The Hall of Shame:
The United States has a long history of experimentation, on unwitting human subjects, which goes back to the beginning of this century. Both private firms and the military have used unknowing human populations to test various theories. However, the extent to which human experimentation has been a part of the U.S. Biological Weapons programs will probably never be known. The following examples are taken from information declassified in 1977, and from other private source accounts. Several involve incidents which are still of unknown origins and which cannot be fully explained, following is a “Partial” List.
1900: A U.S. doctor doing research in the Philippines infected of number of prisoners with the Plague. He continued his research by inducing Beriberi in another 29 prisoners. The experiments resulted in two known fatalities.
1915: A doctor in Mississippi produced Pellagra in twelve white Mississippi inmates in an attempt to discover a cure for the disease.
1925: Geneva Convention governing wartime conduct bans biological weapons. Japan refuses to approve treaty.
1931: The Puerto Rican Cancer Experiment was undertaken by Dr. Cornelius Rhoads. Under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, Rhoads purposely infected his subjects with cancer cells. Thirteen of the subjects died. When the experiment was uncovered, and in spite of Rhoads' written opinions that the Puerto Rican population should be eradicated, Rhoads went on to establish U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama. He later was named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and was at the heart of the recently revealed radiation experiments on prisoners, hospital patients, and soldiers.
1932: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study began. Two hundred (200) poor black men with syphilis began a long term experiment in which those men were to be studied. They were never told of their illness, and treatment was denied them. As many as 100 of the original 200 died as a direct or indirect result of the illness. The wives and children of the subjects also suffered as a result of the disease. (The government office supervising the study was the predecessor to today's Centers for Disease Control (CDC)).
1932: Japanese troops invade Manchuria. Shiro Ishii, a physician and army officer who was intrigued by germ warfare, begins preliminary experiments.
1936: Unit 731, a biological‑warfare unit disguised as a water‑purification unit, is formed. Ishii builds huge compound ‑‑ more than 150 buildings over six square kilometers ‑‑ outside the city of Harbin. Some 9,000 test subjects, which Ishii and his peers called ''logs,'' eventually die at the compound.
1940's: In a crash program to develop new drugs to fight Malaria during World War II, doctors in the Chicago area infected nearly 400 prisoners with the disease. Although the Chicago inmates were given general information that they were helping with the war effort, they were not provided adequate information in accordance with the later standards set by the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal. Nazi doctors on trial at Nuremberg cited the Chicago studies as precedents to defend their own behavior in aiding the German war effort.
1942: Ishii begins field tests of germ warfare on Chinese soldiers and civilians. Tens of thousands die of bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax and other diseases. U.S. soldiers captured in Philippines are sent to Manchuria.
1945: Japanese troops blow up the headquarters of Unit 731 in final days of Pacific war. Ishii orders 150 remaining ''logs'' killed to cover up their experimentation. Gen. Douglas MacArthur is named commander of the Allied powers in Japan.
1946: U.S. coverup of secret deal with Ishii and Unit 731 leaders; germ warfare data based on human experimentation in exchange for immunity from war‑crimes prosecution, begins in earnest. Deal is concluded two years later.
1950: The U.S. Navy sprayed a cloud of bacteria over San Francisco. The Navy claimed that the bacteria was harmless, and used only to track a simulated attack, but many San Francisco residents became ill with pneumonia‑like symptoms, and one is known to have died.
The Army used aircraft and homing pigeons to drop turkey feathers dusted with cereal rust spores to contaminate oat crops, to prove that a "cereal rust epidemic" could be spread as a biological warfare weapon.
San Francisco Bay Area
September 20‑27, 1950: Six experimental biological warfare attacks by the US Army from a ship, using Bacillus globigii and Serratia marcescens, at one point forming a cloud about two miles long as the ship traveled slowly along the shoreline of the bay. One of the stated objectives of the exercise was to study "the offensive possibilities of attacking a seaport city with a BW [biological warfare] aerosol" from offshore.
Beginning on September 29, patients at Stanford University's hospital in San Francisco were found to be infected by Serratia marcescens. This type of infection had never before been reported at the hospital. Eleven patients became infected, and one died. According to a report submitted to a Senate committee by a professor of microbiology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook: "an increase in the number of Serratia marcescens can cause disease in a healthy person and...serious disease in sick people."
1950 ‑1953: An array of germ warfare weapons were allegedly used against North Korea. Accounts claim that there were releases of feathers infected with anthrax, fleas and mosquitoes dosed with Plague and Yellow Fever, and rodents infected with a variety of diseases. These were precisely the same techniques used in immunity from prosecution in exchange for the results of that research. The Eisenhower administration later pressed Sedition Charges against three Americans who dared to published the information of these activities. However, none of those charged were convicted.
1952 ‑1953: In another series of experiments, the U.S. military released clouds of "harmless" gases over six (6) U.S. and Canadian cities to observe the potential for similar releases under chemical and germ warfare scenarios. A follow‑up report by the military noted the occurrence of respiratory problems in the unwitting civilian populations.
1955: The Tampa Bay area of Florida experienced a sharp rise in Whooping Cough cases, including 12 deaths, after a CIA test where a bacteria withdrawn from the Army's Chemical and Biological Warfare arsenal was released into the environment. Details of the test are still classified.
1956 ‑ 1958: In Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida, the Army carried out field tests in which mosquitoes were released into residential neighborhoods from both ground level and from aircraft. Many people were swarmed by Mosquitoes, and fell ill, some even died. After each test, U.S. Army personnel posing as public health officials photographed and tested the victims. It is theorized that the mosquitoes were infected with a strain of Yellow Fever. However, details of the testing remain classified.
1965: In a three year study, 70 volunteer prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia were subjected to tests of dioxin, the highly toxic chemical contaminant in Agent Orange. Lesions which the men developed were not treated and remained for up to seven months. None of the subjects was informed that they would later be studied for the development of cancer. This was the second such experiment which Dow Chemical undertook on "volunteers" who did not receive the information which the world proclaimed was necessary for "informed consent" at Nuremberg.
1966: The U.S. Army dispensed a bacillus throughout the New York City subway system. Materials available on the incident noted the Army's justification for the experiment was the fact that there are many subways in the (former) Soviet Union, Europe, and South America. The effects are not known for this release, details of the experiment are still classified.
1968 ‑ 1969: The CIA experimented with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by injecting a chemical substance into the water supply of the Food And Drug Administration in Washington, D.C.. There were no harmful effects noted from this experiment. However, none of the human subjects in the building were ever asked for their permission, nor was anyone provided with information on the nature or effects of the chemical used.
1969: On June 9, 1969, Dr. D.M. McArtor, then Deputy Director of Research and Technology for the Department of Defense, appeared before the House Subcommittee on Appropriations to request funding for a project to produce a synthetic biological agent for which humans have not yet acquired a natural immunity. Dr. McArtor asked for $10 million dollars to produce this agent over the next 5‑10 years. The Congressional Record reveals that according to the plan for the development of this germ agent, the most important characteristic of the new disease would be "that it might be refractory [resistant] to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease." AIDS first appeared as a public health risk ten years later.
1972: President Nixon announced a ban on the production and use of biological (but not chemical) warfare agents. However, as the Army's own experts reveal, this ban is meaningless because the studies required to protect against biological warfare weapons are generally indistinguishable from those for chemical weapons. Tests were held across the nation but the effects are still classified.
1977: Ray Ravenhott, director of the population program of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), publicly announced the agency's goal to sterilize one quarter of the world's women. In reports by the St Louis Post‑ Dispatch, Ravenhott in essence cited the reasoning for this being U.S. corporate interests in avoiding the threat of revolutions which might be spawned by chronic unemployment.
In 1977 the United States reached a significant turning point in its history. For the first time, the U.S. Army admitted carrying out hundreds of chemical and biological warfare tests, including at least 25 that targeted civilian populations. Previously classified records show that between 1951 and 1967, on at least 48 occasions, the Army used disease causing microbes in open air tests and, that on at least 31 other occasions, anti‑crop substances were knowingly discharged into the environment.
Of course, all of this was done in the name of National Security. However, a more disturbing element was thrown into the mix with a 1985 U.S. Supreme Court decision. That decision essentially absolved the U.S. military from any liability in cases where the military might be caught experimenting on unknowing and unwilling human subjects. In fact, the Court's decision did not differentiate between the case of a single experiment, which was at the heart of the case under review, and broader actions which military commanders might determine to undertake under the terms of liberally interpreted orders.
In its decision, written by Justice Antonin Scalia, the Court determined that actions against the military would tend to disrupt the military chain of command. This element was the key point of concern rather than any legal foundations which might have been espoused. Thus, anything which military commanders ordered, which might even remotely be covered by the broader umbrella of the scope and authority of the military mission, was not redressable in the courts. In fact, the military was essentially absolved from all past wrongdoing while at the same time being given a green light to undertake new activities so long as such actions did not violate their orders.
It was a decision which shocked fellow conservative, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor who, in an impassioned dissent, cited the principles of fundamental human rights, and the concepts formulated after the Nuremberg War Crime Tribunals, as ample reason to hold military commanders culpable for their misdeeds.
We should already know, however, that human experimentation in the United States is not news. The infamous Tuskegee Study, where 400 black men with syphilis were left untreated, some for as long as 40 years, was only discontinued after it became public. More recently, we have seen that many more people were victims of radiation experiments which were conducted without required disclosure by our own Atomic Energy Commission. However, one of the most disturbing experiments was undertaken during the 1930's where a single pathologist undertook studies in which he knowingly infected his human subjects with cancer. This physician, Dr. Cornelious Rhoads of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, undertook his experiments with little concern for his patients. In fact, Dr. Rhoads' attitude about his subjects was chronicled in a letter which later served as the basis for a criminal investigation. With regard to the subjects and location of his experiments in Puerto Rico, Dr. Rhoads wrote: "What the island needs is not public health work, but a tidal wave or something to totally exterminate the population."
A criminal investigation, however, exonerated Dr. Rhoads in the deaths of his patients. The prosecutor appointed by the North American governor of the island dismissed the case, calling Rhoads merely "a mentally ill person or a man of few scruples." Interestingly enough, Dr. Rhoads went on to direct the establishment of U.S. Army chemical warfare laboratories in Maryland, Utah, and the Panama Canal Zone. This "mentally ill" doctor was subsequently awarded 'The Legion of Merit', and was appointed to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
It was the work and influence of Dr. Cornelius Rhoads which serves as the foundation for the film ENEMIES WITHIN. This suspense/mystery simply takes a look at a similar situation, and updates the time and place. Where some might see great conspiracies rising from governmental abuses, ENEMIES WITHIN examines a system which makes it possible for a few people to have a drastic impact on society. ENEMIES WITHIN looks at a man such as Dr. Rhoads, who with a little power and influence, might be able to spread diseases which target narrow groups. It examines the way in which our own loyalties can be used against us.
In the case of Dr. Rhoads, the man revealing the charges against him later claimed that he was being subjected to radiation experiments after his arrest during the Puerto Rican Nationalists insurrection in 1950. Subsequent to his release from prison, the man's health deteriorated, and he died a short time later. It has only been within the last few years that we've learned that the Atomic Energy Commission did indeed experiment on unwitting prisoners, hospital patients, and soldiers. Dr. Rhoads achieved his revenge for the charges made against him. But the question remains, how many other 'like thinking' individuals do we have defending our National Security? How many others may have been placed in positions of trust and power without oversight to prevent their abuse of power? The Supreme Court may have given some a way to fulfill their own visions, just as it appears Dr. Rhoads was able to do.
1980‑1981: Within months of their incarceration in detention centers in Miami and Puerto Rico, many male Haitian refugees developed an unusual condition called "gynecomasia". This is a condition in which males develop full female breasts. A number of the internees at Ft. Allen in Puerto Rico claimed that they were forced to undergo a series of injections which they believed to be hormones.
1981: More than 300,000 Cubans were stricken with dengue hemorrhagic fever. An investigation by the magazine 'Covert Action Information Bulletin', which tracks the workings of various intelligence agencies around the world, suggested that this outbreak was the result of a release of mosquitoes by Cuban counter revolutionaries. The magazine tracked the activities of one CIA operative from a facility in Panama to the alleged Cuban connections. During the last 30 years, Cuba has been subjected to an enormous number of outbreaks of human and crop diseases which are difficult to attribute purely natural causes.
1981: John Powell, a former publisher of a Shanghai magazine who was unsuccessfully tried for sedition in the early 1950s after accusing the United States of using germ warfare in Korea, exposes immunity deal in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.
1982: El Salvadoran trade unionists claimed that epidemics of many previously unknown diseases had cropped up in areas immediately after U.S. directed aerial bombings. There is no hard evidence to support these charges.
1985: An outbreak of Dengue fever strikes Managua Nicaragua shortly after an increase of U.S. aerial reconnaissance missions. Nearly half of the capital city's population was stricken with the disease, and several deaths have been attributed to the outbreak. It was the first such epidemic in the country and the outbreak was nearly identical to that which struck Cuba a few years earlier (1981). Dengue fever variations were the focus of much experimentation at the Army's Biological Warfare test facility at Ft. Dietrick, Maryland prior to the 'ban' on such research in 1972.
1985: In ruling on a case in which a former U.S. Army sergeant attempted to bring a lawsuit against the Army for using experimental drugs on him, without his knowledge, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that allowing such an action against the military would disrupt the chain of command. Thus, nearly all potential actions against the military for past, or future, misdeeds have been barred as have actions aimed at the release of classified documents on the subject.
1985: Dr. Murray Sanders, a former lieutenant colonel who was a U.S. adviser on biological warfare, claims that he persuaded MacArthur to approve the immunity deal in the fall of 1945.
1986: Congressional subcommittee holds one‑day hearing in Washington, called by Rep. Pat Williams of Montana, aimed at determining whether U.S. prisoners of war in Manchuria were victims of germ‑warfare experimentation. Hearing is inconclusive.
1987: As the result of a lawsuit by a public interest group, the Department of Defense was forced to reveal the fact that it still operated Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW) research programs at 127 sites around the United States.
1988: The New York Times reported: "Germ warfare experimentation 'in which bacterial agents are sprayed directly into the air.' Since 1979, the Army has conducted more than 170 open air tests at Dugway Proving Grounds, 70 miles from Salt Lake City, as part of an expanded biological warfare program. Army officials steadfastly asserted their right to test outdoors 'anywhere in the country, including the urban areas.'"
The Government "admits it is releasing a bacteria called Bacillus Subtilis, in Utah, to stimulate biological attacks with the more lethal Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax. Other bacteria, including Serratia marcescens, have also been used in open air tests."
Many strange "new" outbreaks of rare viruses and unusual bacterial infections, "can be tied directly to these continuing secret Federal biowar terror attacks against Americans." ( New York Times, 11/29/88)
During the summer of 1994, U.S. military aircraft began dropping a gel substance on the tiny town of Oakville near the Pacific coast. Everybody in town came down with flu and pneumonia‑like symptoms. Some people were hospitalized and remained ill for months. Pets and barnyard animals died.
The police chief was patrolling the town one morning at 3 a.m. when a deluge of sticky stuff coated the windshield of his patrol car. He cleaned the goo with rubber gloves but just breathing it made him deathly ill. By afternoon he had major trouble breathing. The gel material was tested by a number of government and private labs which found human blood cells and nasty bacteria, including a modified version of pseudomonas fluorescens, cited in over 160 military papers as an experimental biowar fare bacteria. Unsolved Mysteries aired the story on national television in May, 1997. Several Oakville citizens reported bizarre encounters with FEMA officials and intelligence personnel from Fort Hood Texas ‑‑ home of the Black Hawk unit. These spooks made repeated visits to Oakville, probing people about their health and reportedly intimidating those who had been interviewed on television.
Also in 1997, rancher William Wallace was plowing his fields near Kettle Falls Washington when a U.S. Navy Intruder swooped down and sprayed him with a fine mist. He became so deathly sick he could not lift his arm above his head for days. He lost his job because of his illness. His cat's face became paralyzed and actually began to dissolve until it died.
Wallace went to the CBS affiliate in Spokane with his story. Two days later, a turbo prop aircraft dived over his house spraying something that made him and his family ill again. Wallace told chemtrail investigator Will Thomas he felt this was a warning to "shut up." The CBS affiliate in Spokane finally did a two‑part news interview with Wallace in the spring of 1999.
Again in 1997, in Southern Idaho near the town of Caldwell, seven healthy people died in their sleep when their lungs collapsed. All were in perfect health. An article in the Arizona Republic noted that people had suspicions that officials might be covering something up. Two years later an eye‑witness report was filed about a dark fibrous material falling on Caldwell homes, cars and lawns shortly before the mysterious deaths occurred. Residents said the material looked like feces.
Medical journalist Ermina Cassani has investigated nation‑wide reports of such biological waste being dropped on neighborhoods from low‑flying planes. Cassani investigated over 30 different yuk drops during the years 1998 and 1999. In 1998, she obtained a sample that looked like dried blood from a Michigan house. Examining this material, a University of Michigan lab found pseudomonas fluorescens, the same bug used on Oakville. It can cause horrible human infections including fatal shock, and because of its glowing properties, it allows the military to track its path.
There were also other ugly pathogens, including staph and several fungi which can cause lung disease. Consider the high fungi content of this sample in the context of the mysterious fungus that infected Kentucky horses last spring. Could not furtive aerial drops provide a convenient mode of economic sabotage?
Cassani also reported 29 biological "drops" in the state of Utah. HAZMAT teams in biochemical hazard gear cleaned up the feces with chlorine. Utah is home to the infamous Dugway Proving Grounds, a chemical‑biological test center where hundreds of former workers have contracted Gulf‑War like symptoms, according to a 1997 testimony before a government committee.
During numerous chemtrail spray episodes, the small town of Sallisaw in Eastern Oklahoma area was saturated with a web‑like material in which lab techs discovered an unusually large enterobacteria. The critter was a mutant of E. coli, salmonella and anthrax; undoubtedly one of the military's designer bugs. Sallisaw resident Patrick Edgar has reported on the Internet that the entire town was made extremely ill by the spraying and that the town now has epidemic rates of both lupus and cancer.
Biological weapons encapsulated in protective coatings like synthetic webbing would explain why so many people who see web‑like filaments drifting down from the skies report illness after touching the webs. When the webbing is closely examined, it is proven to be man‑made filaments of the type developed by both industrial and military entities. Last year, South Africans reported web‑like filaments falling from aircraft that formed a blanket‑like appearance across vegetation, telephone poles and fences. When the cattle ate it they developed large bumps on their hides, became listless and went blind. Informed people everywhere are now wary of "web looking" materials.
Chicago Tribune October 10, 2002
Army seeks to expand chemical, biological drills; But critics fear possible effects around Utah site By Judith Graham. For 60 years, the U.S. military has tested its ability to withstand chemical or biological attacks at a desolate site in the Utah desert. Protective gear for troops, heavy equipment such as tanks and aircraft, and detection systems designed to signal an attack have all been run through intense simulations, sometimes using active chemical and biological agents.
Now, with a possible war with Iraq looming on the horizon, the military plans to more than double its testing at the 798,000‑acre Dugway Proving Ground, 80 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, and to vastly expand its counter terrorism training activities at the site. The plans are disclosed in a draft environmental impact statement issued by Dugway, which has received little attention in Utah or nationally. The statement indicates that the Army facility wants to expand biological defense testing from an average of 11 events a year to 26, and boost chemical defense testing from 30 events a year to 70. Counter terrorism training would go from two events to 58 events a year.
Almost no test details are provided, making the few advocates following Dugway's plans uneasy about risks to public health and the environment if biological or chemical materials were accidentally released. The environmental statement notes systems are in place to make sure that does not happen.
"In principle, there's an appropriate role for this kind of testing. But essentially what they're saying is we want blanket permission to double our mission without telling anyone what we really plan to do," said Steve Erickson, director of the Citizens Education Project, a non‑profit organization based in Salt Lake City. "With their track record, that's spooky."
Information released Wednesday by the Department of Defense shows that during the Cold War, Dugway was involved in testing dangerous biological and chemical agents on military personnel in exercises on land and at sea. This seems to suggest that past tests were not confined to the isolated Utah setting, and posed more of a potential threat to human health than previously acknowledged.
The 28 reports were released by the Pentagon after a two‑year investigation prompted by veterans who claimed they had been exposed to harmful substances during their participation in the exercises. As many as 5,500 men and women in the military may have been involved.
In a news release, the Defense Department said safety precautions had been taken to protect service personnel at the time and its investigators had not been able to link the tests with "adverse health consequences." But it said the inquiry would continue.
The chemical and biological exercises were overseen by the Deseret Test Center in Utah from 1962 to 1973; those tests occurred in the coastal waters off Hawaii, California and Puerto Rico, as well as on land in Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland, Utah and Canada. The center, headquartered at Ft. Douglas, Utah, was combined with Dugway in 1968 and the alliance lasted until 1973, according to materials supplied this week by Dugway's public affairs office.
Some not fully informed: The Pentagon acknowledged that some soldiers may not have been fully informed about the tests, which included use of the military's deadliest nerve agent, VX. Also, thousands of civilians in Hawaii and Alaska probably were unaware of their exposure to relatively mild bacteria meant to simulate germ weapons, a Defense Department health official said.
"How are we supposed to trust an outfit that did this kind of thing but never told anyone?" Erickson asked. Dugway spokeswoman Paula Nicholson declined to comment, referring all questions to Defense Department officials.
When the anthrax attacks struck Florida, New York and Washington, it also emerged that Dugway had been producing a weapons‑grade form of the Ames anthrax strain‑‑the same strain investigators found in letters implicated in five deaths. The Utah complex had been making the lethal anthrax for a decade, and included the only military lab in the United States known to produce the finely milled, powdered form discovered in the letters.
If weapons‑grade anthrax had been produced secretly at Dugway, Erickson wondered, what other active biological and chemical agents were there and how well were they supervised? "There should be much greater oversight" of activities at the testing facility, he said.
The environmental statement indicates active agents will be used in defense exercises, along with much less dangerous substances that simulate chemical or biological agents. Up to 250 workers who served at Dugway during the Cold War claim to have been exposed to harmful substances, and believe they contracted serious illnesses, such as cancer and multiple sclerosis, from their work.
"They don't want us to know anything about what they do out there, and they never have," said Beverly White, a former Utah state legislator who is leading an effort to get compensation for the workers. "I'm concerned about the people who live here. I think we've just about had enough," she added.
In its draft statement, which has been circulating for comment in Utah, Dugway asserts the need for more tests and training "related to new enemy threats" and offers general examples of what these might entail. "Testing would evaluate newly developed biological defense detection and protection equipment that is required to effectively prepare for potential terrorism incidents," reads one point under the biological defense testing section.
Mock city test planned: “Large‑scale aircraft contamination control field testing" would "evaluate the way the military handles aircrew, passengers, and cargo in a chemically or biologically contaminated aircraft," another point notes. Counter terrorism training scenarios could include constructing a mock city and simulating an attack for "urban chemical/biological incident training," according to the statement.
Since 1999, Dugway has been training weapons of mass destruction teams for the National Guard. Under expanded counter terrorism training, more emergency response teams would receive similar instruction. One exercise would include firing a cruise missile into a building filled with containers of a chemical to see what would happen to the materials in such a scenario, the document said. "Sometimes it's very difficult to delineate the differences between offensive and defensive purposes in biological and chemical weapons testing," said Erickson, the Salt Lake advocate.
Offensive testing is banned under biological and chemical weapons conventions signed by the United States. If things go as planned, Dugway's environmental impact statement will become effective a little more than a year from now. Implementing the preferred option, which calls for expanded testing, will depend on Department of Defense funding, spokeswoman Nicholson noted.
‑ ‑ ‑
U.S. conducted biological, chemical weapons tests: The Defense Department on Wednesday released data on secret biological and chemical weapons tests conducted during the 1960s.
EFFECT OF TESTED WEAPONS ON HUMANS
(A) Bacillus globigii: Used to simulate anthrax.
(B) Calcofluor: Irritant, used as a fluorescent tracer.
(C) Diethylphthlate: Irritant.
(D) Methylacetoacetate: Irritant.
(E) Trioctyl phosphate: Used to simulate VX nerve agent.
(F) Zinc cadium sulfide: Irritant, low risk of development of lung cancer.
Causes temporary sickness:
(G) Ester of benzilic acid: Designed to cause stupor and hallucinations.
(H) Serratia marcescens: Can cause infections of the blood and urinary and respiratory tracts.
(I) Tear gas: Burns eyes and airways and blisters skin.
(J) E. coli: Can cause stomach cramps, diarrhea, kidney failure and death.
(K) Pasteurella tularensis: Causes infectious disease; 6 percent of infected die.
(L) Sarin: Lethal nerve agent; can permanently damage central nervous system.
(M) Soman: Nerve agent can cause difficult breathing, coma and death.
(N) Tabun: Nerve agent, death usually occurs within 20 minutes.
(O) VX: Nerve agent, death usually occurs within 15 minutes.
DATE LOCATION AGENT:
1962 Ft. Greely, Alaska (L) (O)
1963 Ft. Greely (A) (F)
1964 Ft. Greely (O)
1965 Ft. Greely (A) (F)
Canada (A) (F)
Pacific Ocean (A) (F)
Ft. Greely (F) (L)
Ft. Greely; Edgewood Arsenal, Md.; Canada (O)
1966 Pacific Ocean (D)
Ft. Greely (D) (L)
Ft. Greely (L)
Hawaii (G) (L)
Ft. Greely (O)
Pacific Ocean (A) (B) (F) (H) (J)
Ft. Greely (A) (H) (J) (K)
1967 Hawaii (D) (L)
Ft. Greely (L)
Ft. Greely (A) (H) (J) (K)
England, Canada (L) (M) (N) (O)
1968 Pacific Ocean (A) (D)
Yeehaw Junction, Fla. (A)
1969 Edgewood Arsenal (L) (M) (N) (O)
Ft. Douglas, Utah (I)
Vieques, PR (E)
1970 Ft. Douglas (A) (F)
1971 Ft. Douglas (C)
Source: Department of Defense
"Investigative reports" TV show Video clip about Biological tests in U.S. Cities by xx ·
RealVideo: stream with RealPlayer or download RM file (2.7 mebibytes)
Capture of Army Bacteria spreading car, in New York city! by xx · Saturday December 07, 2002 at 01:51 AM
carsprayer.jpg, JPG image, 720x1440
Also Check out this Antrax case story by xx · Saturday December 07, 2002 at 02:17 AM
The first clip is a documentary about the FBI anthrax investigation. Listen near the end of the film They say that the CIA is protecting suspects.
See also:by nessie · Saturday December 07, 2002 at 09:41 AM
1995: The February/March, 1995 American Reporter revealed that some of the many unmarked black helicopter sightings, in urban areas such as Atlanta and in rural areas (flying at night, at roof top levels), are "Spraying some kind of Chemical. Shortly after these mysterious overflights, people in the area have become infected with various respiratory diseases and certain types of influenza. The helicopters, appear to be U.S. made UH-1 Hueys and possibly Russian-built Kamov 'Helix' helicopters, whose civilian mission in Russia is spraying crops." ( The American Reporter, February/March 1995 issue)
The American Reporter also stated; "a large number of Russian chemical and biowar fare decontamination trucks have arrived in Mississippi."
Finally, newspaper accounts of the arrests of Egyptians accused of blowing up the World Trade Center reveal that not only did the FBI have advance notice of the bombing but, worse, their informant, a former Egyptian army officer, built the bomb. Emad Ali Salem infiltrated the anti-Israel group for the FBI, who asked him if the Egyptians could build a bomb. Salem told them they could not. The FBI instructed Salem to build a bomb for the Egyptians, using phony powder. Then the FBI told Salem to use real explosives. Salem did as he was told but began secretly to tape his FBI handlers in their meetings.
Transcripts of these recordings were published in The New York Times in October, 1993. Properly placed, the bomb would have killed a hundred thousand rather than the six people it did kill. According to court documents filed in New York, the FBI had advance knowledge of the bombing. But the decision was made on orders from the highest levels within the government to allow it to occur. Why?
1996: Under pressure from Congress and the public, after a 60 Minutes segment, the U.S. Department of Defense finally admits that at least 20,000 U.S. servicemen "may" have been exposed to chemical weapons during operation 'Desert Storm.' This exposure came as a result of the destruction of a weapons bunker. Causes of the similar illnesses of other troops, who were not in this area, have not yet been explained, other than as post traumatic stress syndromes. Veterans groups have released information that many of the problems may be a result of experimental vaccines and inoculations which were provided troops during the military buildup.
Sources: ''Factories of Death,'' by Sheldon H. Harris (Routledge, 1994); and ''Prisoners of the
Japanese: POWS of World War II in the Pacific,'' by Gavan Daws (William Morrow, 1994).