, White Christian Israel, to be armed with this knowledge. You are therefore encouraged to Study to Show yourself approved before God. Know who you are and know who your enemy is.

Know God's plan for the seed of the Woman, and God's plan for the seed of the serpent. God is in control of both, but many millions of our Race have perished, in that river of White Christian Blood which has flowed through six thousand years of history, because they lived in ignorance and believed the lies of the Jews. Don't add to that river of White Christian Blood by believing the lie that the Serpent did not begat seed through the woman Eve. Learn the truth and the truth will set you free!

Perhaps a point which might enhance your understanding of Genesis 3:15 is a more detailed Study of Satan, that old serpent called the devil in Scripture. Please keep in mind that Satan, standing in the Garden as an angel of light, was the only other creature on earth who knew the difference between the knowledge of good and evil.

We must establish here Communism and Zionism (both related) Are Jewish. There is extreme sensitiveness about the public discussion of the Jewish Question on the part of non‑Jews. They recognize it is there; it is in their thoughts, but they prefer to keep it shrouded in silence. It is too late for the continuation of that practice now. If ever there was a time to recognize the fact that this must reach the surface and be openly discussed and considered in all circles of American society, it is now, as the Anglo‑Saxon White people of the world fight for their very survival. This is not a rash statement; it is realism and FACT.

You are about to be introduced to a booklet first printed almost 50 years ago by an honorable, recognized American citizen of high position who had the courage and tenacity to dig deeply for FACTS, evidence which proves beyond all doubt how Jews are pledged from birth to penetrate every phase of Christian life throughout the world, including a hatred of God and all forms of religion, destruction of private property and inheritance, absolute social and racial equality, promotion of class hatred and much more which you will read and see yourself. Only five hundred (500) copies were printed so of course it apparently did not take the Jews too long to retrieve and perhaps burn them.

We Maintain that it is God's work that this remaining copy was placed in my hands. It also had to be God's work when we were brought together with the Jew, Harold Rosenthal, former top‑administrative aid to Senator Jacob Javits which resulted in a taped interview and  later released in manuscript form titled "The Hidden Tyranny" shocking, hateful comments from a boastful Jew who actually believed that the Jews will control the world. At this writing more than a quarter of a million copies are in circulation; if you have not read it, we Urge You to do so.

It also proves beyond question the wicked plans of Jewry which is my reason for mentioning it here. God does not like what He sees and He is using some of us to do His bidding; exposing the descendants of those who persecuted Jesus Christ and nailed Him to the Cross. When you learn how the pernicious circle of international events was maneuvered to spill the blood of

America's youths you'll learn how effectively they (Jews) control 70 percent of the vital interests of our

country while the sleeping non‑Jew doesn't suspect. It reveals the Inner, Inner secret Jewish manipulations.

Since the inception of Christianity there has been a determination to destroy it Only during the last two hundred years however has any great progress been made so we will confine our coverage to that period only. The definition of Zionism (among others) must be understood, Henry Klein (deceased), a prominent Jewish attorney in New York City was familiar with the movement and Stated "Political Zionism is an agent of big business." Both are extremely Jewish. Rarely do we uncover a Communist who is not a Jew. The same with Zionism. The International Bankers are among the most active promoters of the Zionist‑Communist Conspiracy.

Difficulties began with the landing at Plymouth Rock on November 11, 1620, when the Mayflower Compact was signed which says "In the Name of God, Amen. For the Glory of God and Advancement of the Christian Faith we combine ourselves together" etc. This compact was strictly adhered to by the Colonies and United States until December 23, 1913.

When a small disorganized group of less than three million, with the help of God, were able to defeat Great Britain, the greatest naval and military power known and they, themselves grew to become the greatest nation in history in accordance with Bible Prophecy in Deuteronomy 28:1‑14. Please read these verses again and again and again. Note well, God says,

"This is what I will do For you if you heed my word and obey my commandments."

When Benjamin Franklin visited London he was asked why the Colonies were so prosperous: plenty of money, work for everyone, peace and happiness abounding with crime practically unknown. He replied it was because Colonial Script was issued in amounts to cover needs of the inhabitants. International Bankers who became the House of Rothschild Controlled the Bank of England and asked King James to have parliament pass a law Requiring the Colonies to Borrow from The Bank of England, and Colonial Script was Retired at Fifty Cents on the Dollar.

Wide spread unemployment swept the Colonies, people were hungry and workers were forced to resort to crime in order to exist, which as you know, is being repeated today in our beloved America. This brought on the Revolutionary War. Tax on Tea was falsified to cover up our planned destruction. We know the outcome.

The next effort to destroy Christianity in America came in 1812, when war was forced upon the United States by piracy against their ships, and sailors being conscripted into the Royal Navy or British merchant fleet. Again, by walking with God, a small handful won as history records. Meyer Amschel founder of the House of Rothschild stated:

"Let me issue a nation's credit (money) and I care not who passes its laws."

Through his banking interests in America he had great influence on the credit of the new nation without controlling it. Slavery was not an issue at the beginning of the Civil War, but creating our Own Money and Credit was and as such it was repugnant to the House of Rothschild.

     "Integration" Spells Ruin: Integration will bring about a permanent and drastic change in the composition of the American People. Make no mistake about it! "Racial Integration" in plain language means one thing only; It means that the American People Will Be Replaced as the Founders of These United States and Their Descendants by Half-Caste Mongrels.

It may take many years. But if it is allowed to happen, nothing could change things back again. The terrible consequences of "Racial Integration" is irreversible.

     Facts About Race: The claim that "integration" is harmless and that "all races are equal" is totally false. Races differ, not only in the color of their skin, but in other physical ways and especially in temperament and Innate Intelligence. Scientists tell us that these differences are not the result of environment only, but mainly of heredity. "Men are not born equal," say Professor Francis Crick, a Nobel Prize Winner. "This is something which has not yet gotten through to the politicians."

     "Prejudice" A Natural Defense Mechanism: It is not "bigotry" to oppose multi‑racialism. It is a natural, healthy instinct to preserve one's own kind. What is called "prejudice" is simply Nature's way of improving Mankind through racial differentiation.

                                                             The Communist Dialectic

     Crack Down On "Red" Disrupters: No serious attempt to improve American industry and those involved in it can be successful while Communist‑Zionist‑Bolshevik agitators continue their subversive campaign of industrial disruption and shop floor, field worker intimidation, and while the trade union movement tries to cope with 20th Century problems through 19th Century structures. The "Red" agitators, behind whom we always find organized Jewry, could be neutralized by ensuring that all union elections and major industrial decisions are conducted by secret postal ballots. There should be a single union for each industry.

     Stop Illegal Immigration: Not too long ago, investigative forces prompted the U.S. Government to admit it had been misleading the public concerning the huge number of immigrants still pouring into America, by means of publishing false immigration statistics.

In view of the U.S. unemployment problem, governmental encouragement of such illegal Immigration is sheer Treason. The American People must be put First in employment. There can be no job security while the United States is used as a dumping ground for the surplus population of Asia, Africa and Mexico. The Immigrants must be helped to re‑settle in their own countries.

                          This is not "Racialism." This is Common-Sense Patriotism

Our "Time," the time of the White Man is shortening by the minute. The White Man is a prisoner, sentenced to death, in a world whose civilization, science, technology, superb literature, true art, fine music, and all higher thought are mostly of his own making, of his own genetics. His death sentence has been decreed by World Jewry, in accordance with its sinister covert tradition, its auto‑messianic mania, who has gained control of money the engines of propaganda and thought control and hence most political structures, legal systems, educational and religious institutions. Nearly all important armed forces and police, espionage, and security agencies are at least indirectly under Jewish control.

                                                  Divine Foreclosure Upon America

Pastor Dan Gayman of "Zions Watchman" says in his monthly editorial that Almighty God Is Bringing Divine Foreclosure Upon America. The American People are being dispossessed of their land because of national wickedness and transgression of God's Law. We are moving into a perilous time in the history of this nation. National calamity and doom hang heavy over our national life. The Judgment of Almighty God is already heavy upon this nation for those that have eyes to see. Jesus Christ is bringing about Divine Foreclosure upon this land! The American people are going to forfeit their claim to this National Homeland if they continue to proliferate their sin and wickedness before Almighty God. The fury of God is now clearly evident on every hand. We are a nation under judgment and we have only witnessed the beginning of what is about to take place in this country.

The political foundations of this nation have been torn asunder since 1914. We have no Constitutional Republic left; our Constitution is in shreds; our political system has become totally corrupted, our judicial system has become a mockery of justice, and aliens and foreigners rule over us and forge the chains of slavery about us daily. America is moving toward the most terrible economic bust in the history of the world. While our political economic foundations are in total chaos and ruin this nation is becoming a cess pool of moral and spiritual degeneracy. Tens of thousands of avowed homosexuals walk our streets, teach our children, and preach from the pulpits of this nation. Race Mixing has become a national mania in America as the White Nordic People mate with the blacks, browns, and yellows from Asia, Africa and India. Pornographic filth floods our magazine racks! Raw sex and perversion of every kind pours forth from our movie screens.

Hollywood has become synonymous with sodomy, free love, and total perversion of every kind. The television screen beams a daily diet of anti‑White, anti‑Christian propaganda over every major network in the land. Newspapers are now in total enemy hands that seek the total destruction of the Christian Foundations upon which America was founded. To compound this problem, the churches of our land have become cold, barren, and void of the spirit and truth of Jesus Christ and the Bible, they have become the synagogues of Satan! A Spiritual Crisis stalks America from Main to California as men seek to suppress God, seek license for their sin, and evade the Judgment of the Living God.

As we seek to understand what is happening to our country we must remember that Almighty God is Sovereign. We live in a God Centered Universe! God is in Charge of this world and of this nation! The unchanging Law of God is the Standard by which all history is measured.

Man only thinks he is ruling this universe, or this nation. God is in charge and His Law is absolute! The Absolute Law of God is operating unseen in the total existence of this universe including America.

"He who ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God." [81]

     What must the White Man do to escape extinction ‑ "He'll Have to be Tough." God is watchful, as He always is, when we are doing His Work, and certainly the exposure we are doing of His Enemies proves we are doing what is Right. The highest good or virtue is to fight whole heartedly for the survival of the White Race and work for its perfection. The greatest sin is the opposite of these: mongrelization, working for the enemies of the White Man.

The majority of citizens in modern "democracies" can always be controlled by the power of money, propaganda, "legal" pressure, bribery with the public funds, etc. to do what the Jews want. The Jews always have the political/legal situation well under control, through the power of money.

Study the tactics of the Jews; and Jewish‑Communist‑Zionist Enemies and Masters, how to thwart these tactics: decide which one to appropriate to our own use. Whites must study and develop methods which cannot be described here. They must lean how to create psychological states of terror even without violence. Before you become horrified at the thought of having to adopt such tactics you might give thought to the millions of honest, unsuspecting people of Eastern Europe whose citizens could not be induced to take an interest in the affairs of their country. Now They Are Slaves, Deprived of Their God Given Freedom, As A Direct Result of the Sirens Song ‑ It Can't Happen Here ‑ But It Did!

Dear Patriot, what you have read in these few pages about the Jews and their plans to exterminate the White Race fills only a thimble and the boldness and rapidity of their progress is now past the point of "alarm." It Is For Real! It is Now! And if you don't tell your friends, neighbors and co‑workers about our plight, you'll soon be joining hands with the enslaved people of Eastern Europe or you will join the millions of Christians who were murdered by the Jewish Butchers who conquered Russia. Many brainwashed, influential, White Traitors, including a great number in high positions, follow Jewish directions because of perverted convictions and/or material gain from so doing. They presently face no real threat to themselves or loved ones for their White‑Race destroying acts, their perpetual Jew/Communist‑Zionist‑benefitting decisions. This Must Stop!

Beginning Now we must undermine the Jewish propaganda onslaught against the White Man's survival. Discredit his lies and half‑truths in the eyes of "sleeping" Americans. Put eye‑opening printed matter into their hands and awaken a sense of race pride among Whites, a dedication to their racial survival and a hatred for any system that is planning their destruction. Sabotage Jewish efforts to actively degenerate, mongrelize, subjugate, etc. Make the Jew and his cat's‑paws ever more uneasy, threatened and attacked in their seats of power, with truth and knowledge about Christ's Enemies. Jewish power must be diminished to the point where his "magic spells and poisonous charms" cannot seduce White People to slaughter each other for his benefit.

You are now about to be among the privileged few as you learn the facts from a former top U.S. Military Officer who had the courage to investigate to the fullest the very, very secret and wicked ways of International Jewry ‑ a people who could not exist without us, the White Anglo‑Saxon people ‑ and yet their plans for centuries have been to destroy us completely.

Cahilla Unmasked

by Col. Edwin Marshall Hadley

First Printed in 1934

The Plan In Action

By Col. Edwin M. Hadley

Someone once said, that we pre‑judge what we do not know and that we hate what we do not understand, and that, therefore, there can be no tolerance until we have a full understanding of what is tolerated, since ignorance, suppression, silence and winking at wrong doing or guilt, are not evidences of toleration but are positive promises of destruction.

The purpose of this article is, therefore, not to persuade the skeptic that a racial or religious bogey exists which requires a challenge. Its extent is merely to acquaint the reader with certain irrefutable facts that have been unearthed and compiled over a considerable period of time, explaining why we cannot have a rehabilitation of the United States until the citizenry as a whole is made aware of the existence of the predatory element in the body politic that by the evidence revealed, as well as by its own testimony, is proven responsible for the depressed times upon which the nation has fallen.

Many Americans of sterling worth wield vigorous pens and raise clarion voices against the "red, pink and yellow" enemies within; however, for some unaccountable purpose these attack other patriots, just as sincere, who have reason to include the Jew as being in the forefront of the subversive movements. They act as though they were heaven‑sent and have, as their mission, the prevention of the raining of the specter of "race hatred." They refuse in their championship of the Jew, per se, to admonish him, as did Oscar Strauss, to be about the task of cleaning out his Augean stable.

It both shocks and stirs the layman at first, to be told that America harbors a people who are not content with merely enjoying its hospitality and its free institutions on a basis of sportsman‑like competition with all other races, but who actually cherish attaining rule over the entire earth, imposing their own peculiar brand of civilization and culture on all countries everywhere, whether those countries like it or not.

As the story unfolds, the scope of this morbid craving and the ramifications of progress towards its accomplishment present phases so fanciful that the average sane individual wonders if the whole thing is not a fantasy and if the scores of investigators who have made tremendous sacrifices to ferret out the facts may not have been drug addicts.

The whole cabal is so colossal, its underlying motives are so foreign to anything in Christian psychology, that one becomes mentally befuddled before the recital has gone very far, and rejects the whole nefarious program, as a nightmare of vicious relaters. Unfortunately it is this reaction, this wholesome mind‑defense mechanism of the average Christian, which over the years has contributed more than all else to the plot's success.

If a man or race of men propagate a big enough plot normal people will decry it as preposterous and refuse to give it credence. Thus they really reveal the extent of their own limitations. They would never think of doing such a thing, therefore it cannot be possible that anyone else would do so. So long as they have this inherent inhibition, it is comparatively easy to keep them in the dark and persuaded that the plot is a myth. And so long as such an assumption is successfully encouraged the predatory program can be pushed to full accomplishment.

When these normal and wholesome‑minded people later awaken to the fact that it has by no means been a myth, it may then be too late to do anything about it, for considerations may have been brought about where all opposition to the plot can be suppressed and the slightest protest or remonstrance punished with death ‑ as has been shown to have occurred in the country once known as Russia.

Regardless of what may be said to the contrary by these racial misfits whom we shall describe presently, we are not anti‑Semites as the term is commonly accepted. But in probing into the true causes behind the dreary times that have come upon the world, a stupefying array of facts has been unearthed about the so‑called Hebrew people. Such information has not been gleaned by prejudiced busy‑bodies listening at key‑holes. Most devastating of all, corroborating evidence has been found in the writings and speeches of representative Jews themselves. All of this builds up a staggering case in logic, confirmed by daily events throughout the whole world, but particularly in the United States, that the time has arrived when the Jewish people prophetically accept the promise that all non‑Jews will come under the hegemony of Judah.

Non‑Jewish peoples laugh at such an idea as utterly absurd. But no Jew is laughing at it. And no Gentile who is aware of the facts as to what is going on, is laughing at it, either. So long as the Jews have a plan, and are working collectively as a race with such an objective, Christian patriots can do very little to save the nation from its present economic and financial morass.

Because, at every turn, they find a mysterious obstruction blocking constructive rehabilitation. If they combine in organization to get business done enmasse, soon Jews are knocking at their doors and inviting themselves into their ranks, demanding and receiving full social equality and official recognition.

Whereupon elusive, disintegrating mischief begins to manifest itself. Quarrels appear and are multiplied. Doctrines are subverted. The effect and force of the effort is emasculated. Soon the whole movement has become abortive and no one can definitely put a finger on just where the trouble started, or exactly what nurtured it into such disastrous channels.

Nevertheless, people of a studious turn of mind, in many instances the Foreign Offices and Military of the great Christian Governments, have not been content merely to admit the elusive existence of such subversive influences; they have taken it upon themselves to trace these factors to their source. So, it has come about that dozens of entirely reputable historians, and hundreds of official espionage officers and agents, all working separately, unknown to each other and at different times, have finally arrived at the same staggering disclosures and conclusions. This article is more or less a brief compendium of authentic data that they have brought to light. Among some of the staggering facts that have been brought to light, certain conclusions are of paramount importance as fundamentals for the details which follow.

The first of these is: That the Jew through history has not been persecuted because his religion is a denial of the Christ as the divine Messiah, nor because he is an overly smart business man. These two items count very little in searching out the reasons why Jews of all times and all countries have periodically suffered from suppressions and pogroms.

The Jew was and is persecuted because he is primarily unsocial, or rather non‑social, in so far as other races are concerned. He will not play the great game of life according to the rules. Furthermore, confine him to a given code of religious, social or business ethics, and make him abide by it, and a dozen races outstrip him with ease. Because this is so, he has built up a code of ethics and morals of his own, whereby he considers it entirely correct for him to conduct his whole world by the Law of Expediency.

As the colloquialism has it: "Anything goes that he can get away with!" In this respect, the Jew is on the whole unmoral. He cannot understand the Christian code of ethics, however much he effects to do so intellectually. Hundreds of Jewish writers admit that tolerance and gullibility in non‑Jewish races are merely evidence of weakness, of which it is entirely fitting and proper for their race to take full advantage.

The secret history of all nations in consequence, discloses that Jews have suffered persecution because of their own acts and practices; excepting in many instances in the Near‑East the past hundred years when pogroms have actually been instigated by Jewish leaders themselves to get their own people slaughtered that Jewry as a world influence for loot may be drawn the tighter together and function the more effectively.

In other words, it has been disclosed that many leaders of world Jewry have not wanted Jewish persecutions to cease entirely before their program of world conquest was achieved, as Jewry would thereby be deprived of one of its greatest assets, martyrdom, making for solidarity in such conquests.

For instance, the original people of Israel consisted of twelve tribes, of which the Tribe of Judah is only one. For a thousand years after the migration out of Egypt, they were not heard of. Not until Solomon's death divided the kingdom into a North Kingdom and Southern Kingdom did Jews as we know them today begin to appear. The true Israelites scattered all over the eastern world, but the small and insignificant Tribe of Judah, at once usurped its present position as representative of all Israel, and took unto itself sole credit for the illustrious past of the whole Semitic peoples.

The word Semitic does not describe a blood‑race but the people of a locality ‑ exactly as all the peoples living in the United States are classed roughly as Americans. That does not necessarily mean that the Dutch of Pennsylvania or the Swedes of Minnesota were actually descended from North American Indians. At the time the modern Jew came into prominence, he was labeled Semitic because he was resident of the Arabian Peninsula. All peoples who inhabited the Arabian Peninsula were known as Semites. The Arabs are particularly Semitic. It has nothing to do with the Hebrew bloodstream at all.

Students of the Jewish Question frequently run across astounding bits of historic record full of proof that the "Jewish Question" has been recognized as existing down through the centuries. In "The Original Mr Jacobs,"; the Minerva Press, in 1888, presented the findings of a trial instigated by the French King, St. Louis, known as "The King Without Fear," who determined to ascertain for himself the cause of the complaints and bitter animosities against the Jews.

     "This great and good king, who had an inexhaustible love for justice, sought to know why the Jews were the object of the hatred of all. Upon the demand of Pope Gregory IX., whose attention was also called to this fact, he caused the TALMUD to be examined in a solemn assembly, over which presided William d'Auvergne, and in which the Rabbis were invited to take part. 'It was in Paris, in the beginning of summer, the 24th of June, 1240, when this memorable council took place. The Court of St. Louis was presided over on that day by Queen Blanche...volumes, covered with strange characters, attracted the attention of the curious, and it became known through Nicholas, a converted Jew, that the characters were Hebrew letters, and that the books were the TALMUD.

     But soon a more interesting spectacle attracted the attention of the assembly. Four Rabbis had just entered the room. They were Jechiel, of Paris; Judah, son of David; Samuel, son of Solomon, and Moses, of Coucy, son of Jacob ‑ the latter a famous orator known throughout France and Spain. They entered, sad and uneasy, into the palace of the King, while the assembled Jews scattered themselves about like a flock of sheep without a shepherd.' Every opportunity was given to the Jews to defend themselves, which they did with courage and ability.

     They, however, were forced to acknowledge that the TALMUD contained precepts not only contrary to the good of Christian society, but of every civilized society. Passages were read which horrified the listeners. The book said that Jesus Christ was plunged into hell, into ever‑boiling mud; that the Divine Son of the Holy Virgin was the fruit of adulterous intercourse with a soldier named Pandara, and that the ministers were no better than howling dogs. Other passages were read that increased the fear of the Jews and the indignation of the Christians...

     St. Louis, the King, displayed an extraordinary amount of moderation. As Jechiel was trembling with fear, one of the officers of the King said, 'Jechiel, who thinks of doing any harm to the Jews?' The TALMUD alone was condemned, and all copies that could be found were cast into the flames."

Students of the Jewish Question in analyzing the "chosen people" angle to the problem are driven to certain conclusions. If the Hebrew people had been chosen for the express purpose of exemplifying to the rest of the world all the faults which it is possible for any nation to commit they could hardly have acted otherwise than their Scriptures record of them.

One redeeming feature of the race lies in the fact that, up until a few years ago, there arose from time to time members of it, with the vision to see the right, and the courage to warn the wrongdoers, in which no fault was hidden or glossed over and no attempt was made to make wrong appear right. The greatest kindness which the nations of the earth can do for these brave and honest Jews are to take their warnings seriously and act upon them; thereby encouraging others to do the same. Jews were not yet known as such in the world until about 500 years before the advent of Our Lord. Even then they were a retrogressive clan, even old Ezra putting into the Lord's mouth the criticism: "Thou art a stiffnecked people."

It was the Sadducee's priestcraft, organized as a Sephardim for purely temporal power, that proceeded to give the Jews a racial consciousness down to modern times. And Terrible indeed has been the growth of that organized temporal power unto the present day. Instead of being a small religious oligarchy over a restive and non‑social people in a corner of Palestine, as it was in the day of Christ, the Sephardim has now branched out and become world wide, under a name which few Gentiles are ever allowed to hear: The Cahilla!

Wherever the Jews have, there trouble has arisen for political authority. We have not the time in this article to trace a careful history of the Jews. It is enough to begin the story with the disgust of Titus, the Roman Emperor, who in 70 A.D. determined to blot out the Sephardim as an unhallowed power for political mischief in his empire, by scattering the Jews to the four corners of the world. Again other commentators say,

"The authority of the Jewish leaders in the time of Augustus had been widely extended by a learned but unscrupulous priesthood, over an ignorant, superstitious people. In that age while a struggle was going on between two rival sects, Pharisees and Sadducees, certain political clubs were formed which concealed under a religious mask the grasping aims of a clique."

These clubs were not slow to take advantage of their country's misfortunes. A few years later during the siege of Jerusalem by Vespasian, they won, by the betrayal of the Jewish cause, the favor of the Roman Conqueror, and were subsequently entrusted by the Imperial government with the administration of Palestine.

Moreover, with the sack of Jerusalem, the destruction of the Temple, and the death of the patriotic leaders, the common people found themselves utterly dependent, in spiritual as well as civil matters, upon these same self‑styled societies of the learned, who alone possessed the secrets of the priesthood and copies of the sacred texts. By interpreting, altering and augmenting the rules and rituals these texts contain, and by a system of espionage and assassination, the new rulers established a strict control over the daily lives of their co‑ religionists. Thus having taken hold of the Jewish people through the medium of the Roman authority, this clique easily placed its laws above the Ten Commandments and formed a government whose control over its subjects was absolute. This government became henceforth known as the "Kahal."

The dispersion of the Jews which followed in 135 A.D. instead of destroying the Kahal, served on the

contrary, to set it on a new and firmer basis, on which it has continued ever since. Wherever Jewish immigrants

settled, they founded communities apart under the direction of the fraternities, and held to the precepts of the

Talmud. Each community had its miniature Kahal. The different aims of these communities always found themselves

intimately related with those of the Central body upon which their existence depended.

So it was possible for the Jews to develop and operate a perfected system of espionage which they still maintain. In olden days as now, they sent agents to watch over Jewish affairs at police stations and other agents were posted at the doors of shops, hotels, business houses, law courts, and even in private homes to get advance information of all kinds. In this manner all kinds of things became possible, even blackmail, with which all kinds of political pressure could be brought to bear on Gentiles who had political influence in the Roman Government at that time.

Hence, it is easy to understand the reason for the concentration of trade into Jewish hands with all these instruments of political pressure and advance business information at their finger tips at all times. There is a colloquial term that should always be coupled with the Dispersion. That is "Der Tag," or "The Day of Redemption," when World Jewry shall be gathered together attain under one head, with all Gentile nations subservient to this world‑wide Jewish empire whose governing seat is to be in Jerusalem. [82]

It is then that the Ashkenazie Jews have stated that they will search out and utterly annihilate the Sephardim Jew, but until that time they will use them by killing some and blame the so-called Gentiles to keep alive the Myth of Anti-Semitizm!! Talk about Stupid the Sephardim Jews Take The Cake!

Millions of gullible Germans, as well as millions of gullible, illiterate Christians everywhere, thought back in 1914 that Der Tag meant the Day of Recognition for Germany as to her place in the sun as a nation. It was a phrase and a term artfully "sold" to the German people, or rather, put in their mouths. Really it was Hebrew in meaning, indicating in the secret councils of Jewry that having provoked and produced the world war, with the white pariah nations thus engaged in slaughtering one another by the hundreds of thousands, the outcome could only mean the achievement by the Jews of an age‑long goal; winning to the pinnacle of world‑wide political and economic power.

So the Germans, French, English and Russians went forth to fight this war of self‑extermination, not knowing that in greeting Der Tag they were playing the game of Jewish world imperialists ‑ as will be explained and authenticated more in detail further along. The true story of the rise of Hitlerism to power in Germany, how and why it could get the support of the whole German people and why the Jews are execrating it all over the earth, is really the story of how the Germans discovered the Jewish influence about the Kaiser that worked to project the world war, not only from Berlin, but from Paris, London and Washington.

Real Germans are smashing Jewish influence; weeding it out of Germany. Because of this setback to their plans, world Jewry is turning the full blast of its temporal power and control of instruments of publicity in all countries against Hitler to vilify, misrepresent, and destroy him. This too will be dealt with later.

The point to be registered here is, that from the Roman Titus thru the long line of medieval monarchies to Queen Isabella and Ferdinand, where ever the Jews have won political or financial prominence in a country, seeds of disruption, unrest and sedition have  been sown to such an extent that in a greater or lesser degree monarchies have had to deal harshly with this people in consequence.

To counterbalance or suppress such unrest or sedition, one of three expedients has been resorted to: Jews have been either expelled from such royal domain, or "dispersed," or they have been confined in restricted areas called Ghettos with orders not to leave the same under pain of death, or they have been butchered in massacres called "pogroms."

Jewish publicists by the thousands have trained the Christian public to believe this "persecution" is chastisement inflicted on this people by Almighty God, and has resulted from religious prejudice or the competitive cleverness of the Jew, which Gentiles fear or resent. Delving soberly and clinically into the facts, we discover that such persecution has come about from far different causes.

Jews are everywhere persecuted, and have been persecuted consistently throughout generations, as mass reprisals against their own behavior and their own predatory or seditious acts. There are ample admissions by Jewish authorities that this is a statement of fact.

In 1923, Maurice Samuels, a Jew, wrote and published a disastrously frank book called "I, the Jew!" In it he stated:

"We Jews are born revolutionists. God made us and constituted us so that even if we achieved any of the ends which we so professedly desire, we would at once set about the overthrow of them as a matter of policy,"

and more to the same effect.

The Jew, Dr. Munzer, in his book "The Way to Zion" boasts as follows:

"We Jews have spoiled the blood of the races. We have tarnished and broken their power. We have made everything foul, rotten, decomposed and decayed."

The Jew, Dr. Weizman, in a pamphlet entitled "Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews" states:

"Here we are, just Jews and nothing else, a nation among nations."

The Jew, Isaac Adolphe Cremieux, the founder of the Universal Jewish Alliance, says:

"Our union is not a French one, nor English, nor Swiss, nor German. Nay, our union is Jewish and it is universal. Living in lands of dispersion, we cannot be concerned about the changing aims of those lands which are strange to us until the time when our own aims, both moral and material, are in danger. If you realize that, in spite of your cover nationalities, you form only one and the same people, if you believe that only Judaism constitutes the religion and political truth, you will listen to our appeal and you will accept it."

The Jew, Theodore Herzl, in an address, said:

"It is our opinion that the Jewish question can be solved by the Jews themselves. We no longer want to wear the mask of any other nationality."

The Jew, Disraeli, in 1844, in his book "Coningsby" said:

"The world is governed by very different personages from what is imagined by those who are not behind the scenes."

Later, in his book "Life of Lord Bentinck," P. 497‑8, Disraeli says in regard to revolutionary outbreaks:

"The influence of the Jews may be traced in the last outbreak of the destructive principle in Europe. An insurrection takes place against tradition and aristocracy, against religion and property. Destruction of the Semitic principle, extirpation of the Jewish religion, whether in the Mosaic or the Christian form, the natural equality of man and the abrogation of property, are proclaimed by the secret societies who form proviso governments, and men of the Jewish race are found at the head of every one of them. The people of God co‑operate with atheists; the most skillful accumulators of property ally themselves with Communists; the peculiar and chosen race touch the hand of all the scum and low caste of Europe! And all this because they wish to destroy that ungrateful Christendom which owes to them even its name and whose tyranny they can no longer endure."

The Jew, Walther Rathenau, financial adviser to the Kaiser and agent of the Rothschilds, in the Wienar Press, December 24, 1921, said:

"Only 300 men, each of whom knows all the others, govern the fate of Europe. They select their successors from their own entourage. These German Jews have the means in their hands of putting an end to the form of any State which they find 'unreasonable.'"

On June 24, 1922 he was assassinated.

This sort of testimony is not manufactured to advance race prejudice from religious or economic spleen. It is the testimony of representative and responsible Jews themselves. Wherever Jews cliqued together, in any country, there they are traditionalized to bring about in some form the emasculation of that country, that the worldwide Zionist government may eventually be realized. Let us see briefly where this conspiracy began.

In the twelve centuries that transpired between the dispersing action of Titus, and the 1306 expulsion fiat of Philip IV of France, world Jewry had taken on a two‑fold aspect. Jewry out of the Tribe of Judah and presided over in a temporal way by the Sadducean Sephardim, had in a manner of speaking, split into two parts or racial divisions. One‑half migrated northward out of Palestine into what is now the Soviet Ukraine. Here they interbred further with Asiatic and Tartar Mongols, and caught in the western onrush of the horde of Genghis Kahn, they were swept in vast numbers through Poland into the Danube Valley. They became in time the Ashdanazi, or Mongoloid branch of world Jewry, comprising the great mass of Russian and German Jews. We have them today throughout America, round-headed, grasping, alternately whining and arrogant, strict materialists, who openly consider Jewry to be not followers of a religion but a world‑wide political State, in other words, a nation competitive with all other nations.

The other branch of Jewry migrated westward through countries adjacent to the Mediterranean, particularly throughout North Africa, where they intermarried with the Moors and Berbers and later with the Spaniards and the Portuguese. This radical division is known as the Sephardim and its members are called Sephardim Jews. Because of their strong infusion of Aryan blood, these Jews have the cleanly cut Grecian features, the cherry‑black eyes, and the general characteristics of Spaniards and Arabs. They represent all that is finest and best in Jewry as we find it in the world today. Sephardim Jews are artistic and esthetic. They hold generally that Jewry is a religion and not a political State, though by no means are they adverse to standing with their Ashkanazim brethren in presenting a united Jewish front against the Gentiles. Nevertheless, there is a certain schism fundamentally between these two major divisions of world Jews, and internal rivalry between their leaders has been responsible for more changes in international politics among the world's Gentile nations than the layman dreams.

In world finance, economics and politics, the Mongoloid Ashkanazim Jews are represented by the great banking families of the Rothschilds (or Mayers) of Germany, the Sassoon families of Bagdad and the Orient, and the Samuels families of London. The Sephardim Jews are largely officialized by the Ginsberg families of France and Spain.

In the substance of the foregoing paragraph, if the Christian layman only knew it, lies the key that unlocks the seemingly inconsistent moves making for war or peace in scores of the world's Gentile nations.

About 1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella found their kingdom in the same compromising situation from Jewish encroachments, as earlier monarchs had confronted since the year 70 A.D. and which they had uniformly solved by consigning this non‑social trouble‑ breeding people to live in Ghettos.

The well known edict of Charles VIII of France in 1489 ordered all Jews to embrace Christianity and become loyal citizens and good subjects or suffer forfeiture of their goods and chattels, also expulsion from his domain.

The heads of Sephardim Jewry thereupon wrote in their extremity to the Elders of Zion, the Sanhedrin, then sitting in Constantinople, asking for advice as to what they should do. The mischievous reply to this appeal has  come up to us across the years of history, and shows itself as being directly responsible for the growth of the Zionist Movement throughout the earth. These Constantinople Elders responded:

"Dear beloved brethren in Moses: We have received your letter in which you tell us of the anxieties and misfortunes which you are enduring. We are pierced by as great pain to hear it as yourselves. The advice of the Grand Satraps and Rabbis is the following: As for what you say that the King of France obliges you to become Christians: do it, since you cannot do otherwise, but let the law of Moses be kept in your hearts. As for what you say about the command to despoil you of your goods make your sons merchants, that little by little they may despoil the Christians of theirs. As for what you say about their attempts on your lives; make your sons doctors and  apothecaries, That they may take away Christians' Lives. As for what you say of their destroying your synagogues: Make your sons Canons and Clerics in order that they may destroy their Churches. As for the many other vexations you complain of: arrange that your sons become advocates and lawyers, and see that they always mix themselves up with the affairs of State, in order that by putting Christians under your yoke you may dominate the world and be avenged on them. Do not swerve from this order that we give you, because you will find by experience that, humiliated as you are, you will reach the actuality of power."

Such was the direful and subtle Protocol of 1489 whose authenticity has never yet been successfully refuted or honestly denied by well‑informed Jews. That it was acted upon in the Southern European countries with manifest success, the pages of history will attest. Jews everywhere penetrated the Catholic Church and arose to Christian religious power. The entire Jesuit Order, responsible for so much Catholic mischief throughout the world, was founded by a Jew, Ignatius Loyola. Out of Jesuitry came Adam Weishaupt and his infamous Illuminati, the vast and terrible secret society of Europe founded upon an introvert form of the Jewish CAHILLA, which at one time swept millions of Gentile Europeans into its murderous net.

This society, strongest in Germany where it had its home and where it perverted and subverted Christian masonry through the machination of Frederick the Great, introduced what is known as the Grand Lodge Orient to Europe ‑ or the co‑Masonry against which every European monarch has set himself from time to time. Mussolini being the last to excommunicate its political intrigue. The most complete, detailed, and authenticated history of this movement, how it was financed by Jews as a gesture to get their release from European Ghettos are recounted in the works of the famous historian, Nesta H. Webster, author of "The French Revolution," "World Revolution," "Secret Societies & Subversive Movements" and "The Socialists Network."

The Illuminati, under the renegade Weishaupt, became in time an openly destructive Satanic society, with everything in its doctrines and rituals the exact antithesis of Christianity. Enticing its victim into the first initial degrees by the most beautiful and altruistic of fraternal ideals and noble aspirations, gradually it wove about them a net of murderous Satanism. Implications in secret rites at length bound them securely to the organization with chains of steel. As Mrs. Webster has shown, the "ideals" of Illuminism were:

   1). Hatred of God and all forms of religion.

   2). Destruction of private property and inheritance.

   3). Absolute social and racial equality, promotion of class hatred.

   4). Destruction of all forms of either monarchial or democratic governments, including civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly and of trial by jury.

   5). Destruction of all nationalism, love of country, patriotism and allegiance to civil or political rulers.

   6). Abolition of marriage and practice of free love.

On page four of report No. 2290, Seventy First Congress, III Session, investigation of Communistic propaganda in America, the same articles are advanced as the definition of Russian‑Jewish Communism in its fundamental aspirations. Indeed, the Jews, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, in their nefarious works on Socialism and the instigation of the First International, "borrowed" the Illuminati program bodily, a flagrant plagiarism from Weishaupt's Satanism which has not been generally revealed.

The point we are getting at is, that the Ghetto‑imprisoned Jews beheld in Illuminism exactly the weapon they needed to effect their emancipation. This brand of revolutionary philosophy further suited their inherent revolutionary temperaments. So we find indications of the German Jews embracing and helping to finance Weishaupt, until it became such a danger to the throne that the Illuminati was ordered to be disbanded. But it never disbanded. This edict but sent it underground. Thereupon, speaking figuratively and literally, the Ashkanazim Jews "took it over," and the history of Europe for the next hundred years, from the effects of this control, reads like a nightmare.

Mrs. Webster has brought out the full manipulations of the Illuminati Jews in organizing, conducting, and later suppressing, the French Revolution and Reign of Terror, when they had accomplished their hidden purpose and removed certain royal personages who stood in the way of their ultimate command of Europe. We cannot enter into that long and sordid story here. But we must pay some attention to the escape of the German Jews from the Ghettos and the rise of the House of Rothschild or "Red Shield" in Germany. It presages the active identification of the most terrible international Jewish organization of modern times, the CAHILLA, to which we will give much attention in a moment.

When William the Landgrave of Hesse came to power in Germany he was somewhat fanatical in the pursuit of his hobby, the collecting of rare and precious coins. in the adjacent Ghetto lived old Amshel Mayer, with his five sons and five daughters. This Jew set himself to cultivate William and win his favor by presenting him with precious coins.

A strange and intimate friendship grew up between the two. Then comes a fearsome event, too little known to patriotic Americans. George III needed mercenaries to fight the revolting Colonials in the Americas. A deal was made with William the Landgrave for the use of 17,000 Hessians for which George III was to pay the sum of $20,000,000. Amshel Mayer was secretly in touch with the Colonial situation through American Jews, particularly Haym Salomon of Philadelphia, who made it possible for Robert Morris to finance the colonials who thus unwittingly placed themselves under obligations to the Jews as the following will show.

Observe what happened and how the pernicious circle of international events was maneuvered to spill the blood of colonial Americans, that the Jews might escape the Hamburg and Frankfort Ghettos. George III did not have the English soldiers requisite to fight a successful war with the colonies, yet was egged on by predatory and scheming Jews in the New World, of whom American historians are careful to make no mention. The Colonials were revolting and George III had to do something about it to maintain the prestige of the Crown. William's 17,000 Hessians were "offered" him. but only recently has it become known that back of it all was a deal whereby Amshel Mayer "Red‑Shield" (Rothschild) was to get the loan of that $20,000,000 for 20 years.

Naturally Haym Salomon, now eulogized for his great financial services to the struggling Colonials, was agreeable to backing them. By producing the Revolution in America, it meant that George III would have to use those Hessians to put down the insurrection. That meant that William the Landgrave would get the twenty millions that Amshel and his strategizing Jews could and would use to make the Ghettos things of history and finance his progeny and compatriots into important banking positions among the squabbling Christian monarchs of the continent. So America had Bunker Hill, Yorktown, Valley Forge, Monmouth and Brandywine. When the smoke had cleared away and the dead were buried, in spite of all Jewry could do to the contrary, our founding fathers, after great hardship and political chaos, brought forth a Republic. A Republic is the Golden Mean between an Autocracy (where the few rule) and a Democracy (where the many rule through direct action). When some of the delegation to the Constitution Convention tried to inject the nostrums of Democracy into the Constitution, George Washington arose in anger and said:

"Let us raise a standard to which the wise and honest can repair. The event is in the hands of God."

Our Constitution provides for a Republic. A Republic is poison to World Jewry. On the other hand, it is easy for those with evil designs to gain control of a government which operates as a Democracy; hence the steady assault on the Constitution. A sleeping America has allowed its plan of government, as guaranteed in the Constitution, to be tossed aside and have embraced the phobia of Democracy by adopting the initiative, the election of judges, the referendum and the direct primary. In doing this we have opened wide the gates for Internationalists to promote their campaigns against the Republic of the United States.

Democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention. Our founding fathers repeatedly warned us to avoid this type of government. Our Constitution means to the science of Government what the digits mean to the science of arithmetic or the chromatic scale means to the science of music: in other words, it is the key to the science of government. In a Republic, the few are protected from the many, and the many, from the few, or, in other words, Communism, easily takes a Democracy, turns it upside down, makes the many think they are to govern themselves, but in actuality, the many are controlled by the worst sort of Autocracy. it is in that direction we are drifting today.

Amshel "Red Shield" Rothschild got his twenty millions and freedom for his people from the Ghettos. Whereupon Jews immediately scuttled like cockroaches all over Europe. All the five sons of Amshel immediately made themselves solid with the leading bankers of five great continental capitals, and the five daughters were artfully married off to various foreigners and political Big‑Wigs.

France was an especial goal of exploitation where the German Jews wanted to "dig in" and entrench themselves against any influences of the more esthetic and spiritual Sephardims. So utilizing the nefarious Illuminati again, the French Revolution was subtitlety precipitated. For a fuller history of Jewish manipulation of this Red Terror, read Mrs. Webster's books.

At any rate, when the French Revolution had accomplished its purposes, Count Cherep‑Spiridovich tells us that it had to be halted. So a conscienceless young Corsican was found who would have no compunction about shooting down his own people if it served his personal vanities and the aims of his military career. Napoleon was "chosen" by the "Red‑Shields," (Rothschilds) equipped, financed, and sent forth to serve the further continental aims of International Jewry.

Napoleon is everywhere acclaimed as a great military genius. Nowhere except in the world's secret history is it revealed that "Red‑Shield" (Rothschild) gold preceded him, made his military pathways as easy as possible without giving away this secret alliance, and made and unmade monarchs as it pleased the House of Rothschild to have them toppled around. But note that when Napoleon broke with the Jews and gave evidence of co‑operating with the Catholic Pope, the skids were mysteriously put under him and he found himself on Elba. He staged a return and came to Waterloo.

De Grouchy "mysteriously" was delayed in supporting him and his star had set. Meantime, Nathan Mayer, son of Amshel, on Sunday the eighteenth of June, 1815 on the battle field at Waterloo, noting that the battle had gone strictly according to his plans, mounted a horse, rode to the coast, got a fast boat across to London, and sprang a panic on the English Exchange simulating a victory for Napoleon, which tumbled stocks down to zero where Nathan's agents scooped them in at panic prices.

Next day, when the real truth became known, Nathan didn't need any more German loans to finance International Jewry. He had cleaned up in one of the greatest stock market coups in modern history. (And they are still doing the same thing today with their sock market manipulations). The "Red‑Shield" (Rothschild) fortune which proceeded to make and unmake political regimes on the continent up to the time of the World War, was first founded on the dead bodies of American Patriots and then securely established on a colossal lie which beggared thousands of English men.

So the Rothschild fortune was launched, and its repository in America today the banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Company, whose late president Jacob Schiff, presented Lenin with a cool 20 million dollars to finance Russian‑Jewish Bolshevism, now known as Communism, and whose younger generation helped to formulate through Paul Warburg, the Federal Reserve banking system. With these facts as background ‑ facts, by the way, that have never been denied by international Jewry ‑‑ is it not rather apparent why we cannot make headway in cleaning up America until this pernicious element is shorn of its power?

But there is yet a more fearsome factor in world Jewry of which the average layman knows next to nothing, which must be now considered: The ancient Sanhedrin Jesus had excoriated in language that left nothing to diplomacy, and that had sent the pleasing response to the Sephardim Jews being "persecuted," had by no means been inactive throughout this time. Outgrowing Palestine, capitalizing on all Jewish "persecutions," effectively carrying on the fight for Christian tolerance toward this scheming, predatory people, it began to adopt a world‑wide aspect after the admirable maneuverings of the Mayer clan. Thus do we arrive at the impressive construction of the CAHILLA.

Americans living in New York frequently hear of the Jews giving Cahilla parties in various city blocks, but that the Cahilla is a vast network of espionage and predatory activism for worldwide Jewry, and that it correlates the progress of the Jewish nationalists all over the earth, has only been authentically uncovered since the Boer War, mostly by British military and secret service agents.

Try to grasp fully what now is to be disclosed. In the time of George Washington there were about 4,000 Jews in this country. Most of them were already well‑to‑do traders. In 1783 the United States became the first country to grant them full civil equality, and ever since then they have enjoyed political equality.

Today there is said to be, taking the Jew's word for it, 18,000,000 Jews in the world, and about 4,400,000 of that number are in the United States, where they control 60 percent of the vital interests of our country (remember this was written in the 1930's).

Taking the word of the military of the various countries, instead, however, it is probable that the figure of 23,000,000 Jews for the whole world is the more nearly accurate. Whether the true figure is 14,000,000 or 23,000,000, when the statement is made they are entirely effectively controlled by one International Organization, so constructed that one man rules it from the top, the information is labeled fantastic. But wait! Listen to what espionage agents of several countries have attested before responsible committees: "The Jews of the World divided the earth first into two hemispheres, the Eastern and the Western."

As the United States lies in the Western Hemisphere, we will confine ourselves to that alone.

The Cahilla is constructed on the symbol of Seven. First, however, over each hemisphere is put a Prince of Jewry known as a Sponsor. There is a Sponsor for the Eastern Hemisphere, and a Sponsor for the Western Hemisphere. Reliable authority has attested by the way, the Sponsor for the Western Hemisphere is none other than "a pinch hitter for Presidents" which explains why this gentleman occupies his position of such tremendous economic, financial and political importance in American State affairs. He is the absolute overlord of about ten millions of Jews in this Western Hemisphere. He orders their lives and their affairs, and they in turn make it their business to see that he is kept ensconced in his power over American Officialdom.

The Sponsor for the Eastern hemisphere is not of consequence in this article. But do not miss the very

important fact that both Sponsors for both hemispheres are accountable only to Akad Ha'am, the Unknown and

Uncrowned King of Jewry throughout the earth, whose identity is kept a guarded secret.

Akad Ha'am rules the Jews of the earth by an effective devastating system. He has, as has been said, his Prince-Sponsor in each hemisphere. Then under these Prince-Sponsors falls the seven‑times‑seven organization.

Under each Sponsor there are Seven Arch-Censors.

Under each Arch-Censor there are Seven Ministers.

Under each Minister there are Seven Heralds.

Under each Herald there are Seven Couriers.

Under each Courier there are Seven Schrivenors.

Under each Schrivenor there are Seven Auditors.

Under each Auditor there are Seven Mutes.

This figures out to almost 1‑million influential Jews in each hemisphere organized into a tight, rigidly‑controlled body, every man knowing all the men under him but only the one man above him, and all responsive to the Prince-Sponsor at the top.

There is no Jew of Consequence in North America who is not involved in this terrible organization, terrible at least in its power for predatory control of Christian society, or who is not listed somewhere down the line on the roster of its obedient adherents. Until this organization is broken and stamped out of American life, the United States can know neither peace nor stability, not to mention safety. For its control puts it in perfect working mechanism with all the influential Jews of the European continent and the Orient.

At this moment it is making and unmaking governments, starting or stopping wars at its pleasure, controlling the most intricate dealings of the League of Nations (presently the United nations), dominating political officialdom, determining the money standards of nations, including America's, directing its economics, intimidating or controlling the nation's newspapers, radio, and movie screen, so that nothing can be released by any of these that is inimical to its far‑flung interests.

Careful students and economists who are not in its pay, have traced the prevailing depression in America directly to its threshold. Presidents have been elected by its money. Its directing heads and their satraps often camouflaged politely in press and congress as "International Bankers" have been assiduously engaged at Buying‑in‑America at bankrupt prices, completely looting and eliminating the United States permanently from its pathway as a major power, reducing it to the status of a third rate vassal state subject to their officer ‑ Isaacs, Sassoon, Samuels, et al ‑ in the so‑called "British" Cabinet.

This is the atrocious cabal to whom President Wilson referred on his return from Versailles when he said that "there was a secret power in Europe with which he could not cope." This is the terrible power that had started the World War in furtherance of its schemes, so powerful in British as well as German affairs, that the statement is made on reliable authority that orders were given to the British Admiralty and air forces that at no time during the war were Berlin, Hamburg or Frankfort to be raided, shelled or bombed, because their homes and families were there and they had no intention of suffering physically or jeopardizing their lives in this war which they had conceived for their own world plans and financial profit.

Sir Douglas Haig, English Field Marshal, strictly under the thumb of his Cahilla‑agent secretary, Philip Sassoon of the family of Bagdad Jews, gave it out that the English were to "humane" to bomb cities holding innocent women and children. That suited gullible Christians, and heaped full odium on the "Germans" who ordered such atrocities from Berlin to be perpetrated on London.

Small wonder that with the Whole Christian World Hoodwinked into an International War, killing each other's nationals off by the Hundreds of Thousands, The Cahilla Jews celebrated Der Tag, the Day of Judah Coming into its own when the Christian Corpses were buried and that many odoriferous Christians, Removed from Terra Firma!

The Cahilla officials had perfected their power over Germany and the Germans long before the outbreak of the war. In fact, their ascendancy dates back to Bismarck, the half‑Jew (Bismarck's mother was the Jewess Louisa Menken) who saw to it that Germany was turned over to the Princes of Jewry back in 1870 exactly as America is being turned over to the Princes of Jewry in 1934.

The Youth Movement of Germany, smashing this oligarchy, will be viewed in the proper perspective as one of the great social phenomena of our times. Consider the war situation and its aftermath in Germany. The Jews were the only people who were able to use Bismarck so that all liberal reforms in Germany would turn out to be profitable for them.

An industrialist who visited the Prussian War Ministry in September, 1914, told with amazement that he found Jews predominating in this high office, and not German officers and military officials as he had expected. Herr Walther Rathenau, a Jew, sat in a large room, at an enormous secretary writing table and "dispensed" or gave away army contracts. Around him were seated, almost without exception, Jewish clerks and Jewish business people.

The feeble government under Emperor Wilhelm II which had already favored Jews in all important positions, allowed this to happen, owing to its embarrassment and perplexity. In the course of the war, the fact arose conspicuously to the surface that since the beginning of Wilhelm II's reign, the Jews had been the real rulers of the German Empire.

For the previous 15 years those in immediate personal contact with the Kaiser were mainly Jewish financiers, Jewish manufacturers and Jewish merchants like Emil and Walther Rathenau, Balin, Schwabach, James Simon, Friedlander‑Fuld, Goldberger, Guttman, Hulshinisky, Katsenstein and others.

Upon the change from the old regime to the new, that is, from the monarchy to the so‑called republic the cabinet composed of six men which substituted the Ministry of State, was dominated by the Jews Haase and Landsberg. Haase had control of foreign affairs. His assistant was the Jew Kautsky, a Czech, who in 1918 was not even a German citizen.

Is it any wonder that with such a state of affairs obtaining, Hitler should have been espoused by the pure‑blooded German people as a leader who would rid them of this Cahilla Frankenstein, whose American arm has already become quite as offensive to enlightened persons here in the United States.

Hitler preached a doctrine of "Germany for the Germans" and we should preach a doctrine of "America for Americans." Hitler used a steel wedge to "split a hardwood block" and immediately when he had gained power and started breaking up this CAHILLA monopoly, the CAHILLA set its machinery at work all over the world to vilify and misrepresent him, suggest boycotts, and to introduce resolutions in the houses of government which if acted upon would easily have led to war.

It is obvious that the public Cahilla press ‑ which constitutes about 90% of American metropolitan newspapers‑the radio and the screen received their orders to acclaim Hitler as a monster and "persecutor" who had "set Europe back into the Dark Ages."

Protest meetings were held, the old whine about Christian tolerance for God's Chosen People was dragged forth again, dusted off, and made to do service in stirring up protests. Hitler had thrown a big monkey wrench into the CAHILLA'S machinery in its steady progress for international domination, and with characteristic lack of any sportsmanship, the Jews began to gather around a new wailing wall and fill the air with their hypocritical lamentations.

Wherever a Jew is blocked in the accomplishment of a predatory scheme against Gentiles, he will immediately whine "persecution" or "lack of tolerance." (Just as blacks will cry racism when they do not get their desires) The story of what happened in England, placing England in Jewish Cahilla power, is too long to be told here, but Great Britain's vassalage to the Sassoons, the Samuels, the Monds, is quite as complete as that of pre‑Hitler Germany.

The conquest of Russia by them, resulting in Jewish Communism, would require several reams to be told completely. It is obvious that here in the United States, since 1917, the oligarchy has been conducting affairs with a very high hand, until America has been pulled down to ruin and near‑chaos...It is obvious that the sack of the United States Treasury, the collapse of American Industry.

The taking of America off the gold standard, the repudiation of its fiscal contracts by the Federal Reserve, the agitation for the cancellation of the war debts, are naught but carefully laid maneuvers for so emasculating and undermining Christian America that she can never again offer effective resistance to Europe, or to Jerusalem, when the latter City has been made the Capital of a completely Judaized world.

With the foregoing as a brief background, you will grasp to some extent, the scope of the rehabilitation which must be accomplished in America. Nothing is the matter with America but the aliens who have been admitted to her hospitality, and who have shamefully abused Christian sportsmanship and tolerance to sack her commerce and debauch her institutions. It only remains for enough American to grasp the facts which are daily becoming everywhere more apparent.

What will happen then? We must sweep out our half‑baked radical theorists with whom we have been tolerant too long. We must prevent the approaching Jewish domination and insure Anglo‑Saxon supremacy that is free from international control. We must not persecute a minority group and, on the other hand, we must not permit such a group to enslave the majority. The racial theorists should find no shelter in our schools or churches where they spread their poisonous doctrines among the young.

We must sweep from our legislative halls the tainted and dangerous meddlers and replace them with practical men who know the difference between an unworkable theory and a workable fact. We must acquire the sturdy stamina of our forefathers whose grim determination knew no compromise with the forces of Anarchy wherever found. It is true that there is no time to waste; but before we act, we must be in possession of the facts that have been withheld. These facts have not been spread before the reader for his examination and his verdict.

The hour for decision has come. America's fate hangs in the balance. Whether we are to continue an orderly march towards a higher civilization or are to witness the overthrow of our progress, depends upon the action we take not next year nor next month but upon the action we take today. The situation will be corrected when the now unorganized majority realizes that our times demand that the majority must organize and, matching organization against organization, regain the ascendancy because of their superior numbers. The hour has passed for disputations.

"Actions, not words," must be our motto. It was through action, following straight thinking, that our country was fashioned and formed and only through action and straight thinking will America be preserved. If loyal Americans, the majority of the population, organize without further delay to combat the organized subversive minorities that have made headway only because of organization, the menace of internationalism, socialism, communism and all other anti‑Americanisms, and anarchy will be stamped out and real liberty will be preserved. Any further delay will be fatal.

The perpetuity of our ideals and our institutions depends upon immediate action and immediate organization of right thinking, patriotic Americans. We must drive from control those organized minorities who are conspiring to overthrow the Republic and the Constitution of the United States of America. And surely no one can deny that the American Constitution has been and is the victim of assault by those whose vagaries would wreck a world. [83]

Returning to our presentation on the Seed of the Serpent.

"Flee, therefore, those evil offshoots (of Satan), which produce death bearing fruit...These men are not the planting of the Father, but are an accused brood. And says the Lord, 'Let every plant which my heavenly Father has not planted be rooted up.' For if they had been branches of the Father, they would not have been 'enemies of the cross of glory.' But now, by denying the cross, and being ashamed of the passion, they cover the transgression of the Jews, those fighters against God, those murderers of the Lord; for it were too little to style them merely murderers of the prophets.' 'Keep yourselves, then, from those evil plants which Jesus Christ does not tend, but that wild beast, the destroyer of men, because they are not the planting of the father, the seed of the wicked one."

The "Jewish World," February 9, 1883, contained the following program:

"The great ideal of Judaism is...that the whole world should be imbued with Jewish teachings, and that in a universal Brother hood of nations, A Greater Judaism in fact, all the Separate Races and Religions Shall Disappear."

That means the elimination of Christianity. The Jews need not be surprised that such pretensions evoke "anti‑Semitism." That program is a challenge to the Christian faith to a duel to the death.

But what is the reason of the peculiar persistent opposition to the Jews? The ultimate reason is in the perversion by them of the supernatural mission they as a nation espouse. With study, we can see the opposition of the Jewish nation to Christianity since Calvary, we find it codified and crystallized, so to say, in the Talmud and Kabbala. While the Talmud represents the codification of Jewish opposition to the Kingship of Christ, the Kabbala reflects rather the opposition to the priesthood of Christ. In the latter we see chiefly, but not exclusively, the divinations from Christianity. The Kabbala furnishes the key to the Pantheism of Freemasonry, Theosophy, and the other occult societies which promise to reveal the secrets of a higher life to their adepts.

The Talmudic formation, then, is responsible for the attitude of the Jewish nation to other nations which leads to the special friction they provoke. What are the characteristic traits of that formation? Following is a condensation of the teachings of the Talmud and the Kabbala, the denials of the Jews notwithstanding:

   1). There exists no Supreme Being, perfect in His Wisdom and in His Providence and distinct from the universe. God is identical with nature and consequently subject to change. God is evolving in man and in the world, and all things and all men are God and have the very substance of God. God is thus one and the same thing as the world and consequently spirit is identified with matter, necessity with liberty, truth with falsehood, good with evil, and justice with injustice.

   2). Any action of the part of God upon men and the world must be denied.

   3). Human reason is the exclusive judge of truth and falsehood, good and evil, God being left completely out and of no account; man is his own law and by his own natural resources is sufficient to procure the good of men and of people.

   4). All the truths of religion have their origin in the innate vigor of the human reason: hence it follows that reason is the sovereign guide by which man can to attain to the knowledge of all truths of every kind.

   5). Divine Revelation is imperfect and consequently subject to a continual and indefinite progress which corresponds to the progress of human reason.

   6). The Faith in Christ is opposed to human reason; and Divine Revelation is not only useless but is even injurious to the perfection of man.

   7). The prophecies and miracles set forth and related in the Holy Scriptures are poetical fictions and the mysteries of the Christian Faith are the sum total of philosophical investigations. In the books of the Old and the New Testaments are to be found mythical inventions and Jesus Christ Himself is a myth.

   8). Since human reason is to be placed on the same level as religion itself, the theological sciences must be treated in the same way as the philosophical sciences.

   9). All the dogmas of the Christian religion, without distinction, are the object of natural science or philosophy. Human reason with merely its historical development can, by its own natural strength and intelligence of all dogmas, even those that are most abstruse, provided these dogmas have been proposed to reason as its object.

   10). Since the philosopher is one thing and philosophy another, the former has the right and the duty to submit to an authority which he himself has proved to be true, but philosophy neither can nor ought to submit to any authority.

   11). The Church not only should not proceed with rigor against philosophy, but should even tolerate the errors of philosophy and allow it to correct itself.

   12). Christianity and Christians impede the free progress of science.

   13). The method and principles, according to which the ancient scholastic Doctors cultivated Theology, are in no way suited to the necessities of our times and to the progress of the sciences.

   14). No account must be taken of supernatural revelation in dealing with philosophical questions.

   15). Every man is free to embrace and profess that religion which, guided by the light of reason, he shall have come to consider as true.

   16). Men can find the way of eternal salvation and reach eternal salvation in any form of religious worship.

   17). The State is the source of every right, its own are unrestricted.

   18). The civil power, even when exercised by a prince who is an infidel, has an indirect negative power over sacred things. It has consequently not only the right that goes by the name of exequatur but also of the right of appeal from abuse of power as it is called.

   19). In case of a conflict of laws between the two powers, the civil law will prevail.

   20). The secular (or civil) power has the authority to rescind, to declare and render null and void the solemn agreements concluded with Christianity about the use of rights concerning ecclesiastical matters.

   21). The civil authority can interfere in matters which concern religion, morality and the government of souls. Hence it follows that it can pass judgment on Christian instructions.

   22). The (whole) complete direction of the public schools in which the youth of a Christian State is being educated, excepting to a certain degree episcopal seminaries, can and ought to be reserved to the civil authority and in such wise that no right of interference in the discipline of schools, in the regulation of the courses of studies, in the conferring of degrees, in the choice or approval of teachers, be conceded to any other authority whatsoever.

   23). Even in clerical seminaries, the method to be adopted in studies is subject to the control of the civil authority.

   24). The best interests of society require that the elementary schools, which are open to all children of every class of the people, as well as all other public institutions destined for the teaching of literature and of higher studies and for the education of youth, should be exempted from all authority, direction and interference on the part of Christianity and be placed under the full control of the civil political power, following the views of those in power and the standard of contemporary opinion.

   25). That the civil authority can prevent ministers from communicating freely with their congregations if not politically correct.

26). The government can, of its own right, change the forbid all religious bodies to admit anyone to solemn vows

     without its authorization.

   27). Laws relating to the protection of the status of religious institutes, their rights and functions, should be abrogated. Nay more, the secular government can assist all those who may desire to abandon religious life; it can also suppress completely these same religious institutes as well as collegiate churches and simple benefits, even where there is a right of patronage, transferring and subjecting their goods and revenues to the administration and control of the civil authority.

   28). The Church should be separated form the State and the State from the Church.

You will find, upon careful examination, that the literal truth of Genesis 3:15 has been a solid building block in the foundation of Christian Theology, from the writings of the Old Testament, the teaching of Jesus Christ Himself, the Apostles after him, and by early Church Fathers during the first centuries A.D. The truth of Genesis 3:15 cannot be spiritualized away by the ignorance of man. For nearly six thousand years the very presence of both the

     (1) Seed of the Serpent,

     (2) The Seed of the Woman has been on earth. That enmity planted by God, still rages between these two forces.

Today it reaches forth in a grand finale, the climax of the Ages is upon us. In this crucial hour of history, we dare not surrender, compromise, or talk ourselves out of this most fundamental Kingdom Identity Bible Truth. This is not time to white‑wash the Satanic Jew offspring of Satan.

We are today faced with the very climax of this Enmity, this Warfare, between these two seed lines, and God give us the courage to Stand, for Through Jesus Christ, and His Shed Blood, the Head of the Serpent Race, the very Kehilla itself shall be Crushed, by the power of Christ. Jesus described the reapers of this Satanic harvest in Matthew 13:41, Psalms 149 and Jeremiah 51:20.

In the meantime the Battle rages outside the comfort of your living room. Every television newscast, every Radio broadcast, every major newspaper in the United States is alive and pulsating with the Enmity between the two seeds of Genesis 3:15. This the story of history, this is what Jesus said would happen to us as recorded in Revelation 12:17.

"And the dragon was worth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ."

The Dragon, that International Satanic Race of Jewish Pharisees has declared a total war on the seed of the woman, just as Christ foretold. Praise the Name and Power of Jesus Christ White Christian People, the Seed of the Woman, will have a total Victory over this Satanic seed line just as it is recorded in Revelation 15:2‑3.

"And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name...having the harps of God. And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints."

In Revelation 19:6:

"And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth."

In closing I would like to leave you with the following verse of the great song, Battle Hymn of the

Republic. This great song is no longer used in most churches for obvious reasons. It contains the final judgement

that shall come upon the Serpent and his seed.

"I have read the fiery Gospel,

Writ in burnished rows of steel,

As ye deal with my contenders,

So with you my grace shall deal.

Let the Hero born of woman,

Crush the Serpent with His Heel,

Since God is marching on!"

                                                                    The Sons of Judah

One other aspect we must take into consideration. That being, a small portion of 5 to 10 percent of the Jews today are descendants of the marriage between Judah and a Canaanite woman. Many when told that we, the Anglo‑Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian and Celtic peoples, are Israel, exclaim: "Impossible, I'm no Jew." Of course you're not a Jew, nor am I. A portion of the Jews are of a mixture of Israel and Canaanite women because of the marriage of Judah and Esau. Part of the Jews are of Israel, but Israelites are not Jews. A small portion of the Jews are a remnant of Judah, who was only one of Jacob/Israel's twelve sons. Why our theologians should call Abraham, Isaac and Jacob "Jews," is difficult to understand, for There were no Jews in existence during their lifetime!

The first reference to any Jews in the Scriptures is found in 2 Kings 16:6. The name was applied to a remnant of Judah's descendants of the Shelah branch. Shelah/Judah was born in Chezib [84] and his descendants centuries later inherited this territory [85]. Remember a strict Genealogy was kept of each tribe and branch, 2 Kings 16:5‑7; 1 Chronicles 2:1‑15; Ezra 2:59, 62, 64; Matthew 1:1‑25; Luke 3:23‑38.

Chezib [86], Achzib [87] and Chozeba [88] refer to one and the same place. It was a town in the lowlands of western Judah and was given to the Shelah branch of Judah for their inheritance [89].

"This then was the lot of the tribe of the Children of Judah by Their Families..."

The word Chezib means "falsified‑deceive" [90]. Chozeba means "fallacious‑deceive" [91]. The word Achzib means "deceitful‑falsehood" [92]. The place received its name from a winter spring or brook, which failed in the summer heat: Symbolic of the failing of the Shelah branch of Judah under trial. It is the place where Judah was at the time of the birth of his half‑breed son, Shelah [93]. In 1 Chronicles 4:21‑22 it is called "Chozeba."

It is in the valley of Elah and north of Addulum. Note 2 Kings 16:6; the first reference to this branch of Judah and the first mention of "Jews"; "...the Jews of Elah." This part of the Jews are "the remnant" or "Yehudim" of Judah. This branch of Judah rejected Christ. They are the open witness;

"The shew of their countenance doth witness against them: their tongue and their doings are against the Lord; they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not." [94]

                                             Herod Was On The Throne In Palestine

In the days of Christ, Herod, a Shelah/Judah Jew, was on the throne in Palestine. He Was Not An Israelite. The Pharisees and Sadducees were in absolute control of the temple and the Sanhedrin. They were not the lawful descendants of the Tribe of Levi. They did not follow the law of Moses, although they claimed to do so. Instead they set up their own Babylonian traditions, Traditions of the Elders, later to become known as the Jewish Talmud.

The Ark of the Covenant and the Shekinah glory had long since disappeared from the Holiest of Holies. There was no supernatural cloud to guide them by day nor a pillar of fire to guide them by night. God's presence had left the temple and Jerusalem in Ezekiel's day.

"Moreover the spirit lifted me up, and brought me unto the east gate of the Lord's house (The Temple in Jerusalem), which looketh eastward: and behold at the door of the gate five and twenty men...Then said he (God) unto me, Son of man, these are the men that devise mischief, and give wicked counsel in this city...Son of man, thy brethren, even thy brethren, the men of thy kindred, and all the house of Israel wholly, are they unto whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Get you far from the Lord: unto us is this land given in possession...Then did the Cherubims lift up their wings, and the wheels beside them; and The Glory of the God of Israel was over them above. And the Glory of the Lord went up from the Midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the East Side of the City. Afterwards the spirit took me up, and brought me in a vision by the Spirit of God into Chalde, to them of the captivity. So the Vision that I had seen went up from me. Then I spake unto them of the captivity (The ten tribes which had been taken captive by Assyria ‑ By this We know, God was not talking of the Children of Israel when He said 'these are the men that devise mischief, and give wicked counsel in this city!: We know God was speaking of The Jew!!!) all the things that the Lord had shewed me." [95]

There were seven in succession in that Herodian dynasty. This false and spurious Herodian Kingdom also controlled the Temple and the High Priesthood which had been turned into a political office. As a result, there was a constant political battle for the high priesthood.

When Christ came into the world, he did not recognize that false kingdom and would have nothing to do with that spurious priesthood and so‑called "Jews' religion." He did not join the Pharisees, the Scribes, the Sadducees, nor any so‑called Jewish sect or political party. He lived and taught entirely outside the establishment. Herod the Great was determined to kill Christ during the first two years of his life, and all of the kings who succeeded Herod wanted to kill Him also. With few exceptions, the high priests, the Sanhedrin and council also want to kill Him.

One exception was Zacharias the priest who was the father of John the Baptist. He was a true priest and a descendant of Aaron and was murdered also by the Jews [96]. It would appear there were only a few thousand people in Jerusalem and all of Palestine in the days of Christ who were of the Tribe of Judah along with remnants of the other twelve tribes, but they were outside of the false kingdom and did not belong to the so‑called "Jews' religion."

God never gave the true kingdom to the Jews. He kept His true kingly line in exile, or hidden from them as it were. If the true kingdom, had been, in Palestine at the time of Christ, Joseph the husband of Mary, Jesus' step‑father would have been the king on the throne. It is a pity that most protestant minister, preachers, evangelists and catholic priests are under, "...strong delusion, that they should believe a lie." [97]

They believe, falsely, that the so‑called Jews are Hebrews, or Israelites and of the Bible Tribe of Judah, which is a lie and a terrible deception. Again, because of the false teachings of the past decades about the Jews: We must repeat and repeat that 90 ‑ 95 percent of the people known to the world today as "Jews" are descendants of the Khazars of Russia.

They are "False Jews." They are like the false Jews that crucified the Lord Jesus Christ. Following is a brief outline of what the Bible and Christ said to and about them:

1. "Ye (Jews) are not my sheep." (John 10:26)

2. "Ye (Jews) are of your father the devil." (John 8:44)

3. "Ye (Jews are) serpents, ye (Jews are a) generation of vipers..." (Matthew  23:33)

4. "...the Jews: Who both killed the Lord Jesus..." (1 Thessalonians 2:14‑15)

5. "...they please not God." (1 Thessalonians 2:15)

6. "...are contrary to all men." (1 Thessalonians 2:15)

7. "Are the Synagogue of Satan." (Revelation 2:9; 3:9)

8. "Hypocrites." (Matthew 23:14)

9. "Blind guides." (Matthew 23:16)

10. "Full of extortion and excess." (Matthew 23:16)

11. "White washed sepulchers." (Matthew 23:23)

12. "Full of dead mens' bones." (Matthew 23:27)

13. "Degenerate plant of a strong vine." (Jeremiah 2:21)

14. "Evil figs." (Jeremiah 24:2‑8)

15. "Broken cisterns." (Jeremiah 2:13)

16. "Broken bottle." (Jeremiah 19:10)

17. "Spots in your feast of love." (Jude 12)

18. "Cannot blush." (Jeremiah 6:15; 8:12)

19. "An astonishment and hissing." (Jeremiah 25:9‑18; 51:37)

20. "The show of their countenance doth witness against them." (Isaiah 3:9)

21. "Pray Not For This People (The Jews)." (Jeremiah 7:16; 11:14; 14:11)

22. The present day, so‑called and false Jewish State of Israel is a sister of Sodom and Gomorrah, and called

   Hittites, Amarites the descendants of Cain. (Ezekiel 16:1‑3; 16:53‑57)

Yet in spite of these and hundreds more Bible revelations America's evangelists, preachers, ministers and priests continue teaching The Big Lie; that the Jews are Israel. While our Government keeps right on giving that false Murderous Jewish‑Zionist State, billions of dollars a year. And of the 530 members of our Congress and Senate, few have the courage to oppose anything the Jews say and will vote for anything the Jews want.

The throne rights and honors were bestowed upon the Tamar/Judah twins [98];

"And Judah Acknowledged Them, and said, She hath been more righteous than I; because that I gave her not to Shelah my son..."

Ezekiel 47:19, reveals that God names the land, from Kedesh to the river Nile, After Tamar, the mother of the twin sons, Pharez and Zarah. The Jews were chosen as Judah for a definite work. A work which they are characteristically fitted to do.

"Have not I chosen you twelve and One of You is a devil. He Spake of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simeon, for He It Was That Should Betray Him." [99]

Read Genesis 37:26‑27 and Matthew 26:14‑15. The final betrayal of Joseph/Israel by this same "remnant," into the hands of the Red anti‑Christ Russian Beast is near at hand. [100] They still say "Let us slay their heir and take the birthright." But the birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph and not to Judah. [101]

The Jews Are Not The Chosen People, They Are The Rejected Nation [102].

"And when he (Jesus) saw a Fig Tree (the symbol of the nation or tribe of Judah, the olive tree was Israel's symbol) in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it, Let No Fruit Grow on Thee Henceforward Forever. And presently the fig tree withered away...Therefore I say unto you, The kingdom of God shall be Taken From You (Jews), and Given To A Nation bringing forth the fruits thereof."

They were broken off because of unbelief, but God is able to graft them in again (individually) if they remain not still in unbelief; accept Christ as Savior and renounce Judaism [103]. Nationally, this Shelah portion of Judah is cursed forever. This can only be done by telling them the truth. Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free.

Jacob had twelve sons. Six of these sons and one daughter, were born by his wife Leah, the wife thrust upon him by Laban. The names of Leah's sons were, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun and a daughter Dinah. Leah's handmaid Zilpah bare two sons, Gad and Asher, to Jacob.

Dan and Naphtali were born to Jacob by Rachel's handmaid, Bilah. Joseph and Benjamin were born to Jacob by Rachel. Rachel and her eldest son, Joseph, were Jacob's favorites and it was Joseph, who received the birthright in preference to the other brothers [104]. It was by these two, Rachel and Leah [105] that God built the house of Israel. Why our theologians and their blind followers should insist upon giving everything to the Jews who are but a small remnant of one tribe is difficult to understand. Satan surely hath blinded the eyes of them that believe not.

Joseph was the eldest of the Rachel family; while Reuben was the first born of Leah's family. But inasmuch as Reuben defiled his father's bed [106], the birthright was transferred to Joseph, the eldest of the Rachel family, [107]. Judah prevailed above his brethren in two ways. FIRST: He saved the life of Joseph [108].

     Second: He gave greater assurance than did Reuben for the safe return of Benjamin. Compare Genesis 42:37‑39 with Genesis 43:8‑9. Judah preferred selling to killing as did Judas Iscariot and as do the Shelah‑Judah Jews of today.

While Judah prevailed above his brethren; Joseph, however, prevailed above Judah. A study of Joseph's life will convince anyone that Joseph was the outstanding son of the twelve. Joseph was separate from his brethren [109]. All of these sons were the offspring of Jacob‑Israel and could be called Israelites, but only the sons of Judah could be called Judaites. The descendants of Gad were called Gadites, the offspring of Reuben were called Reubenites; of Benjamin, Benjaminites; of Dan, Danites; etc. As only one branch of Jacob‑Israel were Judaites, so also were the Jews from one part of the Judah‑Shelah part of Judah.

Part of the Jews of today are descendants of the "Shelah" branch of Judah and still hate Jesus of the "Pharez" branch and they still say,

"We will not have This Man (Christ ‑ of the Pharez line) To Rule Over Us." [110]

Let us consider the three branches of Judah as given in Genesis chapter thirty‑eight. Following the sale of Joseph, by his brethren, to the Ishmaelites, Judah married a Canaanite wife [111]. This was a violation of God's will, for the Israelites were forbidden to intermarry with the godless heathen [112]. Three sons, Er, Onan, and Shelah, were born to Judah by his Canaanite wife. The eldest son, Er, died without leaving an heir and as was customary, Judah gave his second son, Onan, to Tamar, the widow of Er, in marriage. Onan, refusing to raise seed to his brother, was slain by the Lord [113]. This left Judah but one son, Shelah.

Having lost two sons, Judah refuses to give his third son, Shelah, to Tamar for fear he too would die. But Tamar was not so easily put off. She knew the law of the Lord and she immediately took steps to bring her father‑in‑law, Judah, in line. She played the harlot and Judah became the father of her twin sons, Pharez and Zarah [114]. Judah acknowledges these twins as his own. He is now the father of three boys; one, Shelah, the half‑breed son by his Canaanite wife and the twins, Pharez and Zarah, by his daughter‑in‑law, Tamar, of Israelitish descent. Judah, knowing the law of the Lord concerning heathen marriages says of Tamar, "She hath been more righteous than I." [115]

The very fact that God honors Tamar in naming a large part of Israel's Kingdom after her, reveals that Judah's half‑breed son, Shelah, was rejected Ezekiel 47:19. Just as Isaac was chosen in preference to Ishmael and Jacob chosen in preference to Esau, so too Tamar's sons were chosen and the Shelah son of Judah was rejected.

We can only imagine the strife in Judah's household with each of these three sons claiming to be the heir of Judah. Shelah calling the two twins bastards because they appeared to have been born out of wedlock, and the twins claiming to be the heirs because of their pure Israelitish descent. Zarah claimed the rights of the eldest on the strength of the scarlet thread; whereas Pharez disputed that claim on the strength of being born first [116].

These three branches of Judah can be traced all through the Bible. The Bible story reveals that each one of these branches of Judah was given an opportunity to assume the rights of the firstborn. The Pharez branch terminated with Jeconiah or Coniah [117]. Joseph, the husband of Mary, was one of this man's descendants [118]. The daughters of Zedekiah, the last King of Judah were carried to Ireland where one of them, Tea Tephi, married Eochaid, a tribal prince of the Zarah‑Judah line.

Thus the breach [119] between Pharez‑Judah and Zarah‑Judah was healed. The Royal House of Britain traces its descent directly to this twin Pharez‑Zarah line. Although descendants of Judah, They Are Not Jews. The word Jew is taken from the word "Yehudim" and means "remnant." The Jews therefore were that part of Judah that descended from the half‑Canaanite, half‑Israelite sons of Judah. These were the "Jews" the "remnant" or "Hehudim" of 2 Kings 16:6.

They were the remnant "that inherited their father Shelah's character as well as his birthplace." [120] They were chosen to fulfill their cup of iniquity and come to their end even as Judas was chosen and came to his end. "Have not I chosen you twelve and one of you is a devil?" [121] The name Judas reveals his descent. The rest of the Apostles were Galileans [122].

The Jews are a hiss and a byword [123]. The byword "Sheeny" is derived from Shelah and cannot be applied to any other tribe or branch of Israel. They were the bad figs of Jeremiah 24:8‑19. They were considered more treacherous than backsliding Israel [124]. They were the broken bottle nation of [125], whereas, Israel was to be remade into another vessel [126].

They were given the opportunity to prove their right to the heirship of Judah by being permitted to return to Judea and placed in charge of the nation's affairs. The Shelah Jews were in charge of the Temple during the time of Christ. Mary and Joseph, both of the Pharez‑Judah line, were poor and abased. Joseph, of the Solomon line, was a carpenter and could never become King because his ancestor, Coniah, had forfeited his rights to that exalted position.

Joseph was Not "poor." "Carpenter" means "The Builders Race." [127] Mary too, although of the Pharez‑Judah line, through Nathan, was abased. In them was fulfilled [128].

"Thus saith the Lord God; Remove the Diadem, and Take off the Crown: this shall not be the same. Exalt him that is low and Abase him that is High. I will Overturn, Overturn, Overturn, it: and it shall be no more, until he comes whose right it is: and I will give it to him."

Of Arab inhabitants, demolition of villages, collective punishment, ill treatment of prisoners. It is the United States Government which has and still makes it impossible for the United Nations to compel Israel to obey the International Law the Jews set up. It should, by now, become obvious to any honest student of the Scriptures and history that those people who call themselves "Jews" have spent countless millions of dollars to manufacture the fiction that "Jesus was a Jew," and that the "Jews" are God's "Chosen People;" that the Chief Priests, Pharisees and scribes of His (Jesus') time can be identified with few of the "Jews" of today, and that the Christian religion is an offshoot of Judaism.

This is Blasphemy; It is Satanic Teaching; It is Straight From the "Pits of Hell"; It is False; It is a Lie: Jesus Was Not A Jew!!!!!

Jesus Did Not practice the "religion of the Jews: Judaism." He Abhorred It. The religious beliefs taught in the synagogues of Judea during Christ's lifetime Were Not the religious beliefs of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph and Moses. It Was and Still is A Heathen Religious Belief Known as Pharisaism, and was soundly condemned by our Lord on many occasions. As we have already shown, from Scriptural sources, Jesus condemned the Jews as being "Children of Satan."

In other words, the Jewish rabbinate of the 1980's is the same religious crowd to which Jesus spoke in Matthew 12:34, when He said:

"O generation of vipers, how can ye (Jews), Being Evil, speak good things?"

                                                                   The Semitic Peoples

The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary states on page 768:

"The term Semite is derived from Noah's son Shem and is used to identify a diverse group of ancient peoples, whose languages are related belonging to the Semitic family of languages..."

So we can see that the word "Semitic" or "Semite" was derived from Shem and the application of the word is "racial" and is directed towards the descendants of Shem.

                                                                 The Semite Language

The World Book omits any reference to the Jews, and under the word Semite it states:

"Semite...Semites are those who speak Semitic languages. In this sense the ancient Hebrews, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Cartaginians were Semites. The Arabs and some Ethiopians are modern Semitic‑speaking people. Modern Jews are often called Semites, but this name properly applies only to those who use the Hebrew Language. The Jews were once a sub‑type of the Mediterranean race, But they have mixed with other peoples until the name 'JEW' has lost all racial meaning."

Please notice that this definition does make reference to the Hebrews as a people speaking the Semitic language but it does not mention the Jews. It makes the point that "Arabs" and "Ethiopians" are modern day "Semitic speaking people" but again omits the Jews. In addition this encyclopedia specifically points out that the Jews are erroneously referred to as Semites and insists that a Semite had to speak the "Hebrew" (Semitic) language, concluding that the Jews have so "intermixed" with other races, "the name Jew has lost all racial meaning."

The World Book states the Jews are a "sub‑type...race..." and a "mixed" people. It seems obvious that a mixed people would speak a mixed language. According to the same encyclopedia the 20th century Palestinian Jews living in the land presently known as Israel and speak the Yiddish language which: "...grew from High German, and has some words from the Hebrew, Polish, Russian and English languages."

When the Khazars in the 1st century B.C. invaded Eastern Europe their mother‑tongue was an Asiatic language, referred to in the Jewish Encyclopedia as the "Khazar languages." They were primitive Asiatic dialects without any alphabet or any written form.  When King Bulan was converted in the 7th century he decreed that the Hebrew characters he saw in the Talmud and other Hebrew documents was to become the alphabet for the Khazar language.

The Hebrew characters were adopted to the phonetics of the spoken Khazar language. The Khazars adopted the characters of the so‑called Hebrew language in order to provide a means for providing a written record of their speech. The Adoption of the Hebrew Characters had no racial, political or religious implication.

The Western European nations which had no alphabet for their spoken language adopted the alphabet of the Latin language under comparable circumstances. With the invasion of Western Europe by the Romans the civilization and the culture of the Romans was introduced into these areas. Thus the Latin alphabet was adopted for the language of the French, Spanish, English, Swedish and many other Western European languages. These languages were completely foreign to each other yet they all used the same alphabet. The Romans brought their alphabet with their culture to these nations Exactly like the rabbis brought the Hebrew alphabet from Babylonia to the Khazars when they introduced writing to them in the form of the Talmud's alphabet.

Since the conquest of the Khazars by the Russians and the disappearance of the Khazar Kingdom the language of the Khazars is known as "Yiddish." for about six centuries the "Jews" of Eastern Europe have referred to themselves while still resident in their native Eastern European countries as "Yiddish" by nationality. They identified themselves as "Yiddish" rather than as Russian, Polish, Galician, Lithunian, Rumanian, Hungarian or by the nation which they were citizens.

They also referred to the Common Language They All Spoke as "Yiddish." There are today in New York City many "Yiddish" newspapers, "Yiddish" theaters and many other cultural organizations of the "Jews" from Eastern Europe which are identified publicly by the word "Yiddish" in their title. Before it became known as the "Yiddish" language, the mother‑tongue of the Khazars added many words to its limited ancient vocabulary as necessity required. These words were acquired from the languages of its neighboring nations with whom they had political, social or economic relations.

Languages of all nations add to their vocabularies in the same manner. The Khazars adopted words to their requirements from the German, the Slavonic and the Baltic languages. The Khazars adopted a great number of words from the German language. The Germans had a much more advanced civilization than their Khazar neighbors and the Khazars sent their children to German schools and universities.

However, the "Yiddish" language is not a German dialect. Many people are led to believe so because "Yiddish" has borrowed so many words from the German language. "Yiddish" must not be confused with "Hebrew" because they both use the same characters as their alphabets. There is not one word of "Yiddish" in Ancient "Hebrew" nor is there one word of Ancient "Hebrew" in "Yiddish." They are as totally different as Swedish and Spanish which both likewise use the same Latin characters of their alphabets.

The "Yiddish" language is the cultural common denominator for all the "Jews" in or from Eastern Europe. To the "Jews" in and from Eastern Europe. "Yiddish" serves them like the English language serves the populations of the 50 states of the United States. Whose common denominator is the English language and is the tie which binds them to each other. It is the same with the "Yiddish" language and "Jews" throughout the world.

Besides that the ancient Hebrew language is a dead language as it has not been spoken for centuries. Since the Palestinian Jews do not speak Hebrew. They are not now nor have they ever been Semites. Therefore making critical remarks against them cannot make a person anti‑ Semitic.

The Jews now living in Palestine and the United States, are a mixed race of people, a "Turko‑Finn, Mongolian tribal people," from Khazaria, and have no racial identity (other than stated above) and practice many variations of what is called "Judaism" which is nothing more than a new name for "Pharisaism." For whatever reason, these people have chosen to call themselves Jews and practice Judaism but they are not direct descendants of "Shem" nor did any of their ancestors ever live in Palestine. Therefore, it is Impossible, by being against a Jew one could be anti‑Semitic. Anti‑Khazarian: yes. Anti‑Jew: yes. Anti‑Semitic: No!

                                                             The Jews Are Not Semitic

The best way to understand who the Jews are is by reading what the Jews themselves have to say about who they are. Benjamin H. Freedman, himself a Jew, said:

     "Relentless research established as equally true that the so‑called or self‑styled 'Jews' in Eastern Europe at no time in their history could be correctly regarded as the direct lineal descendants of the legendary 'lost ten tribes' of Bible lore. The so‑called or self‑styled 'Jews' in Eastern Europe in modern history cannot legitimately point to a single ancient ancestor who ever set even a foot on the soil of Palestine in the era of Bible history. Research also revealed that the so‑called or self‑styled 'Jews' in Eastern Europe were never 'Semites,' are not 'Semites' now, nor can they ever be regarded as 'Semites' at any future time by any stretch of the imagination. Exhaustive research also irrevocably rejects as a FANTASTIC FABRICATION the generally accepted belief by Christians that the so‑called or self‑styled 'Jews in Eastern Europe are the legendary 'Chosen People' so very vocally publicized by the Christian clergy from their pulpits...

     A secret mysterious power has been able for countless generations to keep the origin and the history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom out of history textbooks and out of classroom courses in history throughout the world? The origin and history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom are certainly incontestable historic facts.  These incontestable historic facts also establish beyond any question of doubt the origin and history of the so‑called or self‑styled 'Jews' in Eastern Europe. The origin and history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom and their relationship to the origin and early history of the so‑called or self‑styled 'Jews' in Eastern Europe was one of history's best kept secrets until wide publicity was given in recent years to my research on this subject...Prior to the 10th century the Khazar Kingdom had already been reduced by Russian conquests to an area of 800,000 square miles...The populations of the Khazar Kingdom was made up for the most part of Khazars with the addition of the remnants of the populations of the 25 peaceful agricultural nations of the populations of the 25 peaceful agricultural nations which had inhabited this approximate 1,000,000 square miles before their conquest by the invading Khazars. In the 1st century B.C. the Khazars had invaded Eastern Europe from their homeland in Asia. The Khazars invaded Eastern Europe via the land route between the north end of the Caspian Sea and the south end of the Ural Mountains.

     The Khazars were not 'Semites.' They were an Asiatic Mongoloid Nation. They are classified by modern anthropologists as Turco‑Finns racially. From time immemorial the homeland of the Khazars was in the heart of Asia. They were a very warlike nation. The Khazars were driven out of Asia finally by the nations in Asia with whom they were continually at war. The Khazars invaded Eastern Europe to escape further defeats in Asia. The very warlike Khazars did not find it difficult to subdue and conquer the 25 peaceful agricultural nations occupying approximately 1,000,000 square miles in Eastern Europe. In a comparatively short period the Khazars established the largest and most powerful kingdom in Europe, and probably the wealthiest also.

     The Khazars were a pagan nation when they invaded Eastern Europe. Their religious worship was a mixture of phallic worship and other forms of idolatrous worship practiced in Asia by pagan nations. This form of worship continued until the 7th century. The vile forms of sexual excesses indulged in by the Khazars as their form of religious worship produced a degree of moral degeneracy the Khazar's King could not endure. In the 7th century King Bulan, ruler at that time of the Khazar Kingdom decided to abolish the practice of phallic worship and other forms of idolatrous worship and make one of the three monotheistic religions, about which he knew very little, the new state religion. After a historic session with representatives of the three monotheistic religions King Bulan decided against Christianity and Islam and Selected as the future State Religion of the Religious Worship then known as 'Talmudism,' and now known and practiced as 'Judaism.' This event is well documented in history. King Bulan and his 4,000 feudal nobles were promptly converted by rabbis imported from Babylonia for that event. Phallic worship and other forms of idolatry were thereafter forbidden. The Khazar Kings invited large numbers of rabbis to come and open synagogues and schools to instruct the population in the new form of religious worship. It was not the state religion. The converted Khazars were the first population of so‑called or self‑styled 'Jews' in Eastern Europe. So‑called or self‑styled 'Jews' in Eastern Europe after the conversion of the Khazars are the descendants of the Khazars converted to 'Talmudism,' or as it is now know as 'Judaism,' by the 7th century mass conversion of the Khazar population..." [129]

Mr. Freedman points out quite clearly that the people, known as Jews, living in Palestine and America in the 20th century have no "racial or historic connection with Palestine" and that they are really descendants from a "Turko‑Finn, Mongolian tribal people" who created a kingdom called Khazaria which existed until the 12th century. These Khazarian Jews could just as easily have practiced Christianity, but for political reason they chose Judaism and there is nothing that can be done about it. Obviously, if these people have "no racial or historic connection with Palestine" they have no claim to the promises made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

Now let's return once more to "Facts are Facts" by Mr. Benjamin H. Freedman, who relates the following very interesting information:

     "The international 'crime of crimes' of all history, that reprehensible iniquity in which this nation (The United States) played the major role, was committed in Palestine almost totally as a result of the interference of the United States in that situation on behalf of the Zionist World‑wide organization, with its headquarters located in New York City. The interference of the United States on the behalf of the aggressors illustrates the power exerted upon domestic and foreign policies of this government by the 'male prostitutes' fearlessly functioning on behalf of Zionist conspirators. It is the Blackest Page in our History.

     The responsibility for this un‑Christian, non‑Christian and anti‑Christian 'cause' can be honestly deposited on the doorstep of the (so‑called) Christian clergy. Therefore, they must assume the full guilt for that inhuman and unholy crime committed in the name of Christian 'charity.' Sunday after Sunday, year in and year out, the Christian clergy dinned into the ears of...Christians who go to church regularly that Christians must regard it as their 'Christian duty' to support the Zionist conspirators conquest of Palestine. Well, we 'sowed a wind, 'now we will reap a whirl‑wind.'

     The Christians of the United States were 'high pressured' by the so‑called Christian clergy to give their unqualified support to the Zionist program to 'repatriate' to their 'homeland' in Palestine. The so‑called 'Jews' of Eastern Europe, who were the descendants of the Khazars. Christians were exhorted by the Christian clergy to regard the so‑called 'Jews' from Eastern Europe as God's 'Chosen People' and that Palestine was their 'Promised land.' They knew better all the time. It was simply a case of 'Cupidity' not 'stupidity' you can be sure.

     As a direct result of the activities of the 'male prostitutes' on behalf of the Zionist program, contrary to all international law, to justice and to equity, anything to the contrary notwithstanding, the Christians of the United States, with few exceptions, demanded that the Congress of the United States use the prestige and the power of this nation, diplomatic, economic and military to guarantee the successful outcome of the Zionist program for the conquest of Palestine. This was done and the Zionists conquered Palestine. We are responsible. It is a well‑established undeniable historic fact that the active participation of the United States in the conquest of Palestine, on behalf of the Zionists, was the factor responsible for the conquest of Palestine by the Zionists. Without the active participation of the United States on behalf of the Zionists, it is certain they would never have attempted the conquest of Palestine by force of arms. Palestine would be an independent sovereign country under a form of government established by self‑determination of the lawful and legal Palestinians. This was aborted by payment of countless millions of dollars to Christian 'male prostitutes' by the Zionists on a scale difficult for the uninitiated to even imagine." [130]

Before we go on, let us present here a custom of the Jews that few Christians know anything about. That custom being the invoking of the "Kol Nidre." It is referred to in the Talmud as "the law of revocation in advance," and is obtained for all who recite it each year on the eve of the Day of Atonement, and is considered by the Jews to be Divine Dispensation from all obligations acquired under "Oaths, Vows and Pledges" to be made or taken in the coming year. The implications, inferences and innuendoes of the "Kol Nidre." (All Vows) prayer are referred to in the Talmud in the book of Nedarin 23a‑23b ‑‑ as follows:

"And he who desires that none of his vows made during the year shall be valid, let him stand at the beginning of the year and declare, 'every vow which I make in the future will be null' (1) His vows are then invalid, providing that he remembers this at the time of the vow. (1) Footnote: This may have provided a support for the custom of reciting Kol Nidre (a formula for dispensation of vows) prior to the Evening Service of the Day of Atonement was probably chosen on account of its great solemnity."

But Kol Nidre as part of the ritual is later than The Talmud, and, as seen from the following statement of R. Huna S. Hinene; "the law of revocation in advance was not made public."

In Russia, about 1000 A.D. it was the custom, as in other Christian countries in Europe at that time to take an oath, vow or pledge of loyalty to the rulers, the nobles, the feudal landholders and others in the name of Jesus Christ. It was after the conquest of the Khazars by the Russians that the wording of the "Kol Nidre" (all vows) prayer was altered.

The effect of the "Law of Revocation in Advance" obtained for all who recited it each year, on the eve of the Day of Atonement was, as stated before believed by the Jews to be divine dispensation a release from all obligations acquired under "Oaths, vows and pledges" to be made or taken in the Coming Year. The recital of the "Kol Nidre" (All vows) prayer Released "Jews" from any obligation taken under "Oaths, Vows or Pledges" entered into during the next twelve months. Therefore, any and all "Oaths, Vows, and/or Pledges" made or taken by "Jews," were made or taken "with tongue in check," for the next twelve months. Of course this altered version of the "Kol Nidre" (All vows) prayer creates serious difficulties for the "Jews" whenever its wording becomes public knowledge. It apparently did not remain a secret very long, although the Talmud states "the law of the revocations in advance was not made public."

Thus the "Kol Nidre" (All vows) prayer soon became known as the "Jews Vow" and cast, and not without reason, serious doubt upon Any and All "oaths, vows or pledges" given by "Jews." This was/is the basis for the Jews cry of "discrimination" by governments, nobles, feudal landholders, and those who entered their service were required to take an oath, vow or pledge of loyalty. What's wrong with that: Do we not cite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America? Well you can be certain that no "Jew" means it when he takes it!

Really could we expect anything else from a people who have never been loyal to any government or people they have lived under or with; the Jews are a people who are, without a doubt, the most traitorous People that has ever existed upon the Earth for their loyalty is always for sale! If this is true, and it is, then there should be more evidence to support this position, and there is. The American People's Encyclopedia for 1954 at 15‑292 records the following in reference to the Khazars:

"In the year 740 A.D. The Khazars were officially Converted to Judaism. A century later they were crushed by the incoming Slavic‑speaking people and were scattered over central Europe where they were known as Jews."

It is from this grouping that most German, Polish and Hungarian Jews are descended, and they likewise make

up a considerable part of that population now found in America. The term Aschenazim is applied to this "round‑

headed, dark‑complexioned division."

     "Nathan M. Pollock has a beef with the Israeli government. His elaborate plans to celebrate this September the 1000th anniversary of the Jewish‑Khazar alliance were summarily rejected. An elderly, meek‑looking man who migrated to Israel from Russia 43 years ago. Pollock ekes out a living as a translator of scientific texts and proofreader in a publishing firm. But his great passion, hobby and avocation is historic research.

     He has devoted 40 of his 64 years to trying to prove that six out of ten Israelis and none out of ten Jews in the Western Hemisphere are not real Jews' Jews, but descendants of fierce Khazar tribes which roamed the steppes of Southern Russia many centuries ago. For obvious reasons the Israeli authorities are not at all eager to give the official stamp of approval to Pollock's theories. 'For all we know, he may be 100 percent right,' said a senior government official. 'In fact, he is not the first one to discover the connection between Jews and Khazars.

     Many famous scholars Jews and non‑Jews, stressed these links in their historical research works. But who can tell today what percentage of Khazar blood flows in our veins, if at all? And who can declare with any degree of scientific accuracy which Jews are Jews and which are descendants of this Tartar‑Mongol race? As a matter of fact, our alleged descent from the Khazars is the central theme of Arab propaganda,' he added. 'The Arabs claim most European Jews have no right to be in Israel in the first place because they are not descended from Biblical Hebrews, but from Tartar‑Mongol nomad tribes, including the Khazars who were converted to Judaism en masse 1000 years ago.'

     Scientific opinion in Israel is divided on the subject. No one argues the basic premise: that a group of 12,000 Jews fleeing from persecution and wars in the Holy Land, in the wake of Byzantine and Moslem conquests, made the long overland trek to Persia, crossed the territory of today's Turkestan in Central Asia and found asylum in the Khazar Kingdom, which occupied a vast area between the Caspian Sea, Volga River, Ural Mountains, Black Sea and the Pollack borderlands.

     In the year 965 the Khazars were defeated for the first time in 500 years, by Prince Sviatoslav of Kiev. King Bulan III of Khazaria concluded that Prince Sviatoslav emerged victorious from the war because his troops and mercenaries were Christians, while his nomads were pagan worshippers. The king and his nobles embraced Judaism in 965, and in 966 a royal edict was passed enforcing Judaism as the only legal religion in the Khazar Kingdom.

     Tribesmen had to undergo circumcision, learn Hebrew prayers and recognize Jewish rabbis as their spiritual leaders, on paid of death. As other Jews who were persecuted in the Middle East, medieval Europe and Spain at that time, heard of the new Jewish‑Khazar Kingdom, rumors spread that the Messiah had arrived at long last. There were several consecutive migration waves to Khazaria, via Persia, Greece and Poland.

     Pollock believes the traditional Russian anti‑Semitism probably stems from that epoch when Hebrew‑speaking Khazar raiders attacked Russian villages, killed the men folk, abducted women, forcibly converted them to Judaism and married them in fulfledged religious ceremonies. This also would explain why so many European Jews are Blond and Blue-eyed, with a Slight Mongol Slant to Their Eyes, as well as the total absence of Semitic features among many Israelis of European descent.

     The flourishing Jewish‑Khazar Kingdom was destroyed in 1239 by the Mongol invasion of Batu Khan. Following the Mongol invasion and conquest, surviving members of Jewish‑Khazar tribes trekked west and settled in Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, Austria, Romania and the Ukraine.

     How can one find out if he is a 'Khazar Jew' or a 'Hebrew Jew?' According to Pollock, whose parents came from Poland, if your name is Halperin, Alpert, Halpern, Galpern, etc., you are 100 percent Khazar. 'Alper' means 'brave knight' ihn the Khazar tongue, and the name was granted by the king to the most distinguished warriors.

     Names like Kaplan, Caplon, Koppel, and the like are positive proof of Khazar descent, according to the scholar. 'Kaplan' means 'fierce hawk' in the Khazar language. Kogan, Kagan, Keganovich show aristocratic descent from Kagan‑Hagan, King Bulan's chief minister..." [131]

     From the above, we can clearly see that the Jews fully understand their Khazarian heritage as the third

edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia for 1925 records:

     "CHAZARS (Khazars): A people of Turkish origin whose life and history are interwoven with the very beginnings of the history of the Jews of Russia. The kingdom of the Chazars was firmly established in most of South Russia long before the foundation of the Russian monarchy by the Varangians (855).

     Jews have lived on the shores of the Black and Caspian seas since the first centuries of the common era (after the death of Christ). Historical evidence points to the region of the Ural as the home of the Chazars. Among the classical writers of the Middle Ages they were known as the 'Chozars,' 'Khazirs,' 'Akatzirs,' and 'Akatirs,' and in the Russian chronicles as 'Khwalisses' and 'Ugry Byelyye.'

     The Armenia writers of the fifth and following centuries furnish ample information concerning this people. Moses of Chorene refers to the invasion by the 'Khazirs' of Armenia and Iberia at the beginning of the third century: 'The chaghan was the king of the North, the ruler of the Khazirs, and the queen was the chatoun' [132].

     The Chazars first came to Armenia with the Basileans in 198. Though at first repulsed, they subsequently became important factors in Armenian history for a period of 800 years. Driven onward by the nomadic tribes of the steppes and by their own desire for plunder and revenge, they made frequent invasions into Armenia. The latter country was made the battle‑ground in the long struggle between the Romans and the Persians.

     This struggle, which finally resulted in the loss by Armenia of her independence, paved the way for the political importance of the Chazars. The conquest of eastern Armenia by the Persians in the fourth century rendered the latter dangerous to the Chazars, who, for their own protection, formed an alliance with the Byzantines. This alliance was renewed from time to time until the final conquest of the Chazars by the Russians.

     Their first aid was rendered to the Byzantine emperor Julian, in 363. About 434 they were for a time tributary to Attila, Sidonius Apollinaris relates that the Chazars followed the banners of Attila, and in 452 fought on the Catalanian fields in company with the Black Huns and Alans. The Persian King Kobad (488‑531) undertook the construction of a line of forts through the pass between Derbent and the Caucasus, in order to guard against the invasion of the Chazars, Turks and other warlike tribes. His son Chosroes Anoshirvan (531‑579) built the wall of Derbent, repeatedly mentioned by the Oriental geographers and historians as Bab al‑Awab. In the second half of the sixth century the Chazars moved westward. They established themselves in the territory bounded by the Sea of Azov, the Don and the lower Volga, the Caspian Sea, and the Northern Caucasus. The Caucasian Goths (Tetraxites) were subjugated by the Chazars, probably about the seventh century.

     Early in that century the kingdom of the Chazars had become powerful enough to enable the chaghan to send to the Byzantine emperor Heraclius an army of 40,000 men, by whose aid he conquered the Persians (626‑627). The Chazars had already occupied the northeastern part of the Black Sea region. According to the historian Moses Kalonkataci, the Chazars, under their leader Jebu Chaghan (called 'Ziebel Chaghan' by the Greek writers), penetrated into Persian territory as early as the second campaign of Heraclius, on which occasion they devastated Albania.

     Nicephorus testifies that Heraclius repeatedly showed marks of esteem to his ally, the chaghan of the Chazars, to whom he even promised his daughter in marriage. In the great battle between the Chazars and the Arabs near Kizliar 4,000 Mohammedan soldiers and their leaders were slain.

     In the year 669 the Ugrians or Zabirs freed themselves from the rule of the Obrians, settled between the Don and the Caucasus, and came under the dominion of the Chazars. For this reason the Ugrians, who had hitherto been called the 'White' or 'Independent' Ugrians, are described inthe chronicles ascribed to Nestro as the 'Black' or 'Dependent,' Ugrians. They were no longer governed by their own princes, but were ruled by the kings of the Chazars. In 735, when the Arab leader Mervan moved from Georgia against the Chazars, he attacked the Ugriaus also. In 679 the Chazars subjugated the Bulgars and extended their sway farther west between the Don and the Dnieper, as far as the head‑waters of the Donetz in the province of Lebedia. It was probably about that time that the chaghan of the Chazars and his grandees, together with a large number of his heathen people, embraced the Jewish religion.

     According to A. Harkavy, the conversion took place in 620, according to others, in 740. King Joseph, in his letter to Hasdal ibn Shaprut (about 960), gives the following account of the conversion: 'Some centuries ago King Bulan reigned over the Chazars. To him God appeared in a dream and promised him might and glory.

     Encouraged by this dream, Bulan went by the road of Darian to the country of Ardebil, where he gained great victories (over the Arabs). The Byzantine emperor and the calif of the Ishmaelites sent to him envoys with presents, and sages to convert him to their respective religions. Bulan invited also wise men of Israel, and proceeded to examine them all. As each of the champions believed his religion to be the best, Bulan separately questioned the Mohammedans and the Christians as to which of the other two religions they considered the better. When both gave preference to that of the Jews, that king perceived that it must be the true religion. He therefore adopted it.'

     This account of the conversion was considered to be of a legendary nature.  Harkavy, however, proved from Arabic and Slavonian sources that the religious disputation at the Charzarian court is a historical fact. Even the name of Sangari has been found in a liturgy of Constantine the Philosopher (Cyrill). It was one of the successors of Bulan, named Obadiah, who regenerated the kingdom and strengthened the Jewish religion. He invited Jewish scholars to settle in his dominions, and founded synagogues and schools. The people were instructed in the Bible, Mishna, and Talmud, and in the 'divine service of the hazzanim.' In their writings the Chazars used the Hebrew letters.

     Obadiah was succeeded by his son Hezekiah; the latter by his son Manasseh; Mannaseh by Hanukkah, a Succession brother of Obadiah; Hanukkah by his son Isaac; Isaac by his son Moses (or Manasseh II); latter by his son Nisi; and Nisi by his son Aaron II. King Joseph himself was a son of Aaron, and ascended the throne in accordance with the law of the Chazars relating to succession. On the whole, King Joseph's account agrees generally with the evidence given by the Arabic writers of the tenth century, but in detail it contains a few discrepancies.

     According to Ibn Fadlan, Ibn Dastah, and others, only the king and the grandees were followers of Judaism. The rest of the Chazars were Christians, Mohammedans, and heathens; and the Jews were in a great minority. According to Mas'udi, the king and the Chazars proper were Jews; but the army consisted of Mohammedans, while the other inhabitants, especially the Slavonians and Russians, were heathens. From the work 'Kitab al‑Buldan,' written about the ninth century, it appears as if all the Chazars were Jews and that they had been converted to Judaism only a short time before that book was written. But this work was probably inspired by Jaihani; and it may be assumed that in the ninth century many Chazar heathens became Jews, owing to the religious zeal of King Obadiah. 'Such a conversion in great masses,' says Chwolson. 'May have been the reason for the embassy of Christians from the land of the Chazars to the Byzantine emperor Michael. The report of the embassy reads as follows: 'Quomodo nunc Judaei, nunc Saraceni ad suam fidem eos molirentur convertere.'

     The history of the kingdom of the Chazars undoubtedly presents one of the most remarkable features of the Middle Ages. Surrounded by wild, nomadic peoples, and themselves leading partly a nomadic life, the Chazars enjoyed all the privileges of civilized nations, a well‑constituted and tolerant government, a flourishing trade, and a well‑disciplined standing army. In a time when fanaticism ignorance, and anarchy reigned in Western Europe, the kingdom of the Chazars could boast of its just and broad‑minded administration; and all who were persecuted on the scorn of their religion found refuge there. There was a supreme court of justice, composed of seven judges, of whom two were Jews, two Mohammedans, and two Christians, in charge of the interests of their respective faiths, while one heathen was appointed for the Slavonians, Russians, and other pagans.

     The Jewish population in the entire domain of the Chazars, in the period between the seventh and tenth centuries, must have been considerable. There is no doubt that the Caucasian and other Oriental Jews had lived and carried on business with the Chazars long before the arrival of the Jewish fugitives from Greece, who escaped (723) from the mania for conversion which possessed the Byzantine emperor Leo the Isaurian. From the correspondence between King Joseph and Hasdai it is apparent that two Spanish Jews, Judah ben Meïr ben Nathan and Joseph Gagris, had succeeded in settling in the land of the Chazars, and that it was a German Jew, Isaac ben Eliezer' from the land of Nyemetz' (Germany), who carried Hasdai's letter to the king. Saadia, who had a fair knowledge of the kingdom of the Chazars, mentions a certain Isaac ben Abraham who had removed from Sura to Chazaria. Among the various routes enumerate by the Arabic geographer Ibn Khurdadhbah (860‑880) as being used by the Rahdanite Jewish merchants, there is one leading from Spain or France, via Allemania, through the land of the Slavonians, close by Atel, the capital of the Chazars, whence they crossed the Sea of the Chazars (Caspian Sea) and continued their voyage, via Balkh, Transoxania, and the land of the Tagasga, to India and China. These merchants, who spoke Arabic, Persian, Greek, Spanish, French, and Slavonic, 'traveled continuously from west to east from east to west by sea and by land.' They carried eunuchs, serving‑maids, boys, silks, furs, swords, imported musk, aloes, camphor, cinnamon, and other products of the Far East.

     Hasdai ibn Shaprut, who was foreign minister to Abd al‑Rahman, Sultan of Cordova, in his letter to King Joseph of the Chazars (about 960), relates that the first information about that kingdom was communicated to him by envoys from Khorassan, and that their statements were corroborated by the ambassadors from Byzantim. The latter told him that the powerful Chazars were maintaining amicable relations with the Byzantine empire, with which they carried on by sea a trade in fish, skins, and other wares, the voyage from Constantinople occupying fifteen days.

     Hasdai determined to avail himself to the services of the Byzantine embassy to transmit his letter to the king of the Chazars, and with that view he despatched Isaac ben Nathan with valuable gifts to the emperor, requesting him to aid Isaac in his journey to Chazaria. But the Greeks interposed delays, and finally sent Isaac back to Cordova. Hasdai then decided to send his message by way of Jerusalem, Nisibis, Armenia, and Bardaa, but the envoys of the king of the Gebalim (Goleslav I of Bohemia), who had then just arrived in Cordova, and among whom were two Jews, Saul and Joseph, suggested a different plan. The offered to send the letter to Jews living in 'Hungarian' (Hungary), who, in their turn, would transmit it to 'Russ' (Russia), and thence through 'Bulgar' (probably the country of the Bulgarians on the Kuban) to its destination (Atel, the capital of Chazaria). As the envoys guaranteed the safe delivery of the message, Hasdai accepted the proposal. He further express his thankfulness that God, in His mercy had not deprived the Jews of a deliverer, but had preserved the remnant of the Jewish race.

     Taking a keen interest in everything relating to the kingdom of the Chazars, hasdai begs the king to communicate to him a detailed account of the geography of his country, of its internal constitution, of the customs and occupations of its inhabitants, and especially of the history of his ancestry and of the state. In this letter Hasdai speaks of the tradition according to which the Chazars once dwelt near the Seir (Serir) Mountains; he refers to the narrative of Eldad ha‑Dani, who thought he had discovered the Lost Ten Tribes; and inquires whether the Chazars know anything concerning 'the end of the miracles' (the coming of the Messiah).

     As to Eldad ha‑Dani's unauthenticated account of the Lost Ten Tribes on the River Sambation, it may be interesting to note that, according to Idrisi, the city of Sarmel (Sarkel‑on‑the‑Don) was situated on the River Al‑Sabt (Sambat), which is the River Don. The name for Kiev, as given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, is also Sambatas. These appellations of the River Don and of the city of Kiev point evidently to Jewish‑Chazar influences.

     A complete account of the correspondence between, Hasdai and King Joseph, has been written by A. Harkavy, one of the leading authorities on the history of the Chazars, from which the following is, in substance, an extract: 'The Chazarian correspondence was first published in the work 'Kol‑Mebasser' of Isaac Akrish (Constantinople, 1577), into whose hands these documents came while on a voyage from Egypt to Constantinople.

     He published them with the view of proving that even after the destruction of Jerusalem the Jews still had their own country, in accordance with the well‑known passage in Genesis xlix.10, 'the scepter shall not depart from Judah.' Among European scholars Johann Buxtorf, the son, was the first to become interested in the Chazarian letters, which he printed together with the text of Akrish in his Latin translation of 'Cuzari' (Basel, 1660).

     Buxtorf believed that the letters themselves and the entire history of the Chazarian kingdom were but fable, for the reason that no seafarers, merchants, or other travelers had brought any information concerning such a flourishing kingdom as that of the Chazars was reputed to be. The learned Orientalist D'Herbelot, misled by a wrong conception of the 'Cuzari' and its relation tot he conversion of the Chazars to Judaism, leaves the authenticity of the correspondence an open question.

     One of the greatest scholars of the 17th century, Samuel Bochart, in his derivation of the name of the Chazars, introduces the account of Joseph ben Gorion (Yostpon), and in his notes to the 'Yuhasin' of Zacute gives information about the Chazarian kingdom and the Sea of the Chazars obtained from the 'Geographia Nubiensis' of the Arabian writer Idrisi (12th century).

     Pochart's views, however, are not important because he had no knowledge of the 'Cuzari' or of the Chazarian letters. All the skeptics of that time and those mentioned below had no knowledge of the facts concerning the Chazars and Chazarian Judaism as contained in Slavonic Russian sources, or of the 'Acts Sanctorum,' which discusses those sources. It is therefore not surprising that the first author of a comprehensive history of the Jews, Basnage, who in his 'Histoire des Jifs,' v. 446, Rotterdam, 1707, prints the Chazarian letters, has the boldness to declare as idle fancy, not only the kingdom of the Chazars, but even the existence of the Chazarian people, which was invented, he considers, by Jewish boastfulness.

     About the same time Dom Augustine Calmet issued his Biblical researches, part of which treats of 'the country whither the Ten Tribes were led away and where the said tribes now live.' Calmet considers Media near the Caspian Sea to be 'the country,' and that it is also identical with 'the country of the Chazars,' which was glorified so much in the rabbinical writings. According to them the czar of the Chazars adopted the Jewish religion in the eight century. Calmet, however, considers the whole story a fiction.

     Baratier, 'the remarkable child,' also considered the story of the Chazars to be only a pleasing novel; but it may serve as an excuse for his opinion that when he wrote his work he was only eleven years of age. The Danish historiographer Frederick Suhm, who in 1779 wrote a remarkable work, for that time, on the Chazars, and who could not free himself from the view of the Hebraists of the time with regard to the letter of King Joseph, was the first to give a decided opinion in favor of the genuineness of the letter of Hasdai.

     The ignorance of these writers is accounted for by the fact that only at the end of the eighteenth century, were translations of the old Arabic writers, Mas'udi, Istakhri, Ibn Haukal, etc., on the Chazars, issued. The first to make use of the testimony of the Arabic writers to corroborate the accounts of the Jewish writers on the Chazars, was the Lithuanian historian Tadeusz Czacki, who had the advantage of using copies of the Arabic manuscripts relating to the subject in the Library of Paris. The Russian historian karamsin also made use of Mas'udi's information, given in the 'Chrestomathy' of Silvestre de Sacy, and of Abulfeda's researches published in the fifth volume of Busching's 'Historical Magazine.'

     The Russian academician Ch. Frähn and the Swedish scholar D'Ohsson collected and published, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, all the Arabic testimony on the subject of the Chazars known at that time. The authenticity of the letter of King Joseph has, however, since been fully established by the very material which those scholars had at their disposal, Frähu acknowledges the genuineness of Hasdai's letter, but not that of King Joseph. In the same way D'Ohsson, although he found the information of the Arabic and Byzantine writers in conformity with the contents of the Chazar letters, could not help doubting its genuiness. This may be explained by the fact that as they did not understand Hebrew they did not care to commit themselves on a question which lay outside of their field of investigation. But the Jewish scholars had no doubts whatever as to the genuineness of the Chazarian documents, especially since the beginning of the critical school of Rapoport and Zunz. They were made use of by many writers in Spain in the twelfth century; as, for instance, by Judah ha‑Levi (1140), who displayed a close acquaintance with the contents of King Joseph's epistle, and by the historian Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo (1160), who distinctly refers to the same letter.

     Later on, with the persecutions which ended with the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, the Chazarian documents, together with many other treasures of medieval Jewish literature, were lost to the learned, and were not recovered until the end of the sixteenth century, when they were found in Egypt by Isaac 'Akrish. The Jews of that time took little interest, however, in the history of the past, being absorbed by the cheerless events of their own epoch. The first reference, therefore, to the Chazar letters is by Rabbi Bacharach of Worms, in 1679, who discovered proofs of the genuineness of Hasdai's letter in an acrostic in the poem which served as a preface, and which reads as follows: 'I, Hasdai, son of Isaac, son of Ezra ben Shaprut.'

     This acrostic, however, again remained unnoticed until it was rediscovered by Frensdorf, independently of Bacharach, in 1836. Four years later (1840) the genuineness of Hasdai's letter was absolutely proved by Joseph Zedner. He also acknowledged the authenticity of the Chaghan's letter, but did not submit proofs. At the same time Solomon Munk gave his opinion in favor of the genuineness of both letters. Since then most of the Jewish scholars have adopted his view, including Lebrecht, 1841; Michael Sachs, 1845; S.D. Luzzatto, 1846‑50; Z. Frankel, 1852; D. Cassel and H. Jolovicz, 1853, 1859, 1872; Leop. Löw, 1855‑74; Hartog, 1857; Jost, 1858; Steinschneider, 1860; Grätz, 1860 and 1871; harkavy, beginning with 1864; Geiger, 1865; Kraushar, 1866; D. Kaufmann, 1877; and many others. A comparison of Jewish with other sources, especially with Arabic, as far as they were then known, must be credited to E. Carmoly. He began his work with the comparison of the various sources in his 'Revue Orientale' (1840‑44). he completed it in 1847. Some useful supplements to Carmoly's works were presented by Paulus Cassel in 1848 and 1877. The results of these investigations were accepted by the following Christian scholars: Grigoryev, 1834; Schafarik, 1848; Lelevel, 1851‑60; Vivien de San Martin, 1851; S. Solovyov, 1851‑1874; Byelevski, 1864; Brun, 1866‑77; Bilbasov, 1868‑71; Kunik, 1874 and 1878; and many others. Still there were some writers who were misled by the earlier opinions, and on the strength of them spoke skeptically of the documents; as Jacob Goldenthal (1848); Dobryakov (1865); and even the historian Ilovaiski (1876) (The translation of the letters given by Harkavy is from a manuscript in the St. Petersburg Public Library. The genuineness of the St. Petersburg manuscript has been demonstrated by him).

     In 960 Atel (or Itil), at that time the capital of the kingdom of the Chazars, was situated about eight miles from the northern Astrakhan, on the right bank of the lower Volga, which river was also called 'Atel' or 'Itil.' The meaning of 'Atel' in the Gothic language is 'father' or 'little father,' that of 'Itil' in the Turanian language is 'river'; it is difficult to decide which of these two words gave the river its name. The western part of the city was surrounded by a wall pierced by four gates, of which one led to the river, and the others to the steppes. Here was situated the king's palace, which was the only brick building in the city. According to Mas'udi, the city was divided into three parts, the palace of the chaghan standing on an island. The king had twenty‑five wives, all of royal blood, and sixty concubines, all famous beauties. Each one dwelt in a separate tent and was watched by a eunuch. The authority of the chaghan was so absolute that during his absence from the capital, even his viceroy, or coregent (called 'isha,' or 'bek,' or 'pech'), was powerless. The viceroy had to enter the chaghan's apartments barefooted and with the greatest reverence. He held in his right hand a chip of wood, which he lit when he saluted the chaghan, whereupon he took his seat to the right of the latter, on the throne, which was of gold. The walls of the palace were also gilded, and a golden gate ornamented the palace.

     All the other dwellings of the then populous city were insignificant mud huts or felt tents. The position of the chaghan of the Chazars was evidently similar to that of the former mikados of Japan, while the bek, his military coregent, corresponded to the shogans of the latter. Emperor Heraclius in 626 concluded a treaty with the chaghan of the Chazars, and Constantine Copronymus, in his description of the embassy of the Chazars (834), states that it was sent by the 'chaghan and the pech.' Ibn Fadlan relates that the king of the Chazars was called the 'great chaghan,' and his deputy 'chaghan‑bhoa' ('bey,' 'beg,' or 'bek'). The bek led the army, administered the affairs of the country, and appeared among the people; and to him the neighboring kings paid allegiance. It will thus be seen that the extent of the powers of the bek varied with the times. When the chaghan wanted to punish any one, he said, 'Go and commit suicide' ‑ a method resembling the Japanese custom of hara‑kiri.

     The mother of the chaghan resided in the western part of the city, whose eastern part, called 'Chazaran,' was inhabited by merchants of various nationalities. The city and its environs were heavily shaded by trees. The Turkish and the Chazar languages predominated. The entourage of the chaghan, numbering 4,000 men, consisted of representatives of different nationalities. The White Chazars were renowned for their beauty; and according to Demidov, the mountaineers of the Crimea contrasted very favorably with the Nogay Tatars, because they were considerably intermixed with the Chazars and with the equally fine race of the Kumans. Besides the White Chazars, there were also black Chazars (who were almost as dark as the Hindus), Turkish immigrants, Slavonians, Hunno‑Bulgars, Jews, who lived mostly in the cities, and various Caucasian tribes, such as the Abghases, Kabardines, Ossetes, Avares, Lesghians, etc.

     The Chazars cultivated rice, millet, fruit, grains, and the vine. They had important fisheries on the Caspian Sea, and the sturgeon constituted the main article of food. The Arabic writer Al‑Makdisi remarks: 'In Chazaria there are many sheep, and Jews, and much money.' From the upper Volga they brought down from the Mordvines and Russians honey and valuable furs, which they exported to Africa, Spain, and France. They supplied the market of Constantinople with hides, furs, fish, Indian goods, and articles of luxury. The chaghan and his suite resided in the capital only during the winter months. From the month of Nisan (April) they led a nomadic life in the steppes, returning to the city about the Feast of Hanukkah (December). The estates and vineyards of the chaghan were on the island on which his palace was situated. Another city of the Chazars, Semender, between Atel and Bab al‑Abwab, was surrounded by 40,000 vines. It was identical with the modern Tarku, near Petrovsk, which is now inhabited by Jews and Kumyks. The latter are supposed to be descended from the Chazars. At the Byzantine court the chaghan was held in high esteem. In diplomatic correspondence with him the seal of three solid was used, which marked him as a potentate of the first rank, above even the pope and the Carlovingian monarchs. Emperor Justinian II after his flight from Kherson to Doros, took refuge during his exile with the chaghan, and married the chaghan's daughter Irene, who was famous for her beauty (702) Emperor Leo IV 'the Chazar' (775‑780), the son of Constantine, was thus a grandson of the king of the Chazars.

     From his mother he inherited his mild, amiable disposition. Justinian's rival, Bardanes, likewise sought an asylum in Chazaria. Chazarian troops were among the body‑guard of the Byzantine imperial court; and they fought for Leo VI, against Simeon of Bulgaria in 888.

     King Joseph in his letter to Hasdai gives the following account of his kingdom: 'The country up the river is within a four months' journey to the Orient, settled by the following nations who pay tribute to the Chazars: Burtas, Bulgar, Suvar, Arissu, Tzarmis, Ventit, Syever, and Slaviyun. Thence the boundary‑line runs to Buarasm as far as the Jordjan. All the inhabitants, of the seacoast, that live within a month's distance pay tribute to the Chazars. To the south Semender, Bak‑Tadlu, and the gates of the Bab al‑Abwab, are situated on the seashore. Thence the boundary‑line extends to the mountains of Azur, Bak‑Bagda, Sridi, Kiton, Arku, Shaula, Sagsar, Albusser, Ukusser, Kiadusser, Tzidlag, Zunikh, which are very high peaks, and to the Alans as far as the boundary of the Kassa, Kalkial, Takat, Gebul, and the Constantinian Sea. To the west, Sarkel, Samkrtz, Kertz, Sugdai, Aluss, Lambat, Barnit, Alubida, Kut, Mankup, Budik, Alma, and Grusin; all these western localities are situated on the banks of the Constantinian (Black) Sea. Thence the boundary‑line extends to the north, traversing the land of Basa, which is on the River Vaghez. Here on the plains live nomadic tribes, which extend to the frontier of the Gagries, as innumerable as the sands of the sea; and they all pay tribute to the Chazars. The king of the Chazars himself has established his residence at the mouth of the river, in order to guard its entrance and to prevent the Russians from reaching the Caspian Sea, and thus penetrating to the land of the Ishmaelites. In the same way the Chazars bar enemies from the gates of Bab al‑Abwab.' Even the Russian Slavonians of Kiev had, in the ninth century, to pay as yearly tax tot he Chazars a sword  and the skin of a squirrel for each house.

     At the end of the eighth century, when the Crimean Goths rebelled against the sovereignty of the Chazars, the latter occupied the Gothic capital, doros. The Chazars were at first repulsed by the Gothic bishop Joannes; but when he had surrendered, the Goths submitted to the rule of the Chazars.

     In the second quarter of the ninth century, when the Chazars were often annoyed by the irruptions of the Petchenegs, Emperor Theophilus, fearing for the safety of the Byzantine trade with the neighboring nations, despatched his brother‑in‑law, Petron Kamateros, with materials and workmen to build for the Chazars the fortress Sarkel on the Don (834). Sarkel ('Sar‑kel,' the white abode; Russian, 'Byelaya Vyezha') served as a military post and as a commercial depot for the north.

     In the second half of the ninth century the apostle of the Slavonians, Constantine (Cyril), went to the Crimea to spread Christianity among the Chazars. At this time the kingdom of the Chazars stood at the height of its power, and was constantly at war with the Arabian califs and their leaders in Persia and the Caucasus. The Persian Jews hoped that the Chazars might succeed in destroying the califs' country. The high esteem in which the Chazars were held among the Jews of the Orient may be seen in the application to them ‑ in an Arabic commentary on Isaiah ascribed by some to Saadia, and by others to Benjamin Nahawandi ‑ of Isaiah xlvii.14: 'The Lord hath love him.' 'This,' says the commentary, 'refers to the Chazars, who will go and destroy Babel'; i.e. Babylonia, a name used to designate the country of the Arabs.         

     The chaghans of the Chazars, in their turn, took great interest in and protected their coreligionists, the Jews. When one of the chaghans receive information (c. 921) that the Mohammedans had destroyed a synagogue in the land of Babung (according to Harkavy the market of Camomile in Atel is meant), he gave orders that the minaret, of the mosque, in his capitol should be broken off, and the muezzin executed. He declared that he would have destroyed all the mosques in the country, had he not been afraid that the Mohammedans would in turn destroy all the synagogues in their lands. In the conquest of Hungary by the Magyars (889) the Chazars rendered considerable assistance. They had, however, settled in Pannonia before the arrival of the Magyars. This is evident from the names of such places as Kozar and Kis‑Kozard in the Nσgrad, and Great‑Kozar and Ráczkozar in the Baranya district.

     Mas'udi relates the following particulars concerning the Chazars in connection with Russian invasions of Tabaristan and neighboring countries: 'After the year 300 of the Hegira (913‑914), five hundred Russian (Northmen's) ships, every one of which had a hundred men on board, came to the estuary of the Don, which opens into the Pontus, and is in communication with the river of the Chazars, the Volga. The king of the Chazars keeps a garrison on this side of the estuary with efficient, warlike equipment to exclude any other power from its passage. The king of the Chazars himself frequently takes the field against them if this garrison is too weak.

     When the Russian vessels reached the fort they sent to the king of the Chazars to ask his permission to pass through his dominions, promising him half the plunder which they might take from the nations who lived on the coast of this sea. He gave them leave. They entered the country, and continuing their voyage up the River Don as far as the river of the Chazars, they went down this river past the town of Atel and entered through its mouth into the sea of the Chazars. They spread over el‑Jil, ed‑Dailem, Tabaristan, Aboskum, which is the name for the coast of Jordjan, the Naphtha country, and toward Aderbijan, the town of Ardobil, which is in Aderbijan, and about three days' journey from the sea. The nations on the coast had no means of repelling the Russians, although they had put themselves in a state of defense; for the inhabitants of the coast of this sea are well civilized. When the Russians had secured their booty and captives, they sailed to the mouth of the river of the Chazars and sent messengers with money and spoils to the king, in conformity with the stipulations they had made. The Larissians and other Moslems in the country of the Chazars heard of the attack of the Russians, and they said to their king: 'The Russians have invaded the country of our Moslem brothers; they have shed their blood and made their wives and children captives, as they are unable to resist; permit us to oppose them.' The Moslem army, which numbered about 15,000 took the field and fought for three days. The Russians were put to the sword, many being drowned, and only 5,000 escaping. These were slain by the Burtas and by the Moslems of Targhiz. The Russians did not make a similar attempt after that year.'

     Notwithstanding the assertions of Mas'udi, the Russians invaded the trans‑Caucasian country in 944, but were careful in this expedition to take a different route. This seems to have been the beginning of the downfall of the Chazar kingdom. The Russian Varangians had firmly established themselves at Kiev, while the powerful dominions of the Chazars had become dangerous to the Byzantine empire, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in his instructions on government written for his son, carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes, and the Bulgarians as the forces on which he must rely to check the influence of the Chazars.

     Five years after the correspondence between the king of the Chazars and Hasdai ibn Shaprut (965), the Russian prince Swyatoslaw made war upon the Chazars, apparently for the possession of Taurida and Taman. The Russians had already freed from the rule of the Chazars a part of the Black Bulgars, and had established a separate Russian duchy under the name of 'tmutrakan'; but in the Crimean peninsula the Chazars still had possessions, and from the Caucasian side the Russian Tmutrakan suffered from the irrution of the Kossogian and Karbardine princes, who were tributary to the chaghan of the Chazars. The fortress of Sarkel and the city of Atel were the chief obstacles to Russian predatory expeditions on the Caspian Sea. After a hard fight the Russians conquered the Chazars. Swyatoslaw destroyed Sarkel, subdued also the tribes of the Kossogians and Yass (Alans), and so strengthened the position of the Russian Tmutrakan. They destroyed the city of Bulgar, devastated the country of the Burtas, and took possession of Atel and Semender.

     Four years later the Russians conquered all the Chazarian territory east of the Sea of Azov. Only the Crimean territory of the Chazars remained in their possession until 1016, when they were dispossessed by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines. The last of the Chaghans, George Tzula, was taken prisoner; some of the Chazars took refuge in an island of the Caspian, Siaheouye; others retired to the Caucasus; while many were sent as prisoners of war to Kiev, where a Chazar community had long existed. Many intermingled in the Crimea with the local Jews; the Krimtschaki are probably their descendants, perhaps some of the Subbotniki also. Some went to Hungary, but the great mass of the people remained in their native country. Many members of the Chazarian royal family emigrated to Spain. Until the thirteenth century the Crimea was known to European travelers as 'Gazaria,' the Italian form of 'Chazaria.'...As the Exile was assumed to last seventy years, in accordance with Jeremiah, this left 420 years from the Return (537 B.C.) to the destruction of the Temple (70 A.D.) a discrepancy of 187 years. This is got rid of in part by making the Persian domination last 34 instead of 204 years (537‑333 B.C.). This was done in order to make the interval between the Exodus and the era of contracts exactly 1,000 year. Owing to these discrepancies, great confusion exists in the annals of the Jewish chronicler, who have generally tried to combine the dates recorded by their predecessors with those of more recent events, using the era of creation almost exclusively; and it is dangerous to trust to their lists unless checked by contemporary annals." [133]

For events of lesser importance the sources are, in almost every case, the local annalists as utilized by the historians of the Jews in the respective countries. Particular attention has been given to the successive stages of legislation, while only selections have been made from the many cases of autos da fè, blood accusations, expulsions, host‑tragedies, and acts of emancipation, for all of which complete lists are given in separate articles under the respective headings.

In contradistinction to the usual custom, but few literary events have been influenced in the table, only those works which have affected the public opinion of the non‑Jewish world having been regarded as of more direct historic importance. The ruling principle has been to confine the list to strictly historic events; i.e., to incidents affecting either directly or indirectly the relations of the Jews to the states in whose territories have dwelt. Incidents affecting merely the internal concerns of the Jewish communities have not, as a rule, been included.

                                                   Chronological Chart of History

   1991‑1786: B.C. 12th Dynasty. The Patriarchs.

   1776‑1280: Hebrews in Egypt.

   1728‑1686: Hammurapi.

   1720‑1550: Hyksos.

   1570‑1310: 18th Dynasty.

   1400‑1350: Tell el‑Amarna Period.

   1370‑1353: Akhenaton.

   1340‑1310: Haremhab.

   1310‑1200: 19th Dynasty.

   1309‑1290: Seti I.

   1290‑1224: Ramses II.

   1280: Exodus.

   1224‑1216: Mer‑ne‑Ptah.

   1240: Conquest of Canaan under Joshua.

   1200‑1125: Philistines settle in Palestine.

   1200‑1020: The Judges.

   1125: Deborah.

   1100: Gideon.

   1050: Fall of Shiloh. Samuel.

   1020‑1004: Saul.

   1004‑965: David.

   965 ‑ 928: Solomon. Rezon.

   935 ‑ 914: Shishak.

   935 ‑ ???: 22nd Dynasty.

   928 ‑ 911: Rehoboam (Judah).

   918 ‑ 917: Shishak invades Palestine.

   911 ‑ 908: Abijah (Judah).

   908 ‑ 867: Asa (Judah).

   907 ‑ 906: Nadab (Israel).

   906 ‑ 883: Baasha (Israel) Ben‑Hadad I.

   883 ‑ 882: Elah (Israel).

   882: Zimri (Israel).

   882 ‑ 871: Omri (Israel) Ben‑Hadad II.

   867 ‑ 846: Jehoshaphat (Judah).

   853: Battle of Oarqar. Elijah.

   871 ‑ 852: Ahab (Israel).

   852 ‑ 852: Ahaziah (Israel).

   851 ‑ 842: Jehu (Israel). Hazael.

   846 ‑ 843: Jehoram (Judah).

   843 ‑ 842: Ahaziah (Judah).

   836 ‑ 798: Jehoash (Judah).

   814 ‑ 800: Jehoahaz (Israel). Ben‑Hadad III.

   800 ‑ 784: Jehoash (Israel). Amos.

   798 ‑ 769: Amaziah (Judah).

   784 ‑ 748: Jehoash (Israel). Hosea.

   769 ‑ 733: Uzziah (Judah).

   758 ‑ 743: Jotham (Judah) (regent).

   748 ‑ 747: Zechariah (Israel). Rezin.

   748 ‑ 747: Shallum (Israel).

   758 ‑ 743: Ahaz (Judah) (regent).

   747 ‑ 737: Menahem (Israel).

   740 ‑ 700: Prophecies of Isaiah.

   737 ‑ 735: Pekahiah (Israel).

   735 ‑ 733: Pekah (Israel).

   733 ‑ 727: Ahaz (Judah).

   733 ‑ 724: Hoshea (Israel).

   727 ‑ 698: Hezekiah (Judah).

   722: Samaria captured by Shalmaneser V.

   720: Sargon makes Samaria an Assyrian province. Mass deportation of Israelites.

   701: Expedition of Sennacherib against Hezekiah.

   698 ‑ 642: Manasseh (Judah).

   663: Sack of Thebes.

   641 ‑ 640: Amon (Judah).

   639 ‑ 609: Josiah (Judah).

   627 ‑ 585: Prophecies of Jeremiah.

   612: Fall of Nineveh.

   609: Jehoahaz (Judah). Battle of Megiddo.

   608 ‑ 598: Jehoiakim (Judah).

   605: Battle of Carchemish.

   597: Jehoiachin (Judah). Expedition of Nebuchadnezzar against Judah, Jehoiachin deported to Babylonia.

   595 ‑ 586: Zedekiah (Judah).

   593 ‑ 571: Prophecies of Ezekiel.

   586: Destruction of Jerusalem; mass deportation to Babylonia. Exile of Judeans in Babylonia.

   585 ‑ ???: Murder of Gedaliah. 6th cent. Canonization of the Pentateuch (in Babylonian Exile).

   539: Cyrus takes Babylonia.

   538: First return under Sheshbazzar. Cyrus' edict.

   525: Egypt conquered by Cambyses.

   522: Zerubbabel governor.

   520 ‑ 515: Temple rebuilt.

   465 ‑ 424: Artaxerxes I.

   460 ‑ 454: Rebellion of Inaros.

   428 ‑ ???: Second return under Ezra.

   445: Walls of Jerusalem reconstructed under Nehemiah; Ezra reads the Law.

   423 ‑ 404: Darius II.

   411: Destruction of the temple of the Jewish colony at Elephantine.

   408: Bagohi governor.

   404 ‑ 358: Artaxerxes II. Egypt regains freedom.

   348: Artaxerxes III deports a number of Jews to Hyrcania. 4th cent. Canonization of the Prophets Section of the Bible.

   343: Egypt reconquered by Persia.

   333: Battle of Issus

   332: Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and Palestine.

   323 ‑ 285: Ptolemy I. Death of Alexander the Great.

   312 ‑ 280: Seleucus I. Mid‑3rd cent. Pentateuch translated into Greek in Egypt (Septuagint).

   301: Ptolemy I conquers Palestine.

   285 ‑ 246: Ptolemy II, Philadelphus.

   246 ‑ 221: Ptolemy III, Euergetes

   223 ‑ 187: Antiochus III.

   221 ‑ 203: Ptolemy IV, Philopator.

   219 ‑ 217: Antiochus III conquers most of Palestine. Ptolemy IV defeats Antiochus III in the battle of Rafah and recovers Palestine.

   203 ‑ 181: Ptolemy V, Epiphanes.

   198: Battle of Panias (Banias): Palestine passes to the Seleucids.

   187 ‑ 175: Seleucus IV.

   181 ‑ 146: Ptolemy VI, Philometor.

   175 ‑ 171: Jason high priest.

   175 ‑ 164: Antiochus IV, Epiphanes. Onias III deposed by Antiochus IV.

   172: Jerusalem becomes a polis (Antiochia).

   171 ‑ 167: Menelaus high priest.

   170: Book of Ben Sira written.

   169: Antiochus IV plunders the Temple treasuries.

   168: Antiochus IV invades Egypt, storms Jerusalem; gentiles settled on the Acra.

   167: Antiochus IV outlaws the practice of Judaism; profanation of the Temple; the rebellion of the Hasmoneans begins.

   166 ‑ 160: Judah Maccabee, leaders of the rebellion, victorious over several Syrian armies.

   164 ‑ 163: Antiochus V. Judah Maccabee captures Jerusalem and reeducates the Temple.

   162 ‑ 150: Alcimus high priest. Demetrius I.

   161: Judah Maccabee defeats Nicanor and reconquers Jerusalem, treaty between Judah and Rome.

   160: Judah Maccabee falls in battle against Bacchides, Jonathan assumes the leadership; guerilla warfare.

   157: Treaty between Bacchides and Jonathan, withdrawal of Seleucid garrisons, Jonathan enters Jerusalem.

   152 ‑ 145: Jonathan high priest. Alexander Balas.

   145 ‑ 138: Demetrius II. Onias IV builds temple in Leontopolis. Antiochus VI and Tryphon.

   145 ‑ 116: Ptolemy VII, Physcon.

  142: Jonathan treacherously murdered by Tryphon. Simeon assumes leadership; Demetrius II recognizes the independence of Judea; renewal of treaty with Rome.

   141: Simeon captures the Acra.

   140: Great Assembly in Jerusalem confirms Simeon as ethnarch, high priest, and commander in chief.

   138 ‑ 129: Antiochus VII, Sidetes

   134 ‑ 132: War with Antiochus Vii; Jerusalem besieged; treaty between John Hyrcanus and Antiochus VII.

   134 ‑ 104: Simeon assassinated. John Hyrcanus. Latter second century First Book of Maccabees written. Treaty with Rome renewed.

   129 ‑ 125: Demetrius II.

   125 ‑ 96: Antiochus VIII.

   116 ‑ 108: Ptolemy VIII, Lathyrus.

   115 ‑ 95: Antiochus IX, Cyzicenus.

   108 ‑ 88: Ptolemy IX, Alexander.

   104 ‑ 103: Judah Aristobulus.

   103 ‑ 76: Alexander Yannai

    88 ‑ 80: Ptolemy VIII, Lathyrus.

    76 ‑ 67: Salome Alexandria.

    67 ‑ 63: Civil war between Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus.

   63: Pharisees go to Pompey and asks help. Pompey decides in favor of Hyrcanus II. Temple Mount besieged and captured by Pompey.

   63 ‑ 40: Hyrcanus II ethnarch and high priest. Judea loses its independence.

   57 ‑ 55: Gabinus governor of Syria.

   56 ‑ 55: Revolts of Alexander. Aristobulus and Aristobulus.

   48: Hyrcanus II and Antipater help Caesar in Alexandria. Caesar confirms Jewish privileges.

   44: Assassination of Caesar.

   43: Second Triumvirate.

   40: Parthian invasion.

   40 ‑ 37: Antigonus II (Mattathias).

   37 ‑ 4: Jerusalem captured by Herod. Herod Shemaiah and Avtalion.

   31: Battle of Actium.

   27 ‑ 14 A.D: Augustus. Temple rebuilt by Herod.

   4 ‑ 6: Archelaus ethnarch.

   4 ‑ 34: Herod Philip.

   4 ‑ 39: Herod Antipas.

   A Jewish Chronology From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Year 1902

     C.E. (A.D. The C.E. is used because of Jewish hatred of the Lord Jesus Christ!)

   6‑41: Judea, Samaria, and Idumea formed into a Roman province (ludaea) under a praefectus beginning of 1st cent. Tiberius expels the Jews.

   26‑36: Pontius Pilate praefectus.

   30: Jesus crucified.

   31: Jews allowed to return.

   37‑41: Cahguta. Crisis caused by Caligula's insistence on being worshiped as a deity. Anti‑Jewish riots in Alexandria.

   40: Legation of Jews of Egypt lead by Philip to Rome. Until 40 Philo writes in Alexandria.

   41‑44: Agrippa I. Claudius issues edict of toleration.

   54‑68: Nero. Accepted Jusaism.

   66: Massacre of the Jews at Alexandria. Beginning of revolt against Rome.

   67: Vespasian conquers Galilee the Zealots take over in Jerusalem.

   70: Jerusalem besieged and conquered by Titus; the Temple destroyed. Destruction of Qumran community. Sanhedrin established at Jabneh by Johanan Birth of Zakkai.

   72: Judea completely conquered; the 'Fiscus Judaicus' instituted by Vespasian.

   73: Temple in Leotopolis closed. Fall of Masada.

   79‑81: Titus. Josephus completes Jewish Wars.

   93: Josephus completes Jewish Antiquities.

   115: The Jews of babylonia, Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrene, and Libya rise against Trajan.

   116‑117: "War of Quietus"

   118: The Jews of Palestine rise against Trajan and Hadrian; 'War of Lucius Quietus.'

   132‑135: Bar Kokhba war. Fall of Bethar; Aelia Capitolina established; Akiva executed.

   133: Rebellion of Bar Kokba against Hadrian; restoration of the Jewish state.

   135: Fall of Bethar; end of Bar Kokba's rebellion;

   135‑138: Persecutions of Hadrian.

   138‑161: Antoninus Pius. 2nd cent. Canonization of the Ketuvim (Hagiographa).

   140: Sanhedrin at Usha.

   164: Revolution in Palestine against Antoninus Pius.

   170: Sanhedrin at Bet She'arim.

   200: Sanhedrin at Sepphoris.

   210: Redaction of the Mishnah.

   212: Jews (together with most of subject of the empire) become Roman citizens.

   218‑222: Heliogabalus; Arrival of Rav.

   222‑235: Alexander Severus.

   235: Sanhedrin at Tiberias.

   245: Dura‑Europos synagogue built.

   253‑260: Valerian. Academy of Nehardea moves to Pumbedita.

   286: Judah III., son of Judah II., patriarch, collects a tax from foreign communities.

   306: Council of Elvira forbids Christians to eat with Jews or to intermarry with them.

   306‑337: Constantine I.

   313: Edict of Milan.

   321: Jews in Cologne.

   325: First Nicene Council separates the celebration of Easter from that of the Jewish Passover. Christian Church formulates its policy toward the Jews; the Jews must continue to exist for the sake of Christianity in seclusion and humiliation.

   329: Constantius forbids, under penalty of death, marriage of a Jew with a Christian woman, and circumcision of slaves.

   337‑361: Constantius II. Constantius II prohibits marriage between Jews and Christians and possession of Christian slaves by Jews.

   351: Jews and Samaritans revolt against Gallus; destruction of Bet Sh'earim.

   359: Permanent calendar committed to writing.

   361: Restoration of the Temple at Jerusalem undertaken under Julian the Apostate.

   362: Julian the Apostate abolishes the Jew tax.

   363: Julian the Apostate allows Jews to start rebuilding the Temple.

   400: Moses, The False Messiah of Crete.

   415: Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, Drives the Jews from Alexandria.

   418: (March 10) Jews excluded from all public offices and dignities in the Roman empire.

   425: Extinction of the patriarchate. Patriarchate abolished.

   427: Yose b. Yose earliest liturgical poet known by name.

   438: Theodosius II Novellae against the Jews and heretics.

   455: Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Yezdegerd III. Jews forbidden to keep the Sabbath.

   465: The Council of Vannes (Gaul) prohibits the clergy from taking part in Jewish banquets.

   470: Persecutions by the authorities; Huna b. Mar Zutra the exilarch and others Executed by the authorities.

   471: Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Firuz (Perozes); the exilarch Huna Maria and other suffer martyrdom.

   476: End of Western Roman Empire.

   481‑511: Clovis I king of the Franks.

   495‑502: Revolt of Mar Zutra the exilarch.

   499: Babylonian Talmud completed.

   500: Abu‑Kariba, Kimyarite king, adopts Judaism, and converts his army and his people.

   511: Mar‑Zutra II., prince of the Captivity (exilarch), establishes an independent Jewish state in Babylonia under the Persian king Kobad.

   516: (May 14, 15) Uprising against Jews of Clermont; synagogue destroyed.

   517: The Council of Epaon forbids Christians to take part in Jewish banquets.

   518: Persecution of the Jews by Kobad, King of Persia.

   520: Mar Zutra III head of Sanhedrin at Tiberias.

   525: End of Jewish kingdom in southern Arabia. 6th‑7th cent. Yannai liturgical poet.

   532: Justinian I, decrees that the testimony of Jews shall be valid only in Jewish cases.

   537: Justinian Declares Jews incapable of holding any official dignity.

   538: The Council of Orleans Forbids Jews to appear on the street at Eastertide.

   553: Justinian Interferes in the conduct of Jewish Worship.

   589: Reccared, Visigothic King of Spain, Completely isolates Jews from Christians. Beginning of the period of Geonim.

   600: Eleazar Kallir liturgical poet.

   612, 633, 638: Severe legal measures against the Jews in Spain.

   612: Sisebut, Visigoth king, forces the Jews to accept baptism or to emigrate.

   614‑617: Jewish rule established in Jerusalem under the Persians.

   622: Muhammad's flight to Medina.

   624: The Banu Kainuka's, a Jewish‑Arabic tribe, driven from Arabia by Mohammed.

   624‑628: Jewish Tribes of Arabia Destroyed by Muhammad.

   627: Emperor Heraclius Forbids Jews to enter Jerusalem, and in other ways harasses the Palestinian Jews.

   628‑638: Dagobert I. Dagobert I Expels Jews from Frankish Kingdom.

   629: Dagobert orders the Jews of the Frankish empire to accept baptism or to emigrate.

   632: Death of Muhammad. Heraclius decrees forced baptism.

   633: The Council of Toledo under Sisenand, Visigothic king, and Isidore of Seville, forces converts to Judaism back to Christianity.

   638: Chintila enacts that only professing Catholics shall remain in Visigothic Spain; Jews emigrate. Jerusalem conquered by the Arabs.

   640: Omar, the second calif, Banishes all Jews from Arabia; the 'Pact of Omar' imposes restrictions upon Jews in the whole Mohammedan World.

   640‑642: Egypt conquered by the Arabs.

   641: Bulan, khan (chaghan) of the Chazars, becomes a Jew.

   658: Beginning of the Gaonate; Mar‑Issac, head of the Sura Academy, takes the title 'Gaon.'

   694: (Nov.) All Jews in Spain and Gallic Provence declared slaves; children under seven forcibly baptized.

   694‑711: Jewish Religion outlawed in Spain.

   711: Spain conquered by the Arabs.

   720: Omar II., Ommiad Calif of Damascus, reenacts the 'Pact of Omar.'

   721: Appearance of the False Messiah Serenus in Syria causes many Spanish Jews to emigrate to Palestine.

   740: Conversion of the Khazars.

   760: Halakhot Pesukot (attributed to Yehudai b. Nahman).

   761: The Karaite schism led by Anan ben David.

   762‑767: Anan b. David lays the foundation of Karaism.

   768‑814: Charlemagne.

   797: Isaac sent by Charlemagne on an embassy to Harun al‑Rashid.

   814: "Capitula de Judefs" of Charlemagne and Ludwig decide that Jews should not have Church Utensils in Pledge.

   825: Simeon Kayyara composes Halakhot Gedolot.

   827: Eberard, "Magister Judaeorum" under Louis I. the Pious, king of the Franks, protects the Jews against Agobard, Bishop of Lyons.

   845: The Council of Meaux, under Amolo, bishop of Lyons, enacts anti‑Jewish decrees, renewing those of Constantine & Theodosius II.

   850: Al‑Mutawakkil orders the "Peoples of the Book" to wear yellow kerchiefs.

   860: Amram b. Sheshna compiles order of prayers.

   875: Nahshon b. Zadok researches on the Jewish calendar.

   878: Ibrahim ibn Ahmad Orders Jews of Sicily to Wear A Badge.

   953: Josippon written.

   982: (July 13) Kalonymus saves life of Otto II, after battle of Cotrone.

   987: Iggeret Rav Sheira Gaon. Rise of the Capetian dynasty.

   998: Beginning of 11th cent. end of Khazar Kingdom.

   1007: Persecution at Rouen by Robert The Devil.

   1008: Persecutions of Al-Hakim.

   1012: (Nov.) Jews Driven from Mayence by Emperor Henry II. Expulsion of Jews from Mainz.

   1013: (Apr. 19) Massacre at Cordova by soldiers of Sulaiman ibn al‑Hakim.

   1021: Al‑Hakim renews the "Pact of Omar" in Egypt.

   1066: Banishment of the Jews from Granada. Jews settle in England. England conquered by William of Normandy.

   1078: Pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) promulgates canonical law against Jews holding office in Christendom. Jerusalem conquered by the Seljuks.

   1079: Jews Repulsed from Ireland.

   1080: Bahya ibn Paquda writes Hovot ha‑Levavot.

   1085: Pope Gregory VII. protests against Jews being placed by the King of Castile in authority over Christians.

   1090: "Fuero" (decree) of Alfonson VI, appoints duel as means of settling litigation between Christian and Jew. (Feb. 19) Henry IV, grants to Judah ben Kalonymus and other Jews of Speyer protection to life and property.

   1096‑99: First Crusade; Jews Massacred along the Rhine and elsewhere.

   1099: The Jews of Jerusalem burned in a Synagogue by the Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon.

   1101: The Arukh of Nathan b. Jehiel of Rome completed.

   1103: (Jan. 6) The "Constitutio Pacis" of the imperial court at Mayence assures the Jews of the 'emperor's peace.

   1108: Massacre at Toledo.

   1117: Persecution at Rome; Appearance of a False Messiah at Cordova.

   1120: Calixtus II, issues bull "Sicut Judaeis," the charter of the Roman Jews.

   1124: Ladislaus I, of Bohemia decrees that no Christian shall serve Jews.

   1144: Alleged Martyrdom of St. William of Norwich (first case of blood accusation).

   1146: Second Crusade; Jews Massacred throughout France and Germany. Beginning of the Almohad Persecution in Northern Africa and Southern Spain; Jews flee, or pretend to accept Islam.

   1150: Statutes of Aries appoint a special Jewish oath.

   1156: Jews of Persia persecuted on account of Pseudo-Messiah, David Alroy.

   1159‑73: Travels of Benjamin of Tudela.

   1161: Abraham ibn Daud completes Sefer ha‑Kabbalah.

   1168: Latins and Greeks, Jews and Saracens, granted right of being judged by their own laws in Sicily. Maimonides completes commentary on the Mishnah.

   1171: Thirty-one Jews and Jewesses of Blots burned on the charge of having used Human Blood in the Passover. Destruction of the Blois community.

   1172: Persecution of the Jews of Yemen. Messianic Excitement.

   1174: Sultan Nureddin Mahmud removes all Jews of Syria and Egypt from public offices.

   1178: Riot at Toledo, at which Fermosa, The Jewish Mistress of Alfonso VIII., Is Killed.

   1179: The third Lateran Council passes decrees protecting the religious liberty of the Jews. (Aug.) Jews of Boppard and Neighborhood Slain because body of Christian woman is found on banks of Rhine. Jews Expelled from Bohemia.

   1180: First Maimonidean controversy. Maimonides completes Mishneh Torah.

   1182: (April) Philip Augustus of France banishes the Jews from his hereditary provinces and takes one‑third of their debts.

   1187: Jerusalem captured by Saladin.

   1189: Attack on the Jews of London at coronation of Richard I. Third Crusade.

   1190: (May 17) Self‑immolation of 150 Jews at York to avoid baptism. Anti‑Jewish riots; Massacre at York. Maimonides completes Guide of the Perplexed.

   1194: "Ordinances of the Jewry" passed in England for registering Jewish debts, thus preparing the way for the exchequer of Jews. Archae established.

   1195‑96: Anti‑Jewish excesses at Speyer and Boppard.

   1198: Jews permitted to return to France by Philip Augustus on payment of 15,000 livres in silver.

   1198‑1216: Innocent III.

   1200: Bishop Conrad of Mayence issues a formula for an oath in German for Jews of Erfurt.

   1205: (July 15) Innocent III. writes to Archbishop of Sens and Bishop of Paris laying down the principle that Jews are bound to perpetual subjection because of the Crucifixion.

   1209: Council of Avignon issues restrictive measures against the Jews. (July 22) French Jews attacked and plundered; 200 murdered.

   1210: (Nov. 1) The Jews of England Imprisoned by King John. Extortions of John Lackland.

   1210‑11: Many French and English rabbis emigrate to Palestine. Settlement of 300 French and English rabbis.

   1212: The Jews of Toledo Killed by Crusaders under the Cistercian monk Arnold; first persecution of Jews in Castile.

   1215: Magna Carta of England limits rights of the crown in Jewish debts to the principal. Fourth Lateran Council under Pope Innocent III. among many anti‑Jewish measures, decrees the Jew badge.

   1221: Jews Killed at Erfurt.

   1222: Golden Bull of Hungary refuses Jews the right to hold public office. Council of Oxford imposes restrictions on the English Jews.

   1223: (Nov. 8) Rabbinical Synod of Mayence regulates the payment of the Jewish taxes.

   1227: Council of Narbonne reenacts the anti‑Jewish decrees of the fourth Lateran Council.

   1230: (Dec.) "Statutum de Judeis" in France by Louis IX prohibits Jews from making contracts or leaving their lords' lands.

   1230‑32: Second Maimonidean controversy.

   1234: (Dec. 10) Jews of Fulda find a murdered Christian; 261 Jews killed in Consequence.

   1235: Blood Libel at Fulda.

   1236: Frederick II. takes Jews of Sicily under his protection as being his 'servi camerae' (first use of this term). Persecutions in West France. Frederick II Hohenstaufen introduces the concept of servi camerae. 12th‑13th cent. Hasidei Ashkenazi; Sefer Hasidim compiled. 12th‑14th cent. Tosafot (France and Germany).

   1240: (June 25) Disputation before Louis IX. of France between Nichoias Donin and the Jews represented by Jehiel of Paris, Moses of Coucy, Talmudist and itinerant preachers and two others. Disputation of Paris.

   1241: (May 24) Riot at Frankfort on account of a Jewish convert, Jewish Parliament summoned to Worchester, England. Tatars reach the frontiers of Silesia.

   1242: Burning of Talmud at Paris.

   1244: Archduke Frederick II. the Valiant, of Austria, grants privileges to the Jews ("Privilegium Fredericianum"). Twenty‑four wagon‑loads of Talmuds and other manuscripts (1200) burned at Paris. Jerusalem captured by the Khwarizms.

   1246: James I. of Aragon, in the Ordenamiento of Huesa declares Jews to be "in commanda regis," Council of Bèziers forbids Jews to practice medicine.

   1249: Innocent IV issues bull against Blood Libel.

   1254: (Dec.) Louis IX. Expels Jews from France.

   1255: (July 31) St. Hugh of Lincoln disappears, and The Jews are accused of Murdering him for Ritual purposes. Blood Libel at Lincoln.

   1259: Jahudan de Cavalleria becomes "bayle‑general" and treasurer of Aragon. Provincial council of Fritziar for province of Mayence repeats several of the canonical restrictions, including the badge (first time in Germany).

   1261: Expulsion from Brabant, under will of Henry III. of all Jews except those of living by trade.

   1263‑64: Disputation at Barcelona between Pablo Christiani and Nahmanides. Jews of London Sacked.

   1264: Massacres at London, Canterbury, Winchester, and Cambridge by the barons in revolt against Henry VII. Charter of Boleslav V the Pious.

   1265: (May 2) Persecution at Zunzig; 72 persons burned in synagogue.

   1267: (May 12) Synod of Vienna, under Cardinal Guida, orders Jews to wear pointed hats.

   1267‑70: Nahmanides in Palestine.

   1270: (June 23) Persecution at Weissenburg. Death of Nahmanides.

   1273: (Nov. 4) Jews of Lerida obtain permission to substitute oath by the Ten Commandments for the oath "more Judaici."

   1274: (July 7) Gregory X. issues bull against Blood Accusation.

   1275: Jews Expelled from Marlborough, Glouchester, Worchester, and Cambridge, at request of Queen‑mother.

   1280: Alfonso X. orders all Jews of Leon and Chastle to be imprisoned till they pay 12,000 maravedis, and 12,000 for every day of delay in payment. English Jews forced to attend sermons of Dominicans.

   1285: Blood Accusation at Munich. Destruction of the Munich Community.

   1286: (June 28) Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg (1220‑93), chief rabbi of Germany, imprisoned when about to emigrate. Sancho of Castile in Cortes of Palencia orders Jews to submit their cases to the ordinary alcaldes (abolition of legislative autonomy). (Nov. 30) Bull of Honorius IV. to archbishops of York and Canterbury against Talmud. Zohar in final form completed by Moses b. Shem Tov de Leon.

   1287: (May 2) All Jews in England thrown into prison.

   1288: Jews Burned at Troyes.

   1290: (Nov. 1) Jews Banished from England.

   1291: Acre captured by the Muslims; end of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.

   1294: (Aug. 7) Bolko I. of Silesia grants Jews "Privilegium Fredericianum."

   1295: (June 23) Boniface VIII. enters Rome and spurns the Torah presented to him by Jewish deputation.

   1297: "Judenordnung" for Brandenburg.

   1298: Persecution of the Jews in Germany instigated by Rindfleisch; Mordecai ben Hillel a martyr.

   1298‑99: Rindfleisch persecutions.

   1300‑06: Third Maimonidean controversy.

   1301: Jews Plundered and Slain at Magdeburg.

   1303: Ordinance of Philip the Fair enacts that all trials between Christians and Jews be decided by regular courts.

   1306: First Expulsion of Jews from France under Philip the Fair.

   1309‑78: "Avignonese captivity" of the popes.

   1310: Asher b. Jehiel compiles Talmudic code.

   1315: (July 28) Jews recalled to France by Louis X. for twelve years.

   1320: The Pastoureaux persecutions in France ("gezerat ha‑ro'im").

   1321: The leper persecution in France ("gezera£mezora'im"). (June 24) Second Expulsion of the Jews from France. Five thousand slain in Dauphine on Charge of Well-Poisoning.

   1322: (Pentecost) Talmuds burned in Rome. Expulsion from the Kingdom of France.

   1328: Riots in Navarre.

   1329: Levi b. Gershom completes Sefer Milhamot Adonai.

   1330: Alleged desecration of host at GÜatrow.

   1334: (Oct. 9) Casimir III. the Great, of Poland, grants Jews "Privilegium Fredericianum."; extends the charter of 1264.

   1337: (May) Armleder Massacres at Ensisheim, MÜhlhausen, Rufach, etc. Beginning of the Hundred Years' War. Before 1340, Jacob b. Asher completes Arba'ah Turim.

   1342: Louis IX introduces poll tax (Opferpfenning).

   1346: Blood Accusation at Munich.

   1348: (Feb. 28) The Ordenamiento of Alcaza orders all usury to cease. (July 16) Karl IV. forbids Jews being summoned before the Vehmgericht. Black Death Massacres in Spain and France. Protective bulls of Clement VI.

   1348‑49: Persecution of the Jews in Central Europe on Account of the Black Death. Pope Clement VI. issues two bulls protecting them. Immigration from Germany.

   1350: Alfonso IV. of Portugal enforces the badge (first in the Peninsula).

   1351: Cortes of Valladolid demands the abolition of the judicial autonomy of Spanish‑Jewish communities. Jews burned at Königsberg in Neumark.

   1353: Jews invited back to Worms on account of their usefulness.

   1354: Council of the communities of Aragon.

   1356: Charles IV grants the Electors the privilege of taxing the Jews.

   1359: Jews recalled to France.

   1360: Samuel Abulafia dies under torture on the charge of peculation. Manessier de Vesoul obtains from King John a decree permitting Jews to dwell in France.

   1364 and 1367: Casimir III extends the charter.

   1365: Jews Expelled by Louis The Great from Hungary; many go to Wallachia.

   1370: All Jews imprisoned and robbed in Austria.

   1380: (Nov. 15) Riot at Paris; Many Jews plundered, several killed, most fled.

   1381: A synod at Mayence regulates the rabbinical marriage laws.

   1386: Beginning of the union between Poland and Lithuania.

   1387: Jews Expelled from Basel.

   1388: Witold of Lithuania grants charter to Jews of Brest‑Litovsk.

   1389: (Apr. 18) The charge of insult to a priest carrying the sacrament leads to the massacre of the Jews in Prague.

   1391: (June 6) Spanish horrors begin; Ferdinand Martinez incites the mob against the Jews of Seville; anti‑Jewish riots spread throughout Castile and Aragon. Massacres and conversion.

   1394: (Nov. 3) Third and last Expulsion of the Jews from France, under Charles VI.

   1399: Blood Libel in Poznan.

   1400: Persecution of the Jews of Prague at the instigation of the convert Pessach; Lipmann of MÜhihausen among the sufferers.

   1403: (Oct. 25) Juan II. of Castile withdraws civil jurisdiction from Jews.

   1405: Jews Expelled from Speyer.

   1407: (Oct. 26) Jews attacked at Cracow.

   1410: (Sept.) Meïr Alguades slain on charge of host‑desecration.

   1411: Vincent Ferrer raises the populace against the Jews and passes oppressive legislation. Second general massacre of Jews in all the Spanish provinces.

   1413: (Jan. 7) Religious disputation at Tortosa arranged by Pope Benedict XIII. between Geronimo de Santa Fè and Vidal ben Benveniste ibn Labi; Joseph Albo.

   1415: (May 11) Bull of Benedict XIII. against the Talmud and any Jewish book attacking Christianity. Burning of John Huss.

   1419: Martin V against forced conversion.

   1419‑36: Hussite Wars.

   1420: Charges of host‑desecration lead to the Putting to Death of a number of Jews and to the Expulsion of the Remainder from Lower and Upper Austria. Expulsion from Lyons.

   1421: Wiener Gesera; Expulsion from Austria.

   1423: Jews Expelled from Cologne.

   1424: Jews Expelled from Zurich.

   1425: Joseph Albo completes Sefer ha‑Ikkarim.

   1427: Papal edict prohibits transportation of Jews to Palestine in ships of Venice and Ancona.

   1431: Burning of Joan of Arc.

   1431‑49: Council of Basle.

   1432: Rabbinical synod at Valladolid. Host‑tragedy at Segovia, a synod at Avila, under Abraham Benveniste Senior, provides for an educational system for Jewish Spain.

   1434: The Council of Basel renews old and devises new canonical restrictions against Jews. Annihilation of the Jews of Majorea.

   1435: Jews Expelled from Speyer. Massacre and conversion of The Jews of Majorca.

   1438: Jews Expelled from Mayence.

   1440: Jews Expelled from Augsburg.

   1447: Casimir IV. of Poland grants special privileges to Jews.

   1450: Ludwig X. of Bavaria throws all the Jews in forty towns into prison and confiscates their property.

   1451: Nichoias de Cusa enforces the wearing of the Jew badge in Germany.

   1452‑53: John of Capistrano Incites Persecutions and Expulsions.

   1453: Constantinople captured by the Turks; end of the Hundred Years' War. Onward, Jews favored as a valuable trading and artisan element in the Ottoman Empire.

   1454: (May 2) Forty‑one Jews burned at Breslau, and Jews Expelled from BrüN and Olmü, through Capistrano. Privileges revoked; riots in Cracow.

   1458: Jews Expelled from Erfurt.

   1460: (March 5) The states of Austria demand that no Jew be permitted to dwell there. Jews Expelled from Savoy.

   1464: (Apr. 12) Jews plundered and murdered by soldiers in Cracow.

   1467: Eighteen Jews Burned at Nuremberg.

   1468: Jews Expelled from Neisse by the gilds. Blood Accusation brought against Jews of Sepulveda.

   1469: Jews plundered and slain at Posen.

   1470: Jews Expelled from Bishopric of Mayence.

   1473: Marranos of Valladolid and Cordoba Massacred. Expulsion from Mains.

   1474: Marranos of Segovia Massacred.

   1475: Bernardinus of Feltre preaches against the Jews in Italy. The Jews charged with the murder of Simon of Trent for ritual purposes. Riots in padua and elsewhere in Italy and Sicily. Jews expelled from several towns. Blood Libel of Trent. Beginning of Hebrew printing (Rashi printed in Reggio di Calabria).

   1476: Blood Accusation in Regensburg through the convert Wolfram.

   1477: Jews plundered at Colmar and burned at Passau; The rest expelled through Bishop.

   1478: Jews Expelled from Diocese of Bamberg on account of Simon of Trent affair.

   1479: Castile and Aragon united.

   1480: Inquisition established in Spain.

   1481: The inquisition against the Maranos established in Seville and at other places in Castile.

   1482: Inquisition established in Aragon; The Jew Thomas de Torquemada, chief inquisitor.

   1483: Torquemada appointed inquisitor general. Expulsion from Warsaw.

   1484: Jews Expelled from Eries.

   1486: (Feb. 12) Auto de fè at Toledo at which 740 were absolved. (Dec. 10) Another auto at same place; 900 Jews "reconciled."

   1488: (Jan. 25) First auto at Barcelona. (May 24 and July 30) Autos da fè at Toledo: at former, 21 Jews burned, 400 punished; and latter, 76 burned.

   1490: (Dec.) Jews Expelled from Geneva.

   1490‑91: La Guardia Blood Libel.

   1492: (Aug. 2) Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Expulsion from Castile and Aragon. Conquest of Granada; discovery of America. Onward, the sultans open the gates of the Ottoman Empire for the refugees from Spain.

   1492‑93: Expulsion from Sicily.

   1494: Jews plundered in Naples. Blood accusation at Tyrnau.

   1495: Jews Expelled from Florence, but readmitted after a few months on account of their utility; Jews Expelled from Lithuania.

   1496: Expulsion of Jews from Styria. Manoel of Portugal orders the Jews to accept baptism of leave the country.

   1497: Onward, refugees from Portugal welcomed by the sultans.

   1498: The exiles settled in Navarre banished. Jews Expelled from Nuremberg and Ulm.

   1501: (July) Fifty-four Jews burned at Seville.

   1502: Appearance of the Pseudo-Messiah Asher Lämmlein. Dialcghi di Amore by Judah Abrabanel.

   1503: Pfefferkorn denounces Reuchlin. (March 22) Jews permitted to return to Lithuania. (Dec. 27) Judaizing followers of Zechariah of Kiev burned at Moscow.

   1504: Sefer ha‑Yuhasin by Abraham Zacuto.

   1505: Jews Expelled from Orange. All slain at Budweis on a child‑murder accusation.

   1506: Massacre of Marranos in Lisgon.

   1508: Burning of Jewish books at Frankfort. Thirty-eight Jews burned in Berlin for host‑desecration and child‑murder (Grätz, ix. 94).

   1510: Burning of Jewish books at Frankfort. Thirty-eight Jews burned in Berlin for host‑desecration and Child‑Murder (Grätz, ix.94). Expulsion from Brandenburg.

   1514: Abraham Judaeus Bohemus appointed tax collector of the Jews of Poland.

   1515‑16: Jacob ibn Habib's Ein Ya'akov published.

   1516: (March) Venice sets apart a special quarter for a ghetto (first use of the term). Palestine conquered by the Turks.

   1517: Martin Luther publishes his 95 theses.

   1519: Expulsion from Regensburg.

   1520‑23: First complete editions of the Talmuds printed.

   1524: The Jews of Cairo threatened with destruction by Ahmad Shaitan, viceroy of Egypt. Jews return to Genoa.

   1524‑25: Mikra Gedolot edition of the Bible.

   1526: Battle of Mohacs; Turks rout Hungarians.

   1529: (May 21) Thirty Jews Burned at Pösing on Blood Accusation. Solomon Molko (Diogo Pires, 1501‑32 Begins His Messianic Agitation).

   1530: (Aug. 12) Josel of Rosheim obtains extension of Alsatian privileges from Charles V.

   1531: Clement VII. issues a bull establishing the Portuguese Inquisition for Maranos.

   1532: Solomon Molcho Burned at Mantua.

   1534‑36: Sigismund I absolves Jews from wearing the badge. Calvin publishes Institution Chretienne.

   1538: Jacob Berab renews semikhah in Safed.

   1541: Jews Expelled from Naples. Expulsion from Prague and crown cities.

   1542: Jews Expelled from Bohemia because of fires in Prague and other towns. Pseudo‑Messiah (David Reuveni?) burned at Evora.

   1543: Luther publishes his attack on the Jews.

   1545‑63: Council of Trent.

   1548: (July 10) Eighteen hundred Maranos released from the prisons of the Inquisition in Portugal.

   1549: Obadiah of Bertinoro's commentary on the Mishnah published.

   1550: (April 2) Jews Banished from Genoa.

   1551: Jews Expelled from Bavaria and Württenberg. Community leaders given wide juridical and administrative powers.

   1554: (June 21) Rabbinical synod at Ferrars. Censorship of Hebrew books introduced. Solomon ibn Verga's Shevet Yehudah published.

   1555: Paul IV. issues the bull "Cum Nimis Absurdum." that Jews be confined to ghettos. Jews Expelled from the Palatinate. Peace of Augsburg. Joseph Caro's Beit Yosef published.

   1556: Twenty-four Jews of Ancona Hanged and Burned by order of Paul IV. Burning of Marranos in Ancona.

   1558‑60: The Zohar printed.

   1564: Joseph Caro's Shulhan Arukh published.

   1566: Joseph Nasi created duke of Naxos.

   1567: Don Joseph Nassi appointed ruler of Naxos and eleven other islands of the Grecian archipelago. (June 15) Jews Expelled from Genoese Territory.

   1568: Isaac Luria Levi (1534‑72), cabalist, Pretends to be the Messiah, son of Joseph.

   1569: (Feb. 26) Bull of Pius V. "Hebraeorum Gens." Expels Jews from Papal States except Rome, Bologna, and Ancona.

   1569‑72: Isaac Luria in Safed. Moses Isserles' Mappah published.

   1570: Solomon Ashkenaze sent as an envoy to Venice by Sultan Selim II.

   1572: Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day.

   1573: (Jan. 28) The Jew Lippold executed at Berlin; All Jews Expelled from Brandenburg.

   1576: Stephen Bathori allows the Jews of Poland to carry on trade without restrictions. Stephen Bathory issues decrees against Blood Libel.

   1580: First extant takkanah of the Council of Four Lands.

   1581: The Netherlands proclaim independence from Spain.

   1582: Jews Expelled from Silesia.

   1584: Gregory XIII orders compulsory sermons to Jews.

   1586: The Jews of Poland establish the Council of Four Lands; Mordecal Jafe probably its first president.

   1588: Destruction of the Spanish Armada.

   1590: Marranos settle in Amsterdam.

   1592: (Aug. 17) Papal edict forbids Jews to admit Christians into synagogues, etc. David Gans publishes Zemah David.

   1593: Clement VIII. Expels the Jews from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona. The first Marrano settlement in Holland made at Amsterdam under Jacob Tirado.

   1596: Persecution of The Persian Jews by Shah Abbas the Great.

   1597: Shalshelet ha‑Kabbalah by Gedaliah b. Joseph ibn Yahia published. Expulsion from Milan.

   1598: Bet Jacob synagogue consecrated at Amsterdam. Edict of Nantes.

   1603: Takkanot of the Synod at Frankfort.

   1612: Portuguese Jews granted right of residence in Hamburg.

   1612‑21: Hiddushei Halakhot of Samuel Edels published.

   1613: First Romanov Czar.

   1614: (Sept. 2) Vincent Fettmilch's attack upon the Jews of Frankfort. Fettmitch's attack upon the Jews of Frankfort.

   1615: Jews of Worms Banished.

   1616: Jews return to Frankfort and Worms.

   1617: "Neue Stättigkeit" for Frankfort makes right of domicil for Jews perpetual. Yom Tov Lipmann Heller completes Tosefot Yom Tov.

   1618: Beginning of Thirty Years' War.

   1620: Mayflower arrives at Plymouth Rock; Battle of the White Mountain.

   1623: Separate council for Lithuania established (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1624: Ghetto established at Ferrara. Excommunication of Uriel da Costa.

   1629: (June 26) Lippman Heller forced to leave his post as rabbi in Prague.

   1632: (April 20) Proselyte Nicolas Antoine burned at Geneva. (July 4) Auto da fè at Madrid.

   1639‑40: Dutch West India Company grants Jews of Guiana full religious liberty.

   1642: Six hundred Jews of Amsterdam with Isaac Aboab as hakam settle at Pernambuco.

   1646: The Jews in Brazil side with the Dutch in their war with the Portuguese.

   1648: The beginning of the Cossack persecutions of the Jews in Poland under Chmielnicki. Treaty of Westphalia.

   1648‑49: Chmielnicki Massacres (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1649‑60: The Commonwealth in England. Expulsion from Hamburg.

   1650‑52: Manasseh Ben Israel publishes Hope of Israel. Two leagues along the coast of Curacao granted to David Nassi for a Jewish colony.

   1654: (July 8) Twenty‑four Jews land at New Amsterdam from Brazil. Portuguese recapture Brazil. Jews arrive in New Amsterdam (New York) and found congregation; refugees from Brazil found communities in West Indies.

   1655: (Oct.) Menasseh ben Israel goes to London to obtain from Cromwell the readmission of Jews into England.

   1655‑56: Massacres during Wars of Poland against Sweden and Russia (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1656: Readmission of Jews to England. Baruch Spinoza excommunicated.

   1657: (Feb. 4) Resettlement Day; Oliver Cromwell grants Carvajal right of residence for Jews in England.

   1658: Congregation founded at Newport (America).

   1659: (Feb. 26) Jews Expelled from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona.

   1660: Jews Expelled from Kiev by Alexis.

   1664: Riot in Lemberg (Lvov) (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1665: Shabbethai Zebi (1626‑1676) publicly accepted as the Messiah at Smyrna; fervor spreads throughout the Jewish world. (Ottoman  Empire).

   1666: Great Fire of London. Shabbetai converts to Islam. (Ottoman Empire).

   1667: (Feb. 14) Jews run races at the Roman carnival for the last time.

   1670: Jews Banished from Vienna and Lower Austria by Emperor Leopold I. Synod of Lithuanian rabbis and deputies settle spheres of jurisdiction in relation to central kahals. Blood Libel in Mets.

   1671: Frederick William, the Great Elector, grants a privilege for twenty years to fifty families driven from Austria. Jews permitted to settle in the Mark of Brandenburg.

   1677: Death of Spinoza in The Netherlands.

   1678: Appearance of the pseudo‑Messiah Mordecai Moshiah of Eisenstadt.

   1680: (June 30) Auto da fè at Madrid. Riots in Brest‑Litovsk (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1682: (May 10) Auto da fè at Lisbon. Riots in Cracow (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1683: Siege of Vienna by Turks.

   1685: Jews given religious freedom in England.

   1686: Jews the victims of the Imperialist soldierly at the recapture of Buda from Turks.

   1687: Jews of Poznan Attacked (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1689‑1725: Peter the Great Czar of Russia.

   1690: Ninety Jews from Curaco settle at Newport. R.I.

   1695: Jews forbidden to enter Sweden by Charles IX. Jews settle in Charleston, S.C.

   1700: The house of Oppenheimer in Vienna attacked by a mob. Eisenmenger attempts to publish his "entdecktes Judenthum." Judah Hasid and his group arrive in Jerusalem in Palestine.

   1701: Bevis Marks Synagogue built in England.

   1703: Jonas Aaron settles in Philadelphia. Death of Samuel Oppenheimer in Austria.

   1710: The "Judenordnung" of Hamburg determines the social condition of the Jews of that city.

   1711: Eisenmenger's Endecktes Judenthum published.

   1712: First public synagogue in Berlin. Jews of Sandomierz expelled after BLOOD LIBEL (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1716: (July 24‑25) Serious uprising against the Jews at storming of Posen.

   1723: Residence of Portuguese Jews legalized by a letter patent in France. General Council of Jews of Piedmont in Italy.

   1726: Familiants Laws of Austria.

   1727: (April 26) Jews Expelled from Russia and the Ukraine by Catharine. (Nov. 15) Act passed by General Assembly of New York permitting Jews to omit "on the faith of a Christian" from oath of abjuration.

   1730: First public synagogue in New York (America).

   1732: (Sept. 2) 'Editto sopra gil Ebrei' of Clement III. renews all restrictions against Jews of Rome.

   1733: (July) Forty Jews from Lisbon arrive at Savannah, Ga. (America)

   1734‑36: Attacks by the Haidamacks (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1738: (Feb. 4) Joseph Süss Oppenheimer executed at Vienna Germany.

   1740: (Feb. 3) Charles the Burgon, King of Naples and of the two Sicilies, invites the Jews back for fifty years. (July 11) Jews Expelled from Little Russia by Czarina Anne. Act passed by English Parliament naturalizing Jews settled in the American colonies.

   1742: (Dec. 2) Jews Expelled from Great Russia by Czarina Elizabeth. Hayyim Attar and his group arrive in Jerusalem in Palestine. Congregation founded at Philadelphia (America).

   1743: Moses Hayyim Luzzatto publishes La‑Yesharim Tehillah.

   1744: (Dec. 18) Expulsion of Jews from Bohemia and Moravia.

   1747: Bull of Benedict XIV. decides that a Jewish child baptized even against canonical law, must be brought up under Christian influences.

   1748: Jews permitted to remain in Bohemia on payment of a "Judensteuer" of 216,000 florins. Prague Jews allowed to return.

   1749: Congregation founded at Charleston (America).

   1750: (April 17) Frederick the Great issues a "generaiprivilegium" for Prussian Jews. Severe legislation against the Jews in Prussia.

   1751: Beginning of Eybeschuetz emden controversy.

   1753: Act passed by England Parliament permitting Jews to be naturalized. "No Jews, no wooden shoes" riots in England.

   1754: Act granting naturalization to English Jews repealed.

   1755: First work of Moses Mendelssohn published.

   1756: Blood Accusation in Jampol, Poland.

   1756‑63: Seven Years' War.

   1757: Jacob Frank becomes leaders of the Shabbethaians. Bishop of Kamenitz‑Podolsk orders Talmuds to be burned. Disputation with the Frankists at Kamenets‑Podolski (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1759: Disputation with the Frankists at Lemberg (Lvov). (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1760: Board of Deputies of British Jews established in England. Death of Israel b. Eliezer Ba'al Shem Tov, formation of Hassid sect.

   1761: Persecution of Jews in Yemen. Cardinal Ganganelli's memorandum against the Blood Libel in Italy.

   1762: Isaac de Pinto's Apologie pour la Nation Juive in answer to Voltaire's defamation of Judaism.

   1764: Maria Theresa's Judenordnung (Austria‑Hungary). Council of Four Lands abrogated.

   1767: (June 20) Cossacks slay thousands of Jews at Homel.

   1768: Haidamack massacres (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1769: Mendelssohn‑Lavater controversy in Germany.

   1772: Jews settle in Stockholm, Kariskrona, and Gothenburg, by favor of Gustavus III. First partition of Poland. First herem on the Hasidim; Jews of eastern Poland under Russian rule (Russia).

   1776: (Oct. 17) Senatorial decree of Russia grants freedom of settlement and other rights to baptized Jews. American Declaration of Independence.

   1777: Menahem Mendel of Vitebsk and his group of Hasidim settle in Galilee in Palestine.

   1778: Deaths of Rousseau and Voltaire.

   1780: Jacob Joseph of Polonnoye's Toledot Ya'akov Yosef published.

   1780‑83: Publication of Mendelssohn's Biur.

   1781: Joseph II. of Austria abolishes the Jewish poll‑tax, and grants civil liberties to the Jews. C.W. von Gohm's Ueber die buergerliche Verbesscrung der Juden Christian plea for Jewish emancipation. Second herem on the Hasidim (Poland‑Lithuania).

   1782: Joseph II. issues his Toleration Edict. Joseph II's Toleranzpatent; Naphtali Herz Wessely's Divrei Shalom ve‑Emert.

   1783: Jews eligible for municipal councils in Russia. Mendelssohn publishes Jerusalem; Ha‑Me'assef founded.

   1784: Body tax abolished in France.

   1786: Death of Moses Mendelssohn in Germany.

   1787: Frederick William II. removes the "Leibzoll" in Prussia.

   1789: Beginning of the French Revolution. Sur la Regeneration Physique, Morale et Politique des Juifs by Abbe Gregoire in France. U.S. Constitution; George Washington first president of U.S.

   1790: The French National Assembly grants citizenship to the Sephardic Jews of Bordeaux in France. New constitution for Jews of Silesia; a few receive general privileges, etc.

   1791: The French National Assembly grants full civil rights to the Jews of France. Pale of Settlement established in Russia.

   1792: "Judenamt" opened in Vienna.

   1793: Second partition of Poland. Attack on the ghetto of Rome in Italy.

   1793‑97: First Coalition against France.

   1794: Berek Joselewicz colonel under Kosciuszko.

   1795: Third partition of Poland.

   1796: Jews of Holland declared by the National Assembly to be full citizens of the Batavian Republic.

   1797: (Aug. 1) Two Jews, Bromet and De Lemon, elected members of the second National Assembly of Holland. Peace of Campo Formio. Tanya (likkutei Amarim) of Shneur Zalman of Lyady published.

   1797‑99: Temporary emancipation brought by French revolutionary army in Italy.

   1799: Napoleon becomes First Consul. Napoleon's campaign in Palestine.

   1801: "Leibzoll" removed in Nassau. Peace of Luneville.

   1803: Israel Jacobson and Wolff Breidenbach agitate the ablution of the poll‑tax for Jews in Germany. Louisiana Purchase (America).

   1804: (Dec. 9) "Enactment concerning the Jews" passed by Alexander I. of Russia. Napoleon crowned emperor.

   1805: Battles of Traflgar and Austerlitz.

   1806: End of Holy Roman Empire.

   1806‑07: Assembly of Jewish Notables in France.

   1807: The Great Sanhedrin convened by Napoleon; Jeseph David Sinzheim president. Treaty of Tilsit. French Sanhedrin in France.

   1808: (Jan. 27) Jerome Napoleon issues decree giving full civil rights to Jews of Westphalia. (Dec. 11) Napoleon at Madrid issues decree dividing the French empire into Jewish consistories. Emancipation in Westphalia consistory in Kassel in Germany.

   1808‑10: Disciples of Elijah Gaon settle in Palestine.

   1809: Law of Baden forms Jews into special religious community will all privileges.

   1811: The Jews of Hamburg and Frankfort Germany emancipated. Jews of Vienna allowed to build a synagogue.

   1812: The Jews of Prussia emancipated. Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. Emancipation in Prussia. Death of Meyer Amshel Rothschild in Germany.

   1813: (Feb. 18) The Jews of Mecklenburg emancipated. Bavarian Jewry edict (Germany). Battle of Leipzig. Bavarian Jewry edict in Germany.

   1814‑15: Congress of Venna.

   1815: (June 8) "Bundesakte" passed at the Congress of Vienna decrees maintenance of status quo in the political condition of the Jews. Congress of Vienna permits the abolition of emancipation laws in the German states.

   1818: First Reform Temple in Hamburg consecrated and opened in Germany. "Infamous Decree" abolished in France.

   1819: The beginning of the "Hep, hep!" riots and persecutions in Germany. Formation of the Society for the Culture and Science of the Jews, by Zunz, Gans, and Moser. Verein fuer Kultur und Wissenschaft des Judentums founded.

   1820: Jews admitted again at Lisbon. Isaac Marcus Jost begins to publish his Geschichte der Israeliten.

   1821: Greek War of Independence begins. Isaac Bernays opposes the Reform Temple in Germany.

   1823: Monroe Doctrine.

   1824: Rabbinical seminary established at Metz in France. Expulsion from the villages of Russia. Reformed Society of Israelites in Charleston, S.C.; Isaac Lesser arrives in U.S.

   1825: Jews Expelled from St. Petersburg through influence of gilds. M.M. Noah Ararat project (America).

   1826: Jews obtain full civic rights in the state of Maryland, U.S.A. Decree issued in Russia enrolling Jews for military service. Maryland "Jew Bill" removes political disabilities. Jews settle in New Orleans.

   1826‑35: Velizh Blood Libel.

   1827: Battle of Navarino Bay. Cantonist legislation introduced.

   1828: Wuerttembeg Jewry law in Germany. Removal of disabilities of Maryland Jews.

   1829: Emancipation of Catholics in England. Instituto Rabbinico opened at Padua, Italy.

   1830: July revolution in France; Uprising in Poland.

   1831: Louis Philippe orders salaries of rabbis to be paid by the state. Independence of Belgium recognized. Judaism given equal status with other religions. Palestine taken by Muhammad Ali.

   1832: Leopold Zunz publishes his Die gotterdienstlichen Vortraege.

   1833: (Oct. 29) Jews of Kur‑Hessen granted full emancipation. Turkey recognizes independence of Egypt. Emancipation in Hesse‑Kassel. Beginning of parliamentary debates on the emancipation of the Jews of England.

   1835: (April 13) General Jewish regulations issued in Russia Edict of Nicholas I. founding agricultural colonies in Russia. David Salomons sheriff of London, England. Oppressive constitution for the Jews.

   1836: Law refusing Jews the right to bear Christian names renewed in Prussia. Death of Nathan Mayer Rothschild in England.

   1837: Moses Montefiore knighted in England. Disastrous earthquake in Safed and Tiberias. Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums founded in Berlin, Germany. Jews settle in Cleveland.

   1839: Sultan 'Abd al‑Majid grants citizenship to Turkish Jews. Turkey invades Syria. Entire community of Meshed (Persia) forced to convert to Islam (Asia).

   1840: (Feb. 5) Damascus Blood Accusation. (Nov. 6) Firman issued by sultan against blood accusation. Damascus Blood Libel; restoration of Turkish rule in Palestine.

   1841: Jews settle in Chicago. Jewish Chronicle founded in London.

   1842: First English Reform synagogue opened in London, England. Bruno Bauer's Judenfrage (Germany). Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia.

   1843: B'nai B'rith founded in America.

   1844: (May 25) Louis Philippe issues regulations for the internal organization of French Jews. (June) Rabbinical conference at Brunswick. Autonomy of the kahal abolished government supervised schools for the Jews founded (Russia & Poland).

   1845: (April) Ukase issued ordering Russian and Polish Jews to adopt ordinary costume. Jews admitted to municipal offices in England. Rabbinical conference at Frankfort; Reform Society formed in Berlin, Germany.

   1846: U.S. War with Mexico. Abolition of "Jewish Oath." (France). Rabbinical conference in Breslau, Germany. Montefiore visits Russia. I.M. Wise arrives in America.

   1847: Lionel de Rothschild elected to parliament but refuses to take the Christian oath (England). Anti‑Jewish riots in Prussia. Jews settle in Washington, D.C.

   1848: Emancipation Year; most of the countries of central Europe grant full civic and political rights to Jews ‑ in the majority of cases, repealed the next year. Riots in Presburg. Year of Revolutions. Liberal constitution of Piedmont, Italy. Adophe Cremieux minister of Justice. Anti‑Jewish riots. Influx of Jews from Germany (America).

   1849: (July 3) Baron Lionel de Rothschild, previously returned as M.P. for city of London, not allowed to take seat. Jews settle in San Francisco and Los Angeles (America).

   1852: (Sept. 3) Violent Anti-Jewish riots at Stockholm. Conformation of "Status Quo" in Holy Places in Palestine.

   1853: Publication of Philippson's Bible completed; Ahavat Ziyyon by Abraham Mapu. Saratov Blood Libel (Russia & Poland).

   1854: Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary opened in Germany. First YMHA founded (America).

   1854‑56: Crimean War.

   1855: David Salomons lord mayor London, England. Cleveland Conference.

   1856: (Feb. 18) "Hatti‑Humayun" issued, granting full civic rights to Turkish Jews Treaty of Paris. Jews' College founded in England. Cantonist legislation abrogated (Russia & Poland). Ha‑Maggid, first Hebrew weekly, founded in Lyck.

   1858: (June 24) Edgar Mortara in Ancona forcibly taken from his family by Bishop of bologna on plea that he had been baptized when an infant by a Roman Catholic servant. The oath "on the true faith of a Christian" abolished in England; Jewish disabilities removed. Lionel de Rothschild takes his seat in parliament after amendment of parliamentary oath (England). Mortara case in Italy.

   1859: Independence of Rumania. Rabbinical seminary transferred to Paris, France. Merchants of the first class permitted to live outside the Pale.

   1860: Alliance Israèlite Universelle founded in France. Sicily and Naples occupied by Garibaldi. Jews allowed to own real estate in Austria.

   1861: Jews with academic diplomas permitted to live outside the Pale (Russia & Poland). Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy.

   1861‑65: U.S. Civil War.

   1862: Moses Hess publishes Rom und Jerusalem (Zionism). Grant's General Order No. 11; first Jewish military chaplain.

   1863: (July) Emancipation of Swiss Jews. Society for the Promotion of Culture among the Jews of Russia founded.

   1863‑64: Polish revolution.

   1864: Jews admitted to the bar (Russia & Poland).

   1865: Jewish craftsmen permitted to live outside the Pale (Russia).

   1866: Rumanian constitution, clause 7, makes all Rumanian Jews "aliens." Austro‑Prussian War.

   1867‑68: Constitution abolishes Jewish disabilities; Jews permitted to return to Spain. The law of the North German Federation of July 3 decrees that no state shall retain restrictions on the ground of religious belief.

   1868‑69: General Congress of Hungarian Jews.

   1868‑85: Ha‑Shahar published in Vienna.

   1869‑70: Philadelphia Conference. (March) Thirteen hundred and sixty Jews Expelled from districts of Falciu and Vaslui, Rumania. Mikveh Israel founded (Palestine). United Synagogue founded in England. Adolphe Cremieux minister of justice; Jews of Algeria granted French citizenship (France). Ghetto of Rome abolished end of Jewish disabilities in Italy. Unification of Italy.

   1871: Pogrom in Odessa (Russia & Poland). Unification of Germany. Anglo‑Jewish Association founded (England). Constitution abolishes Jewish disabilities (Germany). A Rohling publishes his anti‑Semitic Der Talmudjude (Austria‑Hungary).

   1872: Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums opened at Berlin, Germany. Israelitische Ailiance founded in Vienna (Austria‑ Hungary).

   1871‑72: Attacks on Jews in Rumania.

   1873: Union of American Hebrew Congregations established. Rabbinical Seminary opened in Berlin, Germany.

   1874‑76: Publication of George Eliot's Daniel Deronda (England).

   1875: Hebrew Union college opened in Cincinnati.

   1876: (July 28) E. Lasker procures the passing of the "Austrittgesetz," permitting Jews to change their congregation. Heinrich Graetz completes Geschichte der Juden; Goldfaden established Yiddish Theater in Rumania. Orthodox Jews permitted to found independent congregation in Prussia (Germany).

   1877‑78: Rabbinical seminary in Budapest opened (Austria‑Hungary). (July 13) The Berlin Congress inserts clause 44, that distinction of religion shall not be a bar to civil and political rights in Rumania. Petah Tikvah founded; Congress of Berlin. Beginning of the political anti‑Semitic movement in Berlin.

   1879‑80: Citizenship granted to a number of Jews as individuals; Kutais Blood Libel (Russia & Poland). Anti‑Semitic articles by H. von Treitschke (Germany).

   1880: (Nov. 20‑22) Debate in Prussian Diet on Kantorowicz incident.

   1881: Atrocities against Jews in South Russia. (April 25) Anti‑Semitic league in Germany presents petition with 255,000 signatures to Prince Bismarck. (April 27) Riot at Argenau. Ben‑Yehuda arrives in Palestine. Beginning of mass immigration from Eastern Europe (America). Czar Alexander II assassinated. Death of Benjamin Disraeli (England). Anti‑Semitic petition (Germany).

   1881‑82. Pogroms sweeps southern Russia; beginning of mass emigration (Russia & Poland). (April 7) Disappearance of Esther Solymosi causes a trial on Blood Accusation at Tisza‑Esziar. (May 3) "May Laws" issued by General Ignatief confining the Jews in the Pale of Settlement to the towns. "May Laws" (Russia & Poland). Beginning of First Aliyah (Bilu); Rishon le‑Zion founded (Palestine). Leon Pinsker publishes Autoemanzipation; Bilu organized in Russia (Zionism). Gompers a founder and president of A.F. of L.; first Yiddish play performed in N.Y. British occupation of Egypt. Tiszaesziar Blood Libel; Kadimah society founded at Vienna (Austria‑Hungary).

   1883: Beginning of Baron Edmond de Rothschild's help to Jewish settlements (Palestine).

   1884: (March 7) Rumanian law prohibiting hawking puts 5,000 Jewish families out of employment. (July 9) Lord Rothschild takes his seat as first Jewish peer in the British House of Lords. Gederah founded (Palestine). Kattowitz conference of Hibbat Zion (Zionism).

   1885‑86: Pittsburg Conference of American Rabbis establishes a platform for Reform Judaism. Pittsburgh Platform (America). Nathaniel de Rothschild raised to peerage (England). Expulsion of Russian refugees (Germany). Drumont publishes "La France Juive." Jewish Theological Seminary opened in New York (America). E‑A. Drumont publishes his anti‑Semitic La France Juive (France).

   1887: (Feb. 28) Rumanian law excluding Jews from public service and from tobacco trade and from employment in retail trade. Small percentage of Jews admitted to high schools and universities (Russia & Poland). Druzgenik Conference of the Hovevei Zion (Zionism).

   1888: Jewish Publication Society of America established; United Hebrew Trades founded (America). Suez Canal Convention.

   1889: (May 12) Rumanian law limiting number of Jewish factory hands to one‑third. Vilna Conference; Benei Moshe founded by Ahad Ha‑Am (Zionism). Central Conference of American Rabbis established; Rabbi Jacob Joseph arrives as "Chief Rabbi" of New York City.

   1890: (Dec. 10) Guildhall meeting against persecution of Russian Jews by May Laws. Rehovot and Haderah founded (Palestine). Odessa Conference (Zionism).

   1890‑91: Large number of immigrants from Russia (Palestine). (June 29) Blood Accusation at Xanten. Expulsion from Moscow; Immigration to Argentina with help of Baron Maurice de Hirsch. Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) incorporated (England). Xanten Blood Libel; Thirteen anti‑Semitic members enter Austrian Reichsrat.

   1892: Jewish Colonization Association founded by Baron de Hirsch.

   1893:(Jan. 14) Rumanian law prohibiting Jews from being employed in public medical department. Fifteen anti‑Semites

elected to the Reichstag; Central‑Verein Deutscher Staatsbuerger Juedischen Glaubens founded (Germany).

   1894: Dreyfus Affair. Dreyfus' trial (France).

   1895: Capt. Alfred Dreyfus condemned and degraded as a spy and deported to Devil's Isle, Cayenne. Anti‑Semitic League organized (Rumania).

   1896‑97: Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat (Zionism). Jews settle in Miami (America). Cairo Genizah discovered. (Aug. 29‑31) First Zionist Congress at Basel, Herzl president (Zionist). Bund founded (Russia & Poland). Federation of American Zionists founded; Jewish Daily Forward begins publication.

   1898: (Oct.) Eleven thousand two hundred Jewish children refused admission to public schools in Rumania. 2nd Zionist Congress (Zionism). Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations founded in America. Emile Zola's J'accuse (France).

   1899: (March 31) Rumanian law excluding Jews from agricultural and professional schools. (Sept. 2) Dreyfus condemned a second time, but "pardoned" on Sept. 19. 3rd Zionist Congress; Jewish Colonial Trust founded (Zionism). Dreyfus retried and pardoned in France. H.S. Chamberlain's anti‑Semitic book (Germany). Hilsner Case (Austria‑Hungary).

   1899‑1902: Boer War.

   1900: (Aug. 13‑16) Fourth Zionist Congress at London. (Sept. 8) Israeisky, accused of ritual murder at Konitz, acquitted. 4th Zionist Congress (Zionism). Death of I.M. Wise; I.L.G.W.U. founded (America). Konitz Blood Libel (Germany).

   1901: (Dec.) Rumanian law prohibiting Jews from holding saloons or stores in rural districts. 5th Zionist Congress; Jewish National Fund established (Zionism). S. Schechter goes to New York (America). Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden founded (Germany).

   1902: (March) Rumanian law prohibiting employment of Jewish working men. Mizrachi founded (Zionism). Jewish Religious Union founded (England). [134]

   1903: Pogrom in Kishinev (Russia & Poland). 6th Zionist Congress Uganda project (Zionism).

   1904: Vaad ha‑Lashon organized; Habimah Theater founded; Jewish Telegraphic agency founded. Beginning of Second Aliyah (Palestine). Verband der deutschen Juden founded (Germany).

   1904‑05: Russo‑Japanese War.

   1905: Pogroms mass emigration (Russia & Poland). Joseph Vitkin's Kol Kore; Ha‑Poel Ha‑Zair founded (Palestine). 7th Zionist Congress rejects Uganda project; Wolffsohn president (Zionism). Abortive revolution in Russia; separation of Church and State in France. Aliens Act; Herbert Samuel first Jewish cabinet minister in England.

   1906: Pogroms; Po'alei Zion founded (Russia & Poland). Hebrew high school established in Jaffa; Bezalel founded in Palestine. Helsingfors program (Zionism). American Jewish Committee established. Jewish Encyclopedia completed. Dreyfus rehabilitated in France.

   1907: 8th Zionist Congress (Zionism).

   1908: Young Turk revolution.

   1909: Deganyah founded; Ha‑Shomer organized; Tel Aviv founded in Palestine.

   1909‑10: Polish boycott against Jews.

   1910: Expulsion from Kiev.

   1910‑11: L. Luzzatti prime minister in Italy.

   1911-13: Beilis trial (Russia & Poland). 10th Zionist Congress; Warburg president (Zionism).

   1912: Agudat Israel founded (Russia & Poland).

   1913: U.S. ‑ Russian Treaty of 1832 abrogated because Russia does not recognize rights of American Jews under it; United Synagogue founded; Anti‑Defamation League founded. Yevreskaya Entsiklopedia completed.

   1914: American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee established; Brandeis assumes Zionist leadership.

   1914‑18: World War I.

   1915: Refugees from Palestine form Zion Mule Corps (Egypt). Menorah Journal, first (known) Jewish literary organ; Leo Frank lynched.

   1916‑17: L. Brandeis appointed to Supreme Court (America). Anti‑Jewish laws abrogated; The British capture Jerusalem. American Jewish Congress election. JPS version of the Bible. Balfour Declaration (England). U.S. enters the War; Russian Revolutions.

   1918: Zionist Commission appointed (Palestine).

   1919: Pogroms in Ukraine and Poland; abolishment of community organization and Jewish institutions in Russia (Russia & Poland). Canadian Jewish Congress founded; American Jewish delegation at Versailles. Peace of Versailles. Comite des Delegations Juives (France). pogroms in Hungary (Austria‑Hungary).

   1919‑23: Third Aliyah (Palestine).

   1920: British Mandate over Palestine; Tel Hai; Arabs riot in Jerusalem (Palestine). Keren Ha‑Yesod established (Zionism). Henry Ford begins exposing Jews in the Dearborn Independent. Histadrut founded; the Haganah founded (Palestine). Polish Russian War. Britain granted Palestine mandate (England).

   1920‑25: Sir Herbert Samuel High Commissioner (Palestine).

   1921: Arabs riot in Jaffa (Palestine). 12th Zionist Congress; Weizmann president. Brandeis‑Weismann split divides American Zionism. U.S. Immigration Act 3% quota by 1910 Census.

   1922: Churchill White Paper. Advent of Fascism in Italy. Assassination of Walter Rathenau (Germany). [135]

The Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 10, (1971) relates the following about the Khazars (Chazars):

     "KHAZARS, a national group of general Turkic type, independent and sovereign in Eastern Europe between the seventh and tenth centuries A.D. During part of this time the leading Khazars professed Judaism. The name is frequently pronounced with an a‑vowel, as in the Greek Xazapot and Arabic Khazar (Hazar), but there are traces of a different pronunciation in Hebrew (Kuzari, pl. Kuzarim). Greek (Xorztpoi), and Chinese (K'o‑sa). The name has been explained as having derived from Turkish gazmak, or from quz ('side of mountain exposed to the north'). The latter etymology would account for the o/u‑vowel in some forms of the name, for which no satisfactory explanation has been given.

     The Origin of the Khazars. The Khazars, a Turkic stock, originally nomadic, reached the Volga‑Caucasus region from farther east at some time not easily determinable. They may have belonged to the empire of the Huns (fifth century A.D.) as the Akatzirs, mentioned by Priscus. This name is said to be equivalent to Aq‑Khazar, i.e., White Khazars, as opposed to the Qara‑Khazar or Black Khazars mentioned by al‑Istakhri. The Khazars probably belonged to the West Turkish Empire (from 552 A.D.), and they may have marched with Sinjibu (Istami), the first Khaqan of the West Turks, against the Sassanid (Persian) fortress of Sul or Darband.

     In the time of Procopius (sixth century) the region immediately north of the Caucasus was held by the Sabirs, who are referred to by Jordances as one of the two great branches of the Huns. Mas'udi (tenth century A.D.) says that the Khazars are called in Turkish, Sabir.

     In 627 'the Turks from the East whom they call Khazars' under their chief Ziebel passed the Caspian Gates (Darband) and joined Heraclius at the siege of Tiflis. In view of what is known of a dual kingship among the Khazars, it would be natural to assume that Ziebel, described by Theophanes as 'second in rank to the khaqan,' was the subordinate Khazar king or beg.

     However, there are grounds for thinking that Ziebel stands for yabgu, a Turkish title ‑ in the parallel Armenian account he is called Jebu Khaqan and that he is T'ung‑ye‑hu, He‑hu Khagan, the paramount ruler of the West Turks, who is represented as second in rank to 'the King of the North, the lord of the whole world,' i.e., the supreme khaqan of the Turks. In the narratives of Theophanes and Moses of Kalankatuk respectively, the Khazars are also called Turks and Huns.

     From 681 A.D. we hear much in the latter author of the Huns of Varach'an (Warathan), north of Darband, who evidently formed part of a Khazar confederation or empire. Their prince Alp Hutver was often in attendance on the Khazar khaqan and was converted to Christianity by an Albanian bishop.

     It will be seen that the question of the precise racial affinities of the Khazars is not readily solved. There appears to be insufficient evidence to warrant the conclusion of K. Czegledy that the Khazars were of Sabir origin and distinct from the Caucasian Huns and West Turks, since it is not known how far these ethnic names mean the same thing.

     Consolidation of the Khazar State. According to Theophanes, the ruler of the Bulgars in the region of the Kuban River (West Caucasus) died 650 A.D. leaving five sons of whom only the eldest brother remained in his inheritance, while the others moved further west, as far as the Danube. On this, the Khazars, described as a 'great nation...from the interior of Berzilia in the First Sarmatia,' emerged and took possession of the territory as far as the Black Sea. The change of position was completed by 679, when one of the brothers crossed the Danube and conquered present‑day Bulgaria. Earlier than this, in 576 A.D. a West Turkish force had been present at the siege of Bosporus (Kerch) in the Crimea (Menander Protector, ed. Bonn, 404), but hitherto there is no mention of the Khazars as such so far to the west. The advance of the Khazars to the Black Sea and Crimea area appears to be mentioned also in the Reply of Joseph, where a great Khazar victory over the W‑n‑nt‑r is referred to. A people north of the Khazars called W‑n‑nd‑r is mentioned in the Hudud al‑lam.

     Both names are best explained as corresponding to Onogundur, an old name in Greek sources for the Bulgars. The advent of the Khazars on the Black Sea was clearly of great consequence for the future, for they now came within the sphere of Greek political and cultural influence. By 700 A.D. for earlier there were Khazar officials in Bosporus and Phanagoria. Henceforth the Crimea, as well as the Volga and the Caucasus, came to be specially associated with the Khazars, and a further way westward was opened for them toward both Kiev and the Slav lands via the Dnieper.

     Arabs and Khazars had already been in conflict on the line of the Caucasus first Arab‑Khazar war, 642‑652 A.D. Bab al‑Abwab at the eastern end of the range was occupied by the Arabs in 22 (643) A.H. In the same year the caliph Omar sent instructions to advance northward. Though the Arabs attacked Balanjar repeatedly, they were unable to take it.

     The defeat and death of the Arab general at the close of the first phase of Arab‑Khazar relations. According to Muvudi, the Khazar capital was at this time moved from Samandar to Atil, but he says elsewhere that Balanjar was the former capital.

     Further Relations with Byzantium and the Arabs. After the exile of Justinian II to the Crimea in 695, the Khazars on several occasions played an important, even determining, part in Byzantine politics. Toward 704 the Khaqan helped the emperor at a crucial moment and gave him his sister Theodora in marriage. Justinian returned to Constantinople to reign a second time. His successor Bardanes (711‑13) was likewise indebted to the khaqan.

     In 732 the emperor Leo the Isurian married his son, the future Constantine V, to a Khazar princess called in the sources Irene. The child of this marriage was Leo IV, the Khazar (775‑80). It is to be understood that Irene and Theodora above are baptismal, i.e., not Khazar, names.

     The second Arab‑Khazar war began in 722 or earlier, and ended in 737 with the defeat of the Khazars by Marwan b. Muhammad (later Marwan II). The Khazar khaqan is said at this time to have professed Islam.

    If so, we hear no more about it. Later the Khaqan was a Jew, as we know from the Arabic geographers Ibn Rustah (290/903), Istakhri (320/932), Ibn Hauqal (367/977), etc., and it is implied in the Reply of Joseph that the Beginnings of Khazar Judaism dated as far back as 112/730, when the Khazars defeated the Arabs south of the Caucasus, and from the spoils consecrated a tabernacle on the Mosaic mode.

     The conversion of the leading Khazars to Judaism perhaps took place toward 740 A.D. It seems at all events certain that the Khazars successfully resisted the Arabs for several decades, and that they were only reduced with difficulty and at a time when the internal situation of the caliphate prevented the Arabs from exploiting their victory: Marwan was called away to become the last Umayyad Caliph (744) and to struggle against ever‑growing opposition, until his death in 750 at the hands of Abbasid soldiers in Egypt.

     The dynastic crisis probably saved Khazaria. At the same time the situation had wider implications, for if Marwan had been able to hold the Khazar territory permanently, the history of Eastern Europe might have been very different. The Khazar Double Kingship. This was a phenomenon found among other Turkic peoples, e.g., the Qara‑Khanids, and not unknown elsewhere; compare the double kingship at Sparta in antiquity, and the Shogun and Mikado of medieval Japan. How far back the institution goes among the Khazars cannot be exactly determined.

     Ya'qubi (ninth century) speaks of the Khazar khaqan and his representative (khaltfa) apparently in the sixth century. Arabic accounts, in Tabari, ibn al‑Athir, etc., of the Arab‑Khazar wars afford no precise evidence of the dual kingship, yet the Arabic geographers regularly mention it. The account of al‑Istakhri, written 320/932, is as follows: 'As to their politics and system of government, their chief is called khaqan of the Khazars. He is greater than the king of the Khazars (elsewhere called by al‑Istakhri the bak or bak, i.e., beg), except that the king of the Khazars appoints him. When they wish to appoint this khaqan, they bring him and throttle him with a piece of silk, till, when his breath is nearly cut off, they say to him, 'How long do you wish to reign?' and he says, 'So‑and‑so many years.' If he dies short of them, well and good. If not, he is killed when he reaches that year. The khaqanate is valid among them only in a house of notables. He possesses no right of command nor of veto, but he is honored, and people prostrate themselves when they enter his presence...

     The khaqanate is in a group of notables who possess neither sovereignty nor riches. When the chief place comes to one of them, they appoint him, and do not consider his condition. I have been informed by a reliable person that he had seen a young man selling bread in one of the sugs. People said that when their khaqan died, there was none more deserving of the khaqanate than he, except that he was a Muslim, and the khaqanate is not conferred on any but a Jew.'

     A remarkable parallel to the inauguration ceremony described by Istakhri is found in a Chinese source on the Turks in the sixth century A.D. the Chou Shu. Recently the theory of A. Alfoldi that the double kingship among nomadic peoples corresponds to leadership of the two wings of the horde has won wide acceptance, but does not apply particularly well to the Khazars.

     Mas'udi had already suspected that the Khazar khaqan represented a dynasty which had been superseded has suggested that the khaqan was the representative at the Khazar capital, Atil, of the West Turks, whom he thinks of as in control of Khazaria. This is not likely to have been the situation except for a very short time, since the Khazar capital was not transferred to Atil before the time of the first Arab‑Khazar war (642‑652) and the destruction of the West Turkish power took place in 652‑657.

     Yet the Khazar khaqan may in fact have represented the West Turk ruling dynasty. This seems to be the view of the tenth‑century Persian work, Hudud al‑'Alam, according to which the khaqan of the Khazars was 'of the descendants of Ansa,' apparently corresponding to Asna, or Achena, well‑known as the ruling family among the Turks. Do‑sa (different from K'o‑sa above), the name in Chinese of a sub‑tribe of the Uigurs, is often taken as the equivalent of Khazars. We know that the destruction of the West Turks was brought about by a coalition of which the Uigurs formed part. It may therefore be that the convulsions which attended the breakup of the West Turkish Empire brought forward this section of the Uigurs, so that, while the khaqan represented the old ruling family, the Khazar beg, i.e., the effective king, was their representative.

     Date of Khazar Conversion to Judaism. This has already been referred to above (see Bulan and below Khazar Correspondence). The date of 740 is suggested by converging considerations, namely, the circumstances of the reported conversion to Islam in 737 and the dating given by Judah Halevi in the Kuzari (Cosri).

     The absence of distinct references to the Judaism of the Khazars in the biographies of St. Abo of Tiflis, who was in Khazaria 780 A.D. and of Constantine (Cyril), who was there 860, should not be pressed as proof that the conversion to Judaism took place only later. Mas'udi states positively that the king of the Khazars became a Jew in the caliphate of Harun al‑Rashid (786‑809 A.D.).

     This may well refer to the reformation 800 under Obadiah of which the Reply of Joseph speaks. S.P. Tolstov has sought to explain the Khazar conversion to Judaism as a result of the conquest of Khwarizm (Khorezm) by the Arab general Muslim ibn Qutayba in 712.

     The Khazar Empire. The extent of the territory ruled by the Khazars has been variously estimated. Thus B.A. Ribakov makes Khazaria a small territory on the lower courses of the Volga and Don, to include Sarkil and the Khazar capital (assigning separate localities to Atil, Khamlij, and al‑Bayda', usually taken to be the same place). This is based principally on the data in the world map of Idrisi, which offers a somewhat misleading picture of Khazaria. On the other hand, S.P. Tolstov envisages a Khazaria united with Khwarizm under one ruler to form a single state, a view for which the evidence is slight.

     It must be allowed, however, that at one time Khazar rule extended westward a long way beyond the Crimea‑Caucasus‑Volga region which for the Greek and Arabic sources is Khazaria. The Russian Primary Chronicle ((1953), 58‑59; Chronicle of Nestor, Povest vremennykh let) reports that at an unspecified date the Polians south of the Middle Dnieper paid tribute to the Khazars of a sword per hearth, and that in 859 A.D. the Polians, Severians, and Viatichians paid them a white squirrel skin per hearth. Later these payments in kind ceased to be made, being evidently replaced by money payments; e.g., the Radimichians paid the Khazars a shilling or dirham apiece until 885 A.D. according to the Chronicle (61), and the Viatichians until 964, the same per plowshare. All these peoples were exposed to attack by any strong forces coming up the valleys of the Don and Donets from the Khazar territory. Kiev itself was occupied by the Khazars for some period before 862, but presumably was not built by or for them, unlike Sarkel or Sarkil on the Don, which on the application of the khaqan and beg to Emperor Theophilus was constructed by Byzantine workmen in 833 A.D. All of these territories were to be taken from the Khazars, some already in the ninth century, by the advancing Russians.

     East of the Volga, in the direction of Khwarizm, the situation is obscure. Al‑Istakhri tells of caravans passing between Khwarizm and Khazaria, mentioning specifically, Slav, Khazar, and Turkish slaves and all kinds of furs among the principal merchandise of Khwarizm. On the other hand, he says that Khwarizm has the nomad Turks (Ghuzz) on its northern and western frontier, not the Khazars. According to Tolstov, a 'royal road' led from Khorezm to the Volga, traces of which may be seen from the air, and he finds in it an indication of the emergence of a great Khorezmian‑Khazar state in the tenth and beginning of the 11th century. The Extent of Khazar Judaism. While the Khazars were generally known to their neighbors as Jews, they seem to have had little or no contact with the central Jewish organization in Iraq, and they tend to be mentioned less by Rabbanite than by Karaite authors.

     This is not to say that the Khazars were Karaites, a view which has not lacked defenders, at least since the time of A. Firkovich. Yet such contemporary or nearly contemporary documents as we possess offer no evidence of the Karaism of the Khazars. On the other hand, it would seem that the lack of interest in the Khazars on the part of the Jewish authorities, as reflected in the literary works at our disposal, was due at least partly to their imperfect adherence to Judaism. This is illustrated notably in their retention of a number of pagan (shamanist) customs, dating back to their Turkic past, which are duly noted by the Arabic geographers. We may here consider the position of H. Baratz that in the oldest Russian writings of a legal character there are Hebrew, mostly biblical‑Talmudic, elements, and that these go back to Khazar times. Thus the fact that early Russian codes, including the Zakon sudni liudem ('Law for the Judging of the People'), contain traces of Mosaic and Talmudic legislation, is due not to contact with the Catholic West, as has also been maintained, but to the influence of the Jewish Khazars. This view has been characterized by a Russian academician (I.V. Yagich) as 'a scarlet thread for everyone to walk by.' Yet the chances of Khazar influence on Russian codes, in the form of the introduction of Mosaic and Talmudic elements, clearly become less if it is demonstrable, as seem to be the case, that Khazar Judaism was never very strong.

     The Downfall of Khazaria. The Reply of Joseph mentions that the Khazars guarded the mouth of the Volga before 961 A.D. and prevented the Russians from reaching the Caspian. On several occasions, notably 913 and again in 943, the Russians made raids down the Volga, passing through Atil.

     Later apparently in 965, Khazaria was the object of a great Russian attack, which was aimed at the Khazar capital and reached as far as Samandar, as we know from Ibn Hawqal. From this disaster the Khazars appear to have recovered only partially. Again at this time we hear of a Khazar khaqan adopting Islam. His motive is said to have been to secure the help of the people of Khwarizm.

     After 965 the Khazars are still mentioned occasionally, but scarcely for long as an independent people. We cannot use the Cairo Genizah document published by J. Mann concerning a messianic movement supposedly in Khazaria in the time of al‑Afdal, the great Fatimid vizier who ruled 1094/1121, as proof of continued Khazar existence until this time, since it has been shown that the movement in question took place in Kurdistan.

     Furthermore, Oleg, the same who, according to the Russian Chronicle, established himself in Tmutorokan in 1083, is called in a seal of the 11th‑12th century 'archon of all Khazaria.' Whatever is precisely indicated here by 'Khazaria' ‑ e.g. the Khazar country in the Crimea ‑ such a claim could not have been made prior to 965. We must therefore see the Khazar state as having subsisted until the second half of the tenth century, or the 11th century at most. By the 12th century the Qipchaqs or Cumans (identified also with the Polvtsi) appeared in the steppes once ruled by the Khazars. At the time of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, it was they, not the Khazars, who were in possession.

     The Khazar Correspondence. This name is usually given to what appears as an interchange of letters in Hebrew between Hisdai ibn Shaprut, a well‑known personality of Muslim Spain in the tenth century, and Joseph, king of the Khazars. M.I. Artamonov includes the Cambridge Document as well as the Letter of Hisdai and the Reply of Joseph in the Khazar Correspondence, but this would seem to be contrary to general usage. The Reply is available in a Long Version and a Short Version. The Correspondence involves serious critical difficulties, and its authenticity has been much debated.

     The Letter of Hisdai begins with a plyut containing an acrostic which gives his own name and that of Menabem b. Saruq. the latter presumably acting as Hisdai's secretary and being the author of the plyut. The prose part, after compliments, refers to the geographical situation of al‑Andalus and Khazaria and describes the natural wealth of al‑Andalus and Hisdai's own position there.

     It seems that his interest has been aroused by his having heard repeatedly that the Khazars are Jews. The Letter mentions attempts made by Hisdai to get in touch with the Khazar king. He was finally successful through the instrumentality of two Jews, Mar Saul and Mar Joseph, who accompanied an embassy which arrived at Cordoba from the 'king of the G‑b‑lim, who are the Saqlab.' The Letter of Hisdai was conveyed to the East by their means, i.e., overland, and eventually was put into the hands of the Khazar king, according to the Reply, by a certain Jacob or Isaac b. Eliezer, a Central European Jew.

     The tone of the Letter of Hisdai is mostly one of enquiry, and it invites an answer to questions which range over a variety of topics: Is there a Jewish kingdom anywhere on earth? How did the Jews come to Khazaria? In what way did the conversion of the Khazars take place? Where does the king live? To what tribe does he belong? What is his method of procession to his place of worship? Does war abrogate the Sabbath? Has the Khazar king any information about the possible end of the world? Hisdai mentions that 'Abd al‑Rahman III al‑Nasir is the reigning king of al‑Andalus.

     This gives 961 as the terminus ad quem for the Letter, with 953‑55 as a possible terminus a quo, for in those years Cordoba was visited by John of Gorz, as envoy of the German emperor Otto I, who may be the 'king of the G‑b‑lim, who are the Saqlab' already referred to. The Reply of Joseph begins by referring to the principal contents of the Letter and recapitulates a number of its questions. It then relates the early history of the Khazars, and proceeds to deal at length with the conversion to Judaism under Bulan. The conversion is initiated by a dream of Bulan, which he communicates to a certain general among them, apparently the beg. From the spoils of a Khazar attack on Ardabil, south of the Caucasus, for which we have the synchronism 730 in the Arabic sources, a tabernacle on the biblical model is set up.

     A religious debate between representatives of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is held, after which Bulan and the principal Khazars accept the religion of Israel. Under a later king, Obadiah, there was a reform of religion. Synagogues and schools were built, and the Khazars became familiar with Torah, Mishnah, Talmud, and the liturgy, i.e., rabbinic Judaism was introduced. Joseph then traces his descent from Obadiah and gives a description of his country and capital. He refers to Hisdai's question concerning the end of the age in a somewhat noncommittal fashion, and finally expresses his desire that Hisdai may come to Khazaria, which, if a notice in a map of Ibn Hawqal can be trusted, he actually did. The correspondence has been available since the appearance of the work Kol Mevasser of Isaac Akrish in or after 1577, and more generally since the two letters were published by the younger Buxtorf in his edition of the book Cosri (Kuzdri) of Judah Halevi in 1660.

     It is not known what manuscript source was used by Isaac Akrish; Buxtorf depended on Kol Mevasser. The only known manuscript of the Correspondence as a whole, containing the Letter of Hisdai and the Reply of Joseph, is in the library of Christ Church, Oxford. This manuscript is very similar to the printed text, which, it has been suggested, is a transcript. There appear to be no special grounds for this opinion, though the manuscript, which is undated, has no claims to great antiquity. Nothing is sure about its provenance, but it is thought to have belonged originally to the celebrated Dr. Fell (1625‑1686).

     A longer version of the Reply of Joseph was published by A. Harkavy in 1874, from a manuscript of the Second Firkovich Collection in the Leningrad Public Library. The Long Version bears no indication of any alterations or additions, and is supposed to date from the 13th century. Harkavy, in spite of his very critical attitude to Firkovich, regarded it as the undoubted original of the Short Version.

     It appears impossible to suppose that the Khazar Correspondence is a fabrication of the 16th century in view of a reference to it, with the citation of part of the Reply of Joseph, agreeing in general with the Long Version, in the Sefer ha‑Lttim of Judah b. Barzillai al‑Bargeloni, dated between 1090 and 1105, and a similar reference in the Sefer ha‑Kabbalah of Abraham ibn Daud in the 12th century.

     It cannot be admitted that these works were interpolated in the 16th century or later, to support the authenticity. Nor does it appear at all plausible that the letters forming the Khazar Correspondence were forgeries of the tenth century, composed with a view to informing the Jews about the Khazars. It is demonstrable that the literary style of the Letter of Hisdai differs from that of the Reply of Joseph in a marked manner.

     The classical Hebrew construction of vav conversive with the imperfect to express the past tense is freely used in the Letter of Hisdai, actually 48 times as against 14 times when the past tense is rendered by simple vav with the perfect. In the Reply (L.V.), on the other hand, vav conversive with the imperfect occurs not more than once or twice, while the past is expressed by the perfect, occurs in a number of passages where the wording is different from the Long Version. There is a new proportion of vav conversive with the imperfect to simple vav with the perfect: 37 to 50. It may therefore be affirmed that there is a separate authorship for the Letter and the Reply, and assumed that the Long Version of the Reply, or something very like it, has been worked over by a third hand to produce the Short Version.

     There are grounds for thinking that the Reply originally was written in a non‑Arabic‑speaking environment. Most people would agree with Kokovtsov's cautious statement that as basis for both versions there is the same original text, in general better preserved in the Long Version. B.A. Ribakov supposed that an authentic letter of King Joseph was worked over in Tmutorokan toward the end of the 11th century ('about 1083'), which resulted in the Long Version, and that some time afterward the text of the Long Version was modified by Jews of Barcelona to produce the Short Version of the Reply.

     Khazar Jews After the Fall of the Kingdom. The artifacts of the Khazars appear to be scant. A number of sites have been excavated, and though details of the archaeological activity in Russia are difficult to obtain the Russians hold a monopoly on digs in ancient Khazaria. It appears that there have not been any sensational discoveries to date. No royal burial sites have been unearthed hardly surprising since, according to Ibn Fadlan, the Khaqans were buried under a stream, and no inscriptions, public or private.

     Prior to 1914 archaeological excavations were conducted in successive years, especially at Verkhnii Soltov on the Donets. Since then, scholars have been divided on whether or not Saltov is a Khazar site. Additional work has been done at Bulghar and at the neighboring town of Suwar, which was mentioned in al‑Istakhri. A tenth‑century two‑stories palace, in which many coins were found, was discovered at the latter site, but this, the only building of a public character which has come to light, might possibly be Bulgar rather than Khazar.

     Belaya (Bela) Vezha, the ancient Sarkii, near the village of Tsimlyanskaya on the left bank of the lower Dan, has been the site which has attracted the most interest in recent years. Though not the Khazar capital, as had been erroneously attested, it was an important settlement. Nothing specifically Jewish has been found there. Nevertheless, discoveries analogous to the culture of Saltov and Mayatskoe Gorodishche, both at least presumed Khazar sites, were unearthed, as well as ceramics engraved with markings of the type found in the Don inscriptions. No traces of the fortress constructed by the Greeks for the Khazars have been found. In spite of the negligible information of an archaeological nature, the presence of Jewish groups and the impact of Jewish ideas in Eastern Europe are considerable during the Middle Ages. Groups have been mentioned as migrating to Central Europe from the East or have been referred to as Khazars, thus making it impossible to overlook the possibility that they originated from within the former Khazar Empire. Even though the 12th‑century traveler Benjamin of Tudela did not mention Khazaria as such he did refer to Khazars in Constantinople and Alexandria. Aside from the Kabars (Khazars) who migrated earlier to Hungary, the Hungarian duke Taksony (tenth century) is said to have invited the Khazars to settle in his lands.

     In about 1117 Khazars appear to have come to Vladimir Monomakh, Prince of Kiev, after fleeing from the Cumans, building a town they named Bela Vezha (near Chernigov). If this assumption is correct, these Khazars previously lived in Bela Vezha (Sarkil) and then settled near Chernigov. Prior to this time Jews who were possibly Khazars were introduced by Svyatopolk into Kiev.

     The Khalisioi in the 12th century, who were mentioned as fighting against Manuel I Comnenus, retained, according to John Cinnamus, 'The Mosaic laws but Not in Their Pure Form.' As late as 1309 a council of the Hungarian clergy (at Pressburg) forbade Catholics to marry those people who were at that time described as Khazars; papal confirmation of this decision was given in 1346. Both the Mountain Jews and the Karachais seem to be connected with the Khazars of the Caucasus region. It is also possible that there were Khazar Jews in the Crimea, which was known to the Italians in the late Middle Ages and perhaps still later as Gazaria. The Turkish‑speaking Karaites of the Crimea, Poland, and elsewhere have affirmed a connection with the Khazars, which is perhaps confirmed by evidence from folklore and anthropology as well as language. There seems to be a considerable amount of evidence attesting to the continued presence in Europe of descendants of the Khazars. The story of the conversion of the Khazar king to Judaism formed the basis for Judah Halevi's famous philosophical dialogue, Kuzari." [136]

The Dictionary of the Middle Ages states:

     "RUSSIA, NOMADIC INVASIONS OF. The Caspian‑Black Sea steppelands have long attracted the pastoral nomads, both Iranian and Altaic (Turko‑Mongolian), of central Asia. This interaction of the nomads with the Finno‑Ugrian and eastern Slavic populations is one of the constant factors in the evolution of these peoples.

     Altaic nomads, primarily Turkic, were brought to the western Eurasian steppes with the migrations of peoples associated with the formation and expansion of the Hunnic state (fourth century A.D.). A decade after the Hunnic collapse in 454, new Turkic tribes, the Oghurs, Onogurs, and related peoples, entered the region and, joining with Hunnic remnants, gave rise to the Bulgars and other confederations. In the mid sixth century, the Avars, coming from inner Asia, briefly dominated the western steppes, only to be replaced by their mortal enemies, the Turks. The latter created an empire stretching from the borders of China to the Black Sea.

     An offshoot and successor state of the Turks in this territory was the Khazar Kaganate (650‑965). Rulled, apparently, by a dynasty of Turkic origin, the Khazars continued the pattern of cooperation with Byzantium established by their Turkic predecessors. This alliance, initially directed against Sasanian Iran, continued with the appearance of the Arabs in the Caucasus. Arabo‑Khazar warfare began in 652 and lasted, with brief interludes, for almost a century. Following the victory of the Umayyad general Marwan in 737, the north Caucasus became the border between the two empires.

     In the late eighth to early ninth centuries, the Khazar ruling strata and elements of the leading clans and tribes converted to Judaism. The conversion, never fully elucidated in the surviving sources and still the subject of much speculation, provided a necessary autonomy in relations with Byzantium and the caliphate. Islam, Christianity, and paganism, however, continued to flourish alongside of Judaism.

     Atil, the Khazar capital on the lower Volga, became a major commercial center with a large, polyglot population. Khazar government closely followed the usages of its Turk progenitor. A particular development, known to other Turkic states, was the transformation of the Kagan into a religio‑sacral figurehead while actual direction of the state was placed in the hands of a deputy (called variously the shad, yilig, or beg).

     Khazaria served as Byzantium's first line of defense against nomadic incursions. In the ninth century, however, its power was weakened by foreign invaders (Hungarians and Pechenegs) and internal strife (the Kabar revolt). By the tenth century, the Khazars were no longer able to contain the steppe pressures. Byzantine policy, which now sought to turn 'barbarian' against 'barbarian,' only exacerbated the situation. In 965, Svyatoslav of Kiev, responding to Khazar attempts to curb Russians raiding via Khazaria into the Caspian Islamic lands, and delivered the fatal blow. A now greatly reduced Khazaria lingered on as a Khwarizmian protectorate. More importantly, the barrier to westward steppe incursions had been removed, thus contributing to those events that culminated in the Byzantine disaster at Manazkert.

     The Hungarians and the Pechenegs were the nomads disturbing Khazaria in the ninth century. The Hungarian tribal union, consisting of Ugrian and Oghur Turkic elements, had been pushed westward from their Uralo‑Bashkir homeland by repeated assaults from the Pechenegs. The latter, a Turkic tribal union formerly located in the Kang area, were in conflict with the Oghuz Turks, who had entered central Asia about 775.

     When Khazaria weakened, the Pechenegs, under Oghuz pressure, migrated from the Volga‑Ural Mesopotamia and entered the Pontic steppes in the early tenth century. Here, they were used by Byzantium to check the Rus, (for instance, in the ambush and killing of Svyatoslav in 972). The ongoing Pecheneg‑ Rus struggle, frequently little more than localized raiding, prompted Svyatoslav's son Vladimir I (980‑1015) to create a series of fortifications on his southern frontiers to contain the nomads.

     In 1036, however, the Pechenegs made a serious attempt on Kiev. Decisively defeated by Yaroslav (1036‑1054) and still faced with Oghur pressure, they now migrated toward the Byzantine Balkan holdings. Subsequently, in 1091, masses of them were slaughtered there by joint Byzantine‑Cuman forces. The Oghuz, involved in central Asian political turbulence and themselves under great internal pressures in part reflected in the Seljuk movement, were also caught up in the migration of yet another mass of Turkic tribesmen from the east (the Cuman‑Qun migration, 1017‑1018). While many Oghuz entered Iran under Seljuk leadership, others appeared in the Pontic steppes after 965 (they aided Svyatoslav in his Khazar campaign).

     More followed by the mid eleventh century, when the full impact Cuman movements was felt. The Torki (Oghuz‑Rus) appear in considerable numbers in 1054‑1055, just ahead of the Cuman advance. They were then defeated by the Rus and again suffered defeat in 1060. Like the Pechenegs, they migrated to the Byzantine borders (1064‑1065). Those remaining in the steppe were joined with remnants of the Pechenegs and other nomads to form, ultimately the Chernye Klobuki (Russian: Black Hoods), the Turkic border guards of the Kievan princes.

     The dominant steppe people from the mid eleventh century until the Mongol conquest was the Cuman/Kipchak tribal union, whose immediate antecedents are still much in dispute. The Cuman steppe (Russian: Pole Polovetskoe; Persian: Dasht‑iQipchaq) extended from the Danube to kazakhtan. Although they periodically raided Byzantine lands, supported the Asenids in the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire, and helped Georgia to withstand the Seljuks, they most frequently enmeshed themselves in the domestic squabbles of their closest neighbors, the Rus. Warfare here, however, complicated by a variety of marital and military alliances, tended to be on a small scale and never assumed the aspect of a life‑and‑death struggle. Rus political fragmentation was almost matched in Cumania. The efforts of Konchak khan and his son Yurii to unite the Cuman sub-confederations in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries were undone by the Mongol conquest in 1237. The Mongols reorganized the Cumans (now called Tatars), but the latter quickly Turkicized the resultant Golden Horde.

     Some Cumans fled to Hungary, where they settled in regions that now bear their name. Others were sold on the steppe as military slaves in the Islamic world, where they seized power from the Ayyubids (Egypt/Syria) and formed their own state in 1250, that of the Mamluks." [137]

The Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism:

     "'The religion of the Hebrews,' writes Bury, 'had exercised a profound influence on the creed of Islam, and it (has been falsely said) been a basis for Christianity; it had won scattered proselytes; but the conversion of the Khazars to be undiluted religion of Jehovah is unique in history.' [138]

     What was the motivation of this unique event? It is not easy to get under the skin of a Khazar prince ‑ covered, as it was, by a coat of mail. But if we reason in terms of power‑politics, which obeys essentially the same rules throughout the ages, a fairly plausible analogy offers itself.

     At the beginning of the eighth century the world was polarized between the two super‑powers representing Christianity and Islam. Their ideological doctrines were welded to power‑politics pursued by the classical methods of propaganda, subversion and military conquest. The Khazar Empire represented a Third Force, which had proved equal to either of them, both as an adversary and an ally. But it could only maintain its independence by accepting neither Christianity nor Islam ‑ for either choice would have automatically subordinated it to the authority of the Roman Emperor or the Caliph of Baghdad.

     There had been no lack of efforts by either court to convert the Khazars to Christianity or Islam, but all they resulted in was the exchange of diplomatic courtesies, dynastic inter‑marriages and shifting military alliances based on mutual self‑interest. Relying on its military strength, the Khazar kingdom, with its hinterland of vassal tribes, was determined to preserve its position as the Third Force, leader of the uncommitted nations of the steppes.

     At the same time, their intimate contacts with Cyzantium and the Caliphate had taught the Khazars that their primitive shamanism was not only barbaric and outdated compared to the great monotheistic creeds, but also unable to confer on the leaders the spiritual and legal authority which the rulers of the two theocratic world powers, the Caliph and the Emperor, enjoyed. Yet the conversion to either creed would have meant submission, the end of independence, and thus would have defeated its purpose. What could have been more logical than to embrace a third creed, which was uncommitted towards either of the two, yet represented the venerable foundation of both?

     The apparent logic of the decision is of course due to the deceptive clarity of hindsight. In reality, the conversion to Judaism required an act of genius. Yet both the Arab and Hebrew sources on the history of the conversion, however varied in detail, point to a line of reasoning as indicated above.

     To quote Bury once more: 'There can be no question hat the ruler was actuated by political motives in adopting Judaism. To embrace Mohammadanism would have made him the spiritual dependent of the Caliphs, who attempted to press their faith on the Khazars, and in Christianity lay the danger of his becoming an ecclesiastical vassal of the Roman Empire. Judaism was a reputable religion with sacred books which both Christian and Mohammadan respected; it elevated him above the heathen barbarians, and secured him against the interference of Caliph or Emperor. But he did not adopt, along with circumcision, the intolerance of the Jewish cult. He allowed the mass of his people to abide in their heathendom and worship their idols.'

     Though the Khazar court's conversion was no doubt politically motivated, it would still be absurd to imagine that they embraced overnight, blindly, a religion whose tenets were unknown to them. In fact, however, they had been well acquainted with Jews and their religious observances for at least a century before bibliography written 987, A.D., Informs us that in his time the Khazars used the Hebrew alphabet. It served the dual purpose of scholarly discourse in Hebrew (analogous to the use of medieval Latin in the West) and as a written alphabet for the various languages spoken in Khazaria (analogous to the use of the Latin alphabet for the various vernaculars in Western Europe).

     From Khazaria the Hebrew script seemed to have spread into neighboring countries. Thus Chwolson reports that 'inscriptions in a non‑Semitic language (or possibly in two different non‑Semitic languages) using Hebrew characters were found on two gravestones from Phanagoria and Parthenit in the Crimea; they have not been deciphered yet.' (These inscriptions are a category apart from the forgeries of Frikovitch, notorious among historians) (The Crimea was, as we have seen, intermittently under Khazar rule; but it also had an old‑established Jewish community, and the inscriptions may even pre‑date the conversion). Some Hebrew letters (shin and tsadei) also found their way into the Cyrillic alphabet, and furthermore, many Polish silver coins have been found, dating from the twelfth or thirteenth century, which bear Polish inscriptions in Hebrew lettering (e.g., Leszek krol Polski ‑ Leszek King of Poland), side by side with coins inscribed in the Latin alphabet. Poliak comments: 'These coins are the final evidence for the spreading of the Hebrew script from Khazaria to the neighboring Slavonic countries. The use of these coins was not related to any question of religion. They were minted because many of the Polish people were more used to this type of script than to the Roman script, not considering it as specifically Jewish.'

     Thus while the conversion was no doubt inspired by opportunistic motives ‑ conceived as a cunning political manouvre ‑ it brought in its wake cultural developments which could hardly have been foreseen by those who started it. The Hebrew alphabet was the beginning; three centuries later the decline of the Khazar state is marked by repeated outbreaks of a messianic Zionism, with pseudo‑Messiahs like David El‑Roi (hero of a novel by Disraeli) leading quixotic crusades for the re‑conquest of Jerusalem.

     After the defeat by the Arabs in 737, the Kagan's forced adoption of Islam had been a formality almost instantly revoked, which apparently left no impression on his people. In contrast to this, the voluntary conversion to Judaism was to produce deep and lasting effects. The circumstances of the conversion are obscured by legend, but the principal Arab and Hebrew accounts of it have some basic features in common.

     Al‑Masudi's account of the Jewish rule in Khazaria, quoted earlier on, ends with a reference to a previous work of his, in which he gave a description of those circumstances. That previous work of Masudi's is lost; but there exist two accounts which are based on the lost book. The first, by Dimaski (written in 1327), reiterates that at the time of Harun al Rashid, the Byzantine Emperor forced the Jews to emigrate; these emigrants came to the Khazar country where they found 'an intelligent but uneducated race to whom they offered their religion. The natives found it better than their own and accepted it.'

     The second, much more detailed account is in al‑bakri's Book of Kingdoms and Roads (eleventh century): 'The reason for the conversion to Judaism of the King of the Khazars, who had previously been a pagan, is as follows. He had adopted Christianity (No other source, as far as I know, mentions this. It may be a substitution more palatable to Muslim readers for the Kagan's short‑lived adoption of Islam prior to Judaism ‑ Author) Then he recognized its falsehood and discussed this matter, which greatly worried him, with one of his high officials. The latter said to him: O king, those in possession of sacred scriptures fall into three groups. Summon them and ask them to state their case, then follow the one who is in possession of the truth.

     So he sent to the Christians for a bishop. Now there was with the King a Jew, skilled in argument, who engaged him in disputation. He asked the Bishop: 'What do you say of Moses, the son of Amran, and the Torah which was revealed to him?' The Bishop replied: 'Moses is a prophet and the Torah speaks the truth.' Then the Jew said to the King: 'He has already admitted the truth of my creed. Ask him now what he believes in.' So the King asked him and he replied: 'I say that Jesus the Messiah is the son of Mary, he is the Word, and he has revealed the mysteries in the name of God.' Then said the Jew to the King of the Khazars: 'He preaches a doctrine which I know not, while he accepts my propositions.' But the Bishop was not strong in producing evidence. Then the King asked for a Muslim, and they sent him a scholarly, clever man who was good at arguments. But the Jew hired someone who poisoned him on the journey, and he died. And the Jew succeeded in winning the King for his faith, so that he embraced Judaism.'

     The Arab historians certainly had a gift for sugaring the pill. Had the Muslim scholar been able to participate in the debate he would have fallen into the same trap as the Bishop, for both accepted the truth of the Old Testament, whereas the upholders of the New Testament and of the Koran were each outvoted two to one. The King's approval of this reasoning is symbolic: he is only willing to accept doctrines which are shared by all three ‑ their common denominator ‑ and refuses to commit himself to any of the rival claims which go beyond that. It is once more the principle of the uncommitted world, applied to theology. The story also implies, as Bury has pointed out, that Jewish influence at the Khazar court must already have been strong before the formal conversion, for the Bishop and the Muslim scholar have to be 'sent for,' whereas the Jew is already 'with him' (the King).

     We now turn from the principal Arab source on the conversion ‑ Masudi and his compilers ‑ to the principal Jewish source. This is the so‑called 'Khazar Correspondence': an exchange of letters, in Hebrew, between Hasdai Ibn Shaprut, the Jewish chief minister of the Caliph of Cordoba, and Joseph, King of the Khazars, or, rather between their respective scribes. The authenticity of the correspondence has been the subject of controversy but is now generally accepted with due allowance made for the vagaries of later copyists.

                                                       The Khazar Correspondence

     The exchange of letters between the Spanish statesman Hasdai ibn Shaprut and King Joseph of Khazaria has for a long time fascinated historians. It is true that, as Dunlop wrote, 'the importance of the Khazar Correspondence can be exaggerated. By this time it is possible to reconstruct Khazar history in some detail without recourse to the letters of Hasdai and Joseph.' Nevertheless, the reader may be interested in a brief outline of what is known of the history of these documents.

     Hasdai's Letter was apparently written between 954 and 961, fro the embassy from Eastern Europe that he mentions is believed to have visited Cordoba in 954, and Caliph Abd‑al‑Rahman, whom he mentions as his sovereign, ruled till 961. That the Letter was actually penned by Hasdai's secretary, Menahem ben‑Sharuk, whose name appears in the acrostic after Hasdai's, has been established by Landau, through comparison with Menachem's other surviving work. Thus the authenticity of Hasdai's Letter is no longer in dispute, while the evidence concerning Joseph's Reply is necessarily more indirect and complex.

     The earliest known mentions of the Correspondence date from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Around the year 1100 Rabbi Jehuda ben Barzillai of Barcelona wrote in Hebrew his 'Book of the Festivals' ‑ Sefer ha‑Ittim ‑ which contains a long reference, including direct quotations, to Joseph's Reply to Hasdai. The passage in question in Barzillai's work starts as follows; 'We have seen among some other manuscripts the copy of a letter which King Joseph, son of Aaron, the Khazar priest wrote to R. Hasdai bar Isaac. (Hasdai's name in Hebrew was bar Isaac bar Shaprut, The R (for Rabbi) is a courtesy title). We do not know if the letter is genuine or not, and if it is a fact that the Khazars, who are Turks, became proselytes. It is not definite whether all that is written in the letter is fact and truth or not. There may be falsehoods written in it, or people may have added to it, or there may be error on the part of the scribe...The reason why we need to write in this our book things which seem to be exaggerated is that we have found in the letter of this king Joseph to R. Hasdai that R. Hasdai had asked him of what family he was, the condition of the king, how his fathers had been gathered under the wings of the Presence (i.e., become converted to Judaism) and how great were his kingdom and dominion. He replied to him on every head, writing all the particulars in the letter.'

     Barzillai goes on to quote or paraphrase further passages from Joseph's Reply, thus leaving no doubt that the Reply was already in existence as early as A.D. 1100. A particularly convincing touch is added by the Rabbi's scholarly skepticism. Living in provincial Barcelona, he evidently knew little or nothing about the Khazars.

     About the time when Rabbi Barzillai wrote, the Arab chronicler, Ibn Hawkal, also heard some rumors about Hasdai's involvement with the Khazars. There survives an enigmatic note, which Ibn Hawkal jotted down on a manuscript map, dated A. D. 479 ‑ A.D. 1086. It says: 'Hasdai ibn‑Ishaq (Arab version of Hasdai's name) thinks that this great long mountain (the Caucasus) is connected with the mountains of Armenia and traverses the country of the Greeks, extending to Khazaran and the mountains of Armenia. He was well informed about these parts because he visited them and met their principal kings and leading men.'

     It seems most unlikely that Hasdai actually visited Khazaria; but we remember that he offered to do so in his Letter, and that Joseph enthusiastically welcomed the prospect in the Reply; perhaps the industrious Hawkal heard some gossip about the Correspondence and extrapolated from there, a practice not unfamiliar among the chroniclers of the time.

     Some fifty years later (A.D. 1140) jehudah Halevi wrote his philosophical tract 'The Khazars' (Kuzri). As already said, it contains little factual information, but his account of the Khazar conversion to Judaism agrees in broad outlines with that given by Joseph in the Reply. Halevi does not explicitly refer to the Correspondence, but his book is mainly concerned with theology, disregarding any historical or factual references. He had probably read a transcript of the Correspondence as the less erudite Barzillai had before him, but the evidence is inconclusive.

     It is entirely conclusive, however, in the case of Abraham ben Daud whose popular Sefer ha‑Kabbalah, written in 1161, contains the following passage: 'You will find congregations of Israel spread abroad from the town of Mala at the extremity of the Maghrib, as far as Tahart at its commencement, the extremity of Africa, in all Africa, Egypt, the country of the Sabaeans, Arabia, Babylonia, Elam, Persia, Dedan, the country of the Girgashites which is called Jurjan, Tabaristan, as far as Daylam and the river Itil where live the Khazar peoples who become proselytes. Their king Joseph sent a letter to R. Hasdai, the Prince bar Isaac ben‑Shaprut and informed him that he and all his people followed the Rabbanite faith. We have seen in Toledo some of their descendants, pupils of the wise, and they told us that the remnant of them followed the Rabbanite faith.'

     The first printed version of the Khazar Correspondence is contained in a Hebrew pamphlet, Kol Mebasser, 'Voice of the Messenger of Good News.' [139]. It was published in Constantinople in or around 1577 by Isaac Abraham Akrish. In his preface Akrish relates that during his travels in Egypt fifteen years earlier he had heard rumors of an independent Jewish kingdom (these rumors probably referred to the Falashas of Abyssinia); and that subsequently he obtained 'a letter which was sent to the king of the Khazars, and the king's reply.' He then decided to publish this correspondence in order to raise the spirits of his fellow Jews. Whether or not he thought that Khazaria still existed is not clear. At any rate the preface is followed by the text of the two letters, without further comment.

     But the Correspondence did not remain buried in Akrish's obscure little pamphlet. Some sixty years after its publication, a copy of it was sent by a friend to Johannes Buxtorf the Younger, a Calvinist scholar of great erudition. Buxtorf was an expert Hebraist, who published a great amount of studies in biblical exegesis and rabbinical literature. When he read Akrish's pamphlet, he was at first as skeptical regarding the authenticity of the Correspondence as Rabbi Barzillai had been five hundred years before him. But in 1660 buxtorf finally printed the text of both letters in Hebrew and in a Latin translation as an addendum to Jehudah Halevi's book on the Khazars. It was perhaps an obvious, but not a happy idea, for the inclusion, within the same covers, of Halevi's legendary tale hardly predisposed historians to take the Correspondence seriously. It was only in the nineteenth century that their attitude changed, when more became known, from independent sources, about the Khazars.

     The only manuscript version which contains both Hasdai's Letter and Joseph's Reply, is in the library of Christ Church in Oxford. According to Dunlop and the Russian expert, Kokovtsov, the manuscript 'presents a remarkably close similarity to the printed text' and 'served directly or indirectly as a source of the printed text.' It probably dates from the sixteenth century and is believed to have been in the possession of the Dean of Christ Church, John Fell (whom Thomas Brown immortalized with his 'I do not love thee, Dr. Fell...').

     Another manuscript containing Joseph's Reply but not Hasdai's Letter is preserved in the Leningrad Public Library. It is considerably longer than the printed text of Akrish and the Christ Church manuscript; accordingly it is generally know as the Long Version, as distinct from the Akrish‑Christ Church 'Short Version,' which appears to be an abbreviation of it. The Long Version is also considerably older; it probably dates from the thirteenth century, the Short Version from the sixteenth. The Soviet historian Rabakov has plausibly suggested that the Long Version, or an even older text, had been edited and compressed by medieval Spanish copyists to produce the Short Version of Joseph's Reply.

     At this point we encounter a red herring across the ancient track. The Long Version is part of the so‑called 'Firkowich Collection' of Hebrew manuscripts and epitaphs in the Leningrad Public Library. It probably came from the Cairo Geniza, where a major part of the manuscripts in the Collection originated. Abraham Firkowich was a colorful nineteenth‑century scholar who would deserve an Appendix all to himself. He was a great authority in his field, but he was also a Karaite zealot who wished to prove to the Tsarist government that the karaites were different from orthodox Jews and should not be discriminated against by Christians. With this laudable purpose in mind, he doctored some of his authentic old manuscripts and epitaphs, by interpolating or adding a few words to give them a Karaite slant.

     Thus the Long Version, having passed through the hands of Firkowich, was greeted with a certain mistrust when it was found, after his death, in a bundle of other manuscripts in his collection by the Russian historian Harkavy. Harkavy had no illusions about Firkowich's reliability, for he himself had previously denounced some of Firkowich's spurious interpolations. Yet Harkavy had no doubts regarding the antiquity of the manuscript; he published it in the original Hebrew in 1879 and also in Russian and German translations, accepting it as an early version of Joseph's letter, from which the Short Version was derived. harkavy's colleague (and rival) Chwolson concurred that the whole document was written by the same hand and that it contained no additions of any kind. Lastly, in 1932, the Russian Academy published Paul Kokovtsov's authoritative book, The Hebrew‑Khazar Correspondence in the Tenth Century, including facsimiles of the Long Version of the Reply in the Leningrad Library, the Short Version in Christ Church and in Akrish's pamphlet. After a critical analysis of the three texts, he came to the conclusion that both the Long and the Short Versions are based on the same original text, which is in general, though not always, more faithfully preserved in the Long Version.

     Kokovtsov's critical survey, and particularly his publication of the manuscript facsimiles, virtually settled the controversy, which, anyway, affected only the Long Version, but not Hasdai's letter and the Short Version of the Reply.

     Yet a voice of dissent was raised from an unexpected quarter. In 1941 Poliak advanced the theory that the Khazar Correspondence was, not exactly a forgery, but a fictional work written in the tenth century with the purpose of spreading information about, or making propaganda for, the Jewish kingdom. (It could not have been written later than the eleventh century, for, as we have seen, Rabbi Barzillai read the Correspondence about 1100, and Ibn Daud quoted from it in 1161). But this theory, plausible at first glace, was effectively demolished by Landau and Dunlop. Landau was able to prove that Hasdai's Letter was indeed written by his secretary Menahem ben‑Sharuk. And Dunlop pointed out that in the Letter Hasdai asks a number of questions about Khazaria which Joseph fails to answer, which is certainly not the way to write an information pamphlet: 'There is no answer forthcoming on the part of Joseph to enquiries as to his method of procession to his place of worship, and as to whether war abrogates the Sabbath...

     There is a marked absence of correspondence between questions of the Letter and answers given in the Reply. This should probably be regarded as an indication that the documents are what they purport to be and not a literary invention.' [140]

     Dunlop goes on to ask a pertinent question: 'Why the Letter of Hasdai at all, which, though considerably longer than the Reply of Joseph, has very little indeed about the Khazars, if the purpose of writing it and the Reply was, as Poliak supposes, simply to give a popular account of Khazaria? If the Letter is an introduction to the information about the Khazars in the Reply, it is certainly a very curious one, full of facts about Spain and the Umayyads which have nothing to do with Khazaria.'

     Dunlop then clinches the argument by a linguistic test which proves conclusively that the Letter and the Reply were written by different people. The proof concerns one of the marked characteristics of Hebrew grammar, the use of the so‑called 'waw‑conversive,' to define tense. I shall not attempt to explain this intricate grammatical quirk, and shall instead simply quote Dunlop's tabulation of the different methods used in the Letter and in the Long Version to designate past action:

Waw Conversive       Simple Waw

with Imperfect            with Perfect

Hasdai's Letter                           48                    14

Reply (Long Version)                1                     95

     In the Short Version of the Reply, the first method (Hasdai's) is used thirty‑seven times, the second fifty times. But the Short Version uses the first method mostly in passages where the wording differs from the Long Version. Dunlop suggests that this is due to later Spanish editors paraphrasing the Long Version. He also points out that Hasdai's Letter, written in Moorish Spain, contains many Arabisms (for instance, al‑khazar for the Khazars), whereas the Reply has none. Lastly, concerning the general tenor of the Correspondence, he says: '...

     Nothing decisive appears to have been alleged against the factual contents of the Reply of Joseph in its more original form, the Long Version. The stylistic difference supports its authenticity. It is what might be expected in documents emanating from widely separated parts of the Jewish world, where also the level of culture was by no means the same. It is perhaps allowable here to record the impression, for what it is worth, that in general the language of the Reply is less artificial, more naive, than that of the Letter.'

     To sum up, it is difficult to understand why past historians were so reluctant to believe that the Khazar Kagan was capable of dictating a letter, though it was known that he corresponded with the Byzantine Emperor (we remember the seals of three solidi); or that pious Jews in Spain and Egypt should have diligently copied and preserved a message from the only Jewish king since biblical times.

     The exchange of letter apparently took place after 954 and before 961, that is roughly at the time when Masudi wrote. To appreciate its significance a word must be said about the personality of Hasdai Ibn Shaprut ‑ perhaps the most brilliant figure in the 'Golden Age' (900‑1200) of the Jews in Spain.

     In 1929, Abd‑al‑Rahmah III, a member of the Omayad dynasty, succeeded in unifying the Moorish possessions in the southern and central parts of the Iberian peninsula under his rule, and founded the Western Caliphate. His capital, Cordoba, became the glory of Arab Spain, and a focal center of European culture ‑ with a library of 400,000 cataloged volumes.

     Hasdai, born 910 in Cordoba into a distinguished Jewish family, first attracted the Caliph's attention as a medical practitioner with some remarkable cures to his credit. Abd‑al‑Rahman appointed him his court physician, and trusted his judgment so completely that Hasdai was called upon, first, to put the state finances in order, then to act as Foreign Minister and diplomatic trouble‑shooter in the new Caliphate's complex dealings with Byzantium, the German Emperor Otto, with Castile, Navarra, Arragon and other Christian kingdoms in the north of Spain. Hasdai was a true uomo universale centuries before the Renaissance who, in between affairs of state, still found the time to translate medical books into Arabic, to correspond with the learned rabbis of Baghdad and to act as a Maecenas for Hebrew grammarians and poets.

     He obviously was an enlightened, yet a devoted Jew, who used his diplomatic contacts to gather information about the Jewish communities dispersed in various parts of the world, and to intervene on their behalf whenever possible. He was particularly concerned about the persecution of Jews in the Byzantine Empire under Romanus. Fortunately, he wielded considerable influence at the Byzantine court, which was vitally interested in procuring the benevolent neutrality of Cordoba during the Byzantine campaigns against the Muslims of the East. Hasdai, who was conducting the negotiations, used this opportunity to intercede on behalf of Byzantine Jewry, apparently with success.

     According to his own account, Hasdai first heard of the existence of an independent Jewish kingdom from some merchant traders from Khurasan in Persia; but he doubted the truth of their story. Later he questioned the members of a Byzantine diplomatic mission to Cordoba, and they confirmed the merchants' account, contributing a considerable amount of factual detail about the Khazar kingdom, including the name, Joseph, of its present King. Thereupon Hasdai decided to send couriers with a letter to King Joseph.

     The letter contains a list of questions about the Khazar state, its people, method of government, armed forces, and so on, including an inquiry to which of the twelve tribes Joseph belonged. This seems to indicate that Hasdai thought the Jewish Khazars to hail from Palestine, as the Spanish Jews did, and perhaps even to represent one of the Lost Tribes. Joseph, not being of Jewish descent, belonged, of course, To None of the Tribes (of Israel); in his Reply to Hasdai, he provides, as we shall see, a genealogy of a different kind, but his main concern is to give Hasdai a detailed, if legendary, account of the conversion, which took place two centuries earlier, and the circumstances that led to it.

     Joseph's narrative starts with the eulogy of his ancestor, King Bulan, a great conqueror and a wise man who 'drove out the sorcerers and idolaters form his land.' Subsequently an angel appeared to King Bulan in his dreams, exhorting him to worship the only true God, and promising that in exchange He would 'bless and multiply Bulan's offspring, and deliver his enemies into his hands, and make his kingdom last to the end of the world.' This, of course, is inspired by the story of the Covenant in Genesis; and it implies that the Khazars too Claimed the Status of a Chosen Race, who made their own Covenant with the Lord, even though They (Khazars) were not descended from Abraham's Seed. But at this point Joseph's story takes an unexpected turn. King Bulan is quite willing to serve the Almighty, but he raises a difficulty: 'Thou knowest, my Lord, the secret thoughts of my heart and thou has searched my kidneys to confirm that my trust is in thee; but the people over which I rule have a pagan mind and I do not know whether they will believe me. If I have found favor and mercy in thine eyes, then I beseech thee to appear also to their Great Prince, to make him support me.

     The Eternal One granted Bulan's request, he appeared to this Prince in a dream, and when he arose in the morning he came to the King and made it known to him...' There is nothing in Genesis, nor in the Arab accounts of the conversion, about a great prince whose consent has to be obtained. It is an unmistakable reference to the Khazar double kingship. The 'Great Prince,' apparently, is the Bek; but it is not impossible that the 'King' was the Bek, and the 'Prince' the Kagan. Moreover according to Arab and Armenian sources, the leader of the Khazar army which invaded Transcaucasia in 731 (i.e., a few years before the presumed date of the conversion) was called 'Bulkhan.'

     Joseph's letter continues by relating how the angel appeared once more to the dreaming King and bade him to build a place of worship in which the Lord may dwell, for: 'the sky and the skies above the sky are not large enough to hold me.' King Bulan replies bashfully that he does not possess the gold and silver required for such an enterprise, 'although it is my duty and desire to carry it out.'

     The angel reassures him: all Bulan has to do is to lead his armies into Dariela and Ardabil in Armenia, where a treasure of silver and a treasure of gold are awaiting him. This fits in with Bulan's or Bulkhan's raid preceding the conversion; and also with Arab sources according to which the Khazars at one time controlled silver and gold mines in the Caucasus.

     Bulan does as the angel told him, returns victoriously with the loot, and builds 'a Holy Tabernacle equipped with a sacred coffer (the 'Ark of the Covenant'), a candelabrum, an altar and holy implements which have been preserved to this day and are still in my (King Joseph's) possession.'

     Joseph's letter, written in the second half of the tenth century, more than two hundred years after the events it purports to describe, is obviously a mixture of fact and legend. His description of the scant furnishings of the place of worship, and the paucity of the preserved relics, is in marked contrast to the account he gives in other parts of the letter of the present prosperity of his country. The days of his ancestor Bulan appear to him as remote antiquity, when the poor but virtuous King did not even have the money to construct the Holy Tabernacle, which was, after all, only a tent.

     However, Joseph's letter up to this point is merely the prelude to the real drama of the conversion, which he now proceeds to relate. Apparently Bulan's renunciation of idolatry in favor of the 'only true God' was only the first step, which still left the choice open between the three monotheistic creeds.

     At least, this is what the continuation of Joseph's letter seems to imply: 'After these feats of arms (the invasion of Armenia), King Bulan's fame spread to all countries. The King of Edom (Byzantium) and the King of the Ishmaelim (the Muslims) heard the news and sent to him envoys with precious gifts and money and learned men to convert him to their beliefs; but the king was wise and sent for a Jew with much knowledge and acumen and put all three together to discuss their doctrines.'

     So we have another Brains Trust, or round‑table conference, just as in Masudi, with the difference that the Muslim has not been poisoned beforehand. But the pattern of the argument is much the same. After long and futile discussions, the King adjourns the meeting for three days, during which the disputants are left to cool their heels in their respective tents; then he reverts to a stratagem. He convokes the disputants separately. He asks the Christian which of the other two religions is nearer the truth, and the Christian answers, 'the Jews.' He confronts the Muslim with the same question and gets the same reply. Neutralism has once more carried the day.

     So much for the conversion. What else do we learn from the celebrated 'Khazar Correspondence?'

     To take Hasdai's letter first: its starts with a Hebrew poem, in the then fashionable manner of the piyut, a rhapsodic verse form which contains hidden allusions or riddles, and frequently acrostics. The poem exalts the military victories of the addressee, King Joseph; at the same time, the initial letters of the lines form an acrostic which spells out the full name of Hasdai bar Isaac bar Ezra bar Shaprut, followed by the name of Menahem ben‑Sharuk. Now this Menahem was a celebrated Hebrew poet, lexicographer and grammarian, a secretary and protege of Hasdai's.

     He was obviously given the task of drafting the epistle to King Joseph in his most ornate style, and he took the opportunity to immortalize himself by inserting his own name into the acrostic after that of his patron. Several other works of Menahem ben‑Sharuk are preserved, and there can be no doubt that Hasdai's letter is his handiwork.

     After the poem, the compliments and diplomatic flourishes, the letter gives a glowing account of the prosperity of Moorish Spain, and the happy condition of the Jews under its Caliph Abd al Rahman, 'the like of which has never been known...And thus the derelict sheep were taken into care, the arms of their persecutors were paralyzed, and the yoke was discarded. The country we live in is called in Hebrew Sepharad, but the Ishmaelites who inhabit it call it al‑Andalus.'

     Hasdai then proceeds to explain how he first heard about the existence of the Jewish kingdom from the merchants of Khurasan, then in more detail from the Byzantine envoys, and he reports what these envoys told him: 'I questioned them (the Byzantines) about it and they replied that it was true, and that the name of the kingdom is al‑Khazar. Between Constantinople and this country there is a journey of fifteen days by sea (this probably refers to the so‑called 'Khazarian route': from Constantinople across the Black Sea and up the Don, then across the Don‑Volga portage and down the Volga to Itil. (An alternative, shorter route was from Constantinople to the east coast of the Black sea)), but they said, by land there are many other people between us and them. The name of the ruling king is Joseph.

     Ships come to us from their land, bringing fish, furs and all sorts of merchandise. They are in alliance with us, and honored by us. We exchange embassies and gifts. They are powerful and have a fortress for their outposts and troops which go out on forays from time to time (The fortress is evidently Sarkel on the Don. 'They are honored by us' fits in with the passage in Constantine Born‑in‑the‑Purple about the special gold seal used in letters to the Kagan. Constantine was the Byzantine Emperor at the time of the Embassy to Spain).'

     This bit of information offered by Hasdai to the Khazar King about the King's own country is obviously intended to draw a detailed reply from Joseph. It was good psychology: Hasdai must have known that criticism of erroneous statements flows easier from the pen than an original exposition.

     Next, Hasdai relates his earlier efforts to get in touch with Joseph. First he had sent a messenger, a certain Isaac bar Nathan, with instructions to proceed to the Khazar court. But Isaac got only as far as Constantinople, where he was courteously treated, but prevented from continuing the journey. (Understandably so: given the Empire's ambivalent attitude towards the Jewish kingdom, it was certainly not in Constantine's interest to facilitate an alliance between Khazaria and the Cordoba Caliphate with its Jewish Chief Minister). So Hasdai's messenger returned to Spain, mission unaccomplished. But soon another opportunity offered itself: the arrival at Cordoba of an embassy from Eastern Europe. Among its members were two Jews, Mar Saul and Mar Joseph, who offered to deliver Hasdai's letter to King Joseph. (According to Joseph's reply to Hasdai, it was actually delivered by a third person, one Isaac ben‑Eliezer). Having thus described in detail how his letter came to be written, and his efforts to have it delivered. Hasdai proceeds to ask a series of direct questions which reflect his avidity for more information about every aspect of the Khazar land, from its geography to its rites in observing the Sabbath. The concluding passage in Hasdai's letter strikes a note quite different from that of its opening paragraphs: 'I feel the urge to know the truth, whether there is really a place on this earth where harassed Israel can rule itself, where it is subject to nobody.

     If I were to know that this is indeed the case, I would not hesitate to forsake all honors, to resign my high office, to abandon my family, and to travel over mountains and plains, over land and water, until I arrived at the place where my Lord, the (Jewish) King rules...And I also have one more request: to be informed whether you have any knowledge of (the possible date) of the Final Miracle (the coming of the Messiah) which, wandering from country to country, we are awaiting. Dishonored and humiliated in our dispersion, we have to listen in silence to those who say: 'every nation has its own land and you alone possess not even a shadow of a country on this earth.'

     The beginning of the letter praises the happy lot of the Jews in Spain; the end breathes the bitterness of the exile, Zionist fervor and Messianic hope. But these opposite attitudes have always co‑existed in the divided heart of Jews throughout their history. The contradiction in Hasdai's letter gives it an added touch of authenticity. How far his implied offer to enter into the service of the Khazar King is to be taken seriously in another question, which we cannot answer. Perhaps he could not either.

     King Joseph's reply is less accomplished and moving than Hasdai's letter. No wonder, as Cassel remarks: 'Scholarship and culture reigned not among the Jews of the Volga, but on the rivers of Spain.' The highlight of the Reply is the story of the conversion, already quoted. No doubt Joseph too employed a scribe for penning it, probably a scholarly refugee from Byzantium. Nevertheless, the Reply sounds like a voice out of the Old Testament compared to the polished cadences of the tenth‑century modern statesman.

     It starts with a fanfare of greetings, then reiterates the main contents of Hasdai's letter, proudly emphasizing that the Khazar kingdom gives the lie to those who say that 'the Scepter of Judah has forever fallen from the Jews' hands' and 'that there is no place on earth for a kingdom of their own.' This is followed by a rather cryptic remark to the effect that 'already our fathers have exchanged friendly letters which are preserved in our archives and are known to our elders.' (This may refer to a ninth‑century Jewish traveller, Eldad ha‑Dani, whose fantastic tales, much read in the Middle Ages, include mentions of Khazaria which, he says, is inhabited by three of the lost tribes of Israel, and collects tributes from twenty‑eight neighboring kingdoms. Eldad visited Spain around 880 and may or may not have visited the Khazar country. Hasdai briefly mentions him in his letter to Joseph, as if to ask what to make of him).

     Joseph then proceeds to provide a genealogy of his people. Though a fierce Jewish nationalist, proud of wielding the 'Scepter of Judah,' He cannot, and does not, Claim for Them (the Khazars) Semitic DEscent; He traces their (Khazars) Ancestry not to Shem, but to Noah's Third Son, Japheth; or more precisely to Japheth's Grandson, Togarma, the Ancestor of all Turkish Tribes. 'We have found in the family registers of our fathers,' Joseph asserts boldly, 'that Togarma had ten sons, and the names of their offspring are as follows: Uigur, Dursu, Avars, Huns, Basilii, Tarniakh, Khazars, Zagora, Bulgars, Sabir. We (Khazars) are the Sons of Khazar, The Seventh...'

     The identity of some of these tribes, with names spelt in the Hebrew script is rather dubious, but that hardly matters; the characteristic feature in this genealogical exercise is the amalgamation of Genesis with Turkish tribal tradition. it also throws a sidelight on the frequent description of the Khazars as the people of Magog. Magog, according to Genesis X, 2‑3 was the much maligned uncle of Togarma.

     After the genealogy, Joseph mentions briefly some military conquests by his ancestors which carried them as far as the Danube; then follows at great length the story of Bulan's conversion. 'From this day onwards,' Joseph continues, 'the Lord gave him strength and aided him; he had himself and his followers circumcised and sent for Jewish sages who taught him the Law and explained the Commandments.' There follow more boasts about military victories, conquered nations, etc., and then a significant passage: 'After these events, one of his (Bulan's) grandsons became King; his name was Obadiah, he was a brave and venerated man who reformed the Rule, fortified the Law according to tradition and usage, built synagogues and schools, assembled a multitude of Israel's sages, gave them lavish gifts of gold and silver, and made them interpret the twenty‑four (sacred) books, the Mishna (Precepts) and the Talmud, and the order in which the liturgies are to be said.'

     This indicates that, about a couple of generations after Bulan, a religious revival or reformation took place (possibly accompanied by a coup d'etat on the lines envisaged by Artamonov). It seems indeed that the Judization of the Khazars proceeded in several steps. We remember that King Bulan drove out 'the sorcerers and idolaters' before the angel appeared to him; and that he made his Covenant with the 'true God' before deciding whether He was the Jewish, Christian of Muslim God. It seems highly probable that the conversion of King Bulan and his followers was another intermediary step, that they embraced a primitive or rudimentary form of Judaism, based on the Bible alone, excluding the Talmud, all rabbinical literature, and the observances derived from it.

     In this respect they resembled the Karaites, a fundamentalist sect which originated in the eighth century in Persia and spread among the Jews all over the world, particularly in 'Little Khazaria,' i.e., the Crimea. Dunlop and some other authorities surmised that between Bulan and Obadiah (i.e., roughly between 740 and 800) some form of Karaism prevailed in the country, and that orthodox 'Rabbinic' Judaism was only introduced in the course of Obadiah's religious reform. The point is of some importance because Karaism apparently survive in Khazaria to the end, and villages of Turkish‑speaking Karaite Jews, obviously of Khazar origin, still existed in modern times.

     Thus the Judaization of the Khazars was a gradual process which, triggered off by political expediency, slowly penetrated into the deeper strata of their minds and eventually produced the Messianism of their period of decline. Their religious commitment survived the collapse of their state, and persisted in the Khazar‑Jewish settlements of Russia and Poland.

     After mentioning Obadiah's religious reforms, Joseph gives a list of his successors: 'Hiskia his son, and his son Manasseh, and Chanukah the brother of Obadiah, and Isaac his son, Manasseh his son, Nissi his son, Menahem his son, Beniamin his son, Aaron his son, and I am Joseph, son of Aaron the Blessed, and we were all sons of Kings, and no stranger was allowed to occupy the throne of our fathers.'

     Next, Joseph attempts to answer Hasdai's questions about the size and topography of his country. But he does not seem to have a competent person at his court who could match the skill of the Arab geographers, and his obscure references to other countries and nations add little to what we know from Ibn Hawkal, Masudi and the other Persian and Arabic sources. He claims to collect tribute from thirty‑seven nations, which seems a rather tall proposition; yet Dunlop points out that nine of these appear to be tribes living in the Khazar heartland, and the remaining twenty‑eight agree quite well with Ibn Fadlan's mention of twenty‑five wives, each the daughter of a vassal king (and also with Eldad ha‑Dani's dubious tales). We must further bear in mind the multitude of Slavonic tribes along the upper reaches of the Dnieper and as far as Moscow, which, as we shall see, paid tribute to the Khazars.

     However that may be, there is no reference in Joseph's letter to a royal harem, only a mention of a single queen and her maids and eunuchs'. These are said to live in one of the three boroughs of Joseph's capital, Itil: 'in the second live Israelites, Ishmaelis, Christians and other nations who speak other languages; the third, which is an island, I inhabit myself, with the princes, bondsmen and all the servants that belong to me (this division of Itil into three parts is also mentioned, as we have seen, in some of the Arab sources)...We live in the town through the whole of winter, but in the month of Nisan (March‑April) we set out and everyone goes to labor in his field and his garden; every clan has his hereditary estate, for which they head with joy and jubilation; no voice of an intruder can be heard there, no enemy is to be seen. The country does not have much rain, but there are many rivers with a multitude of big fish, and many sources, and it is generally fertile and fat in its fields and vineyards, gardens and orchards which are irrigated by the rivers and bear rich fruit...and with God's help I live in peace.'

     The next passage is devoted to the date of the coming of the Messiah: 'We have our eyes on the sages of Jerusalem and Babylon, and although we live far away from Zion, we have nevertheless heard that the calculations are erroneous owing to the great profusion of sins, and we know nothing, only the Eternal knows how to keep the count. We have nothing to hold on only the prophecies of Daniel, and may the Eternal speed up our Deliverance...'

     The concluding paragraph of Joseph's letter is a reply to Hasdai's apparent offer to enter into the service of the Khazar king: 'Thou hast mentioned in thy letter a desire to see my face. I too wish and long to be behold thy gracious face and the splendor of thy magnificence, wisdom and greatness; I wish that thy words will come true, that I should know the happiness to hold thee in my embrace and to see they dear, friendly and agreeable face; thou wouldst be to me as a father, and I to thee as a son; all my people would kiss thy lips; we would come and go according to thy wishes and thy wise counsel.'

     There is a passage in Joseph's letter which deals with topical politics, and is rather obscure: 'With the help of the Almighty I guard the mouth of the river (the Volga) and do not permit the Rus who come in their ships to invade the land of the Arabs...I fight heavy wars with them (the Rus) for if I allowed it they would devastate the lands of Ishmael even to Baghdad.'

     Joseph here appears to pose as the defender of the Baghdad Caliphate against the Norman‑Rus raiders. This might seem a little tactless in view of the bitter hostility between the Omayad Caliphate of Cordoba (which Hasdai is serving) and the Abassid Caliphs of Baghdad. On the other hand, the vagaries of Byzantine policy towards the Khazars made it expedient for Joseph to appear in the role of the defender of Islam, regardless of the schism between the two Caliphates. At least he could hope that Hasdai, the experienced diplomat, would take the hint.

     The meeting between the two correspondents, if ever seriously intended, never took place. No further letters, if any were exchanged, have been preserved. The factual content of the 'Khazar Correspondence' is meager, and adds little to what was already known from other sources. Its fascination lies in the bizarre, fragmentary vistas that it conveys, like an erratic search‑light focussing on disjointed regions in the dense fog that covers the period.

     Among other Hebrew sources, there is the 'Cambridge Document' (so‑called after its present location in the Cambridge University Library). It was discovered at the end of the last century, together with other priceless documents in the 'Cairo Geniza,' the store‑room of an ancient synagogue, by the Cambridge scholar, Solomon Schechter. The document is in a bad state; it is a letter (or copy of a letter) consisting of about a hundred lines in Hebrew; the beginning and the end are missing, so that it is impossible to know who wrote it and to whom it was addressed. King Joseph is mentioned in it as a contemporary and referred to as 'my Lord,' Khazaria is called 'our land'; so the most plausible inference is that the letter was written by a Khazar Jew of King Joseph's court in Joseph's lifetime, i.e., that it is roughly contemporaneous with the 'Khazar Correspondence.'

     Some authorities have further suggested that it was addressed to Hasdai ibn Shaprut, and handed in Constantinople to Hasdai's unsuccessful envoy, Isaac bar Nathan, who brought it back to Cordoba (whence it found its way to Cairo when the Jews were expelled from Spain). At any rate, internal evidence indicates that the document originated not later than in the eleventh century, and more likely in Joseph's lifetime, in the tenth.

     It contains another legendary account of the conversion, but its main significance is political. The writer speaks of an attack on Khazaria by the Alans, acting under Byzantine instigation, under Joseph's father, Aaron the Blessed. No other Greek or Arab source seems to mention this campaign. But there is a significant passage in constantine Porphyrogenitus's De Adminisdrado Imperio, written in 947‑50, which lends some credibility to the unknown letter‑writer's statements: 'Concerning Khazaria, how war is to be made upon them and by whom. As the Ghuzz are able to make war on the Khazars, being near them, so likewise the ruler of Alania, because the Nine climates of Khazaria (the fertile region north of the Caucasus) are close to Alania, and the Alan can, if he wishes, raid them and cause great damage and distress to the Khazars from that quarter.'

     Now, according to Joseph's Letter, the ruler of the Alans paid tribute to him, and whether in fact he did or not, his feelings toward the Kagan were probably much the same as the Bulgar King's. The passage in Constantine, revealing his efforts to incite the Alans to war against the Khazars, ironically reminds one of Ibn Fadlan's mission with a parallel purpose. Evidently, the days of the Byzantine‑Khazar rapprochement were long past in Joseph's time.

     About a century after the Khazar Correspondence and the presumed date of the Cambridge Document, Jehuda Halevi wrote his once celebrated book, Kuzari, the Khazars. Halevi (1085‑1141) is generally considered the greatest Hebrew poet of Spain; the book, however, was written in Arabic and translated later into Hebrew; its sub‑title is 'The Book of Proof and Argument in Defense of the Despised Faith.'

     Halevi was a Zionist who died on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; the Kuzari, written a year before his death, is a philosophical tract propounding the view that the Jewish nation is the sole mediator between God and the rest of mankind. At the end of history, all other nations will be converted to Judaism; and the conversion of the Khazars appears as a symbol or token of that ultimate event.

     In spite of its title, the tract has little to say about the Khazar country itself, which serves mainly as a backdrop for yet another legendary account of the conversion, the King, the angel, the Jewish scholar, etc., and for the philosophical and theological dialogues between the King and the protagonists of the three religions. However, there are a few factual references, which indicate that Halevi had either read the correspondence between Hasdai and Joseph or had other sources of information about the Khazar country. Thus we are informed that after the appearance of the angel the King of the Khazars 'revealed the secret of his dream to the General of his army,' and 'the General' also looms large later on, another obvious reference to the dual rule of Kagan and Bek. Halevi also mentions the 'histories' and 'books of the Khazars' which reminds one of Joseph speaking of 'our archives,' where documents of state are kept. Lastly, Halevi twice, in different places of the book, gives the date of the conversion as having taken place '400 years ago' and 'in the year 4500' (according to the Jewish calendar).

     This points to A.D. 740, which is the most likely date. All in all, it is a poor harvest as far as factual statements are concerned, from a book that enjoyed immense popularity among the Jews of the Middle Ages. But the medieval mind was less attracted by fact than by fable, and the Jews were more interested in the date of the coming of the Messiah than in geographical data. The Arab geographers and chroniclers had a similarly cavalier attitude to distances, dates and the frontiers between fact and fancy.

     This also applies to the famed German‑Jewish traveller, Rabbi Petachia of Ratisbon, who visited Eastern Europe and western Asia between 1170 and 1185. His travelogue, Sibub Ha'olam, 'Journey around the World,' was apparently written by a pupil, based on his notes or on dictation.

     It relates how shocked the good Rabbi was by the primitive observances of the Khazar Jews north of the Crimea, which he attributed to their adherence to the Karaite heresy: 'And the Rabbi Petachia asked them: 'Why do you not believe in the words of the sages (i.e., the Talmudists)?' They replied: 'Because our fathers did not teach them to us.' On the eve of the Sabbath they cut all the bread which they eat on the Sabbath. They eat it in the dark, and sit the whole day on one spot. Their prayers consist only of the psalms (Spending the Sabbath in the dark was a well‑known Karaite custom).'

     So incensed was the Rabbi that, when he subsequently crossed the Khazar heartland, all he had to say was that it took him eight days, during which 'he heard the wailing of women and the barking of dogs.' He does mention, however, that while he was in Baghdad, he had seen envoys from the Khazar kingdom looking for needy Jewish scholars from Mesopotamia and even from Egypt, 'to teach their children Torah and Talmud.'

     While few Jewish travellers from the West undertook the hazardous journey to the Volga, they recorded encounters with Khazar Jews at all principal centers of the civilized world. Rabbi Petachia met them in Baghdad; Benjamin of Tudela, another famous traveller of the twelfth century, visited Khazar notables in Constantinople and Alexandria; Ibraham ben Daud, a contemporary of Judah Halevi's, reports that he had seen in Toledo 'some of their descendants, pupils of the wise.' Tradition has it that these were Khazar princes, one is tempted to think of Indian princelings sent to Cambridge to study.

     Yet there is a curious ambivalence in the attitude toward the Khazars of the leaders of orthodox Jewry in the East, centered on the Talmudic Academy in Baghdad. The Gaon (Hebrew for 'excellency') who stood at the head of the Academy was the spiritual leader of the Jewish settlements dispersed all over the Near and Middle East, while the Exilarch, or 'Prince of Captivity,' represented the secular power over these more or less autonomous communities.

     Saadiah Gaon (882‑942), most famous among the spiritual excellencies, who left voluminous writings, repeatedly refers in them to the Khazars. He mentions a Mesopotamian Jew who went to Khazaria to settle there, as if this were an every day occurrence. He speaks obscurely of the Khazar court; elsewhere he explains that in the biblical expression 'Hiram of Tyre,' Hiram is not a proper name but a royal title, 'like Caliph for the Ruler of the Arabs, and Kagan for the King of the Khazars.'

     Thus Khazaria was very much 'on the map,' in the literal and metaphorical sense, for the leaders of the ecclesiastical hierarchy of oriental Jewry; but at the same time the Khazars were regarded with certain misgivings, both on racial grounds and because of their suspected leanings toward the Karaite heresy.

     One eleventh‑century Hebrew author, Japheth ibn‑Ali, himself a Karaite, explains the word mamzer, 'bastard,' by the example of the Khazars who became Jews without belonging to the Race. His contemporary, Jacob ben‑Reuben, reflects the opposite side of this ambivalent attitude by speaking of the Khazars as 'a single nation who do not bear the yoke of the exile, but are great warriors paying no tribute to the Gentiles.'

     In summing up the Hebrew sources on the Khazars that have come down to us, one senses a mixed reaction of enthusiasm, skepticism and, above all, bewilderment. A warrior‑nation of Turkish Jews must have seemed to the rabbis as strange as a circumcised unicorn. During a thousand years of Dispersion, the Jews had forgotten what it was like to have a king and a country. The Messiah was more real to them than the Kagan.

     As a postscript to the Arab and Hebrew sources relating to the conversion, it should be mentioned that the apparently earliest Christian source antedates them both. At some date earlier than 864, the Westphalian monk, Christian Druthmar of Aquitania, wrote a Latin treatise Expositio in Evangelium Mattei, in which he reports that 'there exist people under the sky in regions where no Christians can be found, whose name is God and Magog, and who are Huns; among them is one, called the Gazari, who are circumcised and observe Judaism in its entirety.'

     This remark occurs a props of Matthew 24:14 ('And this Gospel of the Kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.') which has no apparent bearing on it, and no more is heard of the subject.

     At about the same time when Druthmar wrote down what he knew from hearsay about the Jewish Khazars, a famed Christian missionary, sent by the Byzantine Emperor, attempted to convert them to Christianity. He was no less a figure than St. Cyril, 'Apostle of the Slavs,' alleged designer of the Cyrillic alphabet. He and his elder brother, St. Methodius, were entrusted with this and other proselytizing missions by the Emperor Michael III, on the advice of the Patriarch Photius (himself apparently of Khazar descent, for it is reported that the Emperor once called him in anger 'Khazar face.'). Cyril's proselytizing efforts seem to have been successful among the Slavonic people in Eastern Europe, but not among the Khazars. He travelled to their country via Cherson in the Crimea; in Cherson he is said to have spent six months learning Hebrew in preparation for his mission; he then took the 'Khazarian Way,' the Don‑Volga portage, to Itil, and from there travelled along the Caspian to meet the Kagan (it is not said where). The usual theological disputations followed, but they had little impact on the Khazar Jews. Even the adulatory Vita Constantine (Cyril's original name) says only that Cyril made a good impression on the Kagan, that a few people were baptized and two hundred Christian prisoners were released by the Kagan as a gesture of goodwill. it was the least he could do for the Emperor's envoy who had gone to so much trouble.

     There is a curious sidelight thrown on the story by students of Slavonic philology. Cyril is credited by tradition not only with having devised the Cyrillic but also the Glagolytic alphabet. The latter, according to Baron, was 'used in Croatia to the seventeenth century. Its indebtedness to the Hebrew alphabet in at least eleven characters, representing in part the Slavonic sounds, has long been recognized.' The eleven characters are A,B,V,G,E,K,P,R.S,Sch, T. This seems to confirm what has been said earlier on about the influence of the Hebrew alphabet in spreading literacy among the neighbors of the Khazars." [141]

With a close study of this presentation from the Jewish Encyclopedia, about the Khazars (Chazars), one can see that There was an infusion of the Edomite (Esau's) Blood Line into The Khazar (Chazar) Blood Line. Which would make them, not only descendents of Jappeth but also a mixed breed of Canaanite and Israelite mixture. Which would explain their fanatical hatred of Christ, True Israelites and Christians!

In addition, under the heading of "A brief History of the Terms for Jew" in the 1980 Jewish Almanac is the following: "Strictly Speaking it is Incorrect to call an Ancient Israelite A 'Jew' or to call a Contemporary Jew an Israelite or a 'Hebrew.'" [142]

[1] Isaiah 3:12.

[2] What better proof is there that Roman Catholicism itself is pagan? John Paul II as much as admits it here.

[3] "If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also." (John 15:19-20.

[4] James 4:4.

[5] 1 Timothy 2:5.

[6] John 3.

[7] 2 Timothy 3:13.

[8] World Magazine, February 18, 1995.

[9] Right to Life of Greater Cincinnati Newsletter, January 1992.

[10] See also World Magazine February 18, 1995, p. 10.

[11] 1 Timothy 4:1.

[12] "Given by Senator Joseph McCarthy, six months before his mouth was closed forever: George Washington's surrender: 'And many of the people of the land became Jews.' (Esther 9:17). The confession of General Cornwallis to General Washington at Yorktown has been well hidden by historians. History books and text books have taught for years that when Cornwallis surrendered his army to General Washington that American independence came, and we lived happily ever after until the tribulations of the twentieth century.

     Jonathan Williams recorded in his Legions of Satan, 1781, that Cornwallis revealed to Washington that 'a holy war will now being in America, and when it is ended America will be supposedly the citadel of freedom, but her millions will unknowingly be loyal subjects to the Crown.' Cornwallis went on to explain what would seem to be a self contradiction: 'Your churches will be used to teach the Jew's religion and in less than two hundred years the whole nation will be working for divine world government. That government they believe to be divine will be the British Empire [under the control of the Jews]. All religions will be permeated with Judaism without even being noticed by the masses, and they will all be under the invisible all-seeing eye of the Grand Architect of Freemasonry [Lucifer - as Albert Pike disclosed in Morals and Dogma].' And indeed George Washington was a Mason, and he gave back through a false religion what he had won with his army."

     Cornwallis well knew that his military defeat was only the beginning of World Catastrophe that would be universal and that unrest would continue until mind control could be accomplished through a false religion. WHAT HE PREDICTED HAS COME TO PASS!!! Of that, there is no longer any doubt. A brief study of American religious history will show that Masonry and Judaism has infused into every church in America their veiled Phallic Religion. Darby and the Plymouth Brethren brought a Jewish Christianity to America. Masons Rutherford and Russell [both Jews] started Jehovah Witnesses' in order to spread Judaism throughout the world under the guise of Christianity.

[13] "They {the Jews} work more effectively against us, than the enemy's armies. They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties and the great cause we are engaged in...It is much to be lamented that each state, long ago, has not hunted them down as pests to society and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America." (George Washington, in Maxims of George Washington by A.A. Appleton & Co.)

[14] The Temple is officially affiliated with the United Nations as a non-governmental organization.

[15] "The great ideal of Judaism is that the whole world shall be imbued with Jewish teachings, and that in a Universal Brotherhood of Nations ‑‑ a greater Judaism, in fact ‑‑ ALL THE SEPARATE RACES and RELIGIONS SHALL DISAPPEAR." (Jewish World, February 9, 1883).

[16] "Sons of Israel! The hour of our ultimate victory is near. We stand on the threshold to the command of the world. That which we could only dream of before us is about to be realized. Only quite recently feeble and powerless, we can now, thanks to the world's catastrophe, raise our heads with pride. We must, however, be careful. It can surely be prophesied that, after we have marched over ruined and broken altars and thrones, we shall advance further on the same indicated path.

     The authority of the, to us, alien religions and doctrines of faith we have through very successful propaganda, subject to a merciless criticism and mockery. WE HAVE BROUGHT THE CULTURE, CIVILIZATION, TRADITIONS AND THRONES OF THE CHRISTIAN NATIONS TO STAGGER...

     Thereby every possibility will vanish for them to resist our power. We must excite hatred and disputes between workers and peasants. War and the class‑struggle will destroy all treasures and culture created by the Christian people. But be cautious, sons of Israel! Our victory is near, because our political and economic power and influence upon the masses are in rapid progress. We buy up Government loans and gold, and thereby we have controlling power over the world's exchanges. The power is in our hands, but be careful, place no faith in traitorous shady powers! (The Central Committee of the Petersburg Branch of the Israelite International League).

[17] Even Queen Elizabeth's father, King George VI, had "ecumenical perceptions before that word was popular...his heir was to tread in this footsteps." King George and his archbishop of Canterbury were also both Freemason.

[18] In this climate, even Herbert "British-Israel" Armstrong's Worldwide Church of God has reversed its course, and its offending doctrines as well, to become properly ecumenical - certainly a telling point!

[19] "Mr. W. Smith, who was for many years private secretary to Billy (William Ashley) Sunday, the Evangelist, makes a statement on oath before a Notary Public of Wayne, Michigan. The statement is to the following effect: President Coolidge shortly before his term of office expired, said publicly that he did not choose to compete again for the Presidency of the United States. Shortly afterwards, Billy Sunday interviewed him. Coolidge told him that after taking office, he found himself unable to carry out his election promises or to make the slightest move towards clean government. HE WAS FORCED AND DRIVEN BY THREATS, EVEN MURDER-THREATS, TO CARRY OUT THE ORDERS OF THE JEWS. Billy Sunday made public this statement of Coolidge. There followed a general attack upon the Evangelist. Then his son was framed and committed suicide, whilst the father's death was hastened in sorrow for the loss." (Adam and Cain, p. 178, by Wm. N. Murray, former Governor of Oklahoma (1951))

[20] Laurence Rockefeller is also said to have assisted the publication of The Coming of the Cosmic Christ by former Dominican priest turned New Age Episcopalian Matthew Fox.

[21] Valdamar Valerian, P.O. Box 481-MU58, Yelm, Washington 98597.

[22] Jewish objectives for the world:

   1). Banish God from the heavens and Christianity from the earth.

   2). Allow no private ownership of property or business.

   3). Abolish marriage, family and home. Encourage sexual promiscuity, homosexuality, adultery, and fornication.

   4). Completely destroy the sovereignty of all nations and every feeling or expression of patriotism.

   5). Establish a one‑world government through which the Luciferian Illuminati elite can rule the world. All other objectives are secondary to this one supreme purpose.

   6) Take the education of children completely away from the parents. Cunningly and subtly lead the people thinking that compulsory school attendance laws are absolutely necessary to prevent illiteracy and to prepare children for better positions and life's responsibilities. Then after the children are forced to attend the schools get control of normal schools and teacher's colleges and also the writing and selection of all text books.

   7) Take all prayer and Bible instruction out of the schools and introduce pornography, vulgarity, and courses in sex. If we can make one generation of any nation immoral and sexy, we can take that nation.

   8). Completely destroy every thought of patriotism, national sovereignty, individualism, and a private competitive enterprise system.

   9). Circulate vulgar, pornographic literature and pictures and encourage the unrestricted sale and general use of alcoholic beverage and drugs to weaken and corrupt the youth.

   10). Foment, precipitate and finance large scale wars to emasculate and bankrupt the nations and thereby force them into a one‑world government.

   11) Secretly infiltrate and control colleges, universities, labor unions, political parties, churches, patriotic organizations, and governments.

   12) The creation of a World Government.

   These are direct quotes from their own writings (The Conflict of the Ages, by Clemens Gaebelein pp. 100‑102).

[23]The Rockefeller Family - Secret Jews! A book overlooked by most people and published for sale mainly within the Jewish community states that the Rockefellers are Jews of Sephardic descent (meaning Spanish and Portuguese Jews). The book is entitled "The Grandees - America's Sephardic Elite." The author is Stephen Birmingham, who is recognized by the Jewish community as an expert on Jewish history.

     The publisher of "The Grandees" is the Jewish owned publishing firm of "Harper and Row" of New York City. Mr. Birmingham also wrote the book "Our Crowd" about the family background of America's wealthiest and most successful Jews. Both books have been hailed by Jewish publications as first class works in the documentation of Jewish history.

     In "The Grandees" Stephen Birmingham reveals the existence of a very rare book which was published only for Jews some years ago. The work was published only for Jews some years ago. The work was compiled by the Jewish historian Malcolm H. Stern and entitled "Americans of Jewish Decent." That book weighed 10 pounds and gave the history of 25,000 Jewish individuals in America. It is extremely interesting to note that only 550 copies of the book were printed and each copy was consecutively numbered. The book was delivered to the top Jewish community leaders in America for their personal reference files in dealing with and contacting Jews who are "Marranos" (those Jews who "PRETEND" to be Christians in their community but secretly hold to their Jewish faith and race when among their own kind).

     Mr. Birmingham in "The Grandees" reports: "Who would expect to find the Rockefellers in the book." Stern's work traces what he calls the "Nobility of Jewry - the Sephardim who lived in Spain and Portugal as princes of the land." Many centuries ago the Jews flooded into Spain in great numbers and through usury and stealth became vast land owners. The Jews controlled both Spain and Portugal through their monopoly over the finances of the country.

     It was in 1492 that King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain expelled the Jews from their country and confiscated their ill-gotten wealth. It was during this period that the Rockefeller family moved to the Turkish Empire which welcomed the Jews at that time, believing them to be a "poor persecuted people."

     The grandfather of our former Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller, admitted that his family once moved from Turkey to France. It was from France that they moved to America. John D. Rockefeller, Sr., was a wealthy man even before he took over Standard Oil Co., which made their family one of the richest in the world. No one has ever explained how this family came into such wealth as soon as they arrived in America from France.

     There is no known information on how the Rockefellers came into huge amounts of money in France. Some thing they got their money from the Rothschilds and were originally their agents in buying up Christian businesses in America. "Marranos" are Jews who "PRETEND" to convert to Christianity so as to deceive Christians in their business dealings, but secretly continued to practice Judaism in private rituals. For this reason, a Marrano family like the Rockefellers would make the perfect tool for the Rothschilds of France who have for centuries used secret agents to carry on their work.

     "The Thunderbolt" was the first publication to bring Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller's Jewish ancestry to public attention. This information finally explains why he has always been able to work so closely with Jewish interests and why his administration as governor of New York was loaded down with Jews from top to bottom. His political campaigns of the past were always directed by Jews and he was always the support of the Jewish community in all of his political races.

     Normally the Jews would not support a Christian multi-millionaire for political office because they would be afraid they could not control him after the election. The fact that Jewish community leaders have long known that the Rockefellers were fellow Jews goes a long way in explaining why the organized Jewish community has always supported the Rockefeller's political ambitions. Now we can see why Nelson and David Rockefeller boosted his fellow Jew Henry Kissinger into the Nixon administration and Kissinger in turn has used his position to bring his fellow Jew Rockefeller into power.

[24] 2 Thessalonians 2:3.

[25] The verse cannot be referring to the general state of mankind because the world has always been in a fallen state, since Adam fell. It is in reference to "Mystery Babylon" a governmental entity.

[26] And in the process, become those "that put far away the evil day, and cause the seat of violence to come near." (Amos 6:3).

[27] Amos 6:3.

[28] It is reported that Rockefeller money was involved in the initial Parliament held one hundred years earlier as part of the Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, where elitists in 1893 first introduced their religious controlling myth to staunchly Protestant America.

[29] Because of this hatred toward Christ and the Christian way of life, we would ask: Is the Christian more dangerous to Judaism and the other religions of the world, because God forbids them to injure his brother, is the same God before whom we are both one day to appear in judgment; is that God less tremendous to the wicked, or less favorable to the just, because on His word we believe him to be one in essence, though three in persons? This hatred of the Jews which is becoming more and more frenzied, which even the pagans and infidels themselves could not justify on such pretexts as they present for public consumption. What frantic rage must it be that blinds the Jews, when in contradiction with themselves, they applaud the toleration of the ancient Philosophers, who, though disbelieving the mysteries of Paganism, never attempted to rob the people of their religion; while on the other hand they incessantly conspire against Christians and Christianity under pretence that it contains some sort of mysteries.

   Another objection not less extravagant, is that against Revelation itself. It is God, they say, whom the Christians declare to have spoken; hence there can be no further liberty of opinion in man on matters of faith. The so-called defenders of liberty and equality is then authorized to rise in arms against Christ and Christianity and its way of life which, they say, denies people of their liberty. Such is their arguments. But to what length does their frenzy carry them? Rabbis for hundreds of years have conspired to overthrow every altar, Catholic, Protestant, Lutheran, or any of the other Christian sects. What stupid idea is this? Can reason be traced through plots and conspiracies, of which the sole tendency is the overthrow of the religion of the White Race, under the pretence of liberty of worship; we have heard all sorts of false ideas to crush the God of the Christians

   For 2000 years we have seen them conspire and use every artifice of cunning intrigue to rob the world of the religion of God, of Christianity. And because they utter the empty sounds of Liberty, Equality and Toleration, people mistake their utterings as that of profound men, when they are nothing but empty shells, trying to escape the judgment they know is coming.

[30] The Ten Commandments of God contains all of these so-called values, but it is obvious that their idea of values, standards, norms convictions, and etc. are not those which will benefit all the people, but only a few of the ruling class.

[31] Yet class thinking, selfishness, and egotism are the foundation and cornerstones of their Controlling Mythology!

[32] This is not uncommon. Even Pharaoh had to beat back the Egyptian priesthood when it became too rich and powerful, and attempted to usurp royal authority.

[33] Romans 1:19.

[34] 2 Corinthians 4:2.

[35] Predictably, no one even questioned the meaning or the propriety of Kung and his Temple brethren dictating binding rules for all of mankind. Not so much as a peep was heard from those valiant and ever-vigilant defenders of liberty a.k.a. the free press.

[36] The prize is normally awarded at Buckingham Palace by Prince Philip, "Mother" Teresa is also a past recipient.

[37] Graham has recently denied that he is a Mason, a rumor stemming from reports that he attended a 33rd degree Masonic initiation in Washington, D.C., in 1966. All in all, Graham has received many advantages as the ruling class favorite.

[38] The Roman curia's blueprint issued by the Pontifical Christian Unity Council.

[39] A papal bull is the same as speaking ex cathedra; the pontiff claims infallibility. His words have never been rescinded, nor can they be.

[40] "The ultimate cause of antisemitism is that which has made Jews Jewish ‑ Judaism. There are four basic reasons for this and each revolves around the Jewish challenge to the values of non Jews...By affirming what they considered to be the one and only God of all mankind, thereby denying legitimacy to everyone else's gods, the Jews entered history ‑ and have often been since ‑ at war with other people's cherished values. And by continually asserting their own national identity in addition or instead of the national identity of the non‑Jews among whom they lived, Jews have created or intensified antisemitic passions...This attempt to change the world, to challenge the gods, religious or secular, of the societies around them, and to make moral demands upon others...has constantly been a source of tension between Jews and non‑Jews...Within the studies and on the screen, the Jews could simply create a new country ‑ an empire of their own, so to speak, one where they would not only be admitted, but would govern as well. The would create its values and myths, its traditions and archetypes." (An Empire of Their Own [How the Jews Invented Hollywood], by Neal Gabler (Crown Publishers, inc. N.Y. Copyright 1988, pp. 5‑6)

[41] From a speech he delivered at the Vatican.

[42] "It is not unnaturally claimed by Western Jews that Russian Jewry, as a whole, is most bitterly opposed to Bolshevism. Now although there is a great measure of truth in this claim, since the prominent Bolsheviks, who are preponderantly Jewish, do not belong to the orthodox Jewish Church, it is yet possible, without laying ones self open to the charge of antisemitism, to point to the obvious fact that Jewry, as a whole, has, consciously or unconsciously, worked for and promoted an international economic, material despotism which, with Puritanism as an ally, has tended in an ever‑increasing degree to crush national and spiritual values out of existence and substitute the ugly and deadening machinery of finance and factory. It is also a fact that Jewry, as a whole, strove with every nerve to secure, and heartily approved of, the overthrow of the Russian monarchy, WHICH THEY REGARDED AS THE MOST FORMIDABLE OBSTACLE IN THE PATH OF THEIR AMBITIONS and business pursuits. All this may be admitted, as well as the plea that, individually or collectively, most Jews may heartily detest the Bolshevik regime, yet it is still true that the whole weight of Jewry was in the revolutionary scales against the Czar's government. It is true their apostate brethren, who are now riding in the seat of power, may have exceeded their orders; that is disconcerting, but it does not alter the fact. It may be that the Jews, often the victims of their own idealism, have always been instrumental in bringing about the events they most heartily disapprove of; that perhaps is the curse of the Wandering Jew." (W.G. Pitt River, The World Significance of the Russian Revolution, p. 39, Blackwell, Oxford, 1921; The Secret Powers Behind Revolution, by Vicomte Leon De Poncins, pp. 134‑135)

[43] From a speech delivered at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

[44] Quoted by Al Gore in Earth in the Balance.

[45] From State of the Union message delivered January, 1994.

[46] James 4:4.

[47] The system itself being wicked and deceptive, which Christians were expected to recognize.

[48] Revelation 17:17.

[49] Daniel 2:35.

[50] Many are Masons; those of the highest degrees are said to be found within broadcasting and among the leadership.

[51] Jeremiah 23:21-22, 25-28, 29-32.

[52] Ezekiel 22;25.

[53] Paracelsus distinguished himself by the uproar he caused when, at a Basel University in 1527, he gave a series of lectures in German instead of Latin.

[54] It's a lesson that should not be soon forgotten with Rome on the rise once more.

[55] Is not every liberty known to man based upon "freedom to dissent?"

[56] Freedom from priestcraft, freedom of conscience, freedom of nations, freedom of knowledge...where were these freedoms in the Dark Ages? Where was prosperity for the common man during Rome's reign?

[57] "They have healed also the hurt of the daughter of my people slightly, saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace." (Jeremiah 6:14).

[58] This was handily accomplished by keeping the Bible out of the hands of the faithful.

[59] "The way of peace they know not; and there is no judgment in their goings: they have made them crooked paths: whosoever goeth therein shall not know peace. Therefore is judgment far from us, neither doth justice overtake us: we wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, but we walk in darkness. We grope for the wall like the blind, and we grope as if we had no eyes: we stumble at noon day as in the night; we are in desolate places as dead men. We roar all like bears, and mourn sore like doves: we look for judgment, but there is none; for salvation, but it is far off from us. For our transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our sins testify against us: for our transgressions are with us; and as for our iniquities, we know them; In transgressing and lying against the Lord, and departing away from our God, speaking oppression and revolt, conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood. And judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off: for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter. Yea, truth faileth; and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey: and the Lord saw it, and it displeased him that there was no judgment." (Isaiah 59:8-15).

[60] "A wonderful and horrible thing is committed in the land; The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means; and my people love to have it so: and what will ye do in the end thereof?" (Jeremiah 5:30-31.

[61] But the new communism comes upon us unawares, under the banner of "faith communities."

[62] Jeremiah 8:11.

[63] "For the old Heathenism had everywhere a foundation in Truth; and if we could separate that pure intuition into nature and into the simple symbols of nature, that constituted the basis of all Heathenism, from the alloy of error and the additions of fiction, those first hieroglyphic traits of the instinctive science of the first men, would be found to agree with truth and a true knowledge of nature, and to afford to agree with truth and a true knowledge of nature, and to afford an image of a free, pure, comprehensive, and finished philosophy of life.

     The struggle, henceforward to be eternal, between the Divine will and the natural will in the souls of men, commenced immediately after the creation. Cain slew his brother Abel, and went forth to people parts of the earth with an impious race, forgetters and defiers of the true God. The other Descendants of the Common Father of the race intermarried with the daughters of Cain's Descendants: and all nations preserved the remembrance of that division of the human family into the righteous and impious, in their distorted legends of the wars between the Gods, and the Giants and Titans. When, afterward, another similar division occurred, the Descendants of Seth alone preserved the true primitive religion and science, and transmitted them to posterity in the ancient symbolical character, on monuments of stone: and many nations preserved in their legendary traditions the memory of the columns of Enoch and Seth." (Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, p. 599).

[64] Matthew 23 and John 8.

[65] 2 Corinthians 13:1.

[66] Genesis 10:18.

[67] Genesis 26:34.

[68] The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1925, Vol. 5, page 41.

[69] John 8:39‑44.

[70] Romans 9:6.

[71] Deuteronomy 7:1.

[72] Read Ezra 9 and 10.

[73] Matthew 13:11‑13.

[74] Matthew 13:25.

[75] Matthew  13:37‑43.

[76] Luke 20:9‑19.

[77] Read all of John 8:38‑59.

[78] Matthew 13:37.

[79] Oscar Levy.

[80] You Gentiles, by Maruice Samuel, page 155.

[81] 2 Samuel 23:3.

[82] Zionist Movement.

[83] This has been reprinted as a tribute to Lt. Col. Edwin Marshall Hadley and the Paul Reveres.

[84] Genesis 38:5.

[85] Joshua 15:1, 13, 44.

[86] Genesis 38:5.

[87] Joshua 15:44.

[88] 1 Chronicles 4:21‑22.

[89] Joshua 15:1, 13, 44.

[90] #3576 and #3580 Strong's Concordance.

[91] #3576 and #3578 Strong's Concordance.

[92] #391 and #392 Strong's Concordance.

[93] Genesis 38:5.

[94] Isaiah 3:8‑9.

[95] Ezekiel 11:1‑25.

[96] Matthew 23:35.

[97] 2 Thessalonians 2:11.

[98] Genesis 38:26.

[99] John 6:70‑71.

[100] Read Zechariah 14:14 and 12:1‑5.

[101] See 1 Chronicles 5:1‑2.

[102] Matthew 21:19, 43.

[103] Romans 11:17‑23.

[104] Genesis 33:1‑2; 37:3; 48:3‑5; 49:22‑26; and 1 Chronicles 5:1‑2.

[105] Ruth 4:11.

[106] Genesis 35:22.

[107] 1 Chronicles 5:1‑2.

[108] Genesis 37:26‑27.

[109] Genesis 49:26.

[110] Luke 19:14.

[111] Genesis 38:3.

[112] Genesis 27:46; 28:6‑9 etc.

[113] Genesis 38:6‑10.

[114] Genesis 38.

[115] Genesis 38:26.

[116] Genesis 38:27‑30.

[117] Jeremiah 22:28‑30.

[118] Matthew 1:12.

[119] Genesis 38:29.

[120] Genesis 38:5; Joshua 15:1, 13, 44.

[121] John 6:70.

[122] Acts 2:7.

[123] Deuteronomy 28:37.

[124] Jeremiah 3:6‑11.

[125] Jeremiah 19:7‑11.

[126] Jeremiah 18.

[127] Jeremiah 22:28‑30.

[128] Ezekiel 21:26‑27.

[129] Facts are Facts, p. 52‑53.

[130] Facts are Facts, p. 74‑76.

[131] San Diego Union, August 28, 1966.

[132] History of Armenia, ii. 357.

[133] In the subjoined chronological table the dates of the most prominent events of Jewish history have been derived

from Henrietta Szold's "Tables of Jewish History" in the index volume (pp. 104 et seq.) of the American edition

of Graets" "History of the Jews."

[134] The Jewish Encyclopedia, Chazars, & Chronology, pp. 1‑75; Encyclopedia Judicia (1971).

[135] Encyclopedia Judicia (1971).

[136] Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 10 (1971).

[137] Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Vol. 10.

[138] Bury, p. 401.

[139] Two copies of the pamphlet belonging to two different editions are preserved in the Bodleian Library.

[140] Dunlop, p. 143.

[141]  The Thirteenth Tribe, by Arthur Koestler, pp. 58‑82.

[142] 1980 Jewish Almanac, p. 3.

Reference Materials