Watchman Willie Martin Archive

        Chronology of Christianity (1AD‑Present)

1 A.D.‑36?: Life of Jesus Christ

1-6 A.D.: First year in Christian calendar (a.d. = anno Domini) (see 525), Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) is emperor of Rome (6) Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, cap. Caesarea

6 A.D.‑?: Quirinius: Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Iudaea

6‑9 A.D.: Coponius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)

7‑26 A.D.: Brief period of peace, free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea & Galilee

9‑12?: M. Ambivius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)

12‑15: Annius Rufus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)

14‑37: Tiberius I emperor of Rome, b. 42BC

25?: Assumption (Testament) of Moses, original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)

26‑36: Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)

27‑29?: John the Baptist begins ministry (Luke 3:1‑2) (15th year of Tiberius)

27‑34?: Jesus baptized by John the Baptist (Mark1:4‑11)

33‑34?: John the Baptist arrested and killed by Herod Antipas (Luke 3:19-20)

33‑36: Jesus' ministry

36: Jesus crucified, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, [Ref: John, Unauthorized Version/Fox] Last Supper would have been Thursday evening. (April 7, 30 & April 3, 33; possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates)

36?‑65?: Period of oral tradition in Christianity between the time of Jesus and the time the first gospel (Mark) is written, original Christians disperse throughout Judea and Samaria (Acts 8,1ff), Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the Church headquarters to Rome

36?‑67: Period Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the church headquarters from Jerusalem to Rome

36?‑37: Paul of Tarsus has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem church destroyed

37: Paul of Tarsus is converted (Acts 9)

37‑41: Gaius Caligula emperor of Rome, declared himself god

37‑41?: Marullus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)

40: Paul goes to Jerusalem to consult with Peter (Galatians 1:18‑20)

41‑54: Claudius emperor of Rome, killed by poisoning by his wife Agrippina

44: James, brother of John, executed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1‑3)

47‑48: Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus (Acts 13:4‑12)

48‑49: Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, doctrine regarding circumcision and dietary law is agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia"  (Acts 15)

48‑57?: Paul writes Galations

49‑50: Paul in Corinth (Acts 18)

50?: Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT‑>Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)

50?: Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)

51‑52: Paul writes 1 Thessalonians

51‑52: Paul writes 2 Thessalonians

53‑62: Paul writes Philippians

54‑68: Nero emperor of Rome

56: Paul writes 1 Corinthians

57: Paul writes Romans

57: Paul writes 2 Corinthians

57:  Paul's last visit to Jerusalem (Acts 21)

58: Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea (Acts 25:4)

59: Nero kills his mother, Agrippina. Accepts Judaism as his religion

60: Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts 28:16)

61‑63?: Paul? writes Ephesians

61‑63: Paul writes Philemon

61‑63: Paul writes Colossians

61‑63?: Paul? writes 1 & 2 Timothy, Titus, known as "pastoral epistles"

62?: James written by leader of Jerusalem community? (Galatians 2:9), "catholic" epistle

62: Paul martyred for treason in Rome

62: {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and  Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus‑who‑is‑called‑Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that  they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} [JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]

62?: Nero kills his wife Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina

64: Great fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians, {Therefore to squelch the rumor, Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the Jews under procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44; Marginal  Jew; Meier; p. 89‑90]

64‑95?: 1 Peter written in Rome, by Peter the apostle?, "catholic" epistle

65‑125: Period in which 4 Gospels, Acts, Revelations, and remaining epistles written Peter martyred before 1st Holy Gospel is written, 7 Popes before last epistle is completed

65?: Q written, (German: Quelle, meaning "source") a hypothetical Greek text used in writing of Matthew and Luke

65‑150: Didache: Instructions of the Apostles written

65‑150: Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter

65‑150: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: published in 1914

65‑150: Gospel of Thomas written, based on Q?, published in 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus Ox. 1,654‑5

65‑175: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908

65‑175: Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: published 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175)

65‑250: Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: published in 1887

65‑350: "Jewish‑Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]

66‑70: Roman‑Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)

67: Peter martyred, crucified upside down in Rome

67‑78: Pope Linus, 2nd Pope, succeeds Peter (Linus mentioned in 2 Timothy 4:21)

67: General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee

68: Nero commits suicide, resurrects as "Nero redivivus," Rev's 666? (see 81)

68: Galba emperor of Rome (6/68‑1/69)

68: Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1949

69: Otho emperor of Rome (1/69‑4/69)

69: Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69‑12/69)

69: Flavian Dynasty of Rome (Vespian, Titus, Domitian)

69‑79: Vespian emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem

70: Collapse of Jewish self‑government in Judea and destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem

70: Gospel according to Mark written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter? (1 Peter 5:13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c 400

70?: "Signs Gospel" written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is the Messiah

70‑640: Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel

75‑90: Gospel according to Luke written, based on Mark and Q

75‑90: Acts of the Apostles written, same author as Gospel according to Luke

79‑81: Titus emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian

79‑91: Pope Anacletus, 3rd Pope, known as "blameless" (as in Titus 1:7?)

79: Mt Vesuvius, volcano overlooking Naples Bay, erupts, engulfs Pompeii

80‑85: Gospel according to Matthew written, based on Mark and Q, most popular in early Church

81‑96: Domitian emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)

81‑96: Revelations written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his

90‑100: 1 John written, by author(s) of 4th gospel, "catholic" epistle

90‑100: John 2:3 written, by "elder," disciple of John (son of Zebedee)?, "catholic" epistle

90‑100: Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, only eyewitness to Jesus?, disciple Jesus loved?, Gnostic?

90?: Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns

91‑101: Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Philippians 4:3), wrote letter to Corinth in 95 called "1 Clement"

94: "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, Marginal Jew, p. 61]

96?: Hebrews written, by ?

96‑98: Nerva emperor of Rome

98‑116: Trajan emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size

100?: Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)

100?: Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)

100?: 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)

100?: 2 Esdras (Vg: 4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)

100?: Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)

100?: Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)

100?: Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)

100?: Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch (v14), "catholic" epistle

100‑125?: 2 Peter written, by ?, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle

100‑150: Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)

101‑109: Pope Evaristus, 5th Pope

109‑116: Pope Alexander, 6th  Pope

110?: Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)

110?: "Letters of Ignatius," bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)

116‑125: Pope Sixtus I, 7th Pope

117‑138: Hadrian emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain

125‑350: Period of Christianity during which the first Bible was assembled; Christians are fiercely persecuted and then finally tolerated by the Roman Empire, Great Plague in Rome

125‑136: Pope Telesphorus, 8th Pope, martyred

125?: Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p. 1935, parts of John18:3;1‑33; 37‑38

125?: Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)

130‑200: "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr (165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers

130?: "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost

130?: Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord," lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)

130?: Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)

132‑135: Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)

138‑161: Antoninus Pius emperor of Rome

138‑142: Pope Hyginus, 9th Pope

140: Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text‑type

140?: Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]

142‑155: Pope Pius I, 10th Pope

150?: Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)

150?: "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P 29, 38, 48 and Codex Bezae (D)

150?: Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Numbers 5:12‑36: 13, Deuteronomy 1:20‑3; 4:12

155‑166: Pope Anicetus, 11th Pope

160?: Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)

160?: Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0‑8010‑5676‑4)

161‑180: Marcus Aurelius emperor of Rome

164‑180: Great Plague in Roman Empire

166‑174: Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday

170: Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text‑type

170: Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor

170: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels

170: Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text‑type Gospels into 1

170?: Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation

174‑189: Pope Eleutherius, 13th Pope

175?: Acts of Paul (inc. Corinthians 3), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]

180‑192: Commodus emperor of Rome

185‑350: Canon Muratorian, 1st extant for NT?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?, excludes Hebrews, James, 1‑2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter

189‑198: Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman," (see 166, 190)

190: Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter

193‑211: Septimius Severus emperor of Rome

197: Writings of Apollonius, uses the term "catholic" in reference to 1 John

198‑217: Pope Zephyrinus, 15th Pope

200: Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia

200?: Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text‑types: John 1:1‑6, 11; 35‑7, 52; 8:12‑14; 26, 29‑30; 15:2‑26; 16:2‑4, 6‑7, 10‑

20; 22‑23, 25‑21:9

200?: Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14‑15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; Luke 3:18‑22, 33‑34; 2:34‑5; 10:37‑6; 4:10‑7, 32, 35‑39, 41‑43, 46‑9; 2:4‑17, 15; 19‑18; 22:4‑24:53; John 1:1‑7, 52; 8:12‑11, 45, 48‑57; 12:3‑13, 8‑9; 14:8‑30; 15:7‑8

200?: Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text‑type: Romans 5:17; 6:3, 5‑14; 8:15‑25, 27‑35, 37‑9; 32;10‑11, 22, 24‑33, 35‑15:9, 11‑16:27; Hb1:1‑9:16, 18‑10, 20, 22‑30, 32; 13:25; 1 Cr 1:1‑9, 2, 4‑14, 14,16‑15, 15,17‑16:22; 2 Cr 1:1‑11, 10, 12‑21, 23‑13:13; Ep1:1‑2:7, 10‑5; 6:8‑6:6; 8,20‑24; Gl 1:1‑8, 10; 2:9, 12‑21; 3:2‑29; 4:2‑18, 20:5, 17:20, 6:8, 10‑18; Ph1:1, 5‑15, 17‑28, 30; 2:12, 14‑27, 29; 3:8,10‑21; 4:2‑12, 14‑23; Cl 1:1‑2, 5‑13, 16‑24, 27; 2:19, 23; 3:11; 13‑24; 4:3:12,16‑18; 1Th 1:1,9; 2:3; 5:5‑9, 23‑28

200?: Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11‑15;2:3‑8

200?: Papyrus 64 (+67): M t3:9, 15; 5:20‑22, 25‑28; 26:7‑8, 10, 14‑15, 22‑23, 31‑33

200?: Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text‑type

200?: Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant

200?: Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria

212‑217: Geta then Caracalla emperors of Rome

217‑236: Anti‑Pope Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect, 1st Anti‑Pope (illegitimate claimants of or pretenders to the papal throne)

217‑222: Pope Callistus I, 16th Pope

218‑222: Heliogabalus emperor of Rome

220: Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans

220?: Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text‑type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the  Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation"; "To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)

222‑230: Pope Urban I, 17th Pope

222‑235: Alexandar Severus emperor of Rome

223?: Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of prostitute, coined "New Testament," cites "Western" Gospel text‑type (Loeb)

225?: Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian): Mt 20:24‑32; 21:13‑19; 25:41‑26: 39; Mk 4:36‑40; 5:15‑26, 38; 6:3,16‑25, 36‑50; 7:3‑15, 25; 8:1, 10‑26, 34; 9:9, 18; 31;11, 27; 12:1, 5‑8, 13‑19,24‑28; Lk 6:31‑41, 45; 7:7; 9:26‑41,45; 10:1, 6‑22, 26; 11:1, 6‑25, 28‑46, 50; 12:12, 18‑37, 42; 13:1, 6‑24, 29; 14:10, 17; 33; Jn 10:7; 25,30; 11:10, 18‑36, 42‑57; Ac 4:27‑36; 5:10‑21, 30‑39; 6:7; 7:2, 10‑21, 32‑41, 52; 8:1, 14‑25, 34‑9; 6:16‑27, 35; 10:2, 10:23, 31; 41;11:2‑14, 24‑12; 5,13‑22; 13:6‑16, 25, 36, 46; 14:3, 15‑23; 15:2‑7, 19‑27, 38; 16:4,15‑21,32‑40;17:9‑17

225?: Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25‑end, ~Codex Vaticanus

230‑236: Pope Pontian, 18th Pope

230‑250: Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen who in 248 cited a rumor recorded by Celsus that "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed  adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28‑32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223]

236‑238: Maximus emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope Pontian and anti‑Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die

236‑237: Pope Anterus, 19th Pope

237‑250: Pope Fabian, 20th Pope

238‑244: Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III emperors of Rome

240‑250: Christian council of Carthage

244‑249: Philip the Arabian emperor of Rome

249‑251: Decius emperor of Rome

249: Rome celebrates 1000th anniversary

250: Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints

250: Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers

250?: Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"

250?: Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5‑11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text‑type: Nativity of  Mary; 3 Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1‑25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1 Pt1:1‑5:14; 2 Pt1:1; 3:18

250?: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn 8:13; 9:2; 24:13‑46, 33, Enoch 9:1‑105; #7: I8, 18‑19; 13:38; 14, 45:5; 54:1; 60:22; #8: Jr 4:30‑35, 24; #10: Dn1‑12:13 (+Add), Bel 4‑39, Sus 5‑end, Esther1:1; 8:6 (+Add)

251‑253: Gallus emperor of Rome

251‑253: Pope Cornelius, 21st Pope

251‑258: Anti‑Pope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism

253‑260: Valerian emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons

253‑254: Pope Lucius I, 22nd Pope

254: Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans., Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text‑types; Eusebius claimed Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH 6.8.1‑3]

254‑257: Pope Steven I, 23rd Pope, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates

257‑258: Pope Sixtus II, 24th Pope, martyred

257: Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain

258: Letters of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text‑type, claims Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him

260‑268: Gallienus emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman Church

260‑268: Pope Dionysius, 25th Pope, rebuilds Roman Church after Valerian's massacre

264‑268: Christian council on Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism)

264?: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b. 190?

268: Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth

268‑270: Claudius II emperor of Rome

269‑274: Pope Felix I, 26th Pope

270‑275: Aurelian emperor of Rome

275‑283: Pope Eutychian, 27th Pope, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass

275?: Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv 9:10‑11;  3,5‑16;15-17; 17:2

276‑282: Marcus Aurelius Probus emperor of Rome

276: Mani, b. 215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia

283‑296: Pope Gaius, 28th Pope

284‑305: Diocletian emperor of Rome, notorius persecuter of Christians


         Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires


         St Pachomius establishes 1st monastery in Egypt


         Pope Marcellinus, 29th Pope, apostate, offered pagan sacrifices for



         Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria


         Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]


         Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms;

         Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927


         other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1‑9,12,14‑20 P4:Lk1:58‑59,62‑

         2:1, 6‑7;3:8‑4:2,29‑32,34‑35;5:3‑8,30‑6:16 P5:Jn1:23‑31,33‑

         40;16:14‑30;20:11‑17, 19‑20,22‑25 P9:1Jn4:11‑12,14‑17 P12:Hb1:1

         P15:1Cr7:18‑8:4 P20:Jm2:19‑3:9 P22:Jn15:25‑16:2,21‑32

         P23:Jm1:10‑12,15‑18 P27:Rm8:12‑22,24‑27,33‑9:3,5‑9 P28:Jn6:8‑

         12,17‑22 P29:Ac26:7‑8,20 P30:1Th4:12‑13,16‑17;5:3,8‑10,12‑18,25‑

         28;2Th1:1‑2 P38:Ac18:27‑19:6,12‑16 P39:Jn8:14‑22 P40:Rm1:24‑

         27,31‑2:3;3:21‑4:8;6:4‑5:16;9:16‑17:27 P48:Ac23:11‑17,23‑29

         P49:Ep4:16‑29,31‑5:13 P53:Mt26:29‑40;Ac9:33‑10:1 P65:1Th1:3‑

        2:1,6‑13 P69:Lk22:41,45‑48,58‑61 P70:Mt2:13‑16,22‑3:1;11:26‑

         27;12:4‑5;24:3‑6,12‑15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13‑15,24‑25

         #0171:Mt10:17‑23,25‑32;Lk22:44‑56,61‑64 #0189:Ac5:3‑21

         #0220:Rm4:23‑5:3,8‑13 #0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56‑57;Mk15:40‑



         Last persecution of Christians in Rome


         Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau


         Emperor Constantine the Great, convert to Christianity


         Maxentius emperor of Western Roman Empire


         Pope Marcellus I, 30th Pope, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from

         official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing

         the peace


         Pope Eusebius, 31st Pope, deported to Sicily with anti‑Pope Heraclius by



         Pope Miltiades, 32nd Pope, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal



         Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, martyred


         Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire


         Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity


         Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates


       Pope Silvester I, 33rd Pope


         Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism


         Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father


         Constantine decrees Sunday as offical Roman‑Christian day of rest


         Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called 1st

         great Christian council by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend,

         Nicaean Creed


         Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11‑15:11


         Old Saint Peter's Basilica dedicated by Constantine, located over the

         traditional burial site of Saint Peter the Apostle in Rome on Vatican Hill


         Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (formally Byzantium)


         Pope Mark, 34th Pope


         Arius, Greek theologian ‑ Arianism (Jesus was a created being)


         Roman empire splits again, Constans emperor of West until 350


         Roman empire splits again, Constantius emperor of East until 361


         Pope Julius I, 35th Pope


         Jewish calendar modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar


         Eusebius of Caesarea (260‑340), theologian & church historian, cites

         "Caesarean" NT text‑type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb

         Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John

         the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of

         Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said

         or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew

         composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one

         translated them as he could."} [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox,

         p.126‑127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14

         Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2‑3Jn,

         Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the

         Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of

         Andrew, John ... [EH3.25], used the term "catholic" to refer to all seven

         epistles ‑ James; 1,2,3 John; 1,2 Peter; Jude


         Period of time between the 1st Christian Bible and the 1st Western Christian

         Bible, during which the books contained in Bibles varied


         Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers


         Codex Sinaiticus (S or ): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX ‑ 2‑

         3Maccabees ‑ Psalms of Solomon ‑ Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas),

         missing Hermas31.7‑end; of "Alexandrian" text‑type: most accurate text‑



         Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX ‑ 1‑4Maccabees ‑ Psalms

         of Solomon ‑ Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1‑46:28, Ps105:27‑137:6, 1Tm‑

         Phm, Heb9:14‑end; of "Alexandrian" text‑type: most accurate text‑type


         Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950


         Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1‑44:22; #11: Greek

         Sir36:28‑ 37:22,46:6‑47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12‑13,94:7‑8,97:6‑



         Papyrus Bodmer 45‑46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1‑20 (Theodotion's LXX)


         Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)


         Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub‑Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John


         Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic


         Pope Liberius, 36th Pope


         St. Augustine, Latin Bishop considered the founder of formalized Christian

         theology, church father


         Anti‑Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II


         Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)


         Julian the Apostate emperor of East, attempts to revive Paganism


         Council of Laodicea names 26 NT books (excludes Revelations)


         Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers


         Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath


         Pope Damasus I, 37th Pope, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians



         Anti‑Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius


         Athanasias, bishop of Alexandria, first citing of modern 27 NT canon


         Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers


         Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon


         Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon


         Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron

         (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)


         Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text‑type


         Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers


         Theodosius the Great, last emperor of the united empire


         Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius


         Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, Jesus had true

         human soul


         Pope Damasus I has Jerome revise and unify Latin Bibles


         Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain


         Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost


         Pope Siricius, 38th Pope, criticized Jerome


         Apollinaris of Laodicea, Jesus had human body but divine spirit


         Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers


         Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"


         Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 NT books (see 354)


         Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games


         Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)


         Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens


         Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...


         Pope Anastasius I, 39th Pope


         Era between 1st Western Christian Bible and the Great Schism ‑ Christian

         doctrine is formed, Roman empire ends


         Vulgate Bible, by Jerome?, (340?‑420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin text

       becomes standard Western Christian Bible


         Jerome cites "expanded" ending in Mark after Mark 16,14


         Jerome adds Pericope of the Adultress (John 7,53‑8,11)


         Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text‑type


         Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes:

         2Pt, 2‑3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible


         Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text‑

         type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8


         Pope Innocent I, 40th Pope, decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity


         Visigoths invade Italy


         Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers


         Visigoths sack Rome under king Alaric


         Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers


         Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells


         Visigoths take Spain


         Pope Zosimus, 41st Pope


         Pope Boniface I, 42nd Pope


         Anti‑Pope Eulalius


         Franks take Gaul


         St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)


         Pope Celestine I, 43rd Pope


         Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use


         Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, decreed Mary the Mother of God


         Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo‑Saxon‑Jutes


         St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher,

         wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)


         Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers


         Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian‑disagreed with Council of

         Ephesus) and West (Jacobites)


         St Patrick begins mission in Ireland


         Pope Sixtus III, 44th Pope


         Attila the Hun, "Scourge of the Gods"


         Pope Leo I, 45th Pope


         Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers


         Mark's Resurrection of Jesus added to Bible (Mark 16, 9‑20)


         Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX ‑ 1‑2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT +

         1‑2Clement), missing 1K12:17‑14:9, Ps49:20‑79:11, Psalms of Solomon,

         Mt1‑25:6, Jn6:50‑8:52, 2Cr4:13‑12:6, 1Clement57.7‑63.4,

        2Clement12.5b‑end; of "Alexandrian" text‑type: most accurate text‑type


         Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W):

         Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text‑type: "fondness for paraphrase"


        Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps


         Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps


         Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua


         Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua


         Codex Colberto‑Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen‑Judg


         Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text‑type


         Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text‑type


         Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text‑type


         std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets


         Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both

       human and divine in one, a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms


         Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God"


         Letters of Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; early Christian church fathers


        Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human


         Vandals sack Rome


         Pope Leo I, 46th Pope, becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman



         Pope Hilarus, 47th Pope


         Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine, early Christian church father


         Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers


         Pope Simplicius, 48th Pope


         Zeno, eastern Roman emperor


         Official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus


         St. Benedict, founded the Benedictines


         Pope Felix III (II), 49th Pope


          Period between Great Schism and the destruction of the Library of Alexendria

          ‑ After the end of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church sees a period of

          turmoil and division, Europe's population "halved" by plague, great

          earthquakes occur


          Acacian schism, over "Henoticon" divides Eastern (Greek) and Western

          (Roman) churches. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek

          church and held to the Acacian heresy, which denied the divine paternity of

          Christ. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian



          Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father


          Zeno destroys Nestorian (451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St Simeon


          Armenian Church seceds from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches


          Anastasius I eastern Roman emperor


          Pope Gelasius I, 50th Pope, "Vicar of Christ" is first used as another title


          Pope Anastasius II


        Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia


          Pope Symmachus


          Pope Hormisdas


          Pope John I, martyr


          Anti‑Pope Lawrence, Lawrencian schism


          Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican


          Codex Sangallensis vg: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels


          Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels


          Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis


          Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)


          Justin I: emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire


          Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological

          Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)


          Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus' birth @ 23 Dec 1AD


          Earthquake in Antioch kills 250,000


          Pope Felix IV (III)


          Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor


          Letters of Fulgentius, early Christian church father


          Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic


          Pope Boniface II


          Anti‑Pope Dioscorus


          Pope John II


          N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province


          Malta becomes Byzantine province


          Pope Agapitus I


         Pope Silverius, martyr


          Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian

          and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550


          War between Byzantine empire and Persia


          Plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe


          Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world


          Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans


          Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and

          other writings of "2‑natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)


          Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti‑"2‑natures"


          Plague reaches Britain


          Letters of Apringius Pacensis, early Christian church father


          Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek


          Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation


          St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon


          Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250AD

          lists 27NT+Barnabas+Hermas+Acts_of_Paul+Apocalypse_of_Peter;

          "Western" type


          Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels


          Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms


          2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian


          Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)


          Pope John III, authorized by Justinian


          Justin II, Byzantine emperor


          Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers


          War between Byzantine empire and Persia


          Pope Benedict I, authorized by Justin II,


          Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor


          Pope Pelagius II, died of plague


          Maurice, Byzantine emperor


          Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity


          Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity


          Plague in Rome


          Pope Gregory I, commanded that a way be found to collect and preserve the

          singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (now known as

          Gregorian Chant)


          End of plague which began in 542 and "halved" the population of Europe!


          St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity


          Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels


          Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text‑type


          Phocas, Byzantine emperor after killing Maurice


          Pope Sabinian, authorized by Phocas


          Pope Boniface III, authorized by Phocas


          Pope Boniface IV, authorized by Phocas


          Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda


          Heraclius, Byzantine emperor after killing Phocas


          Mohammed's reported vision of Allahon Mount Hira


          Persians take Damascas and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ"


          earliest records of some of Mohammed's teachings


          Pope Deusdedit


          Pope Boniface V, authorized by Heraclius


          Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Constantinople


          first year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h. = anno hegirae)


          Mohammed marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr


          Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity


          Pope Honorius I


          Mohammed begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe


          King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization


          Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh


          Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians


          Mohammed captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam


          Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians


          Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622)


          Mohammed, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam


          East Anglia Christianized


          Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina


          Omar I, 2d Caliph, takes Syria/Persia/Egypt;defeats Heraclius in Holy War


          Christianization of Wessex


          Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs


          Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism


          Jerusalem captured by Islam


          Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature: "Monothelites"


          Pope Severinus


          Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000

          ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely distroyed.


           Period between destruction of Library of Alexandria and the first complete

           English translation of the Bible


           Pope John IV


           Pope Theodore I


           Pope Martin I, martyr


           Pope Eugene I


           Pope Vitalian


           Pope Adeodatus II


           Pope Donus


           Pope Agatho


           Pope Leo II


           Pope Benedict II


           Pope John V


           Pope Conon


           Anti‑Pope Theodore


           Anti‑Pope Paschal


           Pope Sergius I


           Earliest Bible translations into England's vernacular, continued work by Bede

           and others from this point forward


           Pope John VI


           Pope John VII


           Pope Sisinnius


           Pope Constantine


           Pope Gregory II


           Pope Gregory III


           Pope Zachary


           Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium


           Pope Stephen II (III)


           Pope Paul I


           Anti‑Pope Constantine


           Anti‑Pope Philip


           Pope Stephen III (IV)


           Pope Adrian I


           Pope Leo III


           Pope Stephen IV (V)


           Pope Paschal I


           Pope Eugene II


           Pope Valentine


           Pope Gregory IV


           Anti‑Pope John


          Pope Sergius II


           Pope Leo IV


           King Alfred translation of several Bible books into English vernacular, also

           done by Aldhelm and Aelfric


           Pope Benedict III


           Anti‑Pope Anastasius


           Earthquake in Corinth kills 45,000


           Pope Nicholas I


           Pope Adrian II


           Pope John VII


           Pope Marinus I


           Pope Adrian III


           Pope Stephen V (VI)


           Pope Formosus


           Pope Boniface VI


           Pope Stephen VI (VII)


           Pope Romanus


           Pope Theodore II


           Pope John IX


           Pope Benedict IV


           Pope Leo V


           Anti‑Pope Christopher


           Pope Sergius III


           Pope Anastasius III


           Pope Landus


           Pope John X


           Pope Leo VI


           Pope Stephen VII (VIII)


           Pope John XI


           Pope Leo VII


           Pope Stephen VIII (IX)


           Pope Marinus II


           Pope Agapitus II


           Pope John XII


           Pope Leo VIII


           Pope Benedict V


           Pope John XIII


           Pope Benedict VI


           Anti‑Pope Boniface VII


           Pope Benedict VII


           Pope John XIV


           Pope John XV


           Pope Gregory V


           Anti‑Pope John XVI


           Pope Sylvester II


           Pope John XVII


           Pope John XVIII


           Pope Sergius IV


           Pope Benedict VIII


           Anti‑Pope Gregory


           Pope John XIX


           Pope Benedict IX


           Pope Sylvester III


           Pope Benedict IX


           Pope Gregory VI


           Pope Clement II


           Pope Benedict IX


           Pope Damasus II


           Pope Leo IX


           Split between Eastern and Western churches formalized, Orthodox Church



           Pope Victor II


           Pope Stephen IX (X)


           Earthquake in Cilicia (Asia Minor) kills 60,000


           Anti‑Pope Benedict X


           Pope Nicholas II


           Pope Alexender II


           Anti‑Pope Honorius II


           Gregory VII


           Anti‑Pope Clement III


           Pope Victor III


           Pope Urban II


           10 Crusades, 1st called by Pope Urban II, to restore Asia Minor to Byzantium

           and conquer the Holy Land from the Turks


           Pope Paschal II


           Anti‑Pope Theodoric


           Anti‑Pope Albert


           Anti‑Pope Sylvester IV


           Pope Gelasius II


           Anti‑Pope Gregory VIII


           Pope Callistus II


           Pope Honorius II


           Anti‑Pope Celestine II


           Pope Innocent II


           Anti‑Pope Anacletus II


           Anti‑Pope Victor IV


           Pope Celestine II


           Pope Lucius II


           Pope Eugene III


           Pope Anastasius IV


           Pope Adrian IV


           Pope Alexander III


           Anti‑Pope Victor IV


           Anti‑Pope Paschal III


           Anti‑Pope Callistus III


           Anti‑Pope Innocent III


           Pope Lucius III


           Pope Urban III


          Pope Gregory VIII


           Pope Clement III


           Pope Celestine III


           Pope Innocent III


           Rosary is reportedly given to St. Dominic by an apparition of Mary


           Dominican order begun


           Pope Honorius III


           Franciscan order begun


           Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher


           Pope Gregory IX


           Pope Celestine IV


           Pope Innocent IV


           Pope Alexander IV


           Date which a 1988 Vatican sponsered scientific study places the origin of the

           Shroud of Turin


           Pope Urban IV


           Pope Clement IV


           Pope Gregory X


           Pope Innocent V


           Pope Adrian V


           Pope John XXI


           Pope Nicholas IV


           Pope Celestine V


           Pope Boniface VIII


           Pope Benedict XI


           Pope Clement V


           Pope John XXII


           The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri


           Anti‑Pope Nicholas V


           Pope Benedict XII


          Pope Clement VI


           English begins to emerge as the national language of England


           Renaissance begins in Italy


           Pope Innocent VI


           Earliest extant documentation stating the existance of the Shroud of Turin


           Pope Urban V


           Pope Gregory XI


           Pope Urban VI


           Anti‑Pope Clement VII


            Period between the 1st complete English translation of the Bible and Martin

            Luther's 95 Theses


            John Wycliffe, eminant theologian at Oxford, makes NT (1380) and OT (with

            help of Nicholas of Hereford) (1382) translations in English, 1st complete

            translation to English, included deutercanonical books, preached against

            abuses, expressed unorthodox views of the sacraments (Penance and

            Eucharist), the use of relics, and against celibacy of the clergy


            John Purvey, follower of John Wycliffe, revises Wycliffe's translation


            Pope Boniface IX


            Wycliffe's teachings condemned repeatedly in England


            Anti‑Pope Benedict XIII


            Pope Innocent VII


            Pope Gregory XII


            Council of Oxford forbids translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular

            unless and until they were fully approved by Church authority, sparked by

            Wycliffite Bible, Sir Thomas More said: "It neither forbiddith the translations

            to be read that were already well done of old before Wycliffe's days, nor

            damneth his because it was new but because it was naught; nor prohibiteth

            new to be made but provideth that they shall not be read if they be made

            amiss till they be by good examination amended." ("A Dialogue against



            Anti‑Pope Alexander V


            Anti‑Pope John XXIII


           St. Joan of Arc, French national heroine


            Council of Florence condemns all of Wycliffe's works, but the actual Bibles

            continued to be used after having the heretical prologue removed, and were

            possessed by both religious houses and those of the nobility and tacitly

            accepted by Catholics


            Pope Martin V


            Pope Eugene IV


            Anti‑Pope Felix V


            Pope Nicholas V


           Byzantium succeeded by the Ottoman Empire


            Pope Callistus III


            Pope Pius II


            Pope Paul II


            Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar, Greek NT used in many 16th century



            Pope Sixtus IV


            Sistine Chapel built, under supervision of Giovanni de Dolci


            Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV


            Martin Luther, leader of Protestant reformation, preached that only faith

            leads to salvation without mediation of clergy or good works, attacked

            authority of the Pope, rejected priestly celibacy, recommended individual

            study of the Bible (see 1517, 1522)


            Pope Innocent VIII


            Miles Coverdale, Augustinian friar who left the Order, repudiated

            Catholicism, 1st Protestant Bishop of Exeter


            Ignatius of Loyola, founded the Jesuit order (see 1534)


            Christopher Columbus's first voyage, discovers San Salvador ‑ begins

            Spanish colonization of the New World


            Pope Alexander VI


            Pope Pius III


            Pope Julius II


            John Knox, Protestant reformer in Scotland (see 1560)


            Pope Julius II orders the Old St Peter's Basilica torn down and authorizes

            Donato Bramante to plan a new structure, demolition completed in 1606


            Michelangelo frescoes the Sistine Chapel's vaulted ceiling


            Henry VIII ruler of England


            John Calvin, preached predetermination, good conduct and success were signs

           of election


            Pope Leo X


            Modern Era of Christianity ‑ Luther, Calvin lay the seeds of modern

            Protestantism, England breaks away from the Catholic Church


            95 Theses (Martin Luther)


            St Terese of Avila


            Luther excommunicated


            Pope Adrian VI


            Luther's German NT translation


            Pope Clement VII


            South German peasant uprising, repressed with Luther's support, begins 1.5

            century long religious wars


            Tyndale's translation of the NT from Greek text of Erasmus (1466) compared

            against the Vulgate and the Pentateuch from the Hebrew (1525) compared to

            Vulgate and Luther's German version (1530), first printed edition, used as a

            vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on the Church, reflects influence of

            Luther's NT of 1522 in rejecting "priest" for "elder", "church" for



            Augsburg Confession, Martin Luther founds the Lutheran Church


            Reported apparition of Mary at Guadalupe, Mexico, considered "worthy of

            belief" by the Catholic Church


            Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 30,000


            Henry VIII breaks England away from the Catholic church, confiscates

            monastic property, beginning of Episcopal Church


            Pope Paul III


            Jesuit order founded by Lyola (1491‑1556), helped reconvert large areas of

            Poland, Hungary, and S. Germany and sent missionaries to the New World,

            India, and China


            Coverdale's Bible (see 1488), used Tyndale's (1525) translation along with

            Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like

            Luther) as was done in later English versions, 1537 edition received royal

            license, but banned in 1546


            Tyndale put to death, left his OT translation in manuscript, English

            ecclesiaastical authorities ordered his Bible burned because it was thought to

            be part of Lutheran reform


            Matthew Bible, by John Rogers (1500‑1555), based on Tyndale and

            Coverdale received royal license but not authorized for use in public worship,

            numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale)


           Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement


            Richard Taverner's (1505‑1577) revisions of Matthew Bible, mostly NT

            revisions since he didn't know Hebrew, 1st edition most reliable


            Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, 1st English Bible to be authorized for

            public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last

            Tyndale's NT of 1534‑1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT,

            Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never

            denounced by England


            Conocation makes an unsuccessful attempt to correct the Great Bible against

            the Vulgate


            Parliament bans Tyndale's translation as a "crafty, false and untrue

            transalation", although 80% of the words were in the RV


            Council of Trent, Catholic Reformation, or counter‑reformation, met

            Protestant challenge, clearly defining an official theology


            King Henry VIII forbids anyone to have a copy of Tyndale's or Coverdale's NT


            Edward VI ruler of England


            Book of Common Prayer (Episcopal Church)


            Pope Julius III


            St. Thomas More, Cranmer, and Foxe affirm the existence of English versions

            of portions of the Bible, including the Gospels (11th century), Mark, Luke,

            Epistles of Paul (14th century), Apocalypse (11th century)


            Mary I ruler of England, publications of English Scriptures cease (except for

            Geneva NT of 1557), many clerics leave England


            Pontifical Gregorian University founded at Vatican City


           Pope Marcellus II


            Pope Paul IV


            Beza's Latin NT


            Elizabeth I ruler of England


            Pope Pius IV


            Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of

            Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read

            in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions


            Scotch Presbyterian Church founded by John Knox (1505‑1572), due to

            disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and church government


            39 Articles (Episcopal Church)


            Pope Pius V


            Superior force of Turks intent upon conquering Christian Europe is beaten

            decisively by Christian sailors reportedly calling upon the name of Our Lady

            of the Rosary


            Pope Gregory XIII


            Bishop's Bible, an inadequate and unsatisfactory revision of the Great Bible

            checked against the Hebrew text, 1st to be published in England by episcopal



            Rheims NT, based on Coverdale, Bishops', Geneva, follows Wycliffe


            Pope Sixtus V


           Pope Urban VII


            Sistine edition of the Vulgate


            Michelangelo's dome in St Peter's Basilica completed


            Pope Innocent IX


            Pope Clement VIII


            Ukranian Catholic Church forms when Ukranian subjects of the king of Poland

            are reunited with Rome, largest Byzantine Catholic Church


            James I ruler of England, 1st to call himself King of Great Britain, became

            official with Act of Union in 1707


            Pope Leo XI


            Pope Paul V


            Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into a Latin cross


            Baptist Church founded by John Smyth, due to objections to infant baptism

            and demands for church‑state separation


            Rheims‑Douay Bible, 1st Catholic English translation, OT published in two

            volumes, based on an unofficial Louvain text corrected by Sistine Vulgate

            (1590), NT is Rheims text of 1582


            King James (Authorized) Version, based on Bishop's Bible of 1572 with use of

            Rheims NT of 1582 ‑ included Apocropha, alterations found in many editions

            through 1800, revisors accused of being "damnable corrupters of God's



            Pope Gregory XV


            Pope Urban VIII


            Charles I ruler of England


            AV published in Scotland


            Long Parliament directed that only Hebrew canon only be read in the Church

            of England (effectively removed the Apocropha)


            Pope Innocent X


            Oliver Cromwell ruler of England


            Pope Alexander VII


            Richard Cromwell ruler of England


            Charles II king of England, restoration of monarchy in England beginning under

            Charles II, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament

            of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non‑conformists


            Pope Clement IX


            Earthquake in Shemaka, Caucasia kills 80,000


            Pope Clement X


           Pope Innocent XI


            James II king of England, deposed


            William III king of England, with Mary II as queen until 1694


            Pope Alexander VIII


            Pope Innocent XII


            Earthquake in Catania, Italy kills 60,000


            Pope Clement XI


            Anne queen of England


            George I king of England


            AV published in Ireland


            Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary, much less bulky than Reims‑



            Pope Innocent XIII


            Pope Benedict XIII


            George II king of England


            Pope Clement XII


            Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham


            Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley


            New Catholic English versions of NT by Dr. Richard Challoner and Francis

           Blyth O.D.C., Bernard MacMahon, Dr Troy


            Pope Benedict XIV


            AV published in New World colonies


            Earthquake in Northern Persia kills 40,000


            Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 60,000 (estimated at 8.75 Richter)


            Pope Clement XIII


            George III king of England


            Pope Clement XIV


            Pope Pius VI


            British colonies in America declare independance from England, American



            Earthquake in Calabria, Italy kills 30,000


            Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador kills 41,000


            Pope Pius VII


            Brigham Young, Mormon leader, colonized Utah


            Dr. Hay's revision of Challoner's version


            George IV king of England


            Earthquake in Aleppo, Asia Minor kills 22,000


            Catholic Bible Society NT, based on Challoner's


            Challoner's 3rd revision, Dr. John Lingard's translation from Greek using

            Vulgate when possible


            Pope Leo XII


            Mormon Church founded by Joseph Smith as a result of reported visions of

            the Angel Moroni


            Pope Pius VIII


            William IV king of England


            Reported apparition of Mary in Paris, France, considered "worthy of belief"

            by the Catholic Church


            Pope Gregory XVI


            Church of Christ (Disciples) organized, made up of Presbyterians in distress

            over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor


            Victoria queen of England


            Pope Pius IX


            Reported apparition of Mary in La Salette, France, considered "worthy of

            belief" by the Catholic Church


            Charles Taze Russell, founded the Jehova's Witnesses movement in the 1870s


            Reported apparition of Mary in Lourdes, France, considered "worthy of

            belief" by the Catholic Church


            90 Catholic NT editions, 56 Catholic editions of the whole Bible


            Earthquakes in Peru and Ecuador kills 40,000


            First Vatican Council, 20th ecumenical, affirms doctrine of papal infallibility

            (ie. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the

            supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject)


            Reported apparition of Mary in Pontmain, France, considered "worthy of

            belief" by the Catholic Church


            Earthquake in Colombia, Venezuela


            Pope Leo XIII


            14‑point creed of the Niagara Bible Conference, used by Fundamentalists


            Reported apparition of Mary in Knock, Ireland, considered "worthy of belief"

            by the Catholic Church


            Revised Version, called for by Church of England, used Greek based on

            Septuagint (B) and (S), Massoretic text used in OT, follows Greek order of

            words, greater accuracy than AV, includes Apocrypha, scholarship never



            Twentieth Century NT, changed order of books to chronological


            Edward VII king of England


            American Standard Version, recension of the RV, included words/phrases

            preferred by Americans, follows Greek order of words


            Pentecostal Church formed in Topeka, Kansas in reaction to loss of

            evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations


            Richard Weymouth NT, a careful literary translation


            Pope Pius X, most recent Pope to be canonized


            George V king of England


            5‑point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly, also used by



            The Fundamentals, a 12‑volume collection of essays by 64 British and

            American scholars and preachers, a foundation of Fundamentalism


            James Moffat Bible, 1st one man translation in almost 400 years


            Pope Benedict XV


            Reported apparition of Mary in Fatima, Portugal, "miracle of the sun"

            witnessed by between 70,000 and 100,000 people, considered "worthy of

            belief" by the Catholic Church


            World's Christian Fundamentals Association founded


            Pope Pius XI


            Scopes Trial, caused division among Fundamentalists


            Reported apparition of Mary in Beauraing, Belgium, considered "worthy of

            belief" by the Catholic Church


            Reported apparition of Mary in Banneux, Belgium, considered "worthy of

            belief" by the Catholic Church


            Edward VIII king of England, acceeded and abdicated


            George VI king of England


            Westminster NT, unofficial Catholic version (not commissioned by the



            Pope Pius XII


            Knox Version, from Vulgate, asked for by English Hierarchy


            Revised Standard Version, revision of AV "based on consonantal Hebrew

            text" for OT and best available texts for NT, done in response to changes in

            English usage


            Basic English Bible, only 1000 words, simple and direct style


            Discovery of Qumran (Essenes?) scrolls, aka Dead Sea scrolls (see 68)


            Elizabeth II queen of England


            United Church of Christ founded by ecumenical union of Congregationalists and

            Evangelical & Reformed, representing Calvinists and Lutherans


            Pope John XXIII


            J. B. Phillip's NT, uses only commonly spoken language


            Statement of Faith (United Church of Christ)


            New English Bible, renders original Basic English Bible for private use


            Second Vatican Council, 21st ecumenical, announced by Pope John XXIII in

            1959, produced 16 documents which became official after approval by the

            Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us" (Pope

            John XXIII)


            Pope Paul VI


            RSV Catholic Edition, a joint effort between Catholics and the Church of

            England, a big step towards a common Catholic/Protestant Bible


            Jerusalem Bible, translation from original languages based on Bible de

            Jerusalem, Catholic version


           Confraternity Version, new Catholic translation from the originals which

            began before 1939 as a translation from the Vulgate, but ending up as a new

            translation from the Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT).


            New American Standard Bible, updated the ASV using recent Hebrew and

            Greek textual discoveries


            Pope John Paul I


            New International Version, used eclectic Greek text, Massoretic Hebrew

            text, and current English style


            Pope John Paul II, reaffirmed conservative moral traditions (The Splendor of

            Truth) and the forbidding of women in the priesthood


            New King James Bible, complete revision of 1611 AV, updates archaisms

            while retaining style


            Reported apparitions of Mary in Medjugorje, Yugoslavia, not yet

            approved/disapproved by the Catholic Church


            Declaration of cooperation between Evangelicals and Catholics

Reference Materials