Watchman Willie Martin Archive



                                                                                        A Chronology of The International

                                                                                 Conspiracy To Form The New World Order

1,600,000 B.C.: Earliest human life recorded.

250,000: Earliest Homo Sapiens, God Created the other races. [1]

70,000: Neanderthals use stone tools and fire.

40,000: Ice Age ends: Cro‑Magnons migrate into Europe.

30,000: Neanderthals disappear.

28,000: Asians cross land bridge between Asia and America.

20,000: European cave art begins.

8000: Agriculture develops in Near East.

7000: First walled cities, pottery, and use of metals appear.

4307: God Formed from the dust of the ground the White Race. [2]

4236: Earliest date on Egyptian calendar.

4100: Adam created by Yahweh.

4000: Seth is born to Adam.

3900: Enos is born to Seth.

3800: Cainan is born to Enos.

3760: Earliest date on Jewish calendar.

3700: Mahalaleel is born to Cainan.

3600: Jared is born to Mahalaleel.

3500: Enoch is born to Jared.

3400: Methuselah is born to Enoch.

3200: Lamech is born to Methuselah.

3100: "Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him" Egypt united under first dynasty.

3000: Phoenicians migrate to Eastern Mediterranean. Seth dies at age 912. Noah is born to Lamech.

2900: Enos dies at age 905. Cainan dies at age 910.

2800: Mehalaleel dies at age 895.

2780: First Egyptian Pyramid.

2700: Jared dies at age 962.

2697: Huang‑ti becomes "Yellow Emperor" of China (Chittim).

2675: Shem, Ham, and Japheth are born to Noah

2575: Arphaxad born to Shem 2 years after The Flood.

2550: Methuselah dies at age 969, same year as The Flood.

2475: Peleg is born to Eber; in those days the earth was divided.

2450: Eber is born (from whom comes the name Hebrews).

2400: Salah is born to Arphaxad.

2350: Nahor is born to Serug.

2325: Serug is born to Reu.

2300: Reu is born to Peleg.

2250: Abram born to Terah.

2200: Terah is born to Nahor.

2175: Abram's name changed to Abraham; Isaac is born to Abraham.

2150: Ishmael is born to Abram through Hagar. Aryans invade Indus Valley.

2125: Abram leaves Haran.

2100: Noah dies at age 950 (350 years after the Flood).

2025: Jacob and Esau are born to Isaac; Abraham dies at age 175.

2000: Isaac marries Rebecca. Bronze age begins in Europe.

1991‑1786: The Patriarchs.

1975: Jacob dies in Egypt at age 147.

1925: Isaac dies at age 180.

1921: God called Abraham. [3]

1911: Ishmael born. [4]

1900: Joseph is born to Jacob.

1898: Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed. [5]

1897: Isaac Born. [6]

1825: Joseph dies in Egypt at age 110.

1776‑1280: Hebrews in Egypt.

1760: Shang dynasty is founded in China.

1728‑1686: Hammurapi.

1600: Moses is born in Egypt.

1550: Moses flees to the land of Midian.

1570‑1310: 18th Dynasty.

1500: The Exodus from Egypt.

1450: Death of Moses at age 120; the Israelites enter Canaan.

1400‑1350: Iron Age begins in Asia.

1400: Deliverance by Othniel, Caleb's younger brother.

1375: Ehud judges Israel.

1325: Shamgar judges Israel.

1310‑1200: 19th Dynasty.

1300: The land rests under Deborah and Barak.

1275: Servitude to the Midianites.

1250‑1280: Exodus of Israelites from Egypt.

1250: Gideon judges Israel.

1240: Conquest of Canaan under Joshua.

1225: Tola defends Israel.

1200: Jair judges Israel.

1200‑1125: Philistines settle in Palestine.

1200‑1020: The Judges.

1203: Origin of The Illuminati Back in 1203 B.C.: From the official printing press of the Rosicrucians, it states:

"In 1203 B.C., several of the Brothers of the Order who were of the Illuminati were commissioned to go into other lands and spread the secret doctrines by the establishment of other Lodges. It was quite apparent that Egypt was to be subjected to a devastation and that its great learning might be lost.

It was finally decided that 'no undue haste should be sanctioned in permitting the Brothers who have gone abroad to establish Lodges, but rather that those who travel here in search of the Light should be tried, and to those found qualified shall be given the commission to return to their people and establish a Lodge in the name of the Brotherhood.

It was this dictum; known as the 'Amra,' that in later years proved the wisdom of the Councilors at this meeting, for it not only became a hard and fast rule, but made for the success of the plans of propagation. It was in this wise that the phrase 'travel East for learning or Light' first came into use; for those who soon began to travel to Egypt came from the West. About the year 1000 B.C., there came to Egypt a character whose name is recorded as Aslomon." [7]

If this is true, Israel's King Solomon was trained in the Illuminati teaching. No wonder he allowed his wives to establish their own private booths to worship their false gods.

From the book Kabbalah by Charles Ponce which shows this symbol to be of occultic origin. It is one of the three greatest occultic or Satanic symbols. It had nothing to do with King David, but a 15th century teacher of the Kabbalistic teachings.

"Soloman had the assistance of two who had traveled in Egypt as architects and artists; Huramabi of Tyre and one Hiram Abif. The Saloman brotherhood was closely watched by the fraternity in Egypt, which had removed its headquarters to Thebes again because of political changes and the warring invasions in the territory of El Amarna, which eventually reduced the entire community to ruins.

“It was found that Saloman restricted his order to males and adapted a great many of the details of the Rosicrucian initiations and services. At first it was believed that he would apply to the Grand Lodge in Thebes for a charter and make his work a branch of the R.C., but it became apparent before the first assembly was held that he was not adhering to the Rosicrucian philosophy, for he used the sun as the exclusive symbol of his order.

“Of the growth of the Saloman brotherhood, as it was officially called in all ancient documents, one may read in all literature bearing upon Freemasonry. it has evolved into a semi-mystical, speculative, secret, fraternal order of power and great honor, gradually altering the principles laid down by Saloman, it is true, but doing so for the greater benefit of man. The Greeks were now coming to Hebes to study, and it was at this time that the world-wide spread of the organization began." [8]

Let's Go Back to Egypt: According to the Rosicrucians, in 1378 B.C., Amenhotep IV was born and was crowned King of Egypt in 1367 B.C., at age eleven. Their official history says that he was:

"Born in a country where peoples were given to idolatry, where the chief endeavors were those of building Temples to gods of all kinds, it is easy to appreciate his attitude toward the existing religion (or religions) after he had been thoroughly instructed in the secret philosophy. His mind and understanding were usually keen, for in his fifteenth year he composed many of the most beautiful prayers, psalms, and chants used in the organization today, as well as contributing to the philosophy and sciences. To him came the inspiration of overthrowing the worship of idols and substituting the religion and worship of one god, a supreme deity, whose spirit was in heaven and whose physical manifestation was the Sun - the Symbol of Life. This was in accordance with the secret doctrines, and it changed the worship of the Sun as a god to the worship of The God symbolized by the sun. This was the beginning of Monotheism in Egypt and the origin of the worship of a spiritual deity which 'existed everywhere, in everything, but was nothing of the earth.' [9] Pantheism!

“Amenhotep IV started monastic life, and it is passed down to us today through the Roman Catholic church. Amenhotep IV: "...built a new capital at El Amarna in the plain of Hermopolis on a virgin site at the edge of the desert and abandoned Thebes...At El Amarna he also built a large Temple for the Brotherhood, in 'the form of a cross,' and a large number of houses for his Council. Here was the beginning of monastic life, for within the boundaries of El Amarna lived two hundred and ninety-six Brothers of the Order, each having taken an oath never to pass 'beyond the shadow of the Temple.' These Brothers wore special costumes which included a 'cord at the loins' and a covering for the head, while the priest in the Temple wore a surplice of linen and had his head shaved in a round spot on the top. It is from this institution that all monastic orders, especially that of St. Francis, derive their methods, even their costumes." [10]

Picture taken from Catholic Peoples Encyclopedia, [11] Every detail of dress and monastic life were patterned after the Egyptian Great White Brotherhood Rosicrucians Illuminati from the 1300's B.C. The origin of the Rosicrucians is still an unsolved mystery; it is even as Disraeli wrote in 1841:

"This mystic Order spread among the Germans, a mystic people, where its origin was actually debated in the same way as those of other secret societies; In fact, its hidden sources defy research."

On the other hand, as in all so-called Rose-Croix Orders, the R.R. et A.C. (Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis) in its 5=6 ritual claims to go back to the remotest, even mythical, ages of antiquity, for it says:

"Know that the Order of the Rose and Cross has existed from time immemorial, and that its mystic rites were practiced and its wisdom taught in Egypt, Eleusis, Samothrace, Persia, Chaldea, India, and in far more ancient lands, and thus handed down to posterity the Secret Wisdom of the Ancient Ages. Many were its Temples, and among many nations were they established, though in process of time some lost the purity of their primal knowledge."

The mysterious Brothers of the Rosy Cross designated themselves as Invisibles, and their legendary history was: The Fraternity was founded by a certain Christian Rosenkreutz, born, it is said in 1378, of a noble German family. For twelve years, from the age of five, he was educated in a cloister, and thereafter traveled to Damascus, and from thence to a place called Damcar in Arabia, where he was well received by the Magi.

These wise men expected him as being the one who, it had been foretold, would regenerate the world, and they initiated him into their Arabian magic. After visiting Fez and Spain, he returned to Germany where, along with three disciples, he founded the Fraternity, and they built their house called "Domus Sancti Spiritus," in which Christian Rosenkreutz lived until his death. There they wrote the book "M" Magicon, according to Dr. Wynn Westcott; compiled, it is said, from the magic taught to Rosenkreutz by the Arabs of Damcar. Also the books Axiomata, Rota Mundi, and Protheus.

Christian Rosendreutz died, we are told, in 1484, at the age of one hundred or more, and for one hundred and twenty years the place of his tomb remained unknown. In 1604, while repairing the building, they came upon the door of the vault, and when opened they found the body of their founder and much magical property and occult manuscripts.

After his death the brothers devoted themselves to the study of the secrets of nature and its hidden forces, besides practicing medicine, gratuitously, using some mysterious remedies. Their agreement was: (1) That none of them should profess any other thing than to cure the sick and that gratis; (2) None of the Posterity should be constrained to wear one certain kind of habit, but therein to follow the custom of the country; (3) That every year, upon the day C. (Corpus Christi Day, the summer solstice), they should meet together at the house Sancti Spiritus, or write the cause of absence; (4) Every brother should look for a worthy person, who, after his decease, might succeed him; (5) The letters R.C. should be their seal, mark, and character; (6) The Fraternity should remain secret one hundred years.

These Invisibles awaited what they called the purification of the Church, when, before the end of the world, they hoped to re-establish everything in its primitive integrity. After the opening of the tomb, the appointed one hundred and twenty years having more than passed, they issued two manifestos: Fama Fraternitatis R.C., 1614, and Confessio Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis, 1615, and sent them to all the learned men and Governments in Europe, inviting them to join with the Order in the universal reform. For a time these made a great stir, but with little outward result. These documents by many were ascribed to Jean Valentin Andrea, although he, himself, always denied the authorship.

In his book Les Rose-Croix Lyonnais an XVIII Siècle, in 1929, Paul Vulliaud goes into these manifestos, etc., linking them with Paracelsus and Cornelius Agrippa, Theosophy and Illuminism. Speaking of Ch. Fauvety's Livre du Mond (Magic of Nature) Vulliaud writes:

"In a very interesting study Fauvety maintains it has to do with Magnetism...He did well in showing the importance attributed, during the time of Paracelsus, to the magnetic fluid in the Theosophic-scientific doctrines...After having observed that the followers of Paracelsus and van Helmont made a mystery of it, Fauvety adds, that the magnetic power 'might, indeed, according to some writers, have been the secret of the Rose-Croix, who in the sixteenth century were said to possess a universal remedy. What supports this supposition is that even the adversaries of magnetism reproached the doctors, followers of Paracelsus, with curing by magnetic processes similar to those of the Rose-Croix.'"

As Gustave Bord wrote in La Franc-Maçonnerie en France, 1908:

"The doctrine of Paracelsus was drawn from the Cabala, Hermetic philosophy and alchemy. He claimed to know and expound the entire system of the Mysterious forces which act in nature and in man...Man must unite himself to the forces required in order to produce either physical or intellectual phenomena. The Universe was the Macrocosm, man was the Microcosm, and they were similar (as above so below)." Further, Vulliaud says that J.J. Monnier also knew that in certain lodges the initiates practiced magnetism. According to Monnier, "they magnetized by divine grace (sic), by force of faith and will, through walls to great distance, from Paris even to Dominica." Finally, Vulliaud concludes:

"To sum up, Rosicrucianism is composed of mystic Illuminism, in combination with alchemy, astrology, magnetism, and communication with spirits (astral!), if not with the Word itself; it is composed of sometimes one, sometimes several of these forms of the marvelous and occult...In certain lodges...they ardently practice Theurgy."

In an anonymous book, Mysteries of the Rosie Cross, published in 1891, which is full of documented information, we read:

"Respecting the origin and signification of the term Rosicrucian, different opinions have been held and expressed. Some have thought it was made up of rosa and crux (a rose and a cross), but it is maintained by others upon apparently good authority, that it is a compound of ros (dew) and crux (cross)...A cross in the language of the fire philosophers is the same as Lux (light), because the figure of a cross + exhibits all three letters of the word Lux at one view...A Rosicrucian, therefore, is a philosopher who, by means of dew seeks for light; that is, for the substance of the philosopher's stone."

The Quintessence or five elements, earth, air, fire, water, and ether; the illuminised man! As to the Rosa-Crux interpretation, the R.R. et A.C. ritual Informs us the key to the,

"Tomb of Osiris On-nopheris, the Justified One (illuminated), the symbolical burying-place of our Mystic Founder Christian Rosenkreutz which he made to represent the Universe...is the form of the Rose and Cross, the ancient Crux Ansata, the Egyptian symbol of Life, which resume the Life of Nature and the powers hidden in the word I.N.R.I."

As we know, I.N.R.I. is Igne Natura Renovatur Integra; the entire nature is renewed by fire. It represents the three phases of universal generation; creation, destruction, and regeneration. The signs given are L.V.X. representing the same idea. Further explaining L.V.X., the same ritual says: Having arrived at the door of the tomb, "upon more closely examining the door you will perceive...that beneath the CXX in the inscription were placed the characters L.V.X., the whole being equivalent to 'Post CXX Annos Lux Crucis Patebo'; at the end of 120 years I the light of the Cross will disclose myself. For the letters L.V.X., are made from the dismembered and conjoined angles of a cross +."

Moreover, the Rosicrucians were learned Cabalists, and Adolphe Franck, in La Kabbale, quotes Simon ben Jochai in the Zohar, speaking of the Ancient of Days, the first of the Sephiroth on the Tree of Life: "He is seated on a throne of sparks which he subjects to his will... From his head he shakes a dew which awakens the dead and given birth within them to a new life. That is why it is written: 'Thy dew is a dew of light. It is the manna prepared for the just for the life to come. It descends into the fields of the sacred fruits (adepts of the Cabala).

The aspect of this dew is white as a diamond, whose color includes all colors." This dew is the "Divine White Light or Brilliance" of the Rosicrucians, the magnetic fluid of their magic. Furthermore, it is said in the same R.R. et A.C. ritual:

"Colors are forces and the signature of forces, and Child of the Children of Forces art thou, and, therefore, about the throne of the Mighty One is a rainbow of Glory and at his feet is the Crystal Sea."

It is the force of Illuminism, a light of Nature!

Again, Jane Lead, chief inspiration of the Panacea Society, speaking of the properties of the Cabalistic Tree of Life, describes the fifth as:

"The sweetness of the dew, which lies always upon the branches of the Tree...It is all paradisiacal (or illuminating) power." This same power, magnetic fluid, is the basis of their Rosicrucian universal remedy.” Moreover, according to the writer of The Mysteries of the Rosie Cross; "

A remarkable work was published in Strasbourg in the year 1616, entitled, The Hermetic Romance, or the Chymical Wedding. Written in High Dutch by Christian Rosencreutz. This book...is said to have existed in manuscript...as far back, in fact, as 1601, thus making it the oldest Rosicrucian book extant. Some say it was the work of Valentin Andrea; in any case, it appears to depict the adept's union with the Universal agent, and it is possible that the whole legend of Christian Rosenkreutz merely represents the same mystical idea as found among all yogis and mystics, awakening mysterious powers.

As Gustave Bord wrote:

"In all times there were secret sects who claimed to understand the laws which regulate the Universe; some believed they really possessed the ineffable secret; others, the clever ones, made their mysteries a lure for the crowd, claiming thus to dominate and lead it; at least they found the way to utilize it to their profit."

In the Preface to a curious book, The Long Livers, by Robert Samber, writing under the pseudonym "Eugenius Philaèthes Junior," which was dedicated to the Grand Lodge of London in 1722, and has been referred to by the Masonic historians Mackay, Whytehead, and Yarker, it is clearly indicated that above the three traditional grades there is an illumination and a hierarchy, whose nature is not revealed, but the language used is entirely that of alchemy and Rose-Croix. Louis Dasté, speaking of Freemasonry in the French Revolution, remarks:

"This mysterious illumination of the low grades of Masonry, this hierarchy of which Philalèthes Junior has so jealously guarded the secret, those 'Unknown Superiors' venerated by the Judaising Martinists and Philalèthes, who claim domination over ordinary lodges; is not all that the unbreakable chain which links the Jewish Cabala to Freemasonry, and have we not henceforth the right to suspect the Occult Power hidden behind the Masonic Lodges to be the brain of Judaism which would conquer and dominate the entire world?"

Martines de Pasqually: In his book on the Order of the Elus Coens of the eighteenth century, R. le Forestier tells us that this Order was founded; continuing as Martinists today, about 1760, by Martines de Pasqually, said to be a Portuguese Jew. It was one of the most interesting occult groups of the time,

"which constituted under cover of Freemasonry one of the last links of the long chain of mysterious and jealously closed associations whose members claimed by magical process to communicate with the divine in order to participate in a blessed immortality." Illuminism!

The name Coen given by Pasqually to his members is an adaptation of the Hebrew term Cohanim, which designated the highest sacerdotal caste, constituted at Jerusalem, under Solomon, to assure divine service in the Temple; they were said to be descended in direct line from Aaron (This we know to be a lie, because the Jews are not Israelites, but are the descendants of the Khazars of Eastern Russia). The Coens thus claimed to be heirs and depositories of the secret Jewish tradition. Pasqually built up a curious metaphysical and mystic system,

"borrowed from secret traditions, it represented a weak but very clear echo of the diverse esoteric doctrines originating in the East during the early centuries of our era after adopting other more ancient traditions, and which later penetrated the West through the intermediary of the Jewish Cabala."

His disciples were the successors of the mystes of Asia, Egypt, Greece, and Italy, of the Valentinians, Orphics, and followers of Mithras; they professed the mystic doctrines of the Neo-Platonists, Gnostics, and Cabalists, and cultivated at the time of the Encyclopedia the "Secret Wisdom of the Ancients."

The Theoretical Cabala, as we know, treats of the nature of the Deity, his relations with man, and the origin of the world. The Practical or Magical Cabala, on the other hand, dealt with

"dynamistic and thurgic magic, taught the art of commanding spirits, divining the future, clairvoyance from a distance, and making amulets."

In its mystic currents were found the influence of Chaldeans astrology and demonology, Ionic natural philosophy, Mazdean, Manichaean, Sabean, and Mthraic concepts, also Pythagorean arithmetic and geometry. It was a residue of the primitive cults founded on "fluidic Magic"; the magical magnetic fluid of the alchemists, Rosicrucians, and Illuminé, and which still during the Captivity, persisted in the Babylonian and Persian religions. In the seventeenth century J.B. van Helmont, in his Hortus Medicine, wrote:

"A magical force, sent asleep by sin, is latent in man; it can be awakened by the grace of God or by the art of the Cabala."

It is the awakening of the kundalini by magical process or yoga! These theurgic rites of the Practical Cabala had existed until the eighteenth century in the heart of the Jewish sects connected with the Frankists, so widespread in Central Europe.

Finally, le Forester says that the theurgic process, advocated particularly by the Practical Cabala, was founded on the marvelous power of divine names; it is derived from one of the fundamentals of all kinds of magic, going back to remotest times. Pasqually also emphasized this idea, familiar to Cabalists, that the name above all manifests its power when pronounced in a loud voice. Here we have the "vibratory mode of pronouncing divine names," used in the Stella Matutina and the R.R. et A.C., a Martinist Order, which their obligations command should never be revealed!

The power is greatly increased, as in magical conjurations, by pronouncing the name together with all its correspondences as shown in Crowley's book 777. Further, the operations of the Coens, with their diagrams, lustrations, burning of incense, prostrations, invocations, and conjurations, manifestly show the magical ceremonials to which the disciples of Pasqually devoted themselves. We find the same operations in the S.M. and the R.R. et A.C. et A.C. today.

To turn to Eliphas Levi, another and later Martinist, who writes in his History of Magic:

"Moreover, the law of equilibrium in analogy leads to the discovery of a universal agent which was the Great Secret of the alchemists and magicians of the Middle Ages. It has been said that this agent is a light of life by which animated beings are rendered magnetic, electricity being only a transient perturbation. The practice of that marvelous Kabalah reposes entirely in the knowledge and use of this agent. Practical Magic alone opens the secret Temple of Nature to that power of human will which is ever limited but ever progressive."

The Zohar, he says, is a genesis of light (of Nature). The Sepher Yetzirah is the ladder of accomplishment and application; it has thirty-two steps; ten Sephiroth or centers of light, and twenty-two paths or canals linking the Sephiroth, and through which the light or magical fluid flows. It is the Cabalistic Tree of Life.

Applied, as it is in cabalistic and magical Orders, to the Microcosm of man's brain and nervous system, it is full of danger and illusion, mental, moral, and physical. Eliphas Levi further says that the science of fire and its ruling was the secret of the Magi, giving them mastery over the occult powers of nature;

"on every side we meet with the enchanter who slays the lion and controls the serpents. The lion is the celestial (cosmic or starry) fire, while the serpents are the electric and magnetic currents of the earth. To this same secret of the Magi are referable all marvels of Hermetic Magic."

Finally, these controlling "Supermen" behind the scenes are, it would seem, past-masters in the knowledge and working of this Practical Cabala built up from cults of the remotest past. Is it not, therefore, justifiable to suppose that these Supermen are magic-working, cabalistic, and revolutionary Jews?

Pernety: Joanny Bricaud, in Les Illuminés d'Avignon, 1927, gives us some curious details on the growth of this movement:

"Strange thing! The era of the Encyclopedists and philosophers was also the era of the prophets and the thaumaturgists. In face with Voltaire, Diderot, d'Alembert, incredulous and skeptic, arose Swedenborg, Martines de Pasqually, Saint-Martin, Mesmer, and Cagliostro, founders of mystic groups given up to every practice of Theurgy, magic, and illuminism."

As said by Bricaud, Dom Pernety, the founder of the Avignon group, was born at Roanne, in Forez, 1716, and became a Benedictine of Saint-Maur. Whilst at the Abbey-Saint-Germain-des Près, he came across many books on Hermetic lore and Alchemy, and became thoroughly inoculated with this fever of the age. Finding monastic life intolerable, he threw it up and went to Avignon, where he founded his Hermetic Rite, 1766. Later we see him in Berlin, still keeping in touch with his adepts. Gradually his hermeticism became invaded by the mysticism of Swedenborg and Boehme, he became a seer and illuminé, having as guide a so-called Angel Assadai, receiving communications from an invisible power known as Sainte-Parole.

M. Bricaud further says that there exists in the Biblothèque Calvet at Avignon, a strange manuscript of 155 pages in Pernety's own handwriting, which was seized in his house during the Revolution. It dates from Berlin, 1779-1783, and Avignon, 1783-1785, and is an account of the evocations and questions of his initiates to this Sainte-Parole and the replies of that power.

The initiates are inscribed by occult numbers, which form the basis of their cabalistic operations, when consulting Sainte-Parole. Nothing was done without the approval of this unknown power. As Weishaupt has said:

"We cannot use men as they are; they must be shaped according to the use that is to be made of them."

In the same way Pernety and his initiates were tested, admonished, and bemused until the power obtained absolute faith and obedience from them. They were consecrated on a hill above Berlin, regenerated, and illuminised; Pernety was destined to found a society for the "new people of God," and build a new city in preparation for a "new heaven and new earth." He was to be the center and pontiff and another adept, Comte Grabianka, was to be king.

The six-year-old daughter of the latter was to be isolated from parents and country for seven years to be prepared as oracle through whom he was to rule. Finally, the temple called Thabor was established near Avignon, and the group became known as the Illuminés d'Avignon (more on this later). Their cult was absolutely secret, and in a general way their ideas were those of Swedenborg, but they also professed a cult of the Virgin, apparently the Great Mother of the Gnostics. Don Pernety died in 1796, and the last survivors entered Martinism.

Saint-Martin: Martinist Illuminism was founded, as we have seen, by Martines de Pasqually, who taught the doctrine of reintegration; from 1754 to 1768 he propagated his higher grades among the Masonic Lodges of France. M. de Maistre, in 1810, wrote that the Martinists had a cult and higher initiates of priests called by the Hebrew name of Cohen, and he observed that all these great initiates took part in the Revolution, though not to excess. Saint-Martin, the unknown philosopher, was Pasqually's disciple and later considerably developed the movement, establishing his Loge Maçonnique des Chevaliers de la bienfaisance at Lyons.

According to Louis Blanc:

"Martinism made rapid progress in Paris; it reigned in Avignon; at Lyons it had a center whence it radiated to Germany and Russia. Grafted on Freemasonry, the new doctrines constituted a rite which was composed of ten grades...through which the adepts had successively to pass; and numerous schools were formed with the sole aim of finding the key to the mystic code and spreading it. Thus, from one book Des Erreurs et de la Vérité par un philosophe inconnu arose a vast crowd of... efforts which contributed to enlarge the mine dug under old institutions. In the name of pious spiritualism the unknown philosopher rises up against the folly of human cults. By paths of allegory he leads to the heart of the Mysterious Kingdom which man in his primitive state had inhabited."

The Illuminés, organized under the law of secrecy, exercised important influences in revolutionary movements, and both Martinists and Swedenborgians allied themselves to the Illuminati of Weishaupt, as seen in the Wilhelmsbad Convent of 1782, the object of which was thus expressed by a horrified delegate, the Comte de Virieu who had been deceived by Saint-Martin's mysticism:

"There is a conspiracy being plotted so well planned and so deep that it will be very difficult for religion and governments not to succumb to it."

In the Rituel de l'Ordre Martiniste, edited by Teder, 1913, the adept of the third degree is warned not to reveal the mysteries:

"But if, by the power of thy freewill and the blessings of the Divine One, thou shalt arrive at contemplating the Truth face to face, remember that thou must keep silence on the Mystery that thou hast penetrated, even should thy fidelity cost thy life. Ever remember the fate of the Great Initiators who have, even with the best of intentions, tried to raise, before the multitude, a corner of the sacred Veil of Isis." Here follows a few named: Jesus, Jacques Molay, Paracelsus, Cazotte, Cagliostro, Saint-Martin, Wronski, Eliphas Levi, Saint-Yves d'Alveydre, and hundreds of others (all Jews). And they continue: "Shouldst thou reveal the least of the Secret Arts or any part of the hidden mysteries that meditation may have led thee to understand, there is no physical torture that is not sweet compared to the punishment that thy folly shall bring upon thee."

No material symbol can express the horror of annihilation both spiritual as well as physical which awaits the miserable revealer of the True Word, for God (sic) is without mercy, for whosoever may profane His sanctuary and brutally expose to unworthy eyes the unspeakable Secret.

Finally, the Superior Inconnu in the Second Temple has to swear to

"work with all my strength to establish on earth, the Association of all Interests (Profits), Federation of all Nations, Alliance of all cults and Universal Solidarity."

In 1913 "Papus," Dr. G. Encausse, was Grand Master and President of the Supreme Council of the Martinists.

Swedenborg: As for Swedenborgianism, in Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes, from the pen of Le Couteulx de Canteleu, we find a short but interesting sketch of Swedneborg and his systems: Emanuel Swedenborg was the son of a Jewish Lutheran Bishop of Skara in Sweden, and was born in Upsala about 1688.

In 1743 he began to spread his beliefs, a mixture of mysticism, magnetism, and magic. As with all such doctrines, he had two systems: one for dupes and fools which was apparently to reform Christianity by a fantastic deism, the reigning faith in his New Jerusalem; his followers believed in his marvelous visions and prophecies, his talks with angels and spirits. The other led straight to godlessness, atheism, and materialism, where, as in Hermeticism, God was only a sun, a spirit of Light, a spiritual heat vivifying the body. To these latter he represented his doctrine as being that of the Egyptians and the Magi, and these adepts went whole-hearted for the Revolution as restoring to man his primitive Equality and Liberty.

In England alone he had 20,000 followers in 1780, who looked for the Revolution to overthrow all other beliefs; Swedenborg's God was to be the only King left! In Avignon he had many adepts who mingled with the Martinists, being known as illuminated Theosophists, and among these were found the same vows in favor of an anti-social, anti-religious revolution.

In a Foreword to one of Emmanuel Swedenborg's books on The Doctrine of the New Church; the New Jerusalem, translated in 1797, from the Latin of the Amsterdam edition of 1769, it is said in explanation of this doctrine:

"To be at the same time in the natural world and in the spiritual world, to live in the former in the society of men, and find oneself in the latter in the society of the angels, to see them, to speak with them, to hear them, to move in a kingdom of spiritual substances; here, doubtless, is more than is needed to disconcert the materialistic understanding of the wise men of today."

It is, therefore, not surprising that de Luchet considered that

"Theosophists, Swedenborgians, Magnetisers and Illuminés were a national danger."

Templars: As the French Revolution approached, the ground, it was found, was being mined and prepared for the sinister upheaval of 1789 by, among others, the still active power of the former Order of the Templars. Eliphas Levi Informs us that, although outwardly Catholics, the secret cult of the Templars was Johannism, and their secret aim was to rebuild the Temple of Solomon on the model of the vision of Ezekiel; the arms of the Masons of the Temple, quarterly a lion, ox, man, and eagle, were the banners of the four leading Hebrew tribes.

The Johannites, who were Cabalists and Gnostics, adopted part of the Jewish traditions and Talmudic accounts; they regarded the facts of the Gospels as allegories of which John had the key; their Grand Pontiffs assumed the title of Christ. In time the Templars became a danger to Church and State, menacing the entire world with a gigantic revolution, and they were eventually suppressed. As the high Mason Albert Pike wrote, in Morals and Dogmas:

"The Order disappeared at once... Nevertheless it lived under other names and governed by Unknown Chiefs, revealing itself only to those who in passing through a series of degrees had secret...The secret movers of the French revolution had sworn to overturn the Throne and Altar upon the tomb of Jacques de Molai."

According to Louis Blanc, in his History of the French Revolution, 1848, Cagliostro was initiated at Frankfort, 1781, under the authority of "the Grand Masters of the Templars," the Illuminati of Weishaupt, from whom he received instructions and funds to carry out their diabolical intrigues against Marie Antoinette in preparation for the later seizure of power through the illuminised Grand Orient Lodges.

Speaking of Weishaupt's projects, Louis Blanc wrote:

"By the sole attraction of mystery, by the sole power of association, to subject to the same will, to animate with the same breath thousands of men in every country in the world...to make new beings of these men by means of slow gradual education, to render them, even to the point of frenzy or death, obedient to invisible and Unknown Chiefs; with such a legion to secretly weigh upon the Court, to surround the sovereigns, unbeknown to direct Governments, and to lead Europe to that point where all superstition is annihilated, all monarchies brought down, all privileges of birth declared unjust, the right even of property abolished; such was the gigantic plan of the founders of the Illuminism."

In Orthodoxie Maçonnique, 1853, the Jew and Masonic authority, J.M. Ragon, gives details of the two grades of the Order "Juges Philosophes Inconnus," a Templar régime. He places these as belonging, probably, to the "Order of Christ," an Order which, after the suppression of the Templars, was constituted in Portugal by King Denis, and into which reformed Templars were admitted, without, however, their former immunities and entirely depending on the Head of the State. It is admitted that modern Templars have used the veil of Masonry as being better for spreading their ideas, but it is Masonic only in form.

The jewel of the adept is a dagger and his work is vengeance. The Novice grade of these "Philosophes Inconnus" is the first in the last grade of Masonry; Kadosch, 30th degree, the brother must be at least Rose-Croix (18th degree) and already instructed in the royal art. The President addresses him:

"...you were for long the object of our observation and our study...as soon as you have taken your new obligation you will cease to belong to yourself; your life, even, will have become the property of the Order.

The most absolute obedience, the entire abnegation of your will, the prompt execution, without reflection, of the orders which will be transmitted to you on the part of the Supreme Power, such will be your principal duties. The most terrible punishments are reserved for perjurers...and who is a perjurer in the eyes of the Order? He who even in the lightest thing infringes the orders which he has received from the Chief or refuses to execute them, for nothing is unimportant in our sublime Order...

Your employment in the future will be to form men...You must learn here how the feet and hands of those who usurp the rights of men can be bound; you must learn to govern men and dominate them, not by fear, but by virtue (sic). You must consecrate yourself entirely to the Order which has undertaken to re-establish man in his primitive dignity...

The secret Government, but not less powerful, must lead other Governments towards this noble aim without, however, allowing itself to be perceived except through the universal opinion and assent of society. There exists a considerable number of our brothers; we are spread throughout most distant lands, all led by an invisible force...If you desire only to be a perjurer and a false brother, do not pledge yourself among us, you will be cursed and unhappy; our vengeance will reach you everywhere."

If he hesitates, he is blindfolded and led out; if he consents, he takes the obligation and is received. After three years of study and preparation the final grade, Judge-Commander, may be given. He then takes another obligation, in which he promises and swears to work for the propagation of the Order and its safety, to obey his Superiors in all ways, whether they are known to him or not. Finally, it is said to him:

"You swear and promise to keep inviolate the secrets I am going to confide to you; never to pardon traitors, and to subject them to the fate that the Order reserves for them...To guard yourself from the excesses of wine, the table, and women, the ordinary causes of indiscretion and weakness (in case of betraying Order secrets!)."

At the end of both grades a portion of an abridged history of the destruction of the Knight Templars is read to the adept. And of their Order it was said:

"It cannot longer be denied that in early times we have never recognized more than five degrees of knowledge; the number twenty-five or thirty-three degrees which form the frame of Scottish Masonry is the result of the love of innovations or the product of self-esteem; for it is certain that of the thirty-three degrees practiced today there are twenty-eight apocryphal which merit no confidence."

In their regulations, Article 32 says;

"The penalties against the brothers who have been guilty of any offense whatsoever are: reprimand, expulsion, and even graver penalties if the crime compromises the Society. Sentences of the last nature cannot be executed without confirmation of judgment by the Supreme Power."

In his final discourse upon the unhappy fate of the Templars, the Chief of the Philosophes Inconnus said:

"...Now as the number of Templars escaped from the murderous sword of persecution was very small, also as, in order to avenge the unheard of crime of which they had been victims, it was necessary to repair their losses, they admitted into their Order men of recognized merit, whom they sought for and found among the Masons...They offered them initiation into their Order, which was eagerly accepted, and in exchange the Templars were initiated into the Masonic mysteries."

In conclusion we give two passages from Le Couteulx de Canteleu, who in his well-documented book refers to the trial of the Templars:

"Certainly, far be it from me the thought to defend the cruel procedure followed against several members of the Order and the torture applied during interrogations; far from me the thought to believe all the absurdities of which they were accused.

But in the midst of all these cruelties and all these infamies, the foundation of the accusation was true; they knew it, and that was what made more than 300 members, not yet subjected to torture, admit facts which appeared to us so extraordinary, but which were understood when one knew the foundation of their doctrine, revived from Egyptian and Hebraic initiations, also their affiliation to the Freemasons of the East (the Assassins), and the vices that the Grand Masters had permitted to be introduced into the Order, so as, probably, to increase their power."

He also regarded as positive that the Templar Guillaume de Monthard received Masonic initiation from the Old Man of the Mountain in a cave in Lebanon, and that the Assassins held some of the beliefs of the Ophites, serpent or dual-sex worshipers, hence, he says, Baphomet!

Again he said that Pope Clement V was slow to believe in this formidable heresy: "It was only after having seventy-two Knights interrogated in his presence, as a man interested in finding them innocent, exacting no other oath from them but to reply to the questions asked; it was only after their admissions, given in the presence of notaries, that he was forced to recognize their guilt and revoke the suspension (previously ordered) of the Bishops, allowing them to pursue the arrangements made by Philippe le Bel in order to come to a judgment."

The occult, worshipers of Lucifer, used the cross as its sacred symbol. Now do we understand why our Savior, Jesus the Christ, died on a cross or upright stake or obelisk? It was Satan's symbol!

Prophesied Occultic World Leader:

"In the latter part of their reign, when rebels have become completely wicked, a stern-faced king, a master of intrigue, will arise. He will become very strong, but not by his own power. He will cause astounding devastation and will succeed in whatever he does. He will destroy the mighty men and the holy people. He will cause deceit to prosper, and he will consider himself superior. When they feel secure, he will destroy many and take his stand against the Prince of Princes. Yet he will be destroyed, but not by human power." [12]

In the King James version, verse 23 says, "understanding dark sentences." In other words, "tricky" or occultic language that the "uninitiated" will not comprehend. The Rosicrucians stated that they were the oldest secret society, and even admitted being the Illuminati. Let's investigate their rise to power and Who they admit is their god through which this power comes. Revelation 13:1-2 says:

"And I saw a beast rise up out of the sea...and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority."

An unseen power is using human beings to give rise to world government. Revelation 12:9 identifies the dragon as, "...that old serpent, called the devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world..."

Secret Societies Great Mystery; "Novus Ordo Seclorum": In 1785, four more leading members of the Illuminati left the Society and testified before a Court of Inquiry called by the Elector of Bavaria. Their startling evidence removed all doubt regarding the Satanic nature of Illuminism.

On the 11th of October, 1785, the Bavarian authorities raided Zwack's house and discovered a mountainous array of Illuminati documents which showed quite clearly that they planned to bring about a

"universal revolution that should deal the death-blow to society...This Revolution will be the work of the Secret Societies, and that is one of our Greatest Mysteries."

Is it true that these documents revealed a secret sinister plot for world government run by members of these Secret Societies? From the book Rosicrucian, Questions and Answers, with Complete History, we read:

"It is no violation of Secrecy to give the Outer, objective, details of the various activities of the Great White Brotherhood..." [13]

So there are secrets that are Not to be made public. Mr. Lewish stated that only books printed on the official Rosicrucian printing press were authentic. He also said there is a great White Brotherhood!

Origin of the Rosicrucian Order: What possible connection could Secret Societies have with ancient Babylon and Egypt that the Bible would condemn them?

"Whether one accepts all of the points of the traditional history or not, one is certain to feel that the origin of the Rosicrucian Order is found in the early Mystery Schools of the Great White Brotherhood. A study of the schools of philosophy and arcane wisdom in the Oriental land preceding the Christian Era reveals that there is but one land in which the Rosicrucian organization could have had its birth. That land is Egypt. And even the casual student of Egyptian history is impressed with the probability of the birth of the organization in that land.

“If one sets aside the traditional history entirely, and accepts only that which is based upon very definite records in printed or official manuscript form, one must reject the popular and entirely fictitious claim that the Rosicrucian Order had its origin in the seventeenth century in Germany. The very positive references to the Order in printed books dated centuries earlier in other lands conclusively prove that the Order was very old and very well established when it had a form of revival in Germany in the seventeenth century.

“The claim has been made that the AMORC (Rosicrucian Order) is the Oldest antedate Freemasonry and the latter has always claimed great antiquity. [14]

“But does the most ancient of all orders, the Rosicrucians, work with and acknowledge identical beliefs with Freemasonry? "Here again the investigator is confronted with a mass of details purporting to be the history of Freemasonry, but gradually classifying itself into two groups which one may label 'facts' and 'traditions.'

“On the point of its connection with the Rosicrucians, Freemasonry is more or less silent. It traces its antiquity to Solomon's Temple, and refers to characters whose history, if not actual existence, is cloaked with mystery. Its published history is very esoteric and mystical, although its actual history, as known to all advanced Rosicrucians, is a living testimonial to the truth of the notable principles of Brotherhood which actuate Freemasonry. So closely are the two Orders allied in some lands that many of the great exponents of the one are active workers in the other. Freemasonry has acknowledged its debt to the ancient White Brotherhood by adding a Rosicrucian Degree to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite." [15]

Secrets for the Elite: Egyptian culture had advanced to unbelievable heights, with even the knowledge of brain surgery. The Great White Brotherhood wanted to retain certain profound secrets of nature, science, and the arts. Notice the arrogance of these people, the superiority complex that stems from these "elite."

These secrets belonged only to them not the average person.

"One will find, however, that the Egyptians had reached a high state of civilization and advanced learning at the beginning of the XVIII dynasty comparable only with the Renaissance of France. Many were the means adopted to preserve the knowledge attained that it might be correctly given to future generations. The hieroglyphic markings on the pyramids, obelisks, and temple walls give us evidence of the first desires to make permanent the knowledge and learning of the Egyptians.

“But the more profound secrets of nature, science, and art were not to be entrusted to the masses nor were they susceptible to preservation through writing upon papyri. For this reason classes were formed by the most learned, attended by the select minds, at which the doctrines and principles of science were taught.

“These classes or schools, a history refers to them, were held in the most isolated grottos at times, and again in the quiet of some of the temples erected to the many Egyptian gods. In some cases classes of a very select nature were held in the private chambers of the reigning Pharaoh.

“The members of such assemblies became more and more select, the teachings more profound, and the discussions so dialectic that there arose a most autocratic and secret society of the truly great minds of the day. Thus was laid The Foundation of the Great White Brotherhood. The first Pharaoh who conducted the class in his private chambers was Ahmose I, who reigned from 1580 B.C. to 1557 B.C.

“Because he was capable of conducting the great school as well as ruling the people with more civilized and advanced principles (due to his training in the school, no doubt), he is referred to as the 'deliverer of Egypt' by some historians. He was succeeded as Pharaoh by Amenhotep I, who became a teacher in the secret school for three years. On January 12th (approximately), 1538 B.C., Thutmose I was crowned succeeding Amenhotep I. He owed his position to his wife, Ahmose, who was the first woman to become a member of the class on equal terms with the men. The discussion regarding her admittance (preserved in the Rosicrucian Archives) forms an interesting story and reveals the origin of some of the doctrines of the equality of the sexes. [16]

“Thutmose I was succeeded by Hatshepsut, his daughter, who ruled as a 'king' independently and as corrigent with her half-brother Thutmose III, a son of Thutmose I by his marriage to Isis. [17] It was Thutmose III who organized the present physical form of the secret Brotherhood and outlined many of its rules and regulations. He became ruler upon the deposition of his father, Thutmose I, in 1500 B.C. He ruled until 1447 B.C., and his reign in unimportant to us except for his establishment of the Brotherhood." [18]

Let's look into history and see what system is rising on the world scene that is empowered by Satan the devil, who is also called Lucifer. [19]

Freemasons and America: From the book 5/5/2000 Ice: The Ultimate Disaster, we find that:

"Sixteen presidents of the United States of America, a great 'nation of states,' were also to learn much of this same teaching. (Secrets of Masonry) What psychological effect sixteen Masonic Presidents of the United States have exerted on the world is a field in which there are few ethnologists, few professors. It is easy to understand that the United States of America was largely founded by members of this ancient Order, when one knows that George Washington, the first President of the United States of America, was Worshipful Master of a Virginia Lodge of Freemasons (now called The Alexandria Washington Lodge No. 22), and fifteen other presidents of the United States:

Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville Lodge #90, Charlottesville, VA.

James Madison, Hiram Lodge, Westmoreland County, VA.

James Monroe, Williamburg Lodge #6, Williamsburg, VA.

Andrew Jackson, Harmony Lodge #1, Nashville, TN.

James Knox Polk, Lodge #31, Columbia, TN.

James Buchanan, Lodge #43, Lancaster, PA.

Andrew Johnson, Greenville Lodge #119, Greenville, TN.

James A. Garfield, Magnolia Lodge #20, Columbus, OH.

William McKinney, Hiram Lodge #21, Winchester, VA.

YTheodore Roosevelt, Matinecock Lodge #806, Oyster Bay, NY.

William Howard Taft, Occasional Lodge, Cincinnati, OH.

Warren Gamaliel Harding, Marion Lodge #70, Marion, OH.

YFranklin D. Roosevelt, Holland Lodge #8, New York City, NY.

YHarry S. Truman, Belton Lodge #450, Belton, MO.

Gerald R. Ford, Malta Lodge #465, Grand Rapids, MI.

were all members of the secret brotherhood of Freemasons. [20]

The first assembly of the Continental Congress was presided over by Peyton Randolph, a Master Mason, Provincial Grand Master of Virginia. The Revolutionary War, brought about by taxation without representation, was a distinctly Masonic enterprise.

The Boston Tea Party was organized in St. Andrews Lodge, at an adjourned meeting, and every member who threw tea into the harbor was a member of that Lodge. Paul Revere, who made his immortal ride, was Junior Warden of that same Lodge. More than fifty of the fifty-six men who risked their lives by signing the Declaration of Independence were members of this ancient fraternity.

All but one of the five member of the Constitutional Convention were Master Masons. Richard Henry Lee, who moved the resolution for independence in the Continental Congress, was a Mason; the other members of that committee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston, were all masons. The American flag was made by the widow of John Ross, a Mason, and was placed in the hands of Washington, who was elected Grand Master of Virginia but did not accept because his duties as Commander-in-Chief of the American Army absorbed all his attention and energies. Washington took the oath of office as President of United States upon the Holy Bible brought from the Masonic St. John's Lodge #1 of New York.

It was Washington, Father of this Country, who in full Masonic regalia laid the cornerstone of the White House. It was also Washington who placed a 'certain deposit' under the cornerstone of the White House in the hope that, should the edifice ever be destroyed, the deposit would be found by future generations. Did Washington place a miniature pyramid under the cornerstone, or did he deposit other ancient symbols, relics, and sacred books scarcely known by many today? What is the deposit under the Masonic cornerstone of the nation's capital? The ritual, consecration, and ceremonies surrounding the laying of the cornerstone just 200 years ago, a sublime ceremony seldom seen today, were also performed almost 6,000 years ago in Egypt by a band of men as the first rays of the morning sun hit the northeast corner of the Great Pyramid.

Today, in Central Park, New York City, there stands a huge obelisk brought from Alexandria, Egypt. Although smaller than Washington's Monument in Washington, D.C., it is a splendid piece of work. When the obelisk was moved from its base, a deposit was discovered in the foundations.

In the deposit were found a trowel, a lead plummet, a rough rectangular stone, a pure white cubical stone, a stone with a serpent border, a stone trying square, and a stone showing the ancient Egyptian cubical gauge with some hieroglyph similar to triangles drawn upon Masonic trestle boards: seven symbols, well known to modern Freemasons. The governors of every one of the original thirteen states at the time Washington was inaugurated were Masons. The Constitution of the United States was written by Masons." [21]

Washington D.C. Street Layout: A curious piece of the Masonic conspiracy puzzle in the founding of America is the actual street layout for our Capital City, Washington, D.C. Remember, 53 of the original signers of the Declaration of Independence were Masons. The city was laid out in the form of Key Masonic Symbols: the Square, the Compass, the Rule, and the Pentagram.

Take any good street map of downtown Washington, D.C., and find the Capitol Building. Facing the Capitol from the Mall and using the Capitol as the head or top of the Compass, the left leg is represented by Pennsylvania Avenue and the right leg by Maryland Ave.

The Square is found in the usual Masonic position with the intersection of Canal Street and Louisiana Avenue. The left leg of the Compass stands on the White House and the right leg stands on the Jefferson Memorial. The circle drive and short streets behind the Capitol form the head and ears of what Satanists call the Goat of Mendes or Goat's Head.

On top of the White House is an inverted 5-pointed star, or Pentagram. [22] The point is facing South in true occult fashion. It sits within the intersections of Connecticut and Vermont Avenues north to Dupont and Logan Circles, with Rhode Island and Massachusetts going to Washington Circle to the West and Mt. Vernon Square on the East.

The center of the Pentagram is 16th Street where, 13 blocks due north of the very center of the White House, the Masonic House of the Temple sits at the top of this occult iceberg.

The Washington Monument stands in perfect line to the intersecting point of the form of the Masonic Square, stretching from the House of the Temple to the Capitol Building. Within the hypotenuse of that right triangle sit many of the headquarter buildings for the most powerful departments of government, such as the Justice Department, the U.S. Senate, and the Internal Revenue Service.

It would be great to know that our Capitol is bathed in continual prayer, and to believe that its buildings and monuments have been dedicated in prayer, but do you realize that Every Key Federal Building, from the White House to the Capitol Building, has had a cornerstone laid in a Masonic ritual and had specific Masonic paraphernalia placed in each one? If we were talking about the one true God, it would be wonderful; this is Not the case. The cornerstones of all these buildings have been laid in Masonic ritual, dedicated to the demonic god of Masonry, Jao-Bul-On. that is the secret name of the Masonic god, the "Lost Word" [23] in the rite of the Royal Arch degree. "Jao" is the Greek name for the god of the Gnostics, Ialdabaoth or Iao. "Bul" is a rendering of the name Ba'al and "On" is the Babylonian name of Osiris. "What we see represented in this name of the Masonic deity is a three-headed pagan deity that is blasphemous to a Christian." [24]

Hiding The Meaning: If the Illuminati-Freemasonry mysteries are working for world government and want to keep it a secret, they must conceal and hide the truth of their actions. Albert Pike wrote:

"Nothing excites men's curiosity so much as Mystery, concealing things which they desire to know; and nothing so much increases curiosity as obstacles that interpose to prevent them from indulging in the gratification of their desires. Of this the Legislators and Hierophants took advantage, to attract the people to their sanctuaries, and to induce them to seek to obtain lessons from which they would perhaps have turned away with indifference if they had been pressed upon them." [25]

Arthur Waite, another Masonic writer, tells us that Masonry

"is on the surface a 'system of morality,’ veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols.'" [26]

Ralph Anderson, a 32o degree Mason, further expounds on the hidden symbolism of Masonry:

"Masonry may be defined as a system of symbols, a collection of allegories, and a pictorial form which veils and hides a truth so general and universal that man cannot live without it. An allegory is a story which is susceptible of Two meanings; an Outer One which captivates the fancy and engrosses the attention, and an Inner One which conveys to the initiate some basic, cosmic and human truth by which a man hides or veils an inner spiritual reality. The Masonic Temple work abounds with such symbols, and through them is Revealed to the intelligent Mason the story of his own progress and also the history of the race of men." [27]

Waite further states:

"...the newly received brother has come into a world of emblems or symbolism and whatsoever takes place therein has a meaning behind it, being one which is not always indicated on the surface." [28]

In fact, Masonry intentionally misleads those masons who have recently joined. Pike claims:

"So Masonry jealously conceals its secrets and intentional leads conceited interpreters astray...If you have been disappointed in the first three degrees, as you have received them...remember that...symbols were used, not to reveal but to conceal...The symbols and ceremonies of Masonry have more than one meaning. They rather conceal than disclose the Truth." [29]

Pike also stated:

"The Blue Degree (the first three degrees of Masonry) are but the outer court or portico of the Temple. Part of the symbols are displayed there to the initiate, but he is intentionally misled by false interpretations. It is not intended that he shall understand them; but it is intended that he shall imagine he understands them. Their True explication is reserved for the Adepts (those who have advanced to the highest degrees in Masonry)...

“It is well enough for the mass of those called Masons to imagine that all is contained in the Blue Degrees; and whoso attempts to undeceive them will labor in vain (and any past Mason who has learned the truth, knows the almost complete futility in trying to enlighten his fellow Mason to the truth. For they have been so complete indoctrinated they will not listen, nor examine the evidence presented to them)..." [30]

Finally, Pike adds:

"Masonry, like all the Religions, all the Mysteries, Hermeticism and Alchemy, conceals it secrets from all except the Adepts and Sages, or the Elect, and uses false explanations and misinterpretations of its symbols to mislead those who deserve only to be misled; to conceal the Truth, which it calls Light from them, and to draw them away from it. Truth is not for those who are unworthy or unable to receive it, or would pervert it...So Masonry jealously conceals its secrets, and intentionally leads conceited interpreters astray." [31]

Discovering Its God!: Masons emphasize that to participate in the Masonic rituals one must believe in a "Supreme Being."

"Freemasonry is available to any man of good character who believes in a Supreme Being and is closed only to avowed atheists and agnostics," claims Ralph Anderson. [32]

Since the Bible cautions us that "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God and Him only shalt thou serve." [33] and the Masons worship a Supreme Being, is this Supreme Being the same God as the Christians worship or is he a different god? As you read this you will find out who this "Supreme Being" is, but this "Supreme Being" is not the only god Masons worship!

Although many Masons may be unaware of the polytheism in Masonry, many gods and goddesses are worshiped through the symbolism and rituals of Masonry. One poem, written by a Mason, J.S.M. Ward, sums up some of the mythology that is prevalent in Masonry:

Bacchus died and rose again, On the Golden Syrian Plain; Osiris rose from his grave; And thereby mankind did save; Adonis likewise shed his blood, By the yellow Syrian flood, Zoroaster brought to birth, Mithra from his cave of earth, And we today in Christian land, We with them can join hands. [34]

Bacchus, [35] Osiris, Adonis, and Mithra are all gods that are worshiped by occultists and Masons! Of course, these are just a few of the gods that are actually worshiped through different Masonic ceremonies. It doesn't matter to the Mason that God proclaims:

"Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God and Him only shalt thou serve." [36]

Osiris is the Egyptian god of the dead as well as a sun god, but he is also known by many other names. In Thrace and Greece he is known as Dionysus, the god of pleasures and of partying and wine. Festivals held in his honor often resulted in human sacrifices and orgiastic (sexual) rites. [37]

In Rome he is called Liber or Bacchus. The Lydians label him Bassareus and in Persia he is identified as Mithras, where astrology is practiced by his followers. He is Zagreus to the Cretins and "became an underworld divinity who welcomed the souls of the dead to Hades and helped with their purification," Declares Paul Hamlyn. [38] He also Informs us that since Zagreus was killed and resurrected (in mythology) he "became the symbol of everlasting life." [39] The Phrygians know Osiris as Sabazius where he is honored as a solar deity (a sun god) who was represented by horns, and his emblem was a serpent! [40]

In other places he went by other names, such as Deouis, The Boy Jupiter, The Centaur, Orion, The Boy Plutus, Iswara, The Winged One, Nimrod, Adoni, Hermes, Prometheus, Poseidon, Butes, Dardanus, Himeros, Imbros, Iasius, Zeus, Iacchus, Hu, Thor, Bel, Serapis, Ormuzd, Apollo, Thammus, Altus, Hercules, and believe it or not, Baal! Most of these gods were considered to be solar deities or sun-gods. The Worship of the Sun, disguised through the use of gods and symbols, plays a very important role in Masonry, which is simply Illuminism in disguise! It is to this god, Osiris [41] (under the name Hiram Abiff), that the Masons pay honor in the third degree. The Drama for this degree (Master Mason) involves a death and resurrection ceremony. The Master-Mason-to-be is said to be working on Solomon's Temple. He is in possession of the name of God (the "Lost Word" of Masonry) and he has promised to reveal this to the other workers when the Temple is finished. Since the wages are higher for those who possess this name, the other workers become jealous and insist that he reveal the name to them before the Temple is finished. When he refuses to do so, three angry ruffians kill him and hastily bury him. Eventually his grave is discovered and, after the third attempt, he is raised to life again. The first word he spoke is the substitute for the "Lost Word" and it is this word that is said to be passed down to Master Masons today. [42]

In the third degree, the climax of the ceremony is the mock murder and resurrection of Hiram Abiff, the "Christ" of Masonry. This is made as solemn as the factual nature of the thing will permit. But it is a religious ceremony, a resurrection service, by which the candidate becomes entitled to eternal life.

In a sense it is in Masonry what the resurrection of Christ is in Christianity.

"Few Candidates may be aware that Hiram Whom they have represented and personified is ideally and precisely the same as Christ. Yet such is undoubtedly the case. This old philosophy shows what Christ as a glyph menas, and how the Christ state results from real initiation, or from the evolution of the human into the divine." [43]

Eventually his grave is discovered and, after the third attempt, he is raised to life again. The first word he spoke is the Substitute for the "Lost Word" and it is this word that is said to be passed down to Master Masons today. [44] Any one who is familiar with Egyptian mythology should be able to see the correlation between the myth of Hiram Abiff and of the Egyptian god, Osiris. Pierson contends: "We readily recognize in Himram Abiff the Osiris of the Egyptians." [45] "In Egypt the dead man was identified with Osiris, and addressed as Osiris." [46]

Waite acknowledges that:

"There is ho question that the Myth of Osiris covers the Whole Story of mystical life and is presented in the Funerary Ritual (the death and resurrection ceremony of the third degree) as the soul's own story. There is no more eloquent valediction to the departing soul than that which says: Thou hast gone living to Osiris. The promise is life in Osiris. The great doctrine, the great revelation of all the true Mysteries is that Osiris lives...We also as Mason look forward to union of the departed with Osiris..." [47]

The Late Rev. Alexander Hislop related:

"It is admitted that the secret system of Freemasonry was originally founded on the Mysteries of the Egyptian Isis, the goddess‑mother, or wife of Osiris. But what could have led to the union of a Masonic body with these Mysteries, had they not had particular reference to architecture, and had the god who was worshiped in them not been celebrated for his success in perfecting the arts of fortification and building? Now, if such were the case, considering the relation in which, as we have already seen, Egypt stood to Babylon, who would naturally be looked up to there as the great patron of the Masonic art?" [48]

These Masonic authors realize that the ceremonies are only based on Myths or Fables. Collier's Encyclopedia states: "Masonry fosters an elaborate Mythology..." [49] But since they have turned from the truth, there is only the False left. W.L. Wilmshurst, a Mason, points out:

"It Matters Nothing whether the prototype be one whose historical actuality and identity can be demonstrated, or whether he can be regarded Only as Legendary or Mythical...In Egypt the prototype was Osiris, who was slain by his malignant brother Typhon, but whose mangled limbs were collected in a coffer from which he emerged reintegrated and Divinized. In Greece the prototype was Bacchus, who was torn to pieces by the Titans. Baldur in Scandinavia and Mithra in Graeco‑Roman Europe were similar prototypes. In Masonry the prototype is Hiram Abiff..." [50]

Many Masons believe that they are acting out the death and resurrection ritual of Christ. Even if this were the case, which it is not, this ritual would be blasphemous for a Christian, but these Masons are actually acting out the Myth of Osiris and Isis, two Pagan deities of Egypt. Isis was considered to be "supreme in Magical power ..." [51] and "she was the goddess of...Magic."  Osiris committed incest by marrying his sister, Isis, so those portraying him are not very righteous characters are they? Also, several symbols in the Lodge that Masons should readily recognize are the sun, the point within a circle, the Tau Cross, and the All‑Seeing Eye, all symbols representing Osiris! [52]

Not only do Masons rely on Fables, but they also Take the Place of Christ. In the 19th degree of the Scottish Rite, called "Grand Pontiff," Masons attend a pageant in which part of the book of Revelation is enacted. Waite recounts this drama:

"Amidst darkness and isolation thereafter the officers of the chapter proclaim the dominion of the beast, the opening of the seven vials of Revelation and the fall of Babylon...

The Candidate is brought into light and is shown the four‑square city coming down out of Heaven... while He who sits upon the throne, through He is called the Lord God Almighty and Redeemer, is not the Christ of St. John...The Candidate is anointed with oil, is made and proclaimed a priest forever according to the Order of Melchizedek...The New Jerusalem is interpreted as Ancient Masonry." [53]

Although Delmar Darrah, a 33rd degree Mason, assures us that "there never has been any conflict between the church and Freemasonry." [54] We can see several points of Conflict between the pageantry of the degree of Grand Pontiff and the Bible. First, we notice that the person who sits on the throne is Called "The Lord God Almighty and Redeemer," but he "Is Not the Christ of St. John." If he Is Not the Christ of the Bible, then who is he? Read on and you will discover who the god of Masonry Really Is! Second, we see that the Mason is anointed with oil and proclaimed "a priest forever according to the Order of Melchizedek."

Hebrews 5:5 and 9 clearly states that "Christ glorified Not Himself to be made an high priest" but was "called Of God an high priest after the order of Melchizedek." But Masons glorify Themselves and take on themselves the honor of the priest hood that was given to Christ Alone. Third, notice that Masons interpret the "New Jerusalem" as "Ancient Masonry!"

The 25th degree of the Scottish Rite is called "Knight of the Brazen Serpent." Again Waite describes this degree and reveals to us that the twelve signs of the Zodiac are illustrated and a Tau Cross, encompassed by a Serpent is in the East.

The Master retires to call upon God and then..."returns bearing a Symbol of Salvation, being a Brazen Serpent entwined about the Tau Cross...It is given thereafter to the Candidate, as a symbol of faith, repentance and mercy." [55]

Again we can see conflict between the degrees of Masonry and the Bible. The Bible warns against astrology, yet the Lodge is set up in such a way as to correspond with the twelve signs of the Zodiac, which is astrology. We also notice that the symbol of salvation is the "Brazen Serpent!"

Once again Christ is set aside for Another symbol of salvation. The Bible specifies that the Serpent represents Satan, but Masonry uses the Serpent as a Symbol of Salvation! In conjunction with the Serpent, let's look at the Masonic apron. Wilmshurst writes: "Brethren, I charge you to regard your Apron as one of the Most Precious and speaking symbols our Order has to give you." [56] This statement is quite intriguing. When Adam and Eve sinned, they sewed together an apron of fig leaves. We find however, God Was Not Pleased with the aprons, and He made the Coats of skin to clothe them; [57] but Waite indicates "in Craft Masonry and its connection the Apron is the Only Proper and Possible Clothing." [58]

In the first degree of Masonry the candidate is given an unadorned white apron which indicates purity of soul. [59]

In the second degree blue Rosettes are added to the apron to indicate that progress has been made in regeneration. In the third degree Wilmshurst explains that: "...still further progress is emblematized by the increased blue adornments of the Apron, as also by its silver tassels and the Silver Serpent is the Emblem of Divine Wisdom knitting the soul's new‑ made vesture together." [60]

The newly initiated Mason is instructed that his white apron is the "Most Precious" symbol of Masonry and that it represents purity. We must remember, however, that this apron is a Symbol. What then, is the Real Meaning behind this object? To find out we must return to Mythology. Pike notes that the god Jupiter Ammon's picture was painted with the sign of the Ram or Lamb. [61] He mentions that Jupiter Ammon is "the same as Osiris, Adoni, Adonis, Atys, and the other Sun Gods..."

Hutchinson also notes that Jupiter Ammon is "painted with horns." [62] And that he is the "same as Baal or Moloch...(and) Adonis, whom some ancient authors  call Osiris." [63] His ceremonies "consisted in clothing the Initiate with the skin of a white lamb. And in this we see the Origin of the Apron of white sheep‑skin used in Masonry." [64] So, the Apron was used in connection with the ceremonies of Osiris and this apron is the "only proper" clothing, according to Waite.

Also notice that in the third degree a Serpent is added to the Apron and that it is an Emblem of Divine Wisdom! The Entered Apprentice's Handbook points out that: "...the Serpent is regarded as 'The Shining One' ‑‑ the Holy wisdom itself. Thus we see that the Serpent on our apron denotes that we are encircled by the Holy Wisdom...The snake is peculiarly associated with (the Hindu god) Shiva, the Destroyer, whose close symbolic association with the third (Masonic) degree is obvious...He is depicted making the (sign) of a Master Mason." [65] Another god, Shiva, is now introduced into the Pantheon of Masonry. Shiva (or Siva) has numerous wives and, "...wanders naked about the countryside on his white bull Nandi, overindulging in drugs, and encouraging starvation and self‑ mutilation. The innermost sanctuaries of Shiva temples always feature a lingam, the stylized erect phallus which symbolizes his rampant sexuality." [66]

The Serpent is quite prevalent and important in Masonry. When Jim Shaw, a former Mason who has left Masonry, went to the Temple to receive his 33rd degree, he reported: "...the thing that is most noticeable is the way the walls are decorated with Serpents. There are all kinds, some very long and large. Many of the Scottish Rite degrees include the representation of Serpents and I recognized them among those decorating the walls." [67]

Albert Pike devotes page after page of his book to the prevalence and worship of Serpents. He discloses that, "The Phoenicians called the serpent agathodemon (the good spirit) ..." [68]; "In reality, the hawk‑headed Serpent, genius of Light, or Good genius, was the symbol of the Sun." The horned Serpent was the hieroglyphic for a God." Two other names for Osiris are Bel and He.

Pike relates to us that, "The Greeks call Bel 'Bailer,' and Hesychius interprets that word to mean a Dragon or great Serpent." [69] and "The British God He was called 'The Dragon was cast out, that old Serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which Deceiveth the whole world..." [70] Other connections to Satan can be found. Pike, writing about the pagan god Thor, reveals that "Thor was the Sun, the Egyptian Osiris and Kneph, the Phoenician Bel or Baal." [71] Bel (or Baal) was believed to be the "lord of the air" [72] as well as sun‑god [73] Remember also that the god Baal is a synonym for the Devil. [74] Baal; "had the body of a spider and three heads, those of a man, a toad and a cat."  This god, under the name of Thor, is called; "the Prince of the Power of the Air." [75]

Baal worship is condemned by the Bible, [76] and in Ephesians we find that Satan is called the "prince of the power of the air." Not only does Satan have the same title as is given to the god Thor, but we should notice that the word "Thor" means "thunder" [77] Thor "was the god of lightning and thunder in Norse mythology." This is a significant statement, for Satanists use the lighting bolt as a symbol of Satan. Satanic rock groups also use the symbol, called a "Satanic S," which resembles a lightning bolt and is probably taken from the reference in Luke 10:18 where Jesus says: "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven." [78] One of these Satanic rock groups called KISS (the name stands for Knights in Satan's Service) [79] has a song on one of their albums entitled "God of Thunder." This song claims:

I was raised by the demons,

A modern day man of steel,

Trained to reign as the one,

I gather darkness to please me,

God of Thunder and Rock and Roll,

I command you to kneel,

The sound you're under,

Before the god of thunder,

Will slowly rob you of your virgin soul.

The god of rock and roll, [80]

I'm the Lord of the Wasteland

This god is obviously Satan. Is it any wonder that the Bible further Informs us that this "prince of the power of the air" is "the spirit that now worketh in the Children of Disobedience...?" [81]

Since the gods of Masonry (Thor, Baal, Shiva, Pan, Osiris, etc.) actually represent Satan in different camouflages, and since the Serpent is widespread in Masonry, and the Bible clearly states that the Serpent is Satan, we see that the Masons are in actuality worshiping Satan (Lucifer). Of course, Masonic writers themselves plainly confess to us who they worship!

Who is it? None other than Satan (Lucifer)! Hutchinson gives the following comment about the fall of man: "But alas, he (Adam) fell! By disobedience he forfeited all his glory and felicity; and, wonderful to recount in the midst of this exalted state, Satan prevailed." [82] The footnote on this sentence gives this explanation: "Thus originated the introduction of a serpent among the symbols of Freemasonry... Serpent‑wors­hip derives its origin from the same source." [83]

Another foot note elsewhere in this book is a quote from Key to the New Testament, which states in part: "The corruptions flowing from the Egyptian philosophy, when adapted to Christianity, were these: they held that the god of the Jews was the Demiurgus...the serpent who deceived Eve ought to be honored for endeavoring to rescue men from their slavery to the Demiugus." [84] Pike brags: "Lucifer, the Light‑bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the spirit of darkness! Lucifer, The Son of The Morning! [Here Pike is denying Christ as the Light of the world and giving that designation to Lucifer, the Devil] Is it he who bears the light...? Doubt it Not!" [85]

Masonic testimony is clear that the serpent or Satan (Lucifer) should be worshiped. In fact, the "Lost Word" of Masonry has to do with Satan. Masons have been in search of a so‑called "Lost Word" which is supposed to be the Real name of God, but has been lost. In the third degree the Mason is given a substitute word and told to look "to that bright and Morning Star..." [86] Waite suggests that the Word revealed in the third degree "was of similar value to our old friend Abracadabra." [87]

He mentions elsewhere that: "...since the sphere of Ritual is also a sphere of sorcery, on proceeding to initiation he is given the symbol Abracadabra...and is told it is the True Word." [88]

Most people know that the word "abracadabra" has to do with Magic, but did you know that this word comes from Abraxas? [89] Abraxas, by the way, is a demon! Masons are actually taught that this demon is the True Word. However, this word is only a substitute. Then, in the 13th degree (Royal Arch) he is given the name of the "Lost Word" of Masonry. Let's see, first of all, who is the "Bright and Morning Star" and then let's look at the "Lost Word" and who is represented thereby.

Revelation 22:16 explains: "I, Jesus...am the root and offspring of David, and The Bright and Morning Star." Now, do the Masons worship Jesus as the "bright and Morning Star?" There are several reasons why this answer is "NO!"

One reason is that everything in the lodge is symbolical of something else, so if the "Bright and Morning Star" is Christ in reality, it is only a symbol to the Mason. In addition, Wilmshurst admits that "Hebrew Biblical names represent not persons, but personifications of spiritual principles..." [90]  There is a greater reason, however, that we know that the "bright and morning star" is not Christ, and that is from Masonic testimony. Waite, describing one picture in his book, analyzes it as: "There is a globe in her right hand on which is balanced a Genius, holding a torch, and said to typify the Morning Star or Lucifer... From a Masonic point of view, the symbol in its plenary sense is the coming forth of conquering Light." [91]

Masonic testimony points out that the morning star is "Lucifer" and that this symbol represents the "coming forth of conquering light." So, when Masons speak of the light of Masonry, they are actually referring to Lucifer bringing forth the light. Lucifer, as you may already know, means "Light Bearer" or "Light Bringer." The Bible also Informs us that Satan (Lucifer) comes as "an angel of light." [92]

As mentioned earlier, another name for Osiris is Mithras. According to The World Book Encyclopedia, Mithras "was an angel of light who fought on the side of the god Ahura‑Mazda...The Zoroastrian scriptures called Mithras 'the Heavenly Light.'" [93] He was also identified with the Sun. The mention of Ahura‑Mazda is interesting for it is this god that the lecture of the 32nd degree of Masonry deals with. In this lecture Ahura‑Mazda is called the "spirit of light." [94]

The Masons are then instructed to: "Look to the East, my brothers...and behold the seven‑pointed star, the great symbol of this degree, with the seven colors of the rainbow. The seven colors and seven points represent the seven potencies of Ahura. Observe now the great Delta of Pythagoras consisting of 36 light arranged in eight rows to form an equilateral triangle. The light of the apex of the Delta represents Ahura‑Mazda, Source of all Light." [95]

The lecture continues and the Masons are told that the "trilateral name for god is composed of." [96] three Hindu gods: Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. Siva (or Shiva), by the way, is a synonym for Satan! In fact, Anton LaVey, founder of the Church of Satan, lists Shiva, Lucifer and Pan (among others) in his Satanic Bible as Synonyms for Satan! [97]

    Lucifer, then, is the god honored and revered by masons as The True God! J. Edward Decker, Jr., a former Mason, gives us a quote from Albert Pike, a 33rd degree Mason. On July 14, 1889, Pike gave instructions to the 23 Supreme Councils of the World: "That which we must say to the crowd is, We worship a God, but it is the god that one adores without superstition. To you Sovereign Grand Inspectors General (the name of the 33rd degree, the highest degree know to the world in Scottish Rite Masonry), we say this, that you may repeat it to the Brethren of the 32nd, 31st, and 30th degrees. The Masonic Religion should be, by all of us initiates of the high degrees, maintained in the purity of the Luciferian Doctrine...Yes, Lucifer is God...the pure philosophical religion is the belief in Lucifer... Lucifer, God of Light and God of Good..." [98] With this admission, is it any wonder that Pike is called the "Pontiff of Luciferian Freemasonry?" [99] In addition, he is adored by Masonic authors such as Waite, who brags: "I believe...his name will be...of Precious Memory in all American Masonry." [100]

In fact, Morals and Dogma, a book written by Pike, is the handbook for Masons. when Jim Shaw earned his 32nd degree, he, as well as the others present, were given, "...a copy of Albert Pike's book...We were told that it was The source book for Freemasonry and its meaning. We were also told that it must never leave our possession, and that arrangements must be made so that upon our deaths it would be returned to the Scottish Rite." [101]

Also, C. Fred Kleinknecht, a 33rd degree Mason related: "...told all Masons that last January that one particular book was to be their daily guide for living, their 'Bible.'" That book, said Kleinknecht, is Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma. [102] The majority of Masons in the first few degrees are not aware of the god of masonry, yet Hutchinson boasts that, "the first state of a Mason is representative of the first stage of worship of the True God." [103]

He highly insinuates that those outside of the Masonic ranks are not worshiping The True God! The Masons have been taught that this true god is called the "Grand Architect of the Universe" and that anyone who believes in "a" Supreme Being may join Masonry.

They have been advised that there is no conflict between Christianity and Masonry. To hide the fact of who their god is, those entering Masonry must enact strange rituals, is asked who he believes in and must answer "In God" and only after the candidate has completed the 13th  degree is he told the name of the "Lost Word."  Why must this word be kept secret for so long? The answer is that if the word and its meaning were revealed to the candidate in the beginning, he most likely would have never joined up!

What is the "Lost Word?" Waite indicated that the "Lost Word" has to do with Wisdom, and that "Wisdom in this case is a synonym of the Word..." [104] Before I give you the "Lost Word" let me remind you that Wilmshurst claims that "the Serpent is the emblem of Divine Wisdom," [105] and the Lost Word is a synonym for Wisdom, so this Word has to do with the Serpent! Well, the secret Word is "Jao‑Bul‑On."

You may wonder, "What does that mean?" "Jao" is the Chaldean name for God. "Bul" is a Syriac word which means "Baal," who was a Canaanite fertility god associated with licentious rites and magic. [106] Baal is actually another name for the Devil! "On" is the Egyptian word signifying "Osiris," the god of the underworld. So, here again, we can see Satan is deified and honored by the Masons. We are told further (in the ritual of the 13th degree) that this "triune essence of the Deity," [107] represents "His creative preservative, and de‑creative powers." This sentence gives a very vivid description of the Hindu gods.

In the pagan religion of Hinduism, we also see a "trinity" of three gods, Brahma, the creator, Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer. Waite explains: "Siva (or Shiva) is the Babylonian Bel, identical with the sun‑god I A O..." [108] The World Book Encyclopedia states that Bel is "another name for the god Baal," [109] and Baal is another name for Satan, so Satan is being worshiped through the Masonic ritual, for Shiva, the god with "de‑creative powers," is just another name for Satan!

One more name for Satan is Pan. "He was half man and half goat..." [110] and he is "usually shown with goat feet, curly hair, short horns, and a beard." An occult catalog from International Imports mentions: [111] "In Greek mythology Pan was the god of nature...He is also equated with Satan and life's baser aspects." Once again we can see that Masonry honors Satan, for Hutchinson confesses: "The knowledge of the god of nature forms the first estate of our profession..." [112] He also points out that the god of nature was adored under the names of Osiris and Isis (the wife/sister of Osiris). [113]

Yes, Lucifer (Satan) Is The God of Masonry and the so‑called "God of Light." Wilmshurst tries to convince us that: "Christian and Masonic doctrine are identical in intention though different in method. The one says 'Via Crucis;' the other 'Via Lucis;' yet the two ways are but one way." [114] "Via Crucis" means "by way of the Cross" and "Via Lucis" means "by way of light." These two ways cannot be identical. One way follows the way of the Cross of Christ, which leads to reconciliation; the other follows the way of the light of Lucifer, which leads to death. Isn't it plan to see which path the Masons are on?

33o Mason Ties Bush's New World Order To All-Seeing Eye: James G. Martin, a 33o Mason who as Governor of North Carolina and a leading Republican Party big-wig, has warmly praised President's Bush's plans for a "New World Order." Writing in Raleigh's daily newspaper, The News and Observer (March 24, 1991), Martin stated:"President George Bush...has revitalized an old but timely idea; the realization of a New World Order."

Martin noted that this was the same visionary idea as depicted on our U.S. one-dollar bill, the all-seeing eye above the pyramid with the Latin inscription below of Novus Ordo Seclorum. This, Martin explained, is interpreted as either "A New World Order of the Age," a "New Secular (or worldly) Order" or simply a "New World Order." Unfortunately, in his article Governor Martin failed to tell readers these significant facts: That the pyramid and its all-seeing eye was first printed on the U.S. dollar bill in the 1930s at the insistence of the Jewish President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Mason, and his vice-president, Henry Wallace. Wallace, a fellow Mason as well as an ardent communist-Illuminist, later ran for president as a Socialist. [115]

Former President Bush Knows What Novus Ordo Seclorum Means: President Bush, on July 2, 1989 stated: "That desire for freedom from tyranny inspired the world and still does. Look on the back of any dollar bill and you'll see it. The Great Seal of the United States bears the motto, 'Novus Ordo Seclorum,' meaning a 'New Order of the Ages.'" [116]

Former President Bush spoke before the United Nations on October 1, 1990, where he confirmed his support of World Government by the year 2000 A.D. "We (members of the U.N.) must join together in a New Compact, all of us, to bring the United Nations into the 21st century...The calendar offers up a convenient milestone, a signpost by which to measure our progress as a community of nations. The year 2000 marks a turning point, beginning the turn of the millennium...The United Nations can help bring about a New Day...to press forward To Cap an Historic Movement towards 'A New World Order.'" [117] This left-hand side of the dollar bill also contains a pyramid with the all-seeing eye above it. You will also notice that the capstone (or cornerstone) has been removed and that the all-seeing (Illuminati) eye has replaced it. Sharon Boyd, proclaims: "Ancient Freemaso nry employed the triangle, usually in connection with the all-seeing eye.

Throughout the entire system of Masonry, no symbol is more important in its significance; it is the Masonic symbol of the 'Grand Architect of the Universe.' The entire symbol of the Eye of Providence (the all-seeing eye) in the Radiant Triangle forms a cornerstone of the unfinished pyramid." [118] he Bible specifies that Jesus is the Chief Cornerstone, but He was rejected. [119] This is quite evident by looking at the picture; the cornerstone has been removed or rejected and has been replaced by the all-seeing eye; a symbol of Illuminism and Satan!

Not only do these symbols actually represent the Masonic god, Lucifer, but there is also another meaning behind them. These symbols, as well as others, have sexual connotations! For example, let's look at the point within a circle. When a person enters Masonry, he is told that the point within a circle represents: "...the individual Mason (the point), continued and restricted by the boundary line of his duty (the circle). Its Real Meaning, however, is that of phallus, positioned within the female generative principle (sex organ) in sexual union, the climactic act of sun-worship." [120]

Albert Mackey, a Masonic authority, writes: "The point within a circle is an interesting and important symbol in Freemasonry...The symbol is really a beautiful...allusion to the old sun-worship, and introduces us for the first time to that modification of it, known among the ancients as the worship of the phallus." [121]

Pike proclaims that Osiris and Isis (who was both his sister and his wife): "...were commonly symbolized by the generative parts of man and woman...the Phallus and Cteis...The Indian Lingam was the union of both, as were the boat and mast, and the point within a circle..." [122] He also reminds us that the "Sun is still symbolized by the point within a circle..." [123] and that it is one of the "three Great Lights of the Lodge." What are the "three Great Lights of the Lodge?"

These lights are represented as the "Bible, square and compass." [124] But we know this to be a lie because in whatever country the Masonic Lodge is, the book used is the one of the religion of the members of the Lodge. In Israel, it is the Talmud, in Arabia, it is the Book of Mohammed; in China, it is the writings of Buddha, and etc.

 Former President Bush's Unchanging Allegiance To The Brotherhood: As President, George Bush surrounded himself with fellow brothers of the Skull and Bones and interlinking, related groups, such as the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission, Bilderbergers and etc.

On the very day he kicked off his presidency, Bush signaled his unchanging allegiance to the Brotherhood. At his inauguration ceremony, his Oath of Office was sworn as George Bush's hand rested on the Masonic Bible furnished him by his brothers at St. John's Masonic Lodge, 71 West 23rd Street, New York City. It was the same bible, printed in London in 1767, that was used at the inauguration of Warren G. Harding, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Jimmy Carter. These three presidents were all Masons, as was George Bush. [125]

A visitor From The Past: by Thelen Paulk: "I had a dream the other night, I didn't understand. A figure walking through the mist, with flintlock in his hand. His clothes were torn and dirty, as he stood there by my bed. He took off his three-cornered hat, and speaking low, he said: 'We fought a revolution, to secure our liberty. We wrote the Constitution, as a shield from tyranny. For future generations, this legacy we gave. In this, the land of the free and the home of the brave.'

The freedom we secured for you, we hoped you'd always keep. But tyrants labored, endlessly while your parents were asleep. Your freedom gone, your courage lost, you're no more than a slave. In this, the land of the free and home of the brave.

You buy permits to travel, and permits to own a gun. Permits to start a business, or to build a place for one. On land that you believe you own, you pay a yearly rent. Although you have no vice in choosing, how the money's spent.

Your children must attend a school that doesn't educate. Your Christian values can't be taught, according to the state. You read about the current news, in a regulated press. You pay a tax you do not owe, to please the I.R.S. Your money is no longer made of Silver or of God. You trade your wealth for paper, so your life can be controlled. You pay for crimes that make our Nation, turn from God in shame. You've taken Satan's number, as you've traded in your name.

You've given government control, to those who do you harm. So they can padlock churches, and steal the family farm. And keep our country keep in debt, put men of God in jail. Harass your fellow countrymen, while corrupted courts prevail. Your public servants don't uphold the solemn oath they've sworn. Your daughter visit doctors, so their children won't be born. Your leaders ship artillery, and guns to foreign shores. And send your sons to slaughter, fighting other people's wars.

Can you regain the freedom for which we fought and died? or don't you have the courage, or the faith to stand with pride? Are there no more values for which you'll fight to save? Or do you wish your children, to live in fear and be a slave?

People of the Republic, arise and take a stand! Defend the Constitution, the Supreme Law of the Land! Preserve your Great Republic, and God-Given Right! And pray to God, to keep the torch of Freedom burning bright!

As I awoke he vanished, in the mist from whence he came. His words were true, we are not Free, we have ourselves to blame. For even now as tyrants, trample each God-Given Right. We only watch and tremble, too afraid to stand and fight. If he stood by your bedside, in a dram, while you're asleep, And wonders what remains of our Rights he fought to keep. What would be your answer, if he called out from the grave: 'Is this still the Land of the Free and Home of the Brave???'"

1193: Greeks destroy city of Troy.

1175: Jepthah judges Israel.

1150: Ruth.

1125: Deborah. [126] Samson and Delilah.

1100: Samuel the prophet. Gideon. [127]

1100-800: North America was inhabited by Israelites 1000 years of more before 1492: There are archeological discoveries that have been made which show a strong correlation to the Bible. For when people think of Israel in the Bible they assume that all the events which happened to Israel did so in the little country known as Palestine; today it is called Israel. And therefore the Israelites could not have been very important in the ancient world.

However, Daniel told us that knowledge would increase in the latter days: "But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased." [128] Also, Daniel tells us that many things will be kept secret until the latter days: "And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end." [129]

Many of these recent archeological discoveries combined with secular and Biblical history give us a shockingly different perspective of the ancient world in general and ancient Israel in particular. In this chapter we will attempt to show you evidence which will prove ancient Israel was an empire. It had a homeland in Palestine, and a far-flung empire much the same as Britain did until just a few decades ago. Britain once ruled over a far-flung empire from a small homeland, located in the British Isles. In the years from about 1050-850 B.C. Israel was the dominant power of the world with an empire that rivaled and perhaps exceeded that of the Caesars.

The empire included areas of the world now inhabited by the Israelite people and that included portions of North America. We full well understand this is a bold statement, but the evidence will follow. In this study we will examine the real extent of Israel's power and empire in the ancient world; the Israelite presence in North America with considerable specifics. The impact of the drought of Elijah's day on the weakening of Israel and the rise of Cartage, which we will show was an Israelite colony. Cartage continued Israel's presence in the New World, very possibly even during Christ's lifetime here on earth.

The time of Israel's greatness really began with King David and its rise to empire status. This happened in about the year 1050 B.C. 2 Samuel 8 discusses David's defeat of the Philistines, Moab, Amalek, Edom, and the Syrians for example lost more than 80,000 men in just three battles. [130] That is more men than the United States lost in the 14 years of the Vietnam War.

To give you a perspective of the ferocity of the battles. 1 Chronicles 21 shows that David could mobilize over 1½ million men. With an army of that size you are not insignificant, not even in this age, this day and time. In 1 Chronicles 18:3 it states the border of his dominion went to the Euphrates River which bordered the area of Assyria and Babylon; or Mesopotamia who viewed David as an upstart rival.

The Phoenicians were the city states of Tyre and Sidon, and had a far flung empire on land and sea. They were the best sailors in the ancient world at that time, and they saw the rise of David and Israel and made an alliance with them. They were a common race of Semitic people; they also had a common language. There were only dialectic differences between Hebrew and the Phoenician tongue. 1 Kings 17:9-16 relates where Elijah met with a Phoenician or Zidonan widow, and they had immediate discourse, with no difficulty at all in communication.

King Hiram the king of Tyre made David a palace and they became very close allies as 1 King 5:1 shows. The Israelite Phoenician alliance was an ancient super power, with all twelve tribes of Israel united they sat astride the area where three continents met; they had the world's greatest navy in the Phoenicians combined with David's one and one-half million man army. And David was not the least bit reluctant to use it. They were challenged by Assyria and Mesopotamia, which is almost totally unknown by most and yet it is related in the Bible.

There was a revolt in Amon which is a pretext for war between many nations and the Israelites. It is discussed in 1 Chronicles 19 and 20 in some detail. There were 32 thousands chariots from Mesopotamia alone [131] that came to fight David's army in this battle. There was also an unknown number of men from Mesopotamia and Syria which included a number of different people which fought with Ammon against Israel. In verse 9 we can see it was a national effort with a number of different nations to destroy Israel as it states their kings came to watch the battle. "And the children of Ammon came out, and put the battle in array before the gate of the city: and the kings that were come were by themselves in the field." [132]

So, we can clearly see, this was not just a mercenary effort, this was a matter of national commitment against Israel. Israel won the first round and also the second which left them with no one in the area to challenge them.

If you will look at Psalm 83, which was likely written by David at this time where he lists many nations that come to help the children of Lot, which also included Ammon to destroy Israel from off the face of the earth. "Keep not thou silence, O God: hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee: The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes; Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre; Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen the children of Lot. Selah. Do unto them as unto the Midianites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kison: Which perished at Endor: they became as dung for the earth. Make their nobles like Oreb, and like Zeeb: yea, all their princes as Zebah, and as Zalmunna: Who said, Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession. O my God, make them like a wheel; as the stubble before the wind. As the fire burneth a wood, and as the flame setteth the mountains on fire; So persecute them with thy tempest, and make them afraid with thy storm. Fill their faces with shame; that they may seek thy name, O Lord. Let them be confounded and troubled for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish: That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth." [133]

Secular history has recorded that Assyria's Empire went into eclipse or confusion, some encyclopedias call it, between 1100-900 B.C. Halley's Bible Handbook comments on it also, and states that ancient Israel was much stronger than Assyria, Babylon or Egypt. This is the same period as Israel's golden age under David and Solomon. And is glossed over in almost all historical texts, if they even cover it at all.

What happened to Assyria? It was defeated badly in a war against Israel's army, as we learn from 1 Chronicles and Psalm 83. The texts of ancient history will not tell you this nor will it give great credibility as the Bible is the Word of God. Assyria and other nations had provoked Ammon to start this war, and this will give you a little indication of how large an area that David ruled. In Psalm 83 he named the nations that became a part of this war, which included Assyria and in all likelihood became a vassal state to David.

It included the Ishmaelites, which included the Arabian Peninsula and people we don't know where they lived in the east, so we really don't know how large an are David actually ruled. But he did rule from Egypt to somewhere about the middle of the modern nation of Iran. Ether directly or through vassal states as a result of that war. But Israel was the dominant super power of the ancient world at this time.

Is there evidence of an Israelite Empire? The answer is Yes! But the secular historians will rarely call it an Israelite Empire, they will call it a Phoenician Empire. Most people who do not realize the difference between Judah and Israel balk at this major role for Israel because they think the Jews were the Israelites and the Jews have always been few in number, but they don't realize that the men from Judah were only a small part of David's army at this time. It is true that David was of the tribe of Judah but he, also, had eleven other tribes to provide manpower.

The Phoenician Empire is credited by historians as being dominant in the Mediterranean Sea; as being present in substantial numbers in the British Isles, the West Coast of Europe and Africa in the period of about 1100-800 B.C. and they are not at all bashful in calling it a Phoenician Empire. This coincides with the exact time that Assyria was put down and the Bible tells us that David had defeated the Assyrians. It coincides with Israel's greatness and the allegiance of the Phoenician city Israelites; show Phoenicia took pains to join with them because they did not wish to be their enemy.

1 Chronicles 22 relates that David accumulated for the Temple of God iron and brass beyond calculation. [134] Warrner Keller in his book "The Bible is History" states: "Israel was using the Bessemer system of smelting, which was nor re-discovered until recently in the modern era... Essian Gebar was the Pittsburgh of ancient Palestine." Nowhere else in the fertile crescent which includes Mesopotamia could such a large smelting facility be found. We see by this that Israel was not just an agriculture only nation but they were also the industrial power house of the ancient world.

Dr. Berry Fells book "Bronze Age America" cites evidence that ½ billions of copper ore was taken from mines near Lake Superior in North America, in roughly 2000-1000 B.C. The dates include the time of David's reign, at the tail end of it, as the ore apparently ran out for they have no evidence that it was mined after that.

It could be that the Israelites simply worked the mines to death, or to where they could not be mined economically at that point. Which Fell states that this New World copper mine output there is no evidence what became of it. There is no evidence it was used in this hemisphere at all. And they have no idea where the copper came from which was smelted in Palestine during this time. Putting this evidence together and one comes up with the assumption that this copper was shipped from North America to Palestine by boat and was used by Israel in its huge smelting facilities in Palestine. The Phoenician/Israelite presence in America has abundantly shown to be real.

At this point, we must, in all fairness, present just one of the many stories which abound which make reference to our Israel ancestors coming to America thousands of years Before Columbus. The following is taken from an article in National Geographic,  December 1977, pp. 769. "The New World: Who, from the Old first touched its shore? Historians held for centuries that it was Christopher Columbus.

By current consensus, it was Norse voyagers of a thousand years ago. But perhaps it was a group of shadowy, yet very real, Irish seafaring monks who predated even the Vikings by more than four centuries. In the great pantheon of New World explorers no name is more intriguing, or more clouded in controversy, than that of Ireland's St. Brendan. His legend, today more tantalizing than ever, has persisted through the centuries in the form of a Christians imram, an Irish saga: Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis, Voyage of Saint Brendan the Abbot. With 17 fellow monks, it relates, Brendan sailed to Terra Repromissionis Sanctorum, the land promised to the Saints, somewhere beyond the far reaches of the Western Atlantic. Was the Promised Land North America? Did St. Brendan actually reach it in the sixth century? Neither history nor archeology offers proof." [135]

This statement is totally untrue, and I believe the publishers of National Geographic knew it at the time of the publication. Most of us have read (from reputable history books) of the adventures of Lief Eriksson and his party in the founding of Vinland circa A.D. 800-1400 in the area of the St. Lawrence River in the North-eastern United States and Canada. Although they predated the Columbus voyage by many centuries, were the expeditions of Lief Eriksson the first discovery of what is now known as the United States?

There were Christians living in America over 100 years before Columbus arrived in the Caribbean. The official historians of this country have known this for many, many years. Yet, none of this is discussed as a national heritage. Why is this? Those of us who are interested in finding petroglyphs, or ancient symbols and pictures engraved on stones, have wondered about the meaning of them. All we could do was wonder and speculate until the science of deciphering ancient and unknown languages was developed. The science is called Epigraphics and it has been developed into a rather sophisticated science. Symbols, for example, mean something, but what?

Epigraphics. Until a few years ago geologists told us that the numerous short and repetitive lines inscribed on rocks found in the Northeastern United States and Canada were simply scratches made from the movement of ice and rocks during the recent ice-age. Because of Epigraphics, we now know that it was a language and it has been deciphered.

The Celts. This language is that of the Celts from Ireland, Scotland, England, France and the Rhineland country of Germany. The language dates from long before Christ and was in use in Ireland and England at the time of Celtic Druids. It is called Ogam script and has been found all over America, from the West Indies to Newfoundland and west into Oregon and British Columbia. We know that Julius Caesar described the vessels that the Celts had built and used. In Book III of his De Bello Gallico he described these vessels against which his small, puny (by comparison), ships of the Roman fleet fought. He described them as being capable of sailing "upon the vast open sea." This is exactly what they did. It appears that there were many different expeditions and migrations by the Celts during the period of many centuries before Christ until circa 400-800 A.D. They came, not only just once to colonize, but they came and returned to Europe on a repetitive basis.

The Vikings. The Vikings were here in America when King Woden-lithi sailed the Atlantic seventeen centuries before Christ and entered the St. Lawrence River. He established a trading post at a site near where Toronto now stands. It became a religious and commercial center that is now known as Petroglyph Park at Peterborough, Canada. King Woden-lithi's home was in Norway. He remained in Canada for five months, from April to September and traded his woven fabrics for copper ingots obtained from the European settlers.

He called these people Wal, which is a word cognate with Wales and Welsh. He gave these Celts his religious beliefs, the ability to measure woven cloth and an astronomical observatory for measuring the Nordic calendar and for determining the dates of the pagan Yale and Ishtar festivals. Remember, this was seventeen centuries (1700-years) before Christ!

Ogam Script. The Celts were already here when King Woden-lithi arrived. What was their written language like? We have already shown that they wrote with the Ogam script which can be described simply as an alphabet, comprising fifteen consonants and five vowels, together with a few other signs representing double letters such as diphthongs. The letters are made by inscribing single parallel strokes placed in sets of one to five, in position above, across, or below a guide line.

The Languages. But what words were made from this Ogam alphabet? Here again the science of Epigraphics gives us the answer. We know that there is no language of any of the American Indians that is made up of the Greek language. And yet the ancient Celts in the area of the St. Lawrence River spoke a language that was directly derived from the Greek!

As we shall see, the different Celts in America spoke yet other languages! The type of Greek that was spoken by the Celts of the area is known as Ptolemaic which means that it is a dialect of Greek that was spoken in Egypt, Palestine and the other countries in the area that Alexander conquered.

Alexander forced upon the area his idea of one-world government, one-world people, one-world religion and one-world language. It was this Ptolemaic dialect that Alexander forced upon the citizens of the area. The dialect was composed of Greek, Egyptian and Aramaic. This is why Jesus spoke Aramaic and Greek, instead of Hebrew. We will study the effect that Alexander had on Israel and Christianity in a future lesson.

The obvious question from the previous paragraph is, who were the Celts? Did the Celts from Iberia (The Spanish Peninsula) and the Rhineland go to Egypt and Palestine and learn the Greek spoken language at the time of Alexander or did the Israelites (Not Jews) learn the Greek and Aramaic when they were in Palestine and then go to the new world to escape the dictatorship of Alexander? Remember, Israel lost the knowledge of ancient Hebrew (not modern Yiddish) before and during the time of Alexander.

The language of the Celts who were already here in the St. Lawrence River Valley when King Woden-lithe arrived has since been lost. Why has the language disappeared? This is probably at least partly because through the subsequent years they intermixed with other peoples and in the process the language was lost. It doesn't take much to lose a language. Notice the difference between American English and the English language spoken in England. But that doesn't account for the fact that a grace of people totally vanished from the continent. Some of the Ogam Script is with the Gaelic influence. The Gaelic language came from the highlands of Scotland. In the New England area, artifacts such as grave headstones have been found, all with Ogam script in Gaelic script. [136] The Celts with the Gaelic dialect came from the highlands of Scotland. According to the Scottish Declaration of Independence written by Robert Bruce and his noblemen, the Scotland people came from ancient Israel through the Rhineland area of France and Germany and then through Iberia or Spain.

The Mariners from Tarshish. Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs. [137] The Celts were well established in foreign trade. In 1780, Ezra Stiles, who later became the president of Yale College, found and recorded a Tartessian inscription on a rock along the seashore near Mount Hope Bay, Rhode Island. The deeply cut inscription clearly shows the outline of a typical high-sterned ship from Tarshish. Under the outline of the ship are the words in Tartessian (Tarshish) Punic, "Mariners of Tarshish this rock proclaims."

Near Union, New Hampshire, another Tartessian inscription was found with a similar Tarshish ship hull and the words, "Voyagers from Tarshish this stone proclaims."

On Mohegan Island, off the coast of Maine, is, in Ogam script in Gaelic dialect, an inscription showing that the Celts traded with the traders from Tarshish. It is obvious that the mariners from Tarshish were not residents of the area as were the Celts. They were trading with the Celts for their furs and raw materials from the mining done by the Celts.

Thus, there was a lively trade being conducted between the Japhetic sons of Tarshish [138] and the Celtic sons of Shem. Some of the trading was done with goods in exchange for the furs and metals of the Celts. But there was also an exchange for coins. It seems that modern historians won't believe the facts of history such as the Ogam inscriptions. They only like to see the money! Well, there is that, too!

Coins. From about the fourth century B.C. the ancient mariner traders brought coins in addition to goods. In the year 1787, Pastor Thaddeus Madson Harris came upon a group of men working on a road known as the Cambridge-Malden road (now Route 16) in Massachusetts. The workers had uncovered a flat stone underneath the surface. Under the stone was a cache of ancient coins, nearly two quarts of them. The coins were square pieces made of a copper-silver alloy. Each coin was stamped on both sides with an unknown script.

Pastor Harris recorded the incident in a letter to John Quincy Adams. The inscriptions were taken to the Harvard Library for translation but with no success. The letter was then buried in the archives for nearly two hundred years until James Whittall, of the Early Sites Research Society, re-discovered the letter with the inscriptions and researched them with the American Numismatic Society and with Epigraphic scientists.

The inscriptions proved to be that of Kufic origin which is a form of Arabic. Undoubtedly, one of the trading mariners brought the coins to America to purchase the Celtic goods which were for sale. After the newly designed steel plow was invented by Charles Newbold in 1797, the earth could be turned over to a much greater depth. The furrow that the plow made opened up the soil and there, by the thousands, were found Roman coins!

In days of early America, the extensive study of Latin and Roman history was required for a college degree. Thus, the people of America readily knew that Europeans came to America and lived in America much earlier than Christopher Columbus.

But later, from American history books, our school children were taught the Columbus mystique and they were taught that the world was considered flat by all educated people until Columbus discovered America! All of those Roman coins that were discovered were ignored and it has remained that way until very recently. As we continue our studies, we will realize why the truth was buried.

In 1961, Frederick J. Pohl raised the nagging question of the Roman coins in his book Atlantic Crossings Before Columbus. He describes notable finds of Roman coins in the United States. Other scientists have carried on the task of proving the European travels to this continent long before Columbus. One of the notable men in this field is Professor Cyclone covey of Wake Forest University.

Much will be discussed about his investigations later in this lesson. Roman coins are not the only money found in America. Carthaginian, Celto-Iberian, Greek, Libyan and Norse coins have been found in locations all over the United States. Near Castle Gardens, Wyoming a petroglyph was found, written in Celto-Gaelic, describing the location of what would be the description of a bank.

Yes, the petroglyph says that this was the first money-changing location to reach the area and that the bank operated with no usury! Undoubtedly, this was a location for exchanging the value of one coin for another for the purpose of trading and traveling. The petroglyph written in Celto-Gaelic undoubtedly means that the Celts were located in Wyoming and the fact that they operated in Wyoming and the fact that they operated with no usury is significant. We will shortly discuss the type of law the Celts exercised.

From 400 B.C. to 1100 A.D., the Western world realized six maritime powers. They all came out of the Mediterranean area except for the last one. They are, in order of their appearance, (1) the Carthaginians of Tunisia; (2) the Greeks and Libyans of North Africa; (3) the Romans; (4) the Byzantine Greeks who succeeded Rome; (5) the Islamic powers of North Africa and Asia; and (6) the Norse sea-rovers.

Although the Celts were never realized as a maritime power, since they were a people scattered over many countries, their ocean-going ships were among the best. These ships were huge in comparison to the Roman ships. They were two thousand tons in capacity as compared to about four hundred tons of the average Roman ship. The ships that the uncle of Jesus, Joseph of Aramathea, used to haul lead and tin from the Glastonbury area of England for sale to the Romans were Celtic in design and operation. Again, Julius Caesar spoke very highly of the sea-going prowess of the Celts and their ships.

Throughout this period, each of these maritime powers sent ships all over the high seas and to America. But it was the Libyans who transcended all of the others in the span of their voyage. A Libyan, named Eratosthenes of Cyrene, accurately calculated the earth's circumference. He reasoned that the earth's oceans had to be continuous and consequently a ship could sail around the world in either direction and return to the starting point. The date was approximately 239 B.C.!

Eratosthenes developed the system of the meridian circles of the map of the globe. The meridian circles are simply the points on the globe where the USN is directly overhead at noon at the local time. He set these meridian circles in a grid in such a way that a mariner could accurately locate his position. He drew the primary meridian circle to pass through Alexandria.

The Libyans then set sail in their ocean-going vessels to prove that Eratosthenes was right. Their ships were equipped with magnetic compasses. Their compass consisted of a ceramic bowl with the compass points engraved around the edge. A lodestone (a strongly magnetic variety of the mineral magnetie) was floated on the water in the bowl.

Sometimes, a magnetized iron strip was suspended in the bowl. They also had a device for navigation that was the forerunner of the modern sextant. The Libyans traveled eastward, through the Suez Canal that King Darius had built, then sailed down the Red Sea, and then around the tip of India, through the Indonesian straits and then into the Pacific Ocean.

They arrived on the West Coast of America, disembarked and traveled inland to Nevada. These ancient Libyans settled in the arid Nevada country because it was very similar to their own home country. In various locations in Nevada are petroglyphs, written in Aramaic-Libyan and Celto-Gaelic which reflect their mariner skills.

There is a map of North America, showing the outline of both coasts from the Hudson Bay country of Canada to Panama in the South. It was obviously taken from one of their meridian circle navigation charts that Eratosthenes developed. In addition, examples of their mathematics is displayed along with oceanography. Their alphabet was written in stone for us to see.

Astronomy as a science is displayed. Remember, before the fall of the Roman Empire, the Center of Western Civilization rested along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The modern day epigraphic scientists are puzzled as to what happened to all of these people, from the Celts, to the Carthaginians, to the Libyans and all the other original settlers who have come to this land. Certainly educated people in the sciences and mathematics lived here many years ago, that is now obvious. But when the American colonists arrived, the natives had no written language nor any knowledge of higher education.

For example, the Paiute and Shoshone tribesmen of Nevada were asked where all of the petroglyphs we now know to have been scribed by the Libyans came from, they could tell the archaeologists and epigraphists nothing except that neither they nor their forebears had cut them. However, some of the methods and style of living that were taught by these ancient settlers have come down through the centuries by the indigenous peoples who were here and then remained after the mysterious disappearance. For example, in the modern, Libyan North African region there are two Distinct ecological groups.

   1). The first is the modern Berber who is of lighter skin with obvious and European features with many having blond hair and blue eyes. He prefers to live in the mountainous regions where there is more water and better soil. He is an agriculturist and he builds his home pueblo style out of sun-dried mud which he calls in Arabic attobi which in America is called adobe. Their buildings are multi-level with the floors and ceilings strengthened with wooden beams which project beyond the outer walls. His dress code calls for the women not to wear the face veil but to tattoo their chins. The men have the custom to cover their heads and faces with a scarf-like cloth, showing only their eyes to strangers. Even today, these modern Berbers still speak the Berber language which came to them from their Celto-Iberian background.

   2). The second ecological group is the Arabs. They are nomadic, moving their herds from place to place in the lowlands. They live in tents. The women cover their heads with veils and are not tattooed. The men do not veil the face. Their language is Arabic. In the Peabody Museum of Harvard University are ancient bowls made by these Libyan mariners who built their temporary colonies in the Southwestern United States. The bowls very clearly show a man and woman painted on the sides of each. The women have no veil but have their chins tattooed. The men have the Berber type of scarf covering their faces with only the eyes showing! Beyond a doubt, these people were a part of the Libyan expeditions into the Western United States. They, too, suddenly disappeared in the 10th to 12th century A.D., after having been here from about 500 B.C. All of these people abandoned their towns and simply vanished.

The ancient Berbers were of Celto-Iberian origin. They spoke a Gaelic Celto-Iberian language. When we again return to the Scottish Declaration of Independence and read that they traveled through Iberia (The Spanish Peninsula) on their way to Scotland and Ireland, it would account for the Celto-Iberian-Gaelic dialect. It is in this language that the great majority of the petroglyphs are written. It is obvious that the Libyan Berbers associated with the Celts of the Eastern and Northern United States during the apex of their civilization here. It is apparent that they had a flourishing trade with their home countries of Europe. Not only did they travel to and from Europe on occasion in their own ships, they conducted commerce with the traders from Tarshish and Cartage. Just as the Celts in the Glastonbury and Avalon areas of England mined for tin and lead and shipped the finished metal to Rome in Joseph of Aremathea's ships, the same Celts conducted mining operations in America and either sold or traded their metal with Europe. But it all vanished around the end of the first millennium A.D.

Christianity and the American Celts. When the first Celts arrived in America, they were as pagan as their brothers in Europe. Many of the earlier inscriptions in America depicted Baal worship and classical Phallic worship. Then, all of sudden, there came the appearance of Christian inscriptions. In fact, whenever it was possible, the later Christian inscriptions were inscribed over the top of the earlier pagan writing. This was obvious to the epigraphic scientists because the later inscriptions were cut deeper and partially obliterated the earlier work. In Cripple Creek, Colorado there is a memorial in Greek that states, "Herein is the last resting place of Palladis (a priest), the servant of God." At Oak Island, Nova Scotia is found an inscription in Libyan dialect of the North African Coptic Church, which states, "To escape contagion of plague and winter hardships, he is to pray for an end or mitigation, the arif: The people will perish in misery if they forget the Lord, alas.” [139]

Wherever Christianity has gone, the Laws of God have been adapted into the legal system of the community. The Christian Celts of Iberia, Ireland, Scotland as well as the Christian Celts of America had a legal system that reflected the teachings of the Christian Bible. The system was called the Tanistry which means the administration of law by deputies of the king. The system as it is preserved from ancient times is rather lengthy so here are just a few examples to show the influence of the Christian Bible:

1). "In the obscurity of the mists of olden time a desire would arise to replace armed combat by arbitration. [140]

2). And it would seem a desirable thing that land boundaries should be fixed without recourse to moats. [141]

3). Henceforth cases involving wrongdoing are to be made over to the wisest men. [142]

4). Any case is to be brought to judgment without delay.

5). Henceforth in any case involving false utterances let amends be paid in compensation for the harm. [143]

6). Henceforth if a complainant be merciful, let the judges also be merciful. [144]

7). If a malicious man utter lying words that another declares to be slanderous, to the measure of his tongue-loose recklessness shall he transport heavy burdens for the other man. [145]

8). The common people may eat corn, together with game bird but they may not hunt bears. They may kill stags, goats and red deer." [146]

There is much more to the Tanistry but this gives you information that the early Celts became Christian and this was imparted to those Celts living in the United States long before Columbus "discovered" America.

The Norsemen. The Columbus mystique has been so impressed on the American people that we are blinded to facts. Such again is the case of the colonists from Norway. When Thormod Torfason wrote his authenticated works titled Historia Vinlandae Antiquae in 1705, very few historians and other scholars knew anything of the many trips to America by the Norse mariners and colonists. For over two more centuries, nearly everyone continued to disbelieve Torfason's studies. But American's minds were made up, don't confuse us with facts! We will understand why we have been misled by the conclusion of the next lesson in history.

On May 24, 1934, a mining prospector named James Edward Dodd was blasting in the Great Lakes region of Canada and his dynamite uncovered a sword and a shield. These artifacts were taken to the royal Ontario Museum and they were accurately dated to the first quarter of the eleventh century, about 1025 A.D.

It was at this time that Leif Eriksson began his first ventures to the land that he called Vinland. The name itself was given to the St. Lawrence River area because of the abundance of wild grapes that the Norsemen found to make a very good grade of wine.

Because of the find of the sword and shield, along with much other evidence, we Americans began to believe that the Norsemen did, indeed, predate Columbus' discovery. In the 1930's, we began to learn about the tremendous amount of European travel and commerce predating Eriksson by many centuries.

Then in 1940, we were reconvinced that Eriksson didn't exist and that there was absolutely nobody who proceeded Columbus. Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison was an author who appeared to be "puffed" by the establishment. His style of writing was light and airy and he was very capable of mixing legends in with archaeological and historical facts in such a way that it became easy to question the technical analysis.

In 1940, from his Harvard position, he was adamant in his position that Columbus was the first and in 1942 he wrote Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus to prove his point. By 1961 the Royal Ontario Museum was obliged to re-evaluate their analysis of the sword and shield by stating that it "was not possible to authenticate the story of the alleged discovery."

In Admiral Morison's book The European Discovery of America, he refutes the Vinland story by stating that nearly all of the seacoast towns from Newfoundland to the Virginia Capes boast in their histories that Lief Eriksson was there. But he says that there have been no artifacts to prove his presence. He states that the Newport stone tower which is cherished as the first Christian Church in America is a fake and that it was built around 1675 by a colonial governor of Rhode Island. Yet, in 1946 an authenticated inscription was found on one of the rocks of the tower.

The inscription is in Nordic Runes and simply declares the lower to be the "cathedral church" and the "Bishop's Seat." The Newport Tower is a part of the church that the Norsemen built in the early 1300's. To further authenticate this, the Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazano in 1524 sailed up the East coast of the United States from Florida to Labrador. He rediscovered Long Island Sound and the Hudson River.

He drew a map, which is officially shown in the Archives, of the Narragansett coast and in his writings he described the stone' built "Norman Villa." He went ashore and found friendly Indians who knew nothing of the building of the villa. Verrazano recognized it to be Norse because of the style of architecture and other evidence. An English document (of the period of the Pilgrims) proposed a settlement in Rhode Island. The document gave the location of the Norman Tower as the place where the settlement should be made.

In Rhode Island today, the local name for the tower is often given as "Governor Arnold's Mill," because the first governor made use of the tower as a flour mill. Here is an example of how a historian can take partial facts, along with legend, and make it fit the "politically correct thing to say." There is evidence now being discovered that shows the Norsemen to have sailed South, along the Eastern seashore, into the Gulf of Mexico and then up the Mississippi River.

Not only have Viking Battle Axes been found but more inscriptions to prove their presence. The Heavener runestone inscription in the Oklahoma State Park on Poteau Mountain has been definitely judged to be Nordic script of the Viking Age of not later than 1350 A.D. Viking inscriptions have also been found in Colorado. No longer can we deny the presence of the Norsemen in America several hundred years before Columbus.

We have left for last what is perhaps the most striking evidence of pre-Columbus Europeans in America. In the Southwestern part of the United States the climate is generally arid or semi-arid and the soil is more alkaline. As a result of these conditions artifacts, including human remains, are left intact for a very long time.

There is mounting evidence that Europeans, in significant numbers, colonized a portion of the Southwestern United States during the period from approximately 700 A.D. until about 1300 A.D. It is very significant that all of the colonies in North America, including this one under discussion, appeared to simply vanish within an approximate 100 year time frame. We may never know the exact reasons and there could have been several. We know that the Europeans transmitted diseases that were specific to Europe to the indigenous natives who were vulnerable to them.

Conversely, the natives gave the Europeans specific diseases to which they were vulnerable, such as some of the social diseases. Or, there could have very easily been a universal uprising and this is even probable. Whatever the reasons were, we must believe that the ventures did not please God. There had to be things that were done that were seriously breaking some of His Laws.

About 700 A.D. there appeared in the area of West Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Nevada, a literal empire apparently made up of a city-state system. The empire was Christian and they had succeeding kings. The people came from the British Isles, Gaul (France), Germany, Rome and apparently North Africa. Undoubtedly, the North Africans were the Berbers who had already arrived from Libya and had previously taught the natives to build the pueblo style structures and to irrigate for farming. Some of the ancient ruins that were very skillfully built of stone masonry that are dotted over the Southwest are probably associated with the empire. Some of these ancient ruins have been rebuilt with later construction over the top of the original.

The modern American Indian knows nothing about the builders of these ancient cities. However, they have given a name to these earlier inhabitants. They call them the Hohokam, which means "Those who have gone" or "The old ones."

After the Spaniards occupied Mexico in the early 1500's, they headed north to investigate the persistent stories of the fabulously wealthy "Seven Cities of Cibola." Of course they never found them because the empire had simply vanished a couple of hundred years earlier. Even in 1300 A.D. the empire had already waned in its importance as a kingdom so there wasn't much left.

In New Mexico, south of Albuquerque and west of Los Lunas about 14 miles, is a huge Basalt (volcanic) boulder. The rock is nestled in a small draw on the side of a group of hills which overlooks the stream called Rio Puerco. The front side, protruding from the soil, is very flat and provides a perfect place for an inscription. On this boulder, inscribed in old Hebrew with a Greek influence, is the Decalog or The Ten Commandments! As early as 1850, when New Mexico became a territory, people knew of the inscription but it was not until a century later when Professor Robert Pfeiffer of Harvard University, an authority on the Old Testament, determined it to be The Ten Commandments. The inscription was then re-authenticated as being The Ten Commandments by Dr. Barry Fell, the country's foremost epigraphic scientist.

The most revealing discoveries of this ancient kingdom came from the Tucson, Arizona area. Along the Santa Cruz River, in the vicinity of Tucson, beneath six or more feet of undisturbed cliché soil, were found many artifacts that unquestionably prove that European people lived in the area. Cliché soil is made up of crusted calcium carbonate mixed with ordinary dirt. Through many years, water mixes with the combination and turns it into a very hard, concrete like, soil. After it is once formed, if it is then removed, the soil never returns to the original configuration.

Thus, when the artifacts were found, it is certain that they are of ancient origin and not a recent fraud. The artifacts included lead swords, spears, a patriarchal monstrance or shrine used in the religious ceremonies, and eight heavy crosses.  All of the artifacts were made of molded lead which was mined in the area. This is known because some of the molds were also found. Each of the crosses was actually two thin lead crosses which were riveted together with lead rivets.

When the two halves were separated, it was found that the inner sides were protected with wax in order to preserve the inscriptions which were on the inside parts. It became obvious that the crosses were made for the purpose of a permanent recording of events that were taking place at the time. The swords were not to be used for combat. They were made of lead and also contained inscriptions. They were for ceremonies of some sort. The inscriptions contained words in Hebrew, Latin and Greek. Following are some of the translations: On one of the crosses, at the top are the words "In Memoriam."

On the cross arm at the left is a profile of a head with the words "Britain, Albion, Jacob." In the center is another head profile with the words "Romans, Actim, Theodore." On the right is another head profile with the words "Gaul, Seine, Israel." On the vertical beam of the lead cross is this inscription. "Counsels of great cities together with seven hundred soldiers A.D. 800, Jan. 1."

"We are borne over the sea to Calalus, an unknown land where Toltezus Silvanus ruled far and wide over a people. Theodore transferred his troops to the foot of the city Rhoda and more than seven hundred were captured. No gold is taken away. Theodore, a man of great courage, rules for fourteen years. Jacob rules for six. With the help of God, nothing has to be feared. In the name of Israel, OL."

The inscriptions on these artifacts is a sort of history of one of the city-states of the European migration to this country. The first inscription reveals that Theodore was the ruling king over the city-state of Rhoda. The Toltecs (which history shows existed in Mexico in this time frame) were under Chief Toltezus Silvanus who ruled over a very large area and people. Theodore was a Roman and he moved his troops to the foot or outskirts of the city Rhoda for defense against the Toltecs. Apparently the troops could not hold against the Toltecs and 700 troops were captured but the Toltecs did not take any gold. Theodore must have been killed in that battle.

The second cross has the following inscription which, of course, has been translated from the Latin and Greek. "Jacob renews the city. With God's help Jacob rules with mighty hand in the manner of his ancestors. Sing to the Lord. May his fame live forever. OL." Jacob a native of Britain and he succeeded Theodore for six years while counterattacking the enemy. He personally fought at the font lines and it appears that he died in battle.

The third cross yielded this inscription. "From the egg (the beginning) A.D. 700 to A.D. 900. Nothing but the cross. While the war was raging, Israel died. Pray for the soul of Israel. May the earth lie light on thee. He adds glory to ancestral glory. Israel, defender of the faith. Israel reigns sixty-seven years."

Israel I was born on the Seine River in France and must have been just a boy when he assumed the throne in 785. These dates are known because of other inscriptions but there are too many of them to include here. The year 790 under Israel I's reign was important because of his decisive victory over the Toltecs. He subjugated them to be under his rule. On January 1, 800 he presided over a council of allied city-states. Because of the present peace, he turned his attention tot he priesthood.

The next inscription. "Israel II rules for six. Israel III was twenty-six years old when he began to rule. Internecine war. To conquer or die. He flourishes in ancestral honor day by day."

The next inscription. "A.D. 880. Israel III, for liberating the Toltezus, was banished. He was first to break the custom. The earth shook. Fear overwhelmed the hearts of men in the third year after he had fled. They betook themselves into the city and kept themselves within their walls. A dead man thou shall neither bury nor burn in the city. Before the city a plain was extending. Hills rung the city. It is a hundred years since Jacob was king. Jacob stationed himself in the front line. He anticipated everything. He fought much himself. Often smote the enemy. Israel turned his attention to the appointment of priests. We have life, a people widely ruling. OL."

The next inscription. "A.D. 895. An unknown land. Would that I might accomplish my task to serve the king. It is uncertain how long life will continue. There are many things which can be said while the war rages. Three thousand were killed. The leader with his principal men are captured. Nothing but peace was sought. God ordains all things. OL."

The author of the book Calalus is a history professor at Wake Forest University. He mistakenly describes the people of Rhoda as Roman Jews. This is undoubtedly because of the names of the individuals. But again, Dr. Berry Fell, the nation's foremost expert epigraphist Shows them to be Christians from England, France, Rome and North Africa. The crosses would have been unacceptable if they were Jews.

The use of the chronological term A.D., which was started by Dionesius in 532 A.D., would certainly have been unacceptable to the Jews. To this day they term the present chronological time the "Christian Era" instead of A.D. The Toltecs went on to totally destroy these people.

Why didn't these European Christians survive? Why did all of the other Europeans mysteriously vanish with the last of them having been gone since the 1300's? It was for several reasons, all of which are distasteful to God for His Celto-Saxon people. The Apostle Paul summed it all up when he said: "Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you." [147]

For one thing, they had to interbreed themselves out of existence, at least in part. They also apparently came for the riches of gold and silver. In nearly all cases, there appears to be mining as a principle purpose for being here. They also apparently tried to subdue the native population. In other words, use them as slave or cheap labor. If we will look back into history, all of the great civilizations of the Celto-Saxons fell when they brought in cheap labor or slaves and then mixed with them.

The process destroys both cultures. If we will but look at our own history we will see a lesson. That part of our culture that came from the Pilgrims and then moved westward as the needs required used their own labor. They had large families and the children worked in their enterprises, be it farming or a shop in town.

They remained separated from other peoples and they were told in their churches that gold would be used for street paving in the future! As long as our forefathers stayed separate, feared God, loved their neighbor as themselves and did not love mammon more than their gifts form God, they were a peculiar people to Him. Look around us in modern America and what we see speaks for itself. But it is not too late. It is not too late. Not yet. [148]

Now back to where we left off in our story, as related in National Geographics. "Early mapmakers and explorers gave credence to the legend. Place-names from the Navigatio appear on later charts, and early navigators sought vainly for 'St. Brendan's Isle.' Fact or fantasy, the Navigatio had incalculable impact on the great European voyages of discovery, including that of Columbus. According to the legend, St. Brendan and his fellow monks set sail from Ireland in a leather-hulled curragh; this same type of boat, now covered with tarred canvas, is still used by Irish fishermen. The voyage lasted seven years and introduced the monks to such wonders as demons who hurled fire at them, a floating crystal column, and a sea creature as great as an island. Scholars wonder today: Mighty they have been volcanic eruptions...an iceberg...a whale? Finally, Brendan and his shipmates reached the Promised Land, a huge, lush island divided by a mighty river.

Soon afterward they sailed home to Ireland, where Brendan died. There the legend of St. Brendan ends, to be given new vitality in the 1970's by a real-life sequel. In the following article, British author and explorer Timothy Severin recounts his epic Atlantic crossing aboard a leather boat. In proving that such a long-ago voyage could have been made, Tim Severin and his crew have brought one of history's most intriguing takes a giant step closer to the realm of possibility. -- The Editor." [149]

When David died as the world emperor, he was ruling over the Mediterranean Sea in conjunction with the Phoenicians; he ruled over conquered territory from Egypt somewhere in the interior of Asia. And Israelites were present in Britain and America.

During the reign of King Solomon he inherited a huge domain, great power and he devoted himself to wisdom and good rule during the first part of his reign. 1 Kings 4:20-25 related that Israel dwelt safely all the days of Solomon, indeed, how could they not, there was no one left in that area to challenge them. 1 Kings 5:12 show King Hiram and the Phoenicians were allied to Israel. "And the Lord gave Solomon wisdom, as he promised him: and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon; and they two made a league together."

1 Kings 4:31-34 makes some statements which the world's historians hate. It states that Solomons' wisdom was known to all the nations of the earth. "For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about. And he spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes. And there came of all people to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, which had heard of his wisdom."

2 Chronicles states all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon and brought their tributes year by year and presents to hear his wisdom. "And all the drinking vessels of king Solomon were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold: none were of silver; it was not any thing accounted of in the days of Solomon. For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks. And king Solomon passed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom. And all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon, to hear his wisdom, that God had put in his heart." [150]

Is this just some imagination exaggeration of some Hebrew writer? He couldn't actually mean it could he? Well 2 Chronicles 8, 18:9-10 and 1 Kings 9 also show that Israel and Phoenicia joined their navies into one navy, and it mentions they mingled the crews on the same ship. Berry Falls book "America B.C." has some remarkable revelations of the real extent of just how much the Israelites and the Phoenician alliance was in the area which consists of the United States today. He states in his book "America B.C." that the Phoenicians had a regular port of call of the coast of Maine. Where an old inscription was found which he translates: "Ships of Phoenicia cargo platform." Fell states: "It is obvious that the flat topped island would not have been set aside for the loading and unloading of Phoenician ships were they not regular visitors to America, with a predictable time table of ports of arrival and departure and expected dates."

He adds: "These inscriptions suggest that international maritime commerce was well established in what he calls the late bronze age. That North American ports were listed on a sailing timetable of the overseas vessels of the principle Phoenician shipping companies. And that the same information was circulated to customers in America."

This, along with the above information, gives us an entirely different perspective on just how wide spread was international commerce in the ancient world, and just how intelligent these people were. These people were not cavemen or neanderthals or some people evolutionary revolving from some primitive background, they were intelligent.

How permanent were these settlements in the new world? The book "America B.C." also shows the evidence that the Phoenicians had a twenty acre temple site to Baal and pagan deities in New Hampshire. This is not the evidence of people who were just coming for just a few years to trade with the Indians and go. They had very substantial settlements here.

Israel, as we know, quickly joined itself to the Baal worship of the Phoenicians, so it is not surprising that the Baal worship was dominating the old world colonies of the Israelites and the Phoenicians. There were, also, worshipers of the True God of Israel were present in the new world.

In "Saga America" another book by Berry Fell in two issues of the occasional publications of the Uppergrafic Society of which he was president, showed that the Ten Commandments were written in the ancient Hebrew and they were carved into the rock in New Mexico, as we have shown above. A tablet which contained the Ten Commandments was also found in Ohio; this was found in 1860 at the opening of the Civil War or it very likely would have gotten much more attention. So, obviously, there were Israelites who were serving the True God in America. How many is very difficult to guess, since the worshipers of the True God did not build pagan temples or leave monuments to the pagan gods, as the Phoenicians did.

Soon after Solomon became king, Egypt joined the Israelites Phoenician alliance, which is discussed in 1 Kings 3:1. "And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about."  The Pharaoh of Egypt conquered a city it states: "For Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a present unto his daughter, Solomon's wife." [151] Which was dowry for his daughter who was Solomon and was apparently his first wife. So, we can see that both King Hiram and Egypt's Pharaoh took the classic action of lesser powers toward a greater power, initiating the efforts to try to bind themselves to a superior power.

Egypt's sailors were a fair skinned group of maritime people who settled in the area of ancient Lybia. This is covered in "America B.C." and "Bronze Age America" where he goes into the classical writers, and it is not his own idea.

There is evidence of ancient Egyptians found in Maine, they were known as the Knickknack Indians which Dr. McDonald states was the Algonquian or Iroquois Race. There have also been Egyptian hieroglyphics found on Long Island. While the ancient Libyan language of their sailors has been found in Quebec, Canada, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, California, Texas and New York.

This may sound like a roll call for a lot of people in these areas but we highly recommend these books so that you can see for yourself. There are other states where a person by the name of Gloria Sally has found evidence of inscriptions left by the Celts, the Libyans and the Phoenicians who ascended the Mississippi, Cimmeron and Arkansas Rivers. The Bible does tell us that the Israelites, Phoenicians and the Egyptians were allied in the first millennium B.C. so we should not be shocked to find that these groups were the ones found in the North American Continent. Is it any coincidence that the Archeological discoveries of America's past have shown these three groups were working together and exploring what has become the territory called the United States?

There is a smoking gun to show that these groups were working together, the new world equivalent of the Rosette Stone has been sitting, largely unappreciated in a Davenport, Iowa museum. Its a trilingual parallel ancient inscription recording a pagan ceremony which looked very much like a May Pole or May Day celebration.

It had joint inscriptions of Egyptian hieroglyphics, the ancient Libyan, which was the language of their sailors and what is now called an Iberian Tunic. This is a language which was descended from the Hebrew Phoenicians. It was found in 1874; so it was not found just yesterday, it has been here and ignored for a long time. But it proves these groups were working together in the new world and it was in inscriptions that could be understood by anyone in those three groups of people.

Another artifact found in Oklahoma refers to the Phoenician god Baal and the Egyptian god Ra, and is dated by Fells to be about 800 B.C. Comment has to be made on the closeness of the Israelite Hebrew and the Phoenician language of Tyre and Sidon to show that the Phoenician inscriptions are also Hebrew or Israelite.

George Wellington a famous British historian of the late 1800s comments in his book "Phoenicia:" “The words most commonly in use, particles, the pronoun, the forms of the verb, the principle inflections and we may add the numerals in Phoenician are identical or near identical to the pure Hebrew. Many other sources comment on the similarity as well; and many sources reflect that the English language came from the Hebrew."

In the book "Short History of the Near East" by Philip Piffy, he states: "The Phoenician trade on an international scale on textiles, metals, glass, pottery and etc., gave the country three centuries, beginning around 1000 B.C. a prosperity unmatched in its history."

Now the world recognizes the Phoenicians had an empire at that time, but they do not wish to acknowledge that in 1000 B.C. which was the time that David and Solomon rose to power and three centuries later when the Phoenician power seem to disappear was when the Israelites left the area of Palestine. The Phoenicians did not have them around to be allied to.

Ecclesiastes Two mentions that Solomon collected the best that the world had to offer in architecture, music, art, etc., and there was no bounds to his wisdom. The Bible says that the kings when they brought their gifts to Solomon year by year, included animals, gold, silver, many types products and artwork. Which very likely occurred during the feast of tabernacles, which Israel was keeping at that time. There were several types of the millennium that parallel the prophecies at that time.

For the world was at peace during the time that Solomon was a righteous king living by God's Laws. He was a peaceful king of kings, living in Jerusalem, and the rest of the world was flowing to Israel; he was preceded by an era of great wars, just like the millennium will be, when he and David his father put down many enemies.

So we can see that Solomon ruled an area greater than the Caesars of Rome. The Mediterranean was an Israelites lake; it was ruled by Israel and its allies the Phoenicians and Egyptians; he was in charge of the Mid-East and the Mesopotamians were ruled by Israel; but we don't know how far that went into Asia; Egypt was his ally and he had extensive presence in the new world; America was extensively explored and colonized.

Historians also record that Cadez, a city in Spain that is called Cadez now, was founded by the Phoenicians about 1000 B.C., which, again, was during the reign of David and Solomon. When one looks at the historic records of the Phoenicians the period of 1000 B.C. is very common when they mark their ascension to greatness, which the Bible also identifies as the time when David and Solomon began their golden age. Early British historians record that the Phoenicians were heavily involved in colonizing and mining in the British Isles. In Raymond Capt's book "The Traditions of Glastenbury" mentions some of the early historical accounts of the Tribe of Asher of Israel overseeing the mining operations in Britain.

Now when Israel split into Israel and Judah this alliance weakened. Wars were fought between the Israelites and the Judeans, and yes at times they were allied. But Israel went very deep into the Baal worship of Phoenicia and around 870-850 B.C. Israel was ruled by King Ahab, who was married to a Phoenician princess by the name of Jezebel from the city state of Sidon. Which shows that the Phoenician/Israelites alliance was still followed.

When God sent a prophet name Elijah in the middle of the ninth century B.C. Israel's King Ahab had gotten to a point where he was so evil that Elijah had prayed for a drought on the land of Israel. James 5 shows that it lasted 3½ years. "Elias (Elijah) was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain: and it rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months." [152]

1 Kings 17 and 18 show that the drought was so severe that the creeks dried up, and there was no vegetation was left for the animals. Starvation was prevalent in both Israel and the Phoenician city states as we can see from the example of Elijah when he was sent to the home of the Sidonian widow. 1 Kings 18 states that King Ahab had searched for Elijah in all the nations. "As the Lord thy God liveth, there is no nation or kingdom, whither my lord hath not sent to seek thee: and when they said, He is not there; he took an oath of the kingdom and nation, that they found thee not." [153]

Now that we know those international maritime routes included the area now known as the United States in the new world, that takes on new meaning as it was not just in the mid-east where the search took place. For Israel was still among the great nations of the earth with a large population.

During this drought, they had one choice, they could either stay and starve or they could migrate elsewhere and live. Israel had a colonial empire that was quite large, and they had many places to go. However, when one has women and children you do not want to put them on a boat and cross the ocean to America, or Great Britain or even to Spain, you wanted to take them somewhere as close to home as possible, to avoid the rigors of distant travel, yet was away from the drought.

History records that Cartage was founded by the Phoenicians in the middle of the 9th century B.C. Which coincides, roughly with the same time that Israel was experiencing its drought. Alfred Church's book called "Cartage" written in 1890 shows that the name Cartage was the Roman name for the city but that is not the name the Carthagenians called themselves. They called the city, according to Alfred Church's book, the Carthagenians called themselves Cherjaf-habashaf, which Hebrew meaning "new town." A very appropriate name for a new colony, which was being started. Now several historians of Cartage records the magistrates were called the Saphetes by the Romans, but again, that is not the name they called their own magistrates.

In the Carthaginian language when looking at their artifacts, they called them the Shepheta, which is also Hebrew for the word judges. The name of one of the Books of the Bible - Judges. One of their early kings was named Marcus, a Hebrew name, still present during the time of Christ, when the High Priests servant was named Marcus. Remember, he's the one who had his ear cut off, when Peter tried to cut off his head but got his ear instead. Also they had a reference to the Hebrew El, which is depicted in Carthagian artifacts as sitting between the Cherubims.

In the book "Daily Life in Cartage" it states the priestly laws of Cartage was: "A very significant resemblance to the Book of Leviticus, and many of the sacrifices corresponded exactly to those of the Hebrews."  Many historians have noticed the similarity of the Carthagenians or as the Romans called it the Tunic tongue, to Hebrew. As late as the fourth century A.D., which was many centuries after Cartage fell, remnants of the Tunic culture were recognized by early church writers such as St. Augustine and St. Jerome as having their roots in the Hebrew language. The Encyclopedia Judicia, when it talks about the fall of Samaria, to the Assyrians it mentions that the Africans, which was their word for the Carthaginians contested with the Jews over the rights of Arab/Israel, or the land of Israel.

Now this would make no sense at all if Cartage did not consist of the descendent of the Tribes of Israel. Who had gone into captivity, or had left that area. But they clearly recognized that the land of Palestine was a cultural heritage to the people of Cartage, since they claimed that land as their own at that time. Cartage became very powerful in the middle of the first millennium B.C.

In their early days they were much stronger than Rome and imposed a treaty on Rome, which basically forbade them from sailing in the Western Mediterranean and telling them where they could sail their ships. They were the enemies of Greece and Rome, they kept them out of the Atlantic Ocean with the Carthaginian Navy. But the Greeks did record some information about what Carthage had found in their Atlantic voyages. And a lot of this will probably be quite new to you. The Greeks record: "In the sea outside the pillars of Hercules, that's Gibraltar, an island was found by the Carthagenians, a wilderness having wood of all kinds, and navigatable rivers; remarkable for various kinds of fruit, many sailing distance day away. When the Carthagenians, who were the masters of the western ocean, observed that many traitors and other men were attracted by the fertility of the soil and the pleasant climate, they frequented it. And some resided there. They feared that knowledge of the land would reach other nations."

You can check the historical accounts and see that Cartage at that point became very protective of what was going on west of the Atlantic Ocean, and did not allow the sailors of other nations past Gibraltar. A Greek, in the first century by the name of Diatrous, wrote: "Over against Africa, on the other side of Africa lies a very great island in the vast ocean. Many days sail westward of Libya or from Libya westward, the soil is very fruitful, a great part is mountainous and much likewise is a plane. It has several navagatable rivers, it has very large woods, fresh water and all sorts of wild beasts to hunt."

If one will take a globe of the earth and go westward from Libya to that part of the globe, you will come right into the heartland of what is now called the United States. This land was obviously America; and it stayed in the hands of the Israelite Carthagenians for many many years after Cartage fell. It was the secret of Cartage's wealth, and Cartage is acknowledged as a very wealthy city at that time. In giving America's land to the Carthagieans God was passing on to them the promises to Abraham's seed. Also they inherited the promise of possessing the gates of their enemies. And they held a lock-hold on Gibraltar during much of this time. Heroticus a Greek historian records that, "the Carthagenians sent an expedition westward from Gibraltar, which included 30,000 men and women, sixty ships, in a time frame of 500-480 B.C. that was when Cartage was much stronger. Westward through the pillars of Hercules to a destination he did not know."

Think for a moment, 30,000 men and women; that's a colonizing expedition, in 60 ships: by doing a little math that is 500 people per ship. Which will give you an idea of the size of the vessel, which even the Greeks acknowledge the Carthagenians were sailing. This also gives us an idea of the size of the ships the Phoenicians and Israelites had during the reign of David and Solomon's time. Carthagian coins and artifacts have been found in North America, which is a story that is basically not told anywhere.

It is in Berry Fells book, but the typical academic writers do not want to really deal with what he has discovered. These coins have been found in Colorado, New York, Alabama, Connecticut and Nevada. You can even take some of the Carthaginian inscriptions which Fell discusses in his book; you can get a Hebrew Lexicon out of your Concordance and you can come to the exact same translation that Fell does by using those Hebrew Lexicons.

Most people do not realize this because history has been taught from the Greco-Roman perspective but America was long known about, in ancient history. And that Cartage was Israelite in it inception. However, in later years they became a pyelograph people, they became very degenerate. How long they had worshipers of the True God we do not know. But they became extremely evil; indulging in child sacrifice, mass sacrifices of human beings - they became extremely violent.

When Rome in the second Tunic war, finally won that war it was actually God's judgment against Cartage and its Israelite people as punishment for their sins. But even in that second Tunic War Cartage came very close to exterminating Rome from off the face of the earth. When Hannibal, who was named after Baal, took an army into the Italian area and was therefore years waging war against the Romans, conquering city after city trying to start a revolt but they were not blessed with victory.

When Cartage fell in the middle of the 2nd century B.C., where did its people go? Since some of the historians talk about the population of Cartage being some 600,000, it also relates that only a few thousand stayed to fight the Romans to the bitter end. Some of them probably sought a new life in Cartage's secret territories in America. For America has been a land of refuge for a long time before the Pilgrims came. These people which came at that time, were Baal worshipers as the remains in America shows. They had gotten degenerate also, and likely died out in wars, intermarriage with the Indians and possibly from VD from their wild sexual practices; which their monuments testify to. The Carthaginian Israelites in their empire had Southern Spain including the area of Gibraltar, parts of West Africa, and America in their domain. They traded exclusively in the British Isles.

The book "Judah's Scepter and Joseph's Birthright," goes into the story of how Dan and Simeon arriving in Wales and Ireland. The Carthagenians traded extensively with these people, but there is no evidence that those areas were part of Cartage Empire, they were only mercantile contacts. Let's repeat, America was given to the Israelites by God in the 1600 and 1700s as the British and European Israelite settlers came again. Historians ignore this part of history because it proves their ideas of evolution as a bunch of bologna. [154]

1075: Philistines capture the Ark; Eli dies; David reigns in Hebron.

1050: David captures Zion and moves his capital there. Fall of Shiloh. Samuel. Dorian tribes invade Peloponne­sus. [155]

1025: David dies at age 70; Solomon succeeds him on the throne.

1020‑1004: Saul. [156]

1000: Temple completed and dedicated

1000‑965: David. Hebrews establish Jerusalem capital of Israel. Teutons migrate to Rhine River area. [157]

975: Solomon dies; Rehoboam begins reign.

965‑928: Solomon. Rezon.  [158]

950: Southern kingdom (Judah) Northern kingdom (Israel). Asa begins 41 year reign.

935‑???: 22nd Dynasty.

935‑914: Shishak. [159]

928‑911: Rehoboam (Judah). [160]

925: Omri ‑ Samaria founded. Jehoshaphat begins 25 year reign. Abijah begins 3 year reign. Jeroboam I, son of Nebat.

918‑917: Shishak invades Palestine. [161]

911‑908: Abijah (Judah). [162]

908‑867: Asa (Judah). [163]

907‑906: Nadab (Israel). [164]

906‑883: Baasha (Israel) Ben‑Hadad I. [165]

883‑882: Elah (Israel). [166]

882: Zimri (Israel). [167]

882‑871: Omri (Israel) Ben‑Hadad II. [168]

875: Jehoram/Ahaziah/Athaliah. Joash begins 40 year reign. Jehu begins his reign.

871‑852: Ahab (Israel). [169]

867‑846: Jehoshaphat (Judah). [170]

860: Jehoahaz begins his reign.

853: Battle of Oarqar. Elijah.

852‑852: Ahaziah (Israel). [171]

851‑842: Jehu (Israel). Hazael. [172]

850: Amaziah begins 29 year reign.

846‑843: Jehoram (Judah). [173]

843‑842: Ahaziah (Judah). [174]

836‑798: Jehoash (Judah). [175]

825: Southern kingdom (Judah). Northern kingdom (Israel).

815‑800: Jehoahaz (Israel). Ben‑Hadad III. Carthage is founded by Phoenicians. [176]

810: Azariah (Uzziah) begins reign. Joash begins his reign.

800: Jeroboam II begins his reign

800‑784: Jehoash (Israel). Amos. [177] Hosea the prophet. Jotham begins 16 year reign. Isaiah and Amos the prophets.

798‑769: Amaziah (Judah). [178]

784‑748: Jehoash (Israel). Hosea. [179]

769‑733: Uzziah (Judah). [180]

758‑743: Jotham (Judah) (regent). [181]

753: Rome is founded

750: Ahaz begins 16 year reign. Menahem begins 10 year reign. Hezekiah begins 29 year reign. Hoshea begins 9 year reign. Micah the prophet. 10 tribes dispersed by Assyria.

748‑747: Zechariah (Israel). Rezin. [182]

748‑747: Shallum (Israel). [183]

758‑743: Ahaz (Judah) (regent). [184]

747‑737: Menahem (Israel). [185]

740‑700: Prophecies of Isaiah.

737‑735: Pekahiah (Israel). [186]

735‑733: Pekah (Israel). [187]

733‑727: Ahaz (Judah). [188]

733‑724: Hoshea (Israel). [189]

727‑698: Hezekiah (Judah). [190]

722: Samaria captured by Shalmaneser V. [191]

720: Sargon makes Samaria an Assyrian province. Mass deporta­tion of Israelites. [192]

701: Expedition of Sennacherib against Hezekiah. [193]

700: Manasseh begins 55 year reign.

698‑642: Manasseh (Judah). [194]

650: Amon begins 2 year reign.

641‑640: Amon (Judah). [195]

639‑609: Josiah (Judah). [196]

627‑585: Prophecies of Jeremiah.

625: Josiah begins 31 year reign. Jeremiah and Zephaniah the prophets. Jehoiakim begins 11 year reign.

612: Fall of Nineveh. [197]

609: Jehoahaz (Judah). Battle of Megiddo. [198]

608: "And the Lord said unto me A Conspiracy is found among the Men of Judah, and among the Inhabitants of Jerusalem." [199]

608‑598: Jehoiakim (Judah). [200]

600: Ezekiel and Daniel carried captive into Babylon. The Temple burnt, Jerusalem destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar

597: Jehoiachin (Judah). Expedition of Nebuchadnezzar against Judah, Jehoiachin deported to Babylon. [201]

595‑586: Zedekiah (Judah). [202]

   593: "There is a Conspiracy of her prophets in the midst thereof, like a roaring lion ravening the prey; they have devoured should; they have taken the treasure and precious things; they have made her many widows in the midst thereof." [203]

593‑571: Prophecies of Ezekiel.

594: "And behold, the glory of the God of Israel was there, according to the vision that I saw in the plain. Then said he unto me, Son of man, lift up thine eyes now the way toward the north. So I lifted up mine eyes the way toward the north, and behold northward at the gate of the altar this image of jealousy in the entry. He said furthermore unto me, Son of man, seest thou what they do? even the great abominations that the house of Israel committeth here, that I should go far off from my sanctuary?..." [204]; "Again the word of the Lord came unto me saying, Son of man, thy brethren, even thy brethren, the men  of thy kindred, and all the House of Israel wholly, are they unto whom the Inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, get you far from the lord: unto us (Jews) is this land (Palestine) given in possession." [205]

594: "And the Glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side." [206]

Thus fulfilling God's words which He spoke to Ezekiel 11:23, before this happened.

587: "Thus saith the Lord God; because the enemy [Israel's enemy - The Jews] hath said against you, aha, even the Ancient High Places are our's in Possession." [207]

586: Destruction of Jerusalem; mass deportation to Babylonia. Exile of Judeans in Babylonia. [208]

585‑???: Murder of Gedaliah. 6th cent. Canonization of the Pentateuch (in Babylonian Exile).

580: King Nebuchadnezzar builds Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

563: Buddha is born.

560: Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) released from prison in Babylon.

551: Confucius is born.

550: Belshazzar slain by Median/Persian army as Babylon falls.

540: Cyrus in his third year decrees the rebuilding of the Temple.

539: Cyrus takes Babylonia.

538: First return under Sheshbazzar. Cyrus' edict. [209]

525: Haggai the prophet. The Temple is rebuilt; Zechariah the prophet. Egypt conquered by Cambyses.

522: Zerubbabel governor. [210]

520‑515: Temple rebuilt.

475: Esther is made queen by Ahasuerus. Ezra returns to Jerusalem.

465‑424: Artaxerxes I. [211]

450: Artaxerxes Longimanus decrees to rebuild walls of Jerusalem. Nehemiah governs Judah. Malachi the prophet.

428‑???: Second return under Ezra.

445: Walls of Jerusalem reconstructed under Nehemiah; Ezra reads the Law.

411: Destruction of the temple of the Jewish colony at Elephan­tine.

404‑358: Artaxerxes II. Egypt regains freedom.

350: Alexander the Great. Ptolemies and Seleucids (Greek kings of Egypt and Syria).

348: Artaxerxes III deports a number of Jews to Hyrcan­ia. 4th cent. Canonization of the Prophets Section of the Bible.

343: Egypt reconquered by Persia.

332: Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and Palestine.

323‑285: Ptolemy I. Death of Alexander the Great. Chandrag­upta founds first Empire of India.

312‑280: Seleucus I. Mid‑3rd cent. Pentateuch translated into Greek in Egypt.

301: Ptolemy I conquers Palestine.

285‑246: Ptolemy II, Philadelphus.

250: Septuagint ‑ Old Testament translated into Greek.

246‑221: Ptolemy III, Euergetes.

223‑187: Antiochus III.

221‑203: Ptolemy IV, Philopator.

219‑217: Antiochus III conquers most of Palestine. Ptolemy IV defeats Antiochus III in the battle of Rafah and recovers Palestine.

215: Great Wall of China is built.

203‑181: Ptolemy V, Epiphanes.

198: Battle of Panias (Banias): Palestine passes to the Sel­eucids.

175: Antiochus Epiphanes.

172: Jerusalem becomes a polis (Antiochia).

171‑167: Menelaus high priest.

170: Book of Ben Sira written.

169: Antiochus IV plunders the Temple treasuries.

168: Antiochus IV invades Egypt, storms Jerusalem; gentiles settled on the Acra.

167: Antiochus IV outlaws the practice of Judaism; profanation of the Temple; the rebellion of the Hasmoneans begins.

166‑160: Judah Maccabee, leaders of the rebellion, victori­ous over several Syrian armies.

164‑163: Antiochus V. Judah Maccabee captures Jerusalem and reeducates the Temple.

161: Judah Maccabee defeats Nicanor and reconquers Jerusalem, treaty between Judah and Rome.

160: Judah Maccabee falls in battle against Bacchides, Jonathan assumes the leadership; guerilla warfare.

157: Treaty between Bacchides and Jonathan, withdrawal of Seleucid garrisons, Jonathan enters Jerusalem.

152‑145: Jonathan high priest. Alexander Balas.

150: The Maccabean Revolt.

­        142: Jonathan treacherously murdered by Tryphon. Simeon assumes leadership; Demetrius II recognizes the independence of Judea; renewal of treaty with Rome.

140: Great Assembly in Jerusalem confirms Simeon as ethnarch, high priest, and commander in chief.

134‑132: War with Antiochus Vii; Jerusalem besieged; treaty between John Hyrcanus and Antiochus VII.

134‑104: Simeon assassinated. John Hyrcanus. Latter second century First Book of Maccabees written. Treaty with Rome renewed.

79: The Sadducees were constant opponents of the Pharisees and their imported Babylonian paganism, which they misrepre­sented as the Tradi­tion of the Elders, the "Oral Law" transmitted privately to Moses and on down the line, superseding anything written in the Bible. In the six years of civil war between them and Alexander Jannaeus, King and High Priest of Jerusalem, 50,0­00 were killed on both sides before this Sadducean ruler succumbed and his widow Salome turned af­fairs over to the Pharisees in 79 B.C. Her brother, Simon ben Shetah, had been waiting for such an opportunity.

67‑63: Civil war between Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus.

63: The continued civil war resulted in the sons of Alexander, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, both going hat in hand to Pompey, Caesar's Roman general who was in Syria at the time, and asked him to invade Palestine and slaughter their respective oppo­nents. Pompey decides in favor of Hyrcanus II. Temple Mount besieged and captured by Pompey. This is how Rome happened to be in power when Christ was born. And it was only after Christ's Ascension that the Pharisees triumphed.

63‑40: Hyrcanus II ethnarch and high priest. Judea loses its Indepen­dence.

55: Julius Caesar conquers Gaul, invades Britain.

53: Palestine conquered by the Romans under Pompey

50: Julius Caesar.

48: Hyrcanus II and Antipater help Caesar in Alexan­dria. Caesar confirms Jewish privileges.

44: Assassination of Caesar.

37‑4: Jerusalem captured by Herod. Herod Shemaiah and Avta­lion.

5-1: Christ was born. Caesar Augustus begins his rule as Roman emperor. Philip, Herod Anitpas, Archelaus ‑ tetrarchs of Palestine. "For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour" Tiberius Caesar ‑ emperor of Rome. Pontius Pilate, provincial governor of Judaea. The gospel of the Kingdom is preached.

6‑41: Judea, Samaria, and Idumea formed into a Roman province (ludaea) under a praefectus beginning of 1st cent. death of Hillel. Tiberius expels the Jews. Claudius, Roman Emperor, as recorded in "Epistolae:" "{Jews were} fomenting a general plague on the whole world."

26‑36: Pontius Pilate praefectus.

27‑14 A.D.: Augustus. Temple rebuilt by Herod.

"It is highly probable that the bulk of the Jew's ancestors 'never' lived in Palestine 'at all,' which witnesses the power of historical assertion over fact." [212]

There are basically two concepts of religious theory in Judaism, the orthodox principle and the reformed principle. The Orthodox Jew is strictly a Talmudic worshiper. The Talmud {a written continuation of the Oral Laws of the Jews} was not compiled by one person, or at one time. Generations of scholars and jurists took a period of several centuries to complete it.

In one version, Rabbi Aschi began it in 327 A.D. and labored over it for sixty years; he was followed by Rabbi Maremar about the year 500 A.D. This part of the Talmud includes thirty‑six chapters of interpreta­tions. For nearly 500 years after the Talmud was completed, the study of the Talmud produced a variety of theories, partly due to public calamities and partly caused by dissen­sions among the Jewish scholars. In the eleventh century, others wrote further editions to the Talmud, while present day rabbinical scholars still write their interpretation of the Jewish Law. The great confusion created by the different versions of Jewish Law has led many Jews to fall away from religious belief.

Several rabbis have verified that the Jewish congregation is predominantly agnostics and atheists. Weary of waiting for the coming of the Messiah, the Jews have tended to identify the Messiahship with the Jewish nation itself and not with any particular individual. This is the religion of the Reformed Jew. Regardless of whether a Jew is an Orthodox or a Reformed believer, almost all the Jews contribute and give their wholehearted support to their Zionist political government.

30: The Spirit of God is poured out upon the Apostles on Pentecost. Stoning of Stephen ‑ first martyr. Christ crucified by the Jews [213]; death of Shammai. The Jews are the enemy of Christians. They tried to destroy The Lord Jesus Christ by Crucifying Him and persecuted His followers, killing and torturing them Historically speaking, scripture believers had accepted Christ as the Messiah foretold. They were no longer "Jews," but called themselves "Christians." These were the True Israelites, not Jews, the Jews have never accepted Christ, nor the Christian religion. They were persecuted as such by the Pharisees.

31: Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem.

35: Paul's conversion on the road to Damascus. The Gospel comes to the Gentiles; Cornelius baptized

37‑41: Cahguta. Crisis caused by Caligula's insistence on being worshiped as a deity. Anti‑Jewish riots in Alexandria.

40: Legation of Jews of Egypt lead by Philip to Rome. Until 40 Philo writes in Alexandria. Believers first called Christians  at Antioch.

41‑44: Agrippa I. Claudius issues edict of toleration.

43: James beheaded by Agrippa I; Peter freed from prison by an angel.

45: Paul's first missionary journey.

47: Council at Jerusalem.

50: Paul's second missionary journey.

53:  Paul's third missionary journey.

54‑68: Nero accepts Judaism and becomes a Jew. Rome under Nero is partly destroyed by fire.         ║

60: Paul at Rome

65: Rome burns and Nero persecutes Christians. Death of Paul; Nero commits suicide.

66: Massacre of the Jews at Alexandria. Beginning of revolt against Rome.

67: Vespasian conquers Galilee the Zealots take over in Jerusa­lem.

69‑79: Vespasian.

70: Jerusalem besieged and conquered by Titus; the Temple destroyed. Destruction of Qumran community. Sanhedrin established at Jabneh by Johanan Birth of Zakkai.

72: Judea completely conquered; the "Fiscus Judaicus" instituted by Vespasian.

73: Temple in Leotopolis closed. Fall of Masada.

79: Eruption of Vesuvius destroys Pompeii.

79‑81: Titus. Josephus completes Jewish Wars.

80: Christian persecutions under Domitian.

93: Josephus completes Jewish Antiquities.

115: The Jews of Babylonia, Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrene, and Libya rise against Trajan.

116‑117: "War of Quietus."

118: The Jews of Palestine rise against Trajan and Hadrian; "War of Lucius Quietus."

132‑135: Bar Kokhba war. Fall of Bethar; Aelia Capitolina estab­lished; Akiva executed.

133: Rebellion of Bar Kokba against Hadrian; restora­tion of the Jewish state.

135: Fall of Bethar; end of Bar Kokba's rebellion.

135‑138: Persecutions of Hadrian.

138‑161: Antoninus Pius. 2nd cent. Canonization of the Ketuvim (Hagiogra­pha).

140: Sanhedrin at Usha.

164: Revolution in Palestine against Antoninus Pius.

170: Sanhedrin at Bet She'arim.

185: Earliest Secret Chinese Societies. The earliest notice we have of a secret Chinese league is towards the close of the Han Dynasty (A.D. 185). Three patriots, having then associated themselves, defended the throne against the "Yellow Cap" rebels, a society numbering among its members the flower of Chinese littérateurs. From that time until the establishment of the Tartar dynasty (twelfth century), the League showed few sings of vitality. But at the beginning of the eighteenth century five monks and seven other persons bound themselves by an oath, which they ratified by mixing blood from the arm of each, and drinking it in common, to overthrow the Tsings, the Tartar dynasty, and restore the Mings, the dispossessed Chinese dynasty. The name of the society they founded was Pelin-kiao, or the White Lily. The members relied on a prophecy that one of them should be emperor of China. The leaders were Wang-lung and a bonze named Fan-ui. The former made himself master of the town of Shoo-chang-hien, but was soon driven thence, and eventually captured, and executed with many of his followers.

In 1777 the Pe-lin-kiao again appeared, only to be defeated again; the heads of the leaders, including those of two women, were cut off and placed in cages for public inspection. In 1800 a sect called the Wonderful Association, and another, called the Tsing-lien-kiao, supposed to be the Pe-lin-kiao under a new name, conspired against the ruling dynasty, but unsuccessfully. Under the reign of the Emperor Kia-King (1799-1820) arose the Th'iën-Hauw-Hoi'h, that is, the family of the Queen of Heaven, spread through Cochin-China, Siam, and Corea, with its headquarters in the southern provinces of the empire. The society on being discovered and, as it was thought, exterminated, arose again under the name of the Great Hung League; Hung literally means flood, and the leaders adopted the name to intimate that their society was to flood the earth.

To avoid appearance of all belonging to one society, they gave different names, some borrowed from previously existing sects, to the branches they established. Thus they were known as the Triad Society, the Blue Lotus Hall, the Golden Orchid District, and others. These soon attracted the attention of Government, and for some time they were kept in check.

About 1826 the chief leader of the League was one Kwang San. It was reported that, to make himself ferocious he once drank gall, taken out of a murdered man's body, mixed with wine. He resided chiefly at the tin-mines of Loocoot, where the brethren then swarmed. The directing power was vested in three persons; the chief, with the title of Koh, i.e., the Elder; the two others took that of Hiong Thi, i.e., Younger Brothers. In the Malacca branches the three chiefs were called Tai-Koh, eldest brother, Ji-Koh, second brother, and San-Koh, third brother. The oath of secrecy was taken by the aspirant kneeling before an image, under two sharp swords.

While the oath was being administered the Hiong Ghi had also to kneel, the one on the right, the other on the left of the aspirant, and hold over his head the swords in such a fashion as to form a triangle. The oath contained thirty-six articles, of which the following was the most important: "I swear that I shall know neither father nor mother, nor brother nor sister, nor wife nor child, but the brotherhood alone; where the brotherhood leads or pursues, there I shall follow or pursue; its foe shall be my foe."

The aspirant, with a knife, then made an incision into his finger, and allowed three drops of blood to fall into a cup of arrack; the three officials did the same thing, and then drank the liquor. In order further to ratify the oath, the newly-sworn member cut off the head of a white cock, which was to intimate that if he proved untrue, his head should be cut off.

In 1850 Tae-ping-wang, the noted revolutionary leader, made a fresh attempt to restore the Ming dynasty, from whom he pretended to be descended. With his defeat and death the League again subsided into obscurity. In the spring of 1863 a quantity of books were accidentally found by the police in the house of a Chinaman, suspected of theft, at Padang (Sumatra), containing the laws, statutes, oaths, mysteries of initiation, catechism, description of flags, symbols, and secret signs of the League, all of which were published in English in a volume at Batavia in 1866.

But this discovery showed the League to be still in existence, and about the year 1870 it started into activity again; in Sarawk it assumed such a threatening aspect that the Government made a law decreeing death to every member ipso facto. The disturbances at Singapore in 1872 also were due to the secret societies of the Chinese in the Straits Settlements. On that occasion the Sam-Sings, or "fighting men," were the chief rioters, taking the part of the street hawkers, against whom some severe regulations had been issued. Murder and incendiarism, torturing and maiming, are the usual practices of the League, which again made itself very obnoxious in 1883 and 1885.

The section of the "Black Flag," the remnant of the Taepings, as also the "White Lily," were the most active in their demonstrations against the Tsing dynasty. The last police reports from the protected state of Perak, in the Malay Peninsula, say that in 1888 secret societies "caused endless trouble and anxiety," although in 1887 four members of the Ghee Hin Association were sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment for conducting an agency for their society. half the Chinese in Perak are members of secret societies, tickets being found upon them whenever the police have occasion to search them.

The Straits Times of the 17th September 1889 contained full particulars of the trial of a number of prisoners who were proved to be members of the Ghee Hin or Sam Tian secret society at Sarawak. The six leaders were shot; eleven, being active members, carrying out orders of the leaders, beating, frightening, or murdering non-members, were sentenced to receive six dozen strokes with a rattan, to have their heads shaved, to be imprisoned during the Rajah's pleasure; seven others, against whom no specific charges were made out, were dismissed on swearing to have no further dealings with the society.

Toward the end of the year 1895 a number of Mohammedans rose against the Chinese Government and captured the capital of the province of Kansu; the secret societies in Central China joined the Mohammedan insurgents. Their success, however, was of short duration; in the month of December of the same year the insurrection was crushed, and some fifteen of the leaders were captured and beheaded. Others made their escape. Among these was Sun Yet Sun, or, as he is also called, Sun Wen, a medical man, well known in Hong-Kong. His being made a prisoner in the house of the Chinese Ambassador in London in the month of October 1896, until, at the instance of Lord Salisbury, he was released.

He asserted that he was kidnaped by the Chinese Ambassador's people, by being induced to walk into the Ambassador's house; but it is a curious circumstance that San Wen, who evidently knew something of London, should not have known where the Chinese Embassy was located, especially after all the excitement caused by Li Hung Chang's visit to the Continent and to England.

In justice to the Taepings and other secret associations in China, it must be stated that the insurrection was and is the war of an oppressed nationality against foreign invaders. The Mantchoos or Tsing dynasty are an alien tribe, ruling over the vast Chinese empire; their government was one of the most despotic the world has ever seen; their laws were so ruthless and unjust, that it would seem they could never be carried out, did not the blood of millions, perishing by every kind of frightful death that the most diabolical cruelty could invent attest the fact of their being obeyed. Yet British ministers did sanction the enlistment of British officers, Bible Gordon being their leader, what a satire! and men in the service of the Mantchoos, whom they further supplied with arms and artillery.

From the book published at Batavia, and mentioned above, we extract the following information: "The lodge is built in a square, surrounded by walls, which are pierced at the four cardinal points by as many gates; the faces are adorned by triangles, the mystic symbol of union. Within the enclosure is the hall of fidelity and loyalty, where the oaths of membership are taken. Here also stands the altar, and the precious nine-storied pagoda, in which the images of the five monkish founders are enshrined. The lodges, of course, only appear in out-of-the-way places, where they are safe from the observation of the Mandarins; in towns and populous neighborhoods the lodge is dispensed with; the meetings are held at the house of the president. The instruments of the lodge are numerous. First in importance is the diploma; then there are numerous flags; there is the 'bushel,' which contains among other articles the 'red staff,' with which justice is done to offenders against the laws of the society; the scissors, with which the hair of the neophytes is cut off; a jade foot measure, a balance, an abacus, etc."

The supreme government is vested in the grand masters of the five principal lodges, and the affairs of each lodge are administered by a president, a vice-president, one master, two introducers, one fiscal, thirteen councilors, several agents, who are otherwise known as 'grass shoes,' 'iron planks,' or 'night brethren,' and some minor officials, who, as indicative of their rank, wear flowers in their hair...

Henry Pottinger, in a despatch to Lord Aberdeen (1843), perhaps alludes to a secret society, saying: "The song being finished, Ke-Ying, the Chinese commissioner, having taken from his arm a gold bracelet, gave it to me, informing me, at the same time, that he had received it in his tender youth from his father, and that it contained a mysterious legend, and that, by merely showing it, it would in all parts of China assure me a fraternal reception."...

The Ko lao Hui: The secret society which at the present time seems to be the most powerful in China. It was at first a purely military association whose object was mutual protection against the plunder and extortion practiced by the civil officials in dealing with the pay and maintenance of the troops. It is believed that the initiation consists in killing a cock and drinking the blood, either by itself, or mixed with wine. It is also believed to use a planchet, whose movements are attributed to occult influence; gradually persons not connected with the army were admitted; the ticket of membership is a small oblong piece of linen or calico, stamped with a few Chinese characters. The possession of one of these, if discovered, entails immediate execution by the authorities.

The society is anti-foreign and anti-missionary, and is believed to be at the bottom of all the riots against foreigners, and especially against foreign missionaries, which have occurred in China. Of course, as long as missionaries, instead of making it their business to convert the heathens at home, will go among people who don't want them, and in China will establish themselves outside Treaty limits, they should be prepared to take the risks they voluntarily incur, but whenever attacked, they make the Chinese Government pay them liberally for any inconvenience or loss they may have suffered, of course, with the assistance of English gun-boats.

In 1891 the Ko lao Hui, which is also anti-dynastic, caused inflammatory placards to be posted up in various parts of the empire, which the authorities immediately tore down, only to be posted up afresh; the society also distributed anti-missionary pamphlets, with titles such as: "The Devil Doctriners ought to be killed," wherein the missionaries are charged with every kind of crime against morals and life; the Roman Catholics are more severely handled than the Protestants.

In September 1891 it would appear that the society was organizing a rising against the Government, and a Mr. C.W. Mason, a British subject, and a fourth-class assistant in the Customs at Shanghai, was implicated in the project, he having been instrumental in introducing arms and dynamite into the country for the use of the conspirators. He was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment with hard labor and he was further at the expiration of that period, to find two sureties of $2500 to be of good behavior and failing in this he was to be deported from China. This latter happening on his release, he was sent out of the country in September 1892.

In November 1891 a famous Ko lao Hue leader named Chen-kin-Lung fell into the hands of the Chinese Government. He had been staying at an inn with about thirty of his followers. Gagged and bound, he was taken on board a steam-launch kept ready to start, and carried to Shanghai. His examination was conducted with the greatest secrecy by the magistrate and deputies of the Viceroy and the Governor. On his person were found several official documents issued by the Ko lao Hui, and a short dagger with a poisoned blade. He was addressed in the despatches as the "Eighth Great Prince," and was evidently the commander of a strong force. Three examinations were held, but Chen preserved the strictest silence. Torture was employed, but in vain; the only words that could be extracted form him were, "Spare yourselves the trouble and me the pain; be convinced that there are men ready to sacrifice their lives for the good of a cause which will bring happiness to this country for thousands of generations to come."

Then more gentle means were employed, but with what result is not known...That the popular feeling against Christian missionaries in China was and still is very strong cannot be denied, and has displayed itself in frequent attacks on their persons and property. Such outbreaks are almost regularly reported in the European Press, but is not allowed to be known in the United States. A plain intimation was given to Sir Ratherford Alcock on his bidding adieu to a high Chinese official. "I wish," said the functionary, "now you are going home, you would take away with you your opium, and your Christian missionaries."...[214]

200: Sanhedrin at Sepphoris.

210: Reduction of the Mishnah to writing.

212: Jews (together with most of subject of the empire) become Roman citizens.

­        268: Goths invade Greece.

286: Judah III., son of Judah II., patriarch, collects a tax from foreign communities.

306: Council of Elvira forbids Christians to eat with Jews or to intermarry with them.

306‑337: Constantine I.

321: Jews in Cologne.

325: First Nicene Council separates the celebration of Easter from that of the Jewish Passover. Christian Church formulates its policy toward the Jews; the Jews must continue to exist for the sake of Christianity in seclusion and humilia­tion.

329: Constantius forbids, under penalty of death, mar­riage of a Jew with a Christian woman, and circum­cision of slaves.

337‑361: Constantius II. Death of Abbaye. Constantius II prohibits marriage between Jews and Christians and possession of Christian slaves by Jews.

351: Jews and Samaritans revolt against Gallus; destruction of Bet Sh'earim.

359: Permanent calendar committed to writing.

361: Restoration of the Temple at Jerusalem undertaken under Julian the Apostate.

362: Julian the Apostate abolishes the Jew tax.

363: Julian the Apostate allows Jews to start rebuild­ing the Temple.

370: Asian Huns invade Europe.

400: Moses, the False Messiah of Crete. Death of Judah IV.

406: Vandals invade Gaul; Romans leave Britain.

415: Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, drives the Jews from Alexandria.

418: Jews excluded from all public offices and dignities in the Roman empire.

425: Extinction of the patriarchate. Patriarchate abol­ished. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invade Britain.

427: Death of Ashi. 5th cent. Yose b. Yose earliest liturgical poet known by name.

433: Attila the Hun begins reign.

438: Theodosius II Novellae against the Jews and heretics.

455: Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Yezdegerd III. Jews forbidden to keep the Sabbath.

465: The Council of Vannes (Gaul) prohibits the clergy from taking part in Jewish banquets.

470: Persecutions by the authorities; Huna b. Mar Zutra the exilarch and others executed by the authori­ties.

471: Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Firuz (Perozes); the exilarch Huna Maria and others suffer martyrdom.

476: End of Western Roman Empire. Goths depose Western Roman Emperor, Romulas Augustus; Middle Ages be­gin.

481‑511: Clovis I king of the Franks.

495‑502: Revolt of Mar Zutra the exilarch.

499: Babylonian Talmud completed. You may ascertain by turning to top Jewish authorities today that the Babylonian Talmud, the written form of the Tradition of the Pharisees, is the sole authority of the so-called "Jewish" religion, or Judaism.

Rabbi Louis Finklestein was chosen in 1937 by the Kehillas (Jewish  Communities) of the World as one of the top 120 Jews best representing "a lamp of Judaism" to the World, together with Axim Litvinov (Finklestein), the Communist Commissar and bank robber terrorist; atheist communist Albert Einstein; those indefatigable Marxist reds, Harold Laski and his friend Felix Frankfurter (U.S. Supreme Court Justice) who shared honors with Rabbi Finklestein and others.

Finklestein headed the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, with branches in New York and Los Angeles. In his two-volume work "The Pharisees," Rabbi Finklestein writes: "Pharasaism became Talmudism...But the spirit of the ancient Pharisee survives unaltered. When the Jew...studies the Talmud, he is actually repeating the arguments used in the Palestinian academies. From Palestine to Babylonia; from Babylonia to North Africa, Italy, Spain, France and Germany; from these to Poland, Russia and Eastern Europe generally, ancient Pharisaism has wandered."

"But," says the disinterested Christian, "What has that to do with us today? What a group of Pharisees did two thousand years ago is over and done with!" However, the missing link in Christian understanding on the subject of "Pharisees" is best supplied by the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943): "The Jewish religion as it is today traces its descent, without a break, through all the centuries, from the Pharisees. Their leading ideas and methods found expression in a literature of enormous extent, of which a very great deal is still in existence. The Talmud is the largest and most important single piece of that literature...and the study of it is essential for any real understanding of Pharisaism."

The 1905 Jewish Encyclopedia, concerning the Pharisees, states: "With the destruction of the Temple (70 A.D.) the Sadducees disappeared altogether, leaving the regulation of all Jewish affairs in the hands of the Pharisees. Henceforth, Jewish life was (is) regulated by the Pharisees; the whole history of Judaism was reconstructed from the Pharisaic point of view, and a new aspect was given to the Sanhedrin of the past. A new chain of tradition supplanted the older priestly tradition. [215] Pharisaism {has} shaped the character of Judaism and the life and thought of the Jew for all the future."

Historically speaking, True Israelites have accepted Christ as the Messiah as foretold in the Scriptures. They were NOT JEWS and called themselves "Christians." They were persecuted as such by the Pharisees. In fact the word "Pharisee" comes from the word "separated," because they were separated and different from the True Israelites.

Rabbi Finklestein's history of the Jews, states: "The Talmud derives its authority from the position held by the ancient academies (Pharisee academies). The teachers of those academies, both of Babylonia and Palestine, were considered the rightful successors of the older Sanhedrin ...

At the present time, the Jewish people have no living central authority comparable in status to the ancient Sanhedrins or the later academies. Therefore, any decision regarding the Jewish religion must be based on the Talmud as the final resume of the teaching of those authorities when they existed." [216]

"The Talmud; Heart's Blood of the Jewish Faith," was the heading of a November, 1959, installment of a best-selling book by the Jewish author, Herman Wouk, which ran serially in the New York Herald-Tribune. "The Talmud is to this day the Circulating Heart's Blood of the Jewish Religion. Whatever laws, customs or ceremonies we observe, whether we are Orthodox, Conservative, Reform or merely spasmodic sentimentalists, we follow the Talmud. It is our common Law."

The Babylonian Talmud is composed of Mishnah (or "Halacha"), or laws, formulated by the Pharisees whose teachings comprise the Talmud, and "Gemara," or argumentative teachings about these laws. There are 63 books in the Babylonian Talmud, largely divided without topical organization.

All Talmud books have "Mishnah" (plural "Mishnaim"). Some lack a "Gemara." The "Mishnah" or law of one or another Pharisee may be referred to, for example, as the "Mishnah of Rabbi Akiba," or of "Eliezer ben Jacob." The name Mishnah is applied in particular to the collection of Halachoth, or laws, made by Judah Hanasi (generally known as Rabbi) and his colleagues at the beginning of the 3rd Century C.E. (Note: "C.E." stands for "Common Era," to avoid "A.D." or "Year of Our Lord," from the Latin, Anno Domini). "The Mishnah represents the culmination of a series of attempts to bring order into the vast mass of traditions which had been transmitted orally for many centuries...The compilation of the Mishnah is not, however, the work of one man, or even of the scholars of one age, but rather the result of a long process extending over a period of two centuries.

In the Palestine Pharisee Talmudic center at Jabneh (for it was never in Jerusalem but at Jabneh where the Jerusalem Talmud was composed) there was a concerted effort on the part of the sages of Jabneh (about 90 C.E.) to assemble and harmonize the Halachah...Akiba (died about 135 C.E.) arranged the Halachoth in logical order and probably constructed the frame work of the present day Mishnah; the collection of the Akiba was enlarged and brought up to date by his disciples Meir (Note: Who, the Talmud says, was a descendant of Nero, a convert to Talmudaism {Judaism}), it became the custom, after the time of Akiba, for every head of an academy to compile his own Mishnah so that the confusion that resulted...motivated Judah Hanasi to compile a standard authoritative Mishnah; although it is reported that Judah made use of thirteen different collections of alachoth in his work, his Mishnah is based largely upon the collection of Meir, and indirectly, therefore, upon that of Akiba." [217]

Judah Hanasi, who compiled the Mishnah, was born about A.D. 135 and died after A.D. 200 (same authority, "Judah Hanasi"). "Nasi," meaning "prince" of Jewry, was the title given the head of the Sanhedrin court (Beth Din), which meted out life and death under Talmudic Law. The Talmud is divided into six main divisions called "Sedarim" (orders), but each division and each volume is a hodge-podge of every subject imaginable.

The main and overall characteristics of the Talmud are: pomp, silliness, obscenity and more obscenity, a setting up of laws seemingly for the purpose of inventing circumventions, and evasions; delight in sadistic cruelty; reversal of all Biblical moral teachings on theft, murder, sodomy, perjury, treatment of children and parents; insane hatred of Christ, Christians and every phase of Christianity. The Six Divisions of the Babylonian Talmud, called "Seder" (plural Sedarim), are:

1). Zeraim (seeds), composed of the following books:

a). Berakoth. The name of this book supposedly means benedictions, but is as foul a collection of obscenity as       one could find, with 405 pages of what is nothing but "privy talk."

The following 10 books occupy one 406-page volume in the Soncino edition:

b). Pe'ah (corner).

c). Demai (doubtful).

d). Kil'ayim (mixtures).

e). Shebi'th (seventh).

f). Termuah (heave offerings).

g). Ma'aseroth (tithes).

h). Ma'aser Sheni (second tithe).

I). Hallah (dough).

j). 'Oriah

k). Bikkurim (first fruits).

There are 11 books in Zeraim.

2). Seder Moed (festivals):

a). Sabbath (laws of endless silly regulations and their evasions).

b). Erubin (mingling).

c). Pesahim (passover).

d). Shekalin (shekels).

e). Yoma (Yom Kippur).

f). Sukkah (booths).

g). Yob Tob (feast day).

h). Rosh Hashona (New Year).

I). Ta'anit (fasting).

j). Megillah (Scroll of Esther, read on Purim).

k). Moed Katan (half feasts).

l). Hagiagah (feasting).

The Megillah is a sadistic celebration of drunkenness and bloodlust, the Talmudic admonition being that it is the day of the Jew to be so drunk on Purim he doesn't know the difference between "Blessed be Mordecai" and "Cursed be Haman."

There are 12 books in Moed.

3). Seder Nashim (women). This section includes a 13-page introduction to the Soncino edition by Rabbi J.H. Hertz. These books are principally distinguished by their sub-sewer filth and obscenity:

a). Yebamoth (the dead brother's widow) occupies 2 volumes, 871 pages in the Soncino edition.

b). Kethuboth (on the sum due a wife who is divorced, occupies 2 volumes and 728 pages of Talmudic sex filth (e.g.                           a baby girl being fair prey for adult men).

c). Nedarim (vows): 282 pages of filth and immorality, illustrative of what Christ denounced when attacking the

Pharisees.

d). Nazir (more vows); 253 pages in the Soncino edition, hairsplitting, immoral twaddle, and including the Kol Nidre.

e). Soth (the suspected woman), 271 pages in the Soncino edition.

f). Kiddushin (betrothal).

g). Gittin (on getting the "Get" or divorce) with space allotted for such things as placing Christ and all Christians in

Hell, 439 pages in the Soncino edition.

There are 7 books in the Nasham.

4). Seder Nezikin (damages):

a). Baba Kamma (the first gate): 719 pages of Talmudic ramblings, a general law on damages being that hurting Gentile

property is permissible; injuring Jewish property is like assaulting the Divine, for only "Jews" are "men" and  non-Jews rank as animals. This is "brotherhood" as advocated in the Talmud.

b). Baba Mezia (middle gate): 676 pages in Soncino edition of similar import.

c). Baba Bathra (last gate): 779 pages in two volumes and replete with anti-Gentile preaching.

d). Sanhedrin (781 pages): States the introduction in the Soncino edition of the Talmud: "It forms, along with Makkoth,

the chief repository of the criminal law of the Talmud." This section includes the most virulent calumnies of Jesus, including His imaginary stoning, burning in dung, His decapitation, His strangling in dung, His hanging, or crucifixion for "blaspheming" the Pharisee "sages."

e). Makkoth (beatings), 175 pages in the Soncino edition.

f). Shebuoth (oaths, more vows), 309 pages.

g). Edayyoth (testimonies).

h). Abodah Zarah on treatment of the presumably non-human, non-Jew, 366 pages.

I). Aboth (sayings of the fathers of Talmudism).

j). Horayoth (rulings).

There are 10 books in Seder Nezikin.

5). Seder Kodashim (sacrifices):

a). Zebahim (bloody sacrifices).

b). Menahot (meal offering).

c). Hulin (killing).

d). Bekorot (first born).

e). Arakin (estimation).

f). Temurah (exchange).

g). Keritot (extermination).

h). Me'ilah (trespass).

I). Tamid (daily offering).

j). Middot (measures).

k). Minim (birds' nests).

There are 11 books in Kodashim.

6). Seder Tohoroth (cleanness):

a). Niddah (the menstruant woman) is the prize part in this alleged religious section, devoting 509 pages to discussing

smell, color, and examination by the rabbis of menstruation, without apparent medical or any other purpose except wallowing in the repulsive; pomp and asininity also abound.

The other 11 books occupy one 589-page volume in the Soncino edition.

b). Kelim (vessel, utensil cleanness) illustrates through "nit-picking" rules the "straining at a gnat," cited  by Christ [218];

also: “Pharisees make clean the outside of cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness." [219]

c). Oholoth (tents).

d). Nega'im (plagues).

e). Parah (young cow).

f). Tohoroth (purification).

g). Mikawaoth (ritual bath - such as the menstruant woman should take before having intercourse with her husband,

thus ridding her of the evil eye).

h). Makshirin (kosher, proper).

I). Zabim (flux).

j). Tebul Yom.

k). Yadayim (hands).

l). The last book of Tohoroth is Ukzin (stems). There are 12 books in Tophoroth.

The last 11 of these (excepting Niddah) occupy one 589-page volume in the Soncino edition. The 1,098 pages on 'cleanness,' filled with the foulest obscenities of thought, once again justify Christ's disdain for this hypocrisy and serve to illustrate the justification for His attitude toward the Talmudic Pharisees.

500: Abu‑Kariba, Kimyarite king, adopts Judaism, converts his army and his people.

516: (May 14, 15) Uprising against Jews of Clermont; synagogue de­stroyed.

517: The Council of Epaon forbids Christians to take part in Jewish banquets.

518: Persecution of the Jews by Kobad, King of Persia.

525: End of Jewish kingdom in southern Arabia.

532: Justinian I, decrees that the testimony of Jews shall be valid only in Jewish cases.

537: Justinian declares Jews incapable of holding any official dignity.

538: The Council of Orleans forbids Jews to appear on the street at Eastertide.

553: Justinian interferes in the conduct of Jewish worship.

570: Muhammad is born at Mecca.

589: Reccared, Visigothic King of Spain, completely isolates Jews from Christians. Beginning with the period of Geonim.

612, 633, 638: Severe legal measures against the Jews in Spain.

612: Sisebut, Visigoth king, forces the Jews to accept baptism or to emigrate.

614: The persecution and destruction of White Christian people by the Jews is not a recent thing but reaches far back into history. Writing in April, 1921 issue of the "Hebrew Christian Alliance Quarterly," the Rev. M. Malbert stated: "I am going to show that real religious persecution is uniquely Jewish...In the time of Justinian, in the sixth century, the Jews massacred Christians in Caesarea and destroyed their churches. When Stephanus, the governor, attempted to defend the Christians, the Jews fell on him and slew him. In 608 A.D. the Jews of Antioch fell upon their Christian neighbors and killed them with fire and sword...About 614 A.D. the Persians advanced upon Palestine and the Jews, after joining their standard, massacred the Christians and destroyed their churches. Ninety thousand Christians perished in Jerusalem alone." [220]

614‑617: Jewish rule established in Jerusalem under the Persians.

620: Vikings invade Ireland.

622: Muhammad's flight to Medina.

624: The Banu Kainuka's, a Jewish‑Arabic tribe, driven from Arabia by Mohammed.

624‑628: Jewish tribes of Arabia destroyed by Muhammad.

627: Emperor Heraclius forbids Jews to enter Jerusalem, and harasses the Palestinian Jews.

628‑638: Dagobert I expels Jews from Frankish Kingdom.

629: Dagobert orders the Jews of the Frankish empire to accept baptism or to emigrate.

632: Death of Muhammad. Heraclius decrees forced baptism.

633: Visigothic king, and Isidore of Seville, forces converts from Judaism to Christianity.

634: Muslims begin conquest of Near East and Africa.

638: Chintila enacts that only professing Catholics shall remain in Visigothic Spain; Jews emigrate. Jerusalem conquered by the Arabs.

640: Omar, the second calif, banishes all Jews from Arabia; the "Pact of Omar" imposes restrictions upon Jews in the whole Mohammed­an world.

640‑642: Egypt conquered by the Arabs.

641: Bulan, khan [chaghan] of the Chazars, becomes a Jew.

694: All Jews in Spain and Gallic Provence de­clared slaves; children under seven forcibly baptized.

694‑711: Jewish religion outlawed in Spain.

711: Spain conquered by the Arabs.

720: Omar II., Ommiad Calif of Damascus, reenacts the "Pact of Omar."

721: Appearance of the false Messiah Serenus in Syria causes many Spanish Jews to emigrate to Palestine.

740: Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism.

                                                                                         Proof The Jews Are Not Israelites

The Forces of Evil realize that in order to win undisputed control of the material assets of the world, establish an Atheistic Materialistic Totalitarian Dictatorship, and to reclaim their birthright whom their father Esau sold, it will be necessary to destroy all forms of constitutional government and organized religion, meaning the Christian Religion. In order to do this the Forces of Evil decided they must divide the people of the world into two camps opposed to each other on various issues.

Dating back into antiquity the Aryan and Semitic Races (The True Tribes of Israel) were driven into enmity against each other to serve the secret ambitions of their atheistic-materialistic leaders. Had the people of the Aryan and the Israelites remained steadfast to their belief in God, and faithful to His Commandments, Laws, Statutes and Judgments the Forces of Evil could never have accomplished their evil purpose.

The term Aryan actually denotes the lingual groups otherwise known as Indo-European or Indo-Germanic, or the people known to the world today as the Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian, Celtic and Kindred people of the Western World, and part of Eastern Europe as well, these people are the descendants of the ancient Tribes of Israel. Their languages show a common origin by their vocabulary, system, and inflections. Actually the word Aryan means "An honorable Lord of the Soil."

The Chief Division of the Israelites are the Teutonic, the Romanic, and the Slavic races, who settled in Western Europe. The Turks, the Magyars, the Basques, and the Finns are non-Aryan races. The Semites or Israelites are actually divided into two sections. One includes the Assyrian, the Aramaean, the Hebrew and Phoenician groups. The Arabic is the most copious group, and the Aramaean the poorest. The Hebrews occupy an intermediary position. [221]

Today the term Jew is used very loosely to define people who have at one time or another embraced the Jewish Faith, known as Judaism. These people are Not actually Semitic in racial origin. For a great number of people who accepted the Jewish Faith are descendants of the Herodians who were Idumeans of Turkish-Mongol blood, and known as Khazars or Ashkanazi. They have mixed with many of the Sephardic Jews from Palestine and are therefore Edomites. [222]  The important fact to remember is that among the Jewish leaders, in exactly the same way as among the Israelites, there always has been a small, hard core of men who have been, and still are, Illuminists or Atheists. They may have given lipservice to the Jewish or Christian religions to suit their own purpose, but they never believed in the existence of God.

They are Internationalists now. They give allegiance to no particular nation although they have used, on occasion, nationalism to further their causes. Their only concern is to gain greater economic and political power. The ultimate objective of the leaders of both groups is identical. They are determined to win, for themselves, undisputed control of the wealth, natural resources, and man-power of the entire world. They intend to turn the world into Their conception of a Totalitarian-Godless Dictatorship.

The Non-Semitic and Turk-Finnish races infiltrated into Europe from Asia about the first century after the advent of Christ. They took the land route North of the Caspian Sea. These people are referred to in history as Khazars; they are a pagan people, who settled in Eastern Europe and established the powerful Khazar Kingdom. They expanded their domains by military conquests until, by the end of the 8th Century, they occupied the greater portion of Eastern Europe west of the Ural Mountains, and North of the Black Sea. The Khazars ultimately accepted Judaism as their religion in preference to Christianity or Mohammedanism. Synagogues, and schools for teaching Judaism, were built throughout their kingdom. At the peak of their power the Khazars were collecting tribute from twenty-five conquered peoples.

The Great Khazar Kingdom flourished for almost five hundred years. Then, towards the end of the 10th century, the Khazars were defeated in battle by the Varangians (Russians) who swept down upon them from the North. The conquest of the Khazars was completed by the end of the 13th  Century. The revolutionary movement inspired by the Khazar-Jews went on within the Russian Empire from the 13th Century until the Red October Revolution of 1917. The conquest of the Khazars in the 13th Century explains how so many people, now commonly referred to as Jews, remained within the Russian Empire.

There is one other important fact which sheds light on the subject of Aryanism and Semitism. The Finns, and other groups generally classified as Varangians (Russians) although white were of non-Aryan origin and the German people generally speaking have treated them as enemies. One act of Christ has a great deal of importance in the study of the World Revolutionary Movement. Christ was considered by many, a radical who based his reform movement on the worship of Almighty God, obedience to constituted authority, and love of one's neighbors.

The story of the Life of Christ shows that he loved ALL people except one particular group. He hated the money-lenders with an intensity that seems strange in a man of so mild a character. Jesus repeatedly admonished the money-lenders for their practice of usury. He publicly denounced them as worshipers of Mammon. He said they were of the Synagogue of Satan [223] He emphatically expressed His extreme hatred of the money-lenders when He took a whip and drove them out of the Temple. He admonished them in these words: "This Temple was built as the house of God...But you have turned it into a den of thieves." By performing this act of vengeance on the money-lenders Christ signed His own death warrant.

It was the Illuminati (under the guise of other names), and the false priests and elders in their pay, who hatched the plot by which Christ would be executed by the Jewish Temple Soldiers. It was they who supplied the thirty pieces of silver used to bribe Judas. It was they who used their propagandists to misinform, and mislead the Mob. It was the agents of the Illuminati who led the Mob when they accepted Barabbas and screamed that Christ be crucified. It was the Illuminati who arranged matters so that their own Jewish soldiers acted as Christ's executioners in order that nothing would go wrong.

A study of history shows that Seneca (4 B.C. to 65 A.D.) died because he, like Christ, tried to expose the corrupt practices and evil influence of the money-lenders who had infiltrated into the legislature of the Roman Empire. Seneca was a famous Roman philosopher. He was chosen tutor to Nero who became Emperor of Rome and later became a Jew by accepting Judaism as his religion. For a long time Seneca was Nero's best friend, and most trusted advisor.

Nero married Popaea who brought him under the evil influence of the money-lenders, and to accept Judaism. Nero became one of the most infamous rulers the world has ever known; his licentious conduct, and depraved habits, developed in him a character so base that he lived only to persecute and destroy everything that was good.

His acts of revenge took the form of atrocities usually committed in public upon the victims of his wrath. Seneca lost his influence over Nero (because he was a Christian) but he never stopped publicly denouncing the money-lenders for their evil influence and corrupt practices. Finally, when too many people began to listen, the money-lenders demanded that Nero take action against Seneca who was very popular with the people. So as not to arouse the wrath of the people against himself, and the Jews, Nero ordered Senceca to end his own life. This is the first recorded case in which the Jews made a person commit suicide because he had become troublesome to them, but it was by no means the last. History records hundreds of similar suicides, and murders which were made to appear as accidents or suicides.

One of the most notorious was that of James V. Forestall. In 1945 Forestall had been convinced that the American Bankers were closely affiliated with the International Bankers who controlled the Banks of England, France and other countries. He was also convinced, according to his diaries, that the International Money-Barons were the Illuminati and directly responsible for the outbreak of World Wars One and Two. He tried to convince President Roosevelt (not knowing that Roosevelt himself was a Jew), and other Top Level Government officials, of the truth. Either he failed, and committed suicide in a fit of depression, or he was murdered to shut his mouth for ever. Murder, made to appear like suicide, has been accepted policy in the top levels of international intrigue for many centuries.

Justinian I, (Flavius Anicius Justianiamus 483 - 565 A.D.) wrote his famous book of law "Corpus Juris Civilis." He tried to put an end to the illegal methods of traffic and trade indulged in by certain Jewish merchants. By engaging in illegal trade, and wholesale smuggling, the Jewish merchants, who were only agents of the Illuminati, obtained unfair advantage over their non-Jewish competitors. They put them out of business. The book of law, written by Justinian, was accepted as the text book of law right down to the 10th Century. Even today it is considered the most important of all documents of jurisprudence. But the money-lenders were able to offset the good Justinian tried to do. Funk & Wagnall's Jewish Encyclopedia has this to say about the Jews in those days: "They enjoyed full religious liberty...Minor offices were open to them. The trade in slaves constituted the main source of livelihood for the Roman Jews, and decrees against this traffic were issued in 335, 336, 339, 384 A.D."

There is the story in black and white, but history reveals that the Jewish merchants, and money-lenders, did not confine their illegal activities to the slave trade. It is recorded that they engaged in every form of illegal traffic including the drug trade, prostitution, wholesale smuggling of liquors, perfumes, jewels, and other dutiable goods. In order to protect their illegal trade and traffic they bribed and corrupted officials; by use of drugs and liquors, and women, they destroyed the morals of the people. History records that Justinian, although Emperor of the Roman Empire, simply was not strong enough to put a stop to their activities. [224]

Edward Gibbon (1737 - 1794) deals with the corrupting influence of the Jewish merchants and money-lenders. He credits them with contributing greatly to "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." He wrote the book with that title. Gibbon gives considerable space to the part Popaea, Nero's wife, played in bringing about the conditions which started the people of Rome reeling drunkenly towards their own destruction. With the fall of the Roman Empire, Jewish predominance was established. The nations of Europe entered into what historians name "The Dark Ages."

The Encyclopedia Britannica states: "There was an inevitable tendency for them (the Jewish merchants and money-lenders) to specialize in commerce for which their acumen, and ubiquity gave them special qualifications. In the Dark Ages the commerce of Western Europe was largely in their hands, in particular, the Slave Trade."  Jewish control of trade and commerce, both legal and illegal, grew tighter and tighter. It spread far and wide, until every European country's economy was more or less in their hands.

Evidence in the form of Polish and Hungarian coins bearing Jewish inscriptions gives some indication of the power they exerted in financial matters during those days. The fact that the Jews made a special effort to issue and control currency, supports the opinion that the money-lenders had adopted the slogan "Let us issue and control the money of a nation and we care not who makes its laws," long before Amschel Mayer Bauer  [225] (1743 - 1812) used the slogan to explain to his co-conspirators the reason the Jewish money-lenders had obtained control of the Bank of England in 1694.

The barons, who were the leaders of Aryanism, determined they would break the Jewish control of trade, commerce and money in Europe. It was with this purpose in mind that in 1095 A.D. they obtained the support of certain Christian rulers to start "The Crusades" or "Holy Wars." [226] Between 1095 and 1271 eight Crusades were organized. Officially, the Crusades were military expeditions undertaken to ensure the safety of Pilgrims who wished to visit the Holy Sepulcher and set up Christian Rule in Palestine. In actual fact they were wars fomented for the purpose of dividing the population of Europe into two camps. One camp pro-Jewish and the other anti-Jewish.

In more recent years, the Secret Powers divided the White Race into Semitic and anti-Semitic groups. Some of the Crusades were successful, some were not. The net result was that, in 1271, Palestine still remained in the hands of the Infidels, although the countries of Christendom had spent Million in money and treasure to finance the Crusades and sacrificed million of human lives fighting those Holy Wars. Strange to relate, the Jewish money-lenders grew ever richer and stronger.

There is one phase of the Crusades which must not be overlooked when the "Causes" are being studied in relation to the "Effects" they produced in later years. In 1215 the Roman Catholic Hierarchy held the Fourth Lateran Council. The main topic under consideration was Jewish aggression in all the countries of Europe. During this period of history the Rulers of the Church, and the Rulers of the State, worked in unity.

The rulers of the Church after due deliberation, expressed themselves in favor of continuing the Crusades. They also drew up, and passed Decrees, designed to put an end to usury and the Jewish money-lenders practice of using unethical methods in traffic and trade to obtain unfair advantage over Gentile competitors, and to curb corrupt and immoral practices.

To achieve this purpose the dignitaries attending the Fourth Lateran Council decreed that in the future the Jews be restricted to living in their own quarters. Jews were absolutely prohibited from hiring Christians as their employees. This decree was passed because Jewish money-lenders and merchants operated on the Join Stock Company principle. They employed Christians to act as their front men while they hid in the background directing operations.

This was convenient because when anything went wrong, the Christian Front men got the blame, and the punishment, while they got off scot-free. In addition, by the Decrees, Jews were absolutely prohibited from employing Christian females in their home and establishments. This decree was passed because evidence was produced to prove that young females were systematically seduced, and then turned into prostitutes; their master used them to obtain control over influential officials.

Other decrees made it unlawful for Jews to engage in many commercial activities. But even the power of the Church, supported by most Christian officials of the State, could not make the Money-Barons amenable to the law. All the decrees accomplished was to intensify the hatred the Illuminati had for the Church of Christ, and they started a continuing campaign to separate the Church from the State. To achieve this purpose they introduced the idea of secularism amongst the laity. In 1253 the French government ordered the Jews expelled because they refused to obey the law. Most of the Jews who were expelled went over to England. By 1255 the Jewish money-lenders had obtained absolute control of many Church dignitaries and most of the Nobility. [227] That the money-lenders, the Rabbis, and Elders belonged to the Illuminati was proved by evidence given during the investigation ordered by King Henry III into the Ritual slaying of Hugh of Lincoln in 1255. Eighteen Jews were proven to have been the culprits. They were tried, found guilty, and executed.

In 1272 King Henry died. Edward I became King of England. He determined the Jewish leaders must give up the practice of usury. In 1275 he had Parliament pass the "States of Jewry." They were designed to curb the power Jewish usurers were exerting over their debtors, both Christians, and fellow Jews. The Statutes of Jewry were probably the first legislation in which "The Commons" in Parliament had an active part. They cannot be classified as anti-Semitic because they actually protected the interests of Honest and law-abiding Jews. [228]

But, as had happened so often before the Jewish money-lenders thought that the power they could exert over both the Church and the State, would permit them to defy the king's decree in the same way as they had set at nought those passed by the Lutheran Council.

They made a grave mistake. In 1290 King Edward issued another decree. ALL Jews were expelled from England. This was the start of what many historians call "The Great Eviction." After Edward I started the ball rolling, all the Crowned Heads of Europe followed his example: In 1306 France expelled the Jews; in 1348 Saxony followed suit; in 1360 Hungary; in 1370 Belgium; in 1380 Slovakia; in 1420 Austria; in 1444 The Netherlands; in 1492 Spain. [229]

The expulsion of the Jews from Spain has special signification. It throws light on the Spanish Inquisition. Most people have the idea the Inquisition was instituted by Roman Catholics to persecute Protestants who had broken away from the Church. As a matter of fact the Inquisition, as introduced by Pope Innocent III, was a means of unmasking heretics, and infidels, who were masquerading as Christians for the purpose of destroying the Christian Religion from within. [230]

It didn't make the slightest difference to the Inquisitors whether the accused was Jew or Gentile, black or white. The terrible ceremony of the "Auto-da-Fe" or "Act of Faith," was specially designed to be used in connection with the execution of all convicted heretics and infidels, when Torquemada (1420 - 1498) was Grand Inquisitor. [231] It is these hidden incidents which reveal so much truth.

It was in Spain, during the 14th Century, that the Jewish money-lenders first succeeded in having the loans they made the State secure by the right to collect taxes levied upon the people. They used such cruelty, when demanding their "Pound of Flesh," that it only required the inflammatory oratory of the priest Fernando Martenez to produce mass action which ended in one of the bloodiest massacres recorded in history, to that time.

In 1495 Lithuania expelled the Jews; in 1498 Portugal; in 1540 Italy; in 1551 Bavaria. It is important to remember that during the general evictions certain wealthy and influential Jews managed to obtain sanctuary in Bordeaux, Avignon, certain Papal States, Marseille, Northern Alsace, and part of northern Italy.

But, as stated in the Encyclopedia Britannica, "The masses of the Jewish people were thus to be found once more, in the East and in the Polish and Turkish Empires. The few communities suffered to remain in Western Europe were meantime subjected at last to all the restrictions which earlier ages had usually allowed to remain as an ideal; so that, in a sense, the Jewish Dark Ages may be said to begin with the Renaissance."

This admission would indicate there is some justification for the claim made by certain historians that not until the Western European nations wrested economic control from the Jewish money-lenders did the rebirth of western civilization occur.

Following the Great Eviction the Jews again resumed living in Ghettos or Kahals. Thus, isolated from the masses of the population, the Jews were under the direction and control of the Rabbis and Elders, many of whom were influenced by the Illuminati and the wealthy Jewish money-lenders who remained in their various sanctuaries. In the Ghettos, agents of the Illuminati inspired a spirit of hatred and revenge in the hearts of the Jewish people against those who had evicted them. The Rabbis reminded them that, as the chosen people of God, the day would come when they would have their revenge and inherit the earth.

It should be mentioned that most of the Jews who settled in Eastern Europe were restricted to living within the "Pale of Settlement" located on the western borders of Russia and extending from the shores of the Baltic Sea to the north, to the shores of the Black Sea in the south. Most of them were Khazar Jews. [232] The Khazar Jews were noted for their Yiddish culture; their rapacious practices in financial matters, and their total lack of ethics in commercial transactions. They should not be confused with the Biblical Hebrews who are mild mannered and, generally speaking, pastoral people.

Within the Ghettos, in an atmosphere of hatred, the desire for revenge was developed by the agents of the Illuminati. They organized these negative conditions, into the World Revolutionary Movement, based on Terrorism. From its very inception the international-minded Money-Barons, and THEIR High Priests, designed, financed, and controlled the World Revolutionary Movement. They used it as the instrument by which they would obtain their revenge on the Christian churches, and the Crowned Heads of Europe.

History proves, HOW the Money-Barons developed the revolutionary movement into International Communism as we know it today. They organized individual acts of terrorism into a disciplined revolutionary movement. They then planned systematic infiltration of the Jews back into the countries from which they had been expelled. Because their re-entry was illegal the only method by which infiltration could be accomplished was to establish Jewish Underground.

Because the Jews, who infiltrated into the Undgergrounds of the European cities, could not obtain lawful employment they were supplied with funds with which to develop the Black Market system. They indulged in every kind of illegal traffic and trade. Working on the principle of the Join Stock Co., the identity of the Money-Barons, who owned and controlled this vast underground system always remained secret. [233]

Count de Poncins; Mrs. Nesta Webster; Sir Walter Scott; and many other authors and historians have suspected that the Illuminati and a group of Internationalists were "The Secret Power" behind the World Revolutionary Movement, but it was not until a few years ago that sufficient evidence was pieced together to prove that what they had suspected was an actual fact.

As the events of history are unrolled in their chronological sequence it will be seen how the Illuminati used the Semitic groups, and the Aryan groups, to serve their purpose, and involved millions upon millions of people in revolutions and wars to further their own secret and selfish ambitions.

William Foss and Cecil Gerahty who wrote "The Spanish Arena" said: "The question of who are the leading figures behind the attempt of the Joint Stock Company domination of the world, and how they obtain their ends, is beyond the scope of this book. But is one of the important 'Livres a faire' yet to be written. It will have to be written by a man of the highest courage who will count his life as nothing compared with enlightening the world as to what the Satanic self-appointed Priesthood would ordain."

How successful the plan to infiltrate back into the countries from which they had been expelled, turned out, can best be judged by the following records. The Jews were back in England in 1600; in Hungary in 1500. They were expelled again in 1582; they were back in Slovakia in 1562 but were expelled again in 1744; they were back in Lithuania in 1700. But, regardless of how many times they were expelled, there always remained the Jewish underground from which the revolutionary activities of the Secret Powers were conducted.

Because King Edward I of England had been the first to expel the Jews, the Jewish Money-Barons in France, Holland and Germany decided it would be poetic justice if they tried out their planned revolutionary technique in England first.

They used their underground agents, or Cells, to cause trouble between the king and his government; employers and labor; ruling class and workers; Church and State. The plotters injected controversial issues into politics and religion, to divide the people into two opposing camps. First they divided the people in England into Catholics and Protestants, then they divided the Protestants into Conformists and Non-Conformists.

When King Charles I was brought into disagreement with his Parliament a Jewish Money-Baron in Holland, named Manasseh Ben Israel, had his agents contact Oliver Cromwell. They offered him large sums of money if he would carry out their plan to overthrow the British throne.

Manasseh Ben Israel, and other German and French money-lenders financed Cromwell. Fernandez Carvajal of Portugal, often referred to in history as "The Great Jew," became Cromwell's Chief Military Contractor. He re-organized the Round Heads into a model army. He provided them with the best arms and equipment money could buy. Once the conspiracy was under way, hundreds of trained revolutionaries were smuggled into England and were absorbed into the Jewish Underground. The same thing is going on in America today.

The head of the Jewish underground in England at that time was a Jew named De Souze. The Great Jew, Fernandez Carvajal, had used his influence to have De Souze appointed Portuguese Ambassador. It was in his house, protected by diplomatic immunity, that the leaders of the Jewish revolutionary underground remained hidden and worked out their plots and intrigue. [234]

Once the revolution had been decided upon, the Jewish plotters introduced Calvinism into England to split Church and State, and divide the people. Contrary to general belief, Calvinism is of Jewish origin. It was deliberately conceived to split the adherents of the Christian religions and divide the people. Calvin's real name was Cohen! When he went from Geneva to France to start preaching his doctrine he became known as Cauin. Then in England it became Calvin. History proves that there is hardly a revolutionary plot that wasn't hatched in Switzerland; there is hardly a Jewish revolutionary leader who hasn't changed his name.

"As long as there remains among the Gentiles any moral conception of the social order, and until all faith, patriotism, and dignity are uprooted, our reign over the world shall not come...And the Gentiles, in their stupidity, have proved easier dupes than we expected them to be. One would expect more intelligence and more practical common sense, but they are no better than a herd of sheep. Let them graze in our fields till they become fat enough to be worthy of being immolated to our future King of the World...We have founded many secret associations, which all work for our purpose, under our orders and our direction. We have made it an honor, a great honor, for the Gentiles to join us in our organizations, which are, thanks to our gold, flourishing now more than ever. Yet it remains our secret that those Gentiles who betray their own and most precious interests, by joining us in our plot, should never know that those associations are of our creation, and that they serve our purpose.

One of the many triumphs of our Freemasonry is that those Gentiles who become members of our Lodges, should never suspect that we are using them to build their own jails, upon whose terraces we shall erect the throne of our Universal King of the Jews; and should never know that we are commanding them to forge the chains of their own servility to our future King of the World...We have induced some of our children to join the Christian Body, with the explicit intimation that they should work in a still more efficient way for the disintegration of the Christian Church, by creating scandals within her. We have thus followed the advice of our Prince of the Jews, who so wisely said: 'Let some of your children become cannons, so that they may destroy the Church.' Unfortunately, not all among the 'convert' Jews have proved faithful to their mission. Many of them have even betrayed us! But, on the other hand, others have kept their promise and honored their word. Thus the counsel of our Elders has proved successful.

We are the Fathers of all Revolutions, even of those which sometimes happen to turn against us.  We are the supreme Masters of Peace and War. We can boast of being the Creators of the Reformation! Calvin [235] was one of our children; he was of Jewish descent, and was entrusted by Jewish authority and encouraged with Jewish finance to draft his scheme in the reformation (which was to convince Christians it was alright to charge usury and other damnable heresies which are in violation of God's Laws).

Martin Luther yielded to the influence of his Jewish friends unknowingly, and again, by Jewish authority, and with Jewish finance, his plot against the Catholic Church met with success. But unfortunately he discovered the deception, and became a threat to us, so we disposed of him as we have so many others who dare to oppose us...Many countries, including the United States have already fallen for our scheming. But the Christian Church is still alive...We must destroy it without the least delay and without the slightest mercy. Most of the Press in the world is under our Control; let us therefore encourage in a still more violent way the hatred of the world against the Christian Church. Let us intensify our activities in poisoning the morality of the Gentiles. Let us spread the spirit of revolution in the minds of the people. They must be made to despise Patriotism and the love of their family, to consider their faith as a humbug, their obedience to their Christ as a degrading servility, so that they become deaf to the appeal of the Church and blind to her warnings against us. Let us, above all, make it impossible for Christians to be reunited, or for non-Christians to join the Church; otherwise the greatest obstruction to our domination will be strengthened and all our work undone. Our plot will be unveiled, the Gentiles will turn against us, in the spirit of revenge, and our domination over them will never be realized.

Let us remember that as long as there still remain active enemies of the Christian Church, we may hope to become Master of the World ...And let us remember always that the future Jewish King will never reign in the world before Christianity is overthrown..." [236]

In addition to the religious controversy, the revolutionary leaders organized armed mobs to aggravate every situation injected into politics and labor by their masters. Isaac Disraeli, 1766 - 1848, a Jew, and father of Benjamin Disraeli who afterwards become Lord Beaconsfield, deals with this angle of the British Revolution in detail in his two volume story "The Life of Charles II."

He remarks that he obtained considerable information from the records of Melchior de Salem, a Jew, who was the French Envoy to the British Government at that time. Disraeli draws attention to the great similarity, or pattern, of the revolutionary activities which preceded both the British and the French revolutions. In other words the handiwork of the secret and real directors of the World Revolutionary Movement could clearly be seen in both.

The evidence which absolutely convicts Oliver Cromwell of participating in the Jewish Revolutionary Plot was obtained by Lord Alfred Douglas, who edited a weekly review "Plain English" published by the North British Publishing Co. In an article which appeared in the issue of September 3, 1921, he explained how his friend, Mr. L.D. Van Vlackert of Amsterdam, Holland, had come into possession of a missing volume of records of the synagogue of Muljeim. This volume had been lost during the Napoleonic wars. The volume contains records of letters written to, and answered by the Directors of the Synagogue.

They were written in German. One entry, dated June 16, 1647 read: "In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England; This however impossible while Charles living. Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which do not at present exist. Therefore advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with arrangements for procuring an assassin, though willing to help in his escape." In reply to this dispatch the records show E. Pratt wrote a letter dated July 12, 1647, addressed to Oliver Cromwell. "Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed, and Jews admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles should be given an opportunity to escape. [237] His recapture will then make trail and execution possible. The support will be liberal, but useless to discuss terms until trial commences."

On November 12th that same year Charles was given the opportunity to escape. He was of course recaptured. Hollis and Ludlow, authorities on this chapter of history, are both on record as considering the flight as the stratagem of Cromwell.

After Charles had been recaptured events moved ahead. Cromwell had the British Parliament purged of most members he knew were loyal to the king. Notwithstanding this drastic action, when the House sat all night on December 5, 1648, the majority agreed "That the concessions offered by the king were satisfactory to a settlement."

Any such settlement would have disqualified Cromwell from receiving the Blood-Money promised him by the International Money-Barons through their agent E. Pratt, so Cromwell struck again. He ordered Colonel Pryde to purge Parliament of those members who had voted in favor of a settlement with the King. What then happened is referred to, in school history books, as "Prude's Purge." [238] When the purge was finished fifty members remained. They are recorded as "The Rump Parliament." they usurped absolute power.

On January 9, 1649, "A High Court of Justice" was proclaimed for the purpose of putting the King of England on trial. Two thirds of the members of the Court were "Levellers" from Cromwell's Army. The conspirators couldn't find an English lawyer who would draw up a criminal charge against King Charles. Carvajal, instructed an alien Jew, Isaac Dorislaus, Manasseh Ben Israel's Agent in England to draw up the indictment upon which King Charles was tried. Charles was found guilty of the charges leveled against him by the International Jewish money-lenders, not by the people of England. On January 30, 1649, he was publicly beheaded in front of the Banqueting House at Whitehall, London. The Jewish money-lenders, directed by the High Priests of the Synagogue of Satan, had had their revenge because Edward I had expelled the Jews from England.

Oliver Cromwell received his Blood-Money just as Judas had done. History proves that the International Jewish money-lenders had a purpose other than revenge for getting rid of Charles. They removed him to obtain control of England's economy and government. They planned to involve many European countries in war with England. Great sums of money are needed to fight wars. By loaning the Crowned Heads of Europe the money required to fight wars they fomented, the Internationalists were enabled to rapidly increase the National Debts of all European Nations.

The chronological sequence of events from the execution of King Charles in 1649 to the institution of the Bank of England in 1694 shows how the National Debt was increased. The International Bankers used intrigue and cunning to throw Christians at each others' throats.

1649: Cromwell financed by Jews, waged war in Ireland. Captures Drougheda and Wexford. British Protests blamed for persecution of Irish Catholics.

1650: Montrose in rebellion against Cromwell. Captured and executed.

1651: Charles II invades England. Defeated and flees back to France.

1652: England involved in war with Dutch.

1653: Cromwell proclaims himself Lord Protector of England.

1654: England involved in more wars.

1656: Trouble started in American Colonies.

1657: Death of Cromwell, Son Richard named Protector.

1659: Richard, disgusted with intrigue, resigns.

1660: General Monk occupies London. Charles II proclaimed King.

1661: Truth revealed regarding intrigue entered into by Cromwell and his cohorts Ireton, and Bradshaw, causes serious public reaction. Bodies are exhumed and hung from gallows on Tyburn Hill, London.

1662: Religious strife is engendered to divide members of the Protestant denominations. Non-Conformists to the established Church of England are persecuted.

1664: England is again involved in war with Holland.

1665: A great depression settles over England. Unemployment, shortages of food undermine the health of the people and the Great Plague breaks out. [239]

1666: England involved in war with France and Holland.

1667: Cabal agents start new religious and political strife. [240]

1674: England and Holland make Peace. The men directing international intrigue change their characters. They become match-makers. They elevate Mr. William Stradholder to the rank of Captain-General of the Dutch Forces. He became William Prince of Orange. It was arranged that he meet Mary, the eldest daughter of the Duke of York. The Duke was only one place removed from becoming King of England.

1677: Princess Mary of England married William Prince of Orange. To place William Prince of Orange upon the Throne of England it was necessary to get rid of both Charles II, and the Duke of York, who was slated to become James II.

1683: The Rye House Plot was hatched. The intention was to assassinate both King Charles II and the Duke of York. It failed.

1685: King Charles II died. The Duke of York became King James II of England. Immediately a campaign of L'Infamie was started against James II. The Duke of Monmouth was persuaded, or bribed, into leading an insurrection to overthrow the king. On June 30, the Battle of Sedgemoor was fought. Monmouth was defeated and captured. He was executed July 15th.

In August Judge Jeffreys opened, what historians have named, "The Bloody Assizes." Over three hundred persons concerned in the Monmouth Rebellion were sentenced to death under circumstances of atrocious cruelty. Nearly one thousand others were condemned to be sold as slaves. This was a typical example of how the Secret Powers, working behind the scenes, create conditions for which other people are blamed. They in turn are liquidated. King James still had to be disposed of before William of Orange could be placed on the throne to carry out their mandate. Every person in England was bewitched and bewildered. They were not allowed to know the truth (the people are never allowed to know the truth, and when it is presented to them they will not believe it). They blamed everyone, and everything except the "Secret Powers" who were pulling the strings (the same thing that is happening at the present time in America). Then the conspirators made their next move.

1688: They ordered William Prince of Orange to land in England at Torbay. This he did on November 5th. King James abdicated and fled to France. He had become unpopular by reason of the campaign of L'Infamie, intrigue and his own foolishness and culpability.

1689: William of Orange and Mary, were proclaimed King and Queen of England. King James did not intend to give up the Throne without a fight. He was a Catholic, so the Secret Powers set up William of Orange as the Champion of the Protestant Faith. On February 15, 1689, King James landed in Ireland. The Battle of

The Boyne was fought by men of definite, and opposing, religious convictions. The Battle has been celebrated by Orangemen on the 12th of July ever since. There is probably not one Orangeman in ten thousand who knows that all the wars and rebellions fought from 1640 to 1689 were fomented by the Jewish International money-lenders for the purpose of putting themselves in position to control British politics and economy. Their first objective was to obtain permission to institute a Bank of England and consolidate and secure the debts Britain owed them for loans made to her to fight the wars they instigated. History shows how they completed their plans. In the final analysis, none of the countries and people involved in the wars and revolutions obtained any lasting benefits. No permanent or satisfactory solution was reached regarding the political, economic, and religious issues involved. The only people to benefit were the small group of Jewish money-lenders who financed the wars and revolutions, and their friends and agents, who supplied the armies, the ships, and the munitions.

It is important to remember that no sooner was the Dutch General sitting upon the throne of England than he persuaded the British Treasury to borrow £1,250,000 from the Jewish Bankers who had put him there. The school book history Informs our children that the negotiations were conducted by Sir John Houblen and Mr. William Patterson on behalf of the British Government with money-lenders whose identity remained secret. A search of historical documents reveals that in order to maintain complete secrecy the negotiations regarding the terms of the loan were carried on in a church. In the days of Christ the money-lenders used the Temple.

In the days of William of Orange they desecrated a church. The International Jewish money-lenders agreed to accommodate the British Treasury to the extent of £1,250,000 providing they could dictate their own terms and conditions. This was agreed to. The terms were in part:

1). That the names of those who made the loan remain secret; and that they be granted a Charter to establish a Bank of England. [241]

2). That the directors of the Bank of England be granted the legal right to establish the Gold Standard for currency by which;

3). They could make loans to the value of £10 for every £1 value of gold they had on deposit in their vaults.

4). That they be permitted to consolidate the national debt; and secure payment of amounts due as principal and interest by direct taxation of the people.

Thus, for the some of £1,250,000, King William of Orange sold the people of England into economic bondage. The Jewish money-lenders gained their ambitions. They had usurped the power to issue and control the currency of the nation.

And, having secured that power they cared not who made the laws. The International Jewish Bankers never intend that England be allowed to pay off the national indebtedness. The plan was to create international conditions which would plunge ALL nations concerned deeper and deeper into their debt. [242]

The Secret Power behind the World Revolutionary Movement pulled the necessary strings and brought about "The Wars of the Spanish Succession."  In 1701 the Duke of Marlborough was made Commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Holland. No less an authority than the Jewish Encyclopedia records the fact that for his many services the Duke of Marlborough received not less than £6,000 a year from the Dutch Jewish Banker, Solomon Medina.

                                                                                                  The Origin Of The Jews

"It is highly probable that the bulk of the Jew's ancestors 'never' lived in Palestine 'at all,' which witnesses the power of Historical Assertion over fact." [243]

In addition, under the heading of "A brief History of the Terms for Jew" in the 1980 Jewish Almanac is the following: "Strictly speaking it is incorrect to call an Ancient Israelite a 'Jew' or to call a contemporary Jew an Israelite or a Hebrew." [244]

The World Book omits any reference to the Jews, but under the word Semite it states: "Semite...Semites are those who speak Semitic languages. In this sense the ancient Hebrews, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians were Semites. The Arabs and some Ethiopians are modern Semitic‑speaking people. Modern Jews are often called Semites, but this name properly applies only to those who use the Hebrew Language. The Jews were once a sub‑type of the Mediterranean race, But they have mixed with other peoples until the name 'Jew' has lost all racial meaning."

There are hundreds of books {most of which are Jewish Encyclopedias and history books} available for study, which prove that over 90% of the Jews of the world are not a Semitic People, but few people other than historians ever bother to read them. Following are just a few:

Colliure’s Encyclopedia:"A common error and persistent modern myth is the designation of the Jews as a 'race.' This is scientifically fallacious, from the standpoint of both physical and historical tradition. Investigations by anthropologists have shown that Jews are by no means uniform in physical character and that they nearly always reflect the physical and mental characteristics of the people among whom they live." [245]

The Outline of History: "There can be little doubt that the scattered Phoenicians in Spain and Africa and throughout the Mediterranean, speaking as they did a language closely akin to Hebrew and being deprived of their authentic political rights, became proselytes to Judaism. For phases of vigorous proselytism alternated with phases of exclusive jealousy in Jewish history. On one occasion the Idumenas being conquered, were all forcibly made Jews. There were Arab tribes who were Jews in the time of Muhammad, and a Turkish people who were mainly Jews in South Russia in the ninth century. Judaism is indeed the reconstructed political ideal of many shattered peoples, mainly [non] Semitic [246]...The main part of Jewry was never in Judea and had never came out of Judea." [247]

The History of the Jewish Khazars, by D.M. Dunlop, pp. 4-1. "...Our first question here is, When did the Khazars and the Khazar name appear? There has been considerable discussion as to the relation of the Khazars to the Huns on the one hand and to the West Turks on the other. The prevalent opinion has for some time been that the Khazars emerged from the West Turkish empire. Early references to the Khazars appear about the time when the West Turks cease to be mentioned. Thus they are reported to have joined forces with the Greek Emperor Heraclius against the Persians in A.D. 627 and to have materially assisted him in the siege of Tiflis. it is a question whether the Khazars were at this time under West Turk supremacy. The chronicler Theophanes {died circa A.D. 818} who tells the story introduces them as 'the Turks from the east whom they call Khazars.'

On the other hand, the West Turks appear in the Greek writers simply as Turks, without special qualification. The Syriac historians mention the Khazars earlier than A.D. 627. Both Michael Syrus and Bar Hebraeus tell how, apparently in the reign of the Greek Emperor Maurcie (582-602), three brothers from 'inner Scythia' marched west with 30,000 men, and when they reached the frontier of the Greeks, one of them, Bulgarios, crossed the Don and settled within the Empire. The others occupied 'the country of the Alans which is called Barsalia,' they and the former inhabitants adopting the name of Khazars from Kazarig, the eldest of the brothers. If, as it seems, possible the story goes back to John of Ephesus {died circa A.D. 586}, it is contemporary with the alleged event. It states pretty explicitly that the Khazars arrived at the Caucasus from central Asia towards the end of the 6th century.

In the Greek writer Theophylact Simocatta {circa 620} we have an almost contemporary account of events among the West Turks which can hardly be unrelated to the Syriac story just mentioned. Speaking of a Turkish embassy to Maurice in 598, this author describes how in past years the Turks had overthrown the White Huns (Hephthalites), the Avars, and the Uigurs who lived on 'the Til, which the Turks call the Black River.' [248] These Uigurs, says Theophylact, were descended from two chiefs called Var and Hunni. They are mentioned elsewhere as the 'Varchonites.'

Some of the Uigurs escaped from the Turks, and, appearing in the West, were regarded by those whom they met as Avars, by which name they were generally known. The last part of this is confirmed by another Greek author, according to whom Justinian received representatives of the pseudo-Avars, properly Uigurs, in A.D. 558, after which they turned to plundering and laying waste the lands of eastern and central Europe. If the derivation from Uigur is right, the word 'ogre' in folklore may date from this early period.

Theophylact also tells us that about the time of the Turkish embassy in 598 there was another emigration of fugitives from Asia into Europe, involving the tribes of the Tarniakh, Kotzagers, and Zabender. These were, like the previous arrivals, descendants of Var and Hunni, and they proved their kinship by joining the so-called Avars, really Uigurs, under the Khaqan of the latter. It is difficult not to see in this another version of the story given by Michael Syrus and Bar Hebraeus. The Kotzagers are undoubtedly a Bulgar group, while Zabender should be the same name as Samandar, an important Khazar town, and hence correspond to Kazarig in the Syriac. Originally, it seems, Samandar derived its name from the occupying tribe. We appear to have confirmation that the Khazars had arrived in eastern Europe by the region of Maurice, having previously been in contact with the West Turks and destined to be so again.

On the other hand, the older view implied that the Khazars were already on the outskirts of Europe before the rise of the Turks {circa A.D. 550}. According to this view, the affinities of the Khazars were with the Huns. When Priscus, the envoy to Attila in 448, spoke of a people subject to the Huns and living in 'Scythia towards the Pontus' called Akatzir, these were simply Aq-Khazars, i.e., White Khazars, Jordanes, writing circa 552, mentions the Akatzirs as a warlike nation, who do not practice agriculture but live by pasturing flocks and hunting. In view of the distinction among some Turkish and the remainder as 'black,' when we read in the Arab geographer Istakhri that the Khazars are of two kinds, one called Qara-Khazars (Black Khazars), the other a white kind, unnamed, (Istakhri's account of the Khazars is translated in Chapter V) it is a natural assumption that the latter are the Aq-Khazars (White Khazars).

The identification of the Akatzirs with 'Aq-Khazars' was rejected by Zeuss and Marquart as impossible linguistically. Marquart further said that historically the Akatzirs as a subject race correspond rather to the Black Khazars. The alternative identification proposed is Akatzirs-Agacheri. But this may not be very different from the other, if Zeki Validi is right in thinking that the relation between the Agacheri and the Khazars was close.

There are one or two facts in favor of the older view which have not been explained away effectively. If the Khazars had nothing to do with the Akatzirs and appeared first as an off-shoot of the West Turks at the end of the 6th century, how do they come to be mentioned in the Syriac compilation of circa 569, going under the name of Zacharias Rhetor? The form Kasar/Kasir, which here comes in a list of peoples belonging to the general neighborhood of the Caucasus, refers evidently to the Khazars. This would fit in well with their existence in the same region a century earlier. We have also the testimony of the so-called Geographer of Ravenna (? 7th century) that the Agaziri (Acatziri) of Jordanes are the Khazars.

The Khazars, however, are nowhere represented simply as Huns. The question arises, If they were subjugated by the latter shortly before A.D. 448, as Pricus tells, how long had they existed previously? Here we must consider the views of Zeki Validi, which are put forward exclusively on the basis of Oriental sources and are quite independent of the considerations which have just been raised.

`He believes that he has found traces of one and the same Urgeschichte of the Turks, not only in Muslim but also in Chinese sources, the latter going as far back as the Wei dynasty (366-558). (The Later Wei is meant (Zeki Validi's dates)). In the story the Khazars play a leading part and even claim to be autochthonous in their country. Yet on the basis of the same tradition, the original home of the Khazars is represented as the lower Oxus, Zeki Validi cites a story in Gardizi, according to which the eponymous ancestor of the Kirgiz, having killed a Roman officer, fled to the court of the Khazar Khaqan, and later went eastward till he found a permanent settlement on the Yenissei. But as the Kirgiz in early times are believed to have lived in eastern Europe and to have been south of the urals before the beginning of the Christian era, Zeki Validi would assign a corresponding date to this episode and is unwilling to allow that the mention of Khazars this early is an anachronism. These are remarkable claims to make for the antiquity of the Khazars.

The principal Muslim sources which Zeki Validi relies on are relatively late, Gardizi, circa A.D. 1050, and an anonymous history, the Mujmal al-Tawarikh w-al-Qisas, somewhat later, [249] nor does his Chinese source mention the Khazars explicitly. But the view that the Khazars existed anterior to the Huns gains some confirmation from another quarter.

The Armenian History going under the name of Moses of Chorene (5th century) has a story which mentions the Khazars in the twenty years between A.D. 197 and 217, [250] s.v. Khazars, has the date 198. Carmoly must refer to the same incident when he speaks of the Khazar Juluf, who ruled seventeen nations on the Volga, and, pursuing some rebel tribes, burst in to Armenia between A.D. 178 and 198. The source of Carmoly's information is quite unknown to me. According to this, the peoples of the north, the Khazirs and Basilians, made an agreement to break through the pass of Chor at the east end of the Caucasus 'under the general and king Venasep Surhap.' Kutschera thought that the two kings of the Khazars were intended Having crossed the river Kur, they were met by the Armenian Valarsh with a great army and driven back northward in confusion. Some time later, on their own side of the Caucasus, the northern nations again suffered a heavy defeat. Valarsh was killed in this second battle. His son succeeded him, and under the new king the Armenians again passed the Caucasus in strength, defeating and completely subjugating the Khazirs and Basilians. One in every hundred was taken as a hostage, and a monument in Greek letters was set up to show that these nations were under the jurisdiction of Rome.

This seems to be a very factual account, and by Khazirs certainly the Khazars are to be understood. It is, however, generally held that the Armenian History is wrongly ascribed to Moses of Chorene in the 5th century and should be assigned to the 9th, or at any rate the 8th, century. [251] This would clearly put quite a different complexion on the story of the Khazar raid. Instead of being unexceptionable evidence for the existence of the Khazars at all events in the time of Moses of Chorene, it would fall into line with other Armenian and also Georgian [252] accounts which though they refer to the Khazars more or less explicitly in the first centuries of the Christian era, and even much earlier, we do not cite here.

Though interesting in themselves, these accounts, in view of their imprecision and lack of confirmation, cannot be regarded as reliable. The Muslim writers provide us with a considerable amount of material which may be expected to throw light on the date of the emergence of the Khazars. As already indicated, some of this demonstrably derives from Pehlevi sources, composed before the Arab conquest of Persia. What the Arabic and Persian writers have to say about the Khazars deserves careful scrutiny, as liable to contain authentic information from an earlier time. It is not surprising that these accounts, written when the Khazar state north of the Caucasus was flourishing, distinguish them from the Turks encountered by the first generations of Muslims in central Asia.

But a passage like the following, where the Khazars are set side by side with the leading types of contemporary humanity, is somewhat remarkable. In a discussion between the celebrated ibn-al-Muqaffa' and his friends the question was raised as to what nation was the most intelligent. It is significant for the low state of their culture at the time, or at least for the view held by the Arabs on the subject (ibn-al-Muqaffa' died 142/759), that the Turks and Khazars were suggested only after the claims of the Persians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, and Negroes had been canvassed. Evidently in this respect the Turks and the Khazars shared a bad eminence. But they are given quite different characteristics: 'The Turks are lean dogs, the Khazars pasturing cattle.' [253] Though the judgment is unfavorable, we get the impression of the Khazars as a distinct, even important, racial group. How far this corresponds with the fact is not certain. Suggestions have been made connecting the Khazars with the Circassian type, taken to be pale-complexioned, dark-haired, and blue-eyed, and through the Basilians or Barsilians already mentioned, with the so-called 'Royal Scyths' of Herodotus. All this is evidently very speculative.

Apart from the passage where the Black Khazars are mentioned, described as being dusky like the Indians, and their counterparts fair and handsome, (See Istakhri's account of the Khazars in Chapter V, infra) the only available description of the race in Arabic sources is the following, apparently from ibn-Sa'id al-Maghribi: 'As to the Khazars, they are to be left [north] of the inhabited earth towards the 7th clime, having over their heads the constellation of the Plough. Their land is cold and wet. Hence their complexions are white, their eyes blue, their hair flowing and predominantly reddish, their bodies large and their natures cold. Their general aspect is wild.'

This reads like a conventional description of a northern nation, and in any case affords no kind of support for Khazar affinity with the 'Circassian' type. If we are to trust the etymology of Khalil ibn-Ahmad the Khazars may have been slant-eyed, like the Mongols, etc. Evidently nothing can be said positively in the matter. Some of the Khazars may have been fair-skinned, with dark hair and blue eyes, but there is no evidence that this type prevailed from antiquity or was widely represented in Khazaria in historical times. A similar discussion on the merits of the different races is reported from the days before Muhammad, in which the speakers are the Arab Nu'man ibn-al-Mudhir of al-Hirah and Khusraw Anushirwan. The Persian gives his opinion that the Greeks, Indians, and Chinese are superior to the Arabs and so also, in spite of their low material standards of life, the Turks and the Khazars, who at least possess an organization under their kings. Here again the Khazars are juxtaposed with the great nations of the east.

It is consonant with this that tales were told of how ambassadors from the Chinese, the Turks, and the Khazars were constantly at Khusraw's gate, [254] and even that he kept three thrones of gold in his palace, which were never removed and on which none sat, reserved for the kings of Byzantium, China and the Khazars. In general, the material in the Arabic and Persian writers with regard to the Khazars in early times falls roughly into three groups, centering respectively round the names of (a) one or other of the Hebrew patriarchs, (b) Alexander the Great, and © certain of the Sassanid kings, especially, Anushirwan and his immediate successors.

A typical story of the first group is given by Ya'qubi in his History. After the confusion of tongues at Babel, [255] the descendants of Noah came to Peleg, [256] son of Eber, [257] and asked him to divide  [258] the earth among them. He apportioned to the descendants of Japheth [259] China, Hind, Sind, the country of the Turks and that of the Khazars, as well as Tibet, the country of the (Volga) Bulgars, Daylam, and the country neighboring on Khurasan.

In another passage Ya'qubi gives a kind of sequel to this. Peleg [260] having divided the earth in this fashion, [261] the descendants of 'Amur ibn-Tubal, [262] a son of Japheth, went out to the northeast. One group, the descendants of Togarmah, [263] proceeding farther north, were scattered in different countries and became a number of kingdoms, among them the Burjan (Bulgars), Alans, Khazars (Ashkenaz), [264] and Armenians. Similarly, according to Tabari, there were born to Japheth Jim-r  (the Biblical Gomer), [265] Maw'-' (read Mawgh-gh, Magog [266]), Mawday (Madai [267]), Yawan (Javan), [268] Thubal (Tubal), Mash-j (read Mash-kh, Meshech [269]) and Tir-sh (Tiras [270]). Of the descendants of the last were the Turks and the Khazars (Ashkenaz).

There is possibly an association here with the Turgesh, survivors of the West Turks, who were defeated by the Arabs in 119/737, [271] and disappeared as a ruling group in the same century. Tabari says curiously that of the descendants of Mawgh-gh (Magog) were Yajuj and Majuj, adding that these are to the east of the Turks and Khazars.

This information would invalidate Zeki Validi's attempt to identify Gog and Magog in the Arabic writers with the Norwegians. The name Mash-kh (Meshech) is regarded by him as probably a singular to the classical Massagetai (Massaget). A Bashmakov emphasizes the connection of 'Meshech' with the Khazars, to establish his theory of the Khazars, not as Turks from inner Asia, but what he calls a Jephetic or Alarodian group from south of the Caucasus. Evidently there is no stereotyped form of this legendary relationship of the Khazars to Japheth. The Taj-al-Artis says that according to some they are the descendants of Kash-h (? Mash-h or Mash-kh, for Meshech), son of Japheth, and according to others both the Khazars and the Saqalibah are sprung from Thubal (Tubal). Further, we read of Balanjar ibn-Japheth in ibn-al-Faqih and abu-al-Fida' as the founder of the town of Balanjar.

Usage leads one to suppose that this is equivalent to giving Balanjar a separate racial identity. In historical times Balanjar was a well-known Khazar center, which is even mentioned by Masudi as their capital. It is hardly necessary to cite more of these Japheth stories. Their Jewish origin is priori obvious, and Poliak has drawn attention to one version of the division of the earth, where the Hebrew words for 'north' and 'south' actually appear in the Arabic text. The Iranian cycle of legend had a similar tradition, according to which the hero Afridun divided the earth among his sons, Tuj (sometimes Tur, the eponym of Turan), Salm, and Iraj.

Here the Khazars appear with the Turks and the Chinese in the portion assigned to Tuj, the eldest son. Some of the stories connect the Khazars with Abraham. The tale of a meeting in Khurasan between the sons of Keturah [272] and the Khazars (Ashkenaz [273]) where the Khaqan is Khaqan is mentioned is quoted from the Sa'd and al-Tabari by Poliak.

`The tradition also appears in the Meshed manuscript of ibn-al-Faqih, apparently as part of the account of Tamim ibn-Babr's journey to the Uigurs, but it goes back to Hishim al-Kalbi.[274] Zeki Validi is inclined to lay some stress on it as a real indication of the presence of the Khazars in this region at an early date. Al-Jahiz similarly refers to the legend of the sons of Abraham and Keturah settling in Khurasan but does not mention the Khazars. Al-Di-mashqi says that according to one tradition the Turks were the children of Abraham by Keturah, whose father belonged to the original Arab stock. Descendants of other sons of Abraham, namely the Soghdians and the Kirgiz, were also said to live beyond the Oxus..."

Benjamin Freedman, Facts Are Facts Khazars: A people of Turkish origin whose life and history are interwoven with the very beginnings of the History of the Jews of Russia...driven on by the nomadic tribes of the steppes and by their own desire for plunder and revenge...In the second half of the sixth century the Chazars moved westward...he kingdom of the Chazars was firmly established in most of south Russia long before the foundation of the Russian monarchy by the Varangians...At this time the kingdom of the Chazars stood at the height of its power and was constantly at war...At the end of the eighth century...the chagan (king) of the Chazars and his grandees, together with a large number of his heathen people, embraced the Jewish Religion."

Encyclopedia Americana (1985): "Khazar, an ancient Turkic‑speaking people who ruled a large and powerful state in the steppes North of the Caucasus Mountains from the 7th century to their demise in the mid‑11th century A.D...In the 8th Century it's political and religious head...as well as the  greater part of the Khazar nobility, abandoned paganism and converted to Judaism...(The Khazars are the ancestors of most Russian and Eastern European Jews)."

Encyclopedia Britannica (15th edition): "Khazars, confederation of Turkic and Iranian tribes that established a major commercial empire in the second half of the 6th century, covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia...In the middle of the 8th century the ruling classes adopted Judaism as their religion."

Academic American Encyclopedia (1985): "Ashkenazim, the Ashkenazim are one of the two major divisions of the Jews, the other being the Shephardim."

Encyclopedia Americana (1985): "Ashkenazim, the Ashkenazim are the Jews whose ancestors lived in German lands..it was among Ashkenazi Jews that the idea of political Zionism emerged, leading ultimately to the establishment of the state of Israel...In the late 1960s, Ashkenazi Jews numbered some 11 million, about 84 percent of the world Jewish population."

The Jewish Encyclopedia:"Khazars, a Non-Semitic, Asiatic, Mongolian tribal nation who emigrated into Eastern Europe about the first century, who were converted as an entire nation to Judaism in the seventh century by the expanding Russian nation which absorbed the entire Khazar population, and who account for the presence in Eastern Europe of the great numbers of Yiddish‑speaking Jews in Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Galatia, Besserabia and Rumania."

The Encyclopedia Judaica (1972): "Khazars, a national group of general Turkic type, independent and sovereign in Eastern Europe between the seventh and tenth centuries C.E. during part of this time the leading Khazars professed Judaism...In spite of the negligible information of an archaeological nature, the presence of Jewish groups and the impact of Jewish ideas in Eastern Europe are considerable during the Middle Ages. Groups have been mentioned as migrating to Central Europe from the East often have been referred to as Khazars, thus making it impossible to overlook the possibility that they originated from within the former Khazar Empire."

The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia:"Khazars, a medieval people, probably related to the Volga Bulgars, whose ruling class adopted Judaism during the 8th cent. The Khazars seem to have emerged during the 6th cent., from the vast nomadic Hun (Turki) empire which stretched from the steppes of Eastern Europe and the Volga basin to the Chinese frontier. Although it is often claimed that allusions to the Khazars are found as early as 200 C.E., actually they are not mentioned until 627...most Jewish Historians date the conversion of the Khazar King to Judaism during the First Half of this century {A.D.}..."

The primary meaning of Ashkenaz and Ashkenazim in Hebrew is Germany and Germans. This may be due to the fact that the home of the ancient ancestors of the Germans is Media, which is the Biblical Ashkenaz...Krauss is of the opinion that in the early medieval ages the Khazars were sometimes referred to as Ashkenazim...About 92 percent of all Jews or approximately 14,500,000 are Ashkenazim.

Kimyarite (Himyarites) King Adopts Judaism and Converts His Army and People: "Kimyarite (Himyarite) see Sabeans [275] Sabeans: The inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Sheba in south-eastern Arabia, known from the Bible, classical writers, and native inscriptions. The genealogies of Genesis give three pedigrees for Sheba, the eponymous ancestor of the Sabeans, who is variously termed (1) the son of Raamah and the grandson of Cush, [276] (2) the son of Joktan and a great‑great‑grandson of Shem, [277] and (3) the son of Jokshan and a grandson of Abraham by Keturah. [278] There seem, therefore, to have been three stocks of Sabeans: one in Africa, [279] and the other two in Arabia. Of the latter one is connected with the story of Abraham, and the other with that of the kingdom localized by Genesis 10:30, including the Joktanites generally, and extending 'from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a mount of the east.' In Job 6:19 the Sabeans are mentioned in close association with the Temeans, an Ishmaelite stock [280] that dwelt in Arabia. [281]

     The Psalms and the prophetical books lay special emphasis upon the wealth and commercial activity of the Sabeans. The gifts of the kings of Sheba and of Seba to Solomon are noted in Psalm 62:10, gold being especially mentioned among these presents. In both these passages the Septuagint, followed by the Vulgate, identifies Sheba with Arabia Isa. 60:6 adds incense to the gifts which these countries were to bring. [282] 'Despite the collocation with Dedan in Genesis 10:7, 1 Chronicles 1:9 and Ezekiel 38:13, the merchants of Sheba, whom Ezekiel addressed in the words 'occupied in thy fairs with chief of all spices, and with all precious stones, and gold...' [283] were doubtless Sabeans; but the reference in the following verse to the 'merchants of Sheba,' together with Haran, Canneh, Eden Asshur, and Chilmad, who by implication would be Asiatics, is probably a mere dittography, and is rightly omitted in the Septuagint. The wealth of Sheba is indicated also by the list of the gifts brought by its queen to Solomon, and which were 'a hundred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices very great store, and precious stones: there came no more such abundance of spices as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon.' [284] The only mention of the Sabeans in a warlike connection is in Job 1:15, where they are described as attacking and killing the servants of Job to rob them of cattle; but according to Joel 4. (A.V. 3:8), they dealt in slaves, including Jews. In the New Testament there is a reference to the kingdom of Sheba in the allusion to 'the queen of the south.' [285] Sheba must be carefully distinguished from the Cushite or African Seba, [286] as is shown by the discrimination between the 'kings of Sheba and Seba.' in Psalm 72:10, and by the collocation of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba in Isaiah 43:3, 45:13. Strabo, basing his account for the most part on Eratosthenes, an author of the third century B.C., gives considerable information of value concerning the Sabeans. [287]

Their territory was situated between those of the Mineans and Cattabanes; and their capital, Mariaba, stood on the summit of a wooded hill...The references to religion are for the most part names of deities; but the entire lack of description renders a reconstruction of the Semitic pantheon practically impossible. It is clear, however, from the appellations of the gods that the religion of Sheba closely resembled the pre‑Islamic Arabian cult, and showed certain affinities with the Assyro‑Babylonian system as well.  Among the Sabean gods the most important were Almakah ('the hearing god?'), Athtar (a protective deity and the male for of 'Ashtaroth,' to whom the gazel seems to have been sacred), Haubas (possibly a lunar deity), Dhu Samawi ('lord of heaven'), Hajr, Kainan, Kawim ('the sustaining'), Sin (the principal moon‑god), Shams (the chief solar deity), Yata', Ramman (the Biblical Rimmon), El ('god' in general), Sami' (the hearing'), Shem (corresponding in functions to the general Semitic Ba'al), Hobal (possibly a god of fortune), Homar (perhaps a god of wine), Bashir (bringer of good tidings), Rahman (the merciful), Ta'lab (probably a tree‑god), and Wadd (borrowed from the Mineans). A number of goddesses are mentioned, among them Dhat Hami (lady of Hami), Dhat Ba'dan (lady of Ba'dan), Dhat Gadran (lady of Gadran), and Tanuf (lofty).

It becomes clear, even from this scanty information, that the religion was in the main a nature‑cult, like the other Semitic religions; and this is borne out by a statement in the Koran that the Sabeans worshiped the sun. Few details of the cult are given, although there are frequent mentions of gifts and sacrifices, as well as of 'self‑presentation,' a rite of doubtful meaning, but one which evidently might be performed more than once. Ritual purity and abstinence of various forms also seem to have formed part of the Sabean religion, and the name of the month Dhu Hijjat or Mahijjat, the only one retained by the Arabs (Dhu'l‑Hijja, the twelfth month), implies a custom of religious pilgrimage to some shrine or shrines. To the account of the government as described by Strabo the Sabean inscriptions add lit­tle. The word for 'nation' is 'khums' (fifth), which apparently implies an earlier division of Arabia or of a portion of it into five parts; and the people were divided into tribes (shi'b), which, in their turn, were composed of 'tenths' or 'thirds.' The kings at first styled themselves 'malik' (king) and, possibly later, 'mukarrib,' a term of uncertain meaning, while they afterward were called 'kings of Saba and Dhu Raidan,' and finally monarchs of Hadramaut and Yamanet as well. There were likewise kings of a number of minor cities. From a late text which mentions a king of Himyar and Raidan and of Saba and Silhin, it has been inferred that the capital of Sheba was later removed to Raidan while the actual palace remained at Himyar, and that from this circumstance the dynasty and all that it ruled were formerly called Himyaritic (the 'Homeritae' of Ptolemy and of Christian ecclesiastical authors), a designation now generally discarded.

The state of society in Sheba seems to have been somewhat feudal in character. The great families, which evidently possessed large landed estates, had castles and towers that are frequently mentioned in the inscriptions; and remains of some of these buildings are still extant. The status of woman was remarkably high. The mistress of a castle is mentioned in one inscription, and the epigraphical remains represent women as enjoying practical equality with men, although a few passages imply the existence of concubinage.

The Sabean language belonged to the Semitic stock. While some of the inscriptions differ little from classical Arabic, most of them show a close affinity with Ethiopic. The weak letters occasionally possessed their consonant value as in Ethiopic, although they have become vowels in Arabic. On the other hand, the article is affixed as in Aramaic, instead of being prefixed as in Arabic, and certain syntactic phenomena recall Hebrew rather than the South‑Semitic dialects. The alphabet, which, like all the Semitic systems except Ethiopic, represents the consonants only, is plausibly regarded by man as the earliest form of Semitic script." [288]

Joachim Prinz in his Popes From the Ghetto says, “We read in the report of Ibn Kordadbeh, a postmaster of the Persian Empire in the ninth century the role of the famous Jewish merchants called Rhadanites headed a far flung business in the Mediterranean trade of the time. These merchants speak Arabic, Persian, Roman, Greek and Latin, Frankish, Spanish and Slavonic. They travel from east to west, and from west to east, by land as well as by sea. They bring from the west eunuches, slave girls, boys, brocade, beaver skins, marten furs and other varieties of fur. They embark in the land of the Franks on the Western Sea, and they sail toward Al‑Fraya in Egypt. There they load their merchandise on the backs of camels and proceed by land to Al Qulzum, Suez, twenty five prangs distant.

They embark on the Eastern Sea and proceed from Al Qulzum to Al Jar, part of Medina, then they go to Hind (India and Sinim) China. On their return they load musk, aloe wood, camphor, cinnamon and other products of the eastern countries... Sometimes they take the route back of Rome and crossing the country of the Slavs, proceed to the Lower Volga, the capital of the 'Khazars.'" [289]

The Bible relates that the Khazar (Ashkenaz) Jews were/are the sons of Japheth not Shem: "Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood. The sons of Japheth;...the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz..." [290] Therefore, the Bible proves that the Ashkenaz Jews [Khazars] are not the descendants of Shem and cannot be Semite.

The American People's Encyclopedia for 1954 at 15‑292 records the following in reference to the Khazars: "In the year 740 A.D. the Khazars were officially converted to Judaism. A century later they were crushed by the incoming Slavic‑speaking people and were scattered over central Europe where they were known as Jews. It is from this grouping that most German, Polish and Hungarian Jews are descended, and they likewise make up a considerable part of those now found in America. The term Aschenazim..."

Academic American Encyclopedia, Deluxe Library Edition, Volume 12, page 66 states:"The Khazars, a Turkic people, created a commercial and political empire that dominated substantial parts of South Russia during much of the 7th through 10th centuries. During the 8th century the Khazar aristocracy and the Kagan (King) were converted to Judaism."

The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 6, page 836 relates: "Khazar, member of a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century A.D. established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia...But the most striking characteristic of the Khazars was the apparent adoption of Judaism by the Khagan and the greater part of the ruling class in about 740 ...the...is undisputed and unparalleled in the History of Central Eurasia. A few scholars have asserted that the Judaized Khazars were the remote ancestors of many of the Jews of Eastern Europe and Russia."

Collier's Encyclopedia, Volume 14, page 65 states:"Khazars [kaza'rz], a semi-nomadic tribe of Turkish or Tatar origin who first appeared north of the Caucasus in the early part of the third century...in the eighth century Khaghan Bulan decided in favor of the Jews and accepted Judaism for himself and for his people..."

New Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII, page 173 relates: "The Khazars were an ethnic group, belonging to the Turkish peoples, who, toward the end of the 2d century of the Christian Era, had settled in the region between the Caucasus and the lower Volga and Don Rivers ...They also became acquainted with Judaism from the numerous Jews who lived in the Crimea and along the Bosphorus. When the Byzantine Emperor, Leo the Isaurian, persecuted the Jews in A.D. 723, many Jews found refuge in the Khazar kingdom, and their influence was so great that, around the middle of the 8th century, the King of the Khazars and many of the Khazar Nobility accepted the Jewish faith."

The Cadillac Modern Encyclopedia, page 822, states: "Khazars (khah'-zahrz), a S Russian people of Turkic origin, who at the height of their power (during the 8th-10th cent., A.D.) controlled an empire which included Crimea, and extended along the lower Volga, as far E as the Caspian Sea. The Khazar Royal Family and Aristocracy converted to Judaism during the reign of King Bulan (768-809 A.D.) and Judaism was thereafter regarded as the State Religion..."

From the above, we can clearly see that the Jews fully understand their Khazarian heritage as the third edition of The Jewish Encyclopedia for 1925 records: "Chazars [Khazars]: A people of Turkish origin whose life and history are interwoven with the very beginnings of the history of the Jews of Russia. The kingdom of the Chazars was firmly established in most of South Russia long before the foundation of the Russian monarchy by the Varangians (855). Jews have lived on the shores of the Black and Caspian seas since the first centuries of the common era [after the death of Christ]. Historical evidence points to the region of the Ural as the home of the Chazars. Among the classical writers of the Middle Ages they were known as the 'Chozars,' 'Khazirs,' 'Akatzirs,' and 'Akatirs,' and in the Russian chronicles as 'Khwalisses' and 'Ugry Byelyye.'..."

The Conquest of a Continent, by Madison Grant, pp. 224-234: "It was in this period that the Polish Jews began their tumultuous and frantic invasion, a flood which only recently has been checked, and that with the greatest difficulty. The great mass of immigrants from South Poland, Galicia, and Russia were Ashkanazim Jews, descendants in part of Alpine Khozars (Khazars), with a Mongol admixture, who entered the eastern Ukraine from Asia in the early centuries of our era. Many of the Khozars and their Khan were converted by Jewish missionaries and they formally accepted Judaism in 740 A.D. It is doubtful whether there is a single drop of the old Palestinian, Semantic-speaking Hebrew blood among these East European Jews. They are essentially a non-European people. The language they speak, Judisch, or Yiddish, is a corrupt German of the Franconian dialect mixed with Slavic and Hebrew elements, which fact strengthens the tradition of a large migration of German Jews into Poland in the Middle Ages.

It may be that the strain of these German Jews has died out, leaving only their language behind, but in any event the Polish Jews are now distinctly Alpine: a mixture of Slavs and of Asiatic invaders of Russia...The German Jews, who also came into this country in smaller numbers at the end of the last century, were of the Alpine type, closely resembling those from Poland, Galicia, and Russia. All of these Jews are in sharp contrast to the Sephardim Jews, a superior group, largely Mediterranean in race, a very few of whom came from Holland to America in Colonial times. These latter had reached Spain by way of North Africa and later fled to Holland to escape the Inquisition."

Nathan M. Pollock has a beef with the Israeli government. His elaborate plans to celebrate this September the 1000th anniversary of the Jewish ‑ Khazar alliance were summarily rejected. An elderly, meek‑looking man who migrated to Israel from Russia 43 years ago.

He has devoted 40 of his 64 years trying to prove that six out of ten Israelis and none out of ten Jews in the Western Hemisphere are real Jews' Jews, but descendants of fierce Khazar tribes which roamed the steppes of Southern Russia many centuries ago. "For all we know, he may be 100 percent right,' said a senior government official. 'In fact, he is not the first one to discover the connection between Jews and Khazars. Many famous scholars Jews and non‑Jews, stressed these links in their historical research works. But who can tell today what percentage of Khazar blood flows in our veins..." [291]

Following is the story of the conversion of a tribe of people in Russia to Judaism and is the origin of more than 95% of the Jews of Eastern Europe.

Facts are Facts, By Benjamin Freedman):"Without a complete and accurate knowledge of the origin and history of the 'Jews' in Eastern Europe...it is quite impossible for [Christians] to intelligently understand the harmful influence the Jews have exerted for ten centuries...You will probably be astonished as many Christians were years ago when I electrified the nation with the first publication by me of the facts disclosed by my many years of research into the origin and the history of the 'Jews' in Eastern Europe. My many years of intensive research established beyond the question of any doubt, contrary to the generally accepted belief held by Christians, that the 'Jews' in Eastern Europe at any time in their history in Eastern Europe were never the legendary 'lost ten tribes' of Bible lore. That historic fact is incontrovertible. Relentless research established as equally true that the 'Jews' in Eastern Europe at no time in their history could be correctly regarded as the direct lineal descendants of the legendary 'Lost Ten Tribes' of Bible lore. The 'Jews' in Eastern Europe in modern history cannot legitimately point to a single ancient ancestor who ever set even a foot on the soil of Palestine in the era of Bible History  Research also revealed that the 'Jews' in Eastern Europe were never 'Semites,' are not 'Semites' how, nor can they ever be regarded as 'Semites' at any future time by any stretch of the imagination. Exhaustive research also irrevocably rejects as a fantastic fabrication the generally accepted belief by Christians that the 'Jews' in Eastern Europe are the legendary 'Chosen People' so very vocally publicized by the Christian clergy from their pulpits..."

The Jewish author, Arthur Koestler, relates the following concerning Jewish history: In his 1976 best seller The Thirteenth Tribe, the Author of Darkness at Noon, Promise and Fulfillment, and The Roots of Coincidence dropped another bombshell by Proving today's Jews are, for the most part, Descendants of Khazars, who converted to Judaism seven centuries after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. "This, of course, is inspired by the story of the Covenant in Genesis; and it implies that The Khazars too claimed the status of a Chosen Race, who made their own Covenant with the Lord, even though they [Khazars] were not descended from Abraham's seed...he cannot, and does not, claim for them [the Khazars] Semitic descent; he traces their [Khazars] ancestry not to Shem, but to Noah's third son, Japheth; or more precisely to Japheth's Grandson, Togarma, the ancestor of all Turkish Tribes. 'We have found in the family registers of our fathers,' Joseph asserts boldly, 'that Togarma had ten sons, and the names of their off-spring are as follows: Uigur, Dursu, Avars, Huns, Basilii, Tarniakh, Khazars, Zagora, Bulgars, Sabir. we [Khazars] are the sons of Khazar, the seventh...'" [292]

Jewish author Alfred M. Lilienthal (The Zionist Connection II, pages 759‑768) relates the following concerning Jewish history: "...The existence of [The State of] Israel is not founded on logic. It has no ordinary legitimacy. There is neither in its establishment nor present scope any evident justice ‑ though there may be an utter need and wondrous fulfillment.'...

Arthur Koestler answers this question with an emphatic 'NO!' In his 1976 best seller The Thirteenth Tribe, the Author of Darkness at Noon, Promise and Fulfillment, and The Roots of Coincidence dropped another bombshell by proving that today's Jews were, for the most part, descendants of Khazars, who converted to Judaism seven centuries after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D...

Therefore, the great majority of Eastern European Jews are not Semitic Jews at all, and as most Western European Jews came from East Europe, most of them also are not Semitic Jews. Thus, maintains Koestler, the veins of 45 percent of Israelis (save only the Arab and the Sephardic Jews), plus a big majority of Jews around the world, are utterly vacant of corpuscular links to the tribe of Moses and Solomon...The Koestler thesis, however startling, is in no wise a new one. The Genetic Khazar derivation of most Jews, only the Sephardic may be accounted Hebrews by blood, has been long if not widely known...

The home to which Weismann, Silver, Ben‑Gurion and so many other Ashkenazim Zionists have long yearned to return HAS most likely never been theirs ...[it is an] anthropological fact, many Christians may have much more Hebrew-Israelite blood in their veins than most of their Jewish neighbors!

Ironically enough, too, Volume IV of the Jewish Encyclopedia (as of the time of research, 1952), because this publication spelled Khazars with a 'C' instead of a 'K,' is titled 'Chazars to Dreyfus.'. And it was the famed trial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, as interpreted by Theodore Herzl, that made the modern Jewish Khazars of Russia...forget their descent from converts to Judaism...to establish the State of Israel...and with out the hue and cry, 'Anti-Semitism,' pray what happens to the Zionist movement? Khazar conversion was not unique...who can say for sure that many Christian readers of this book might not in fact have a better claim, which they do not choose to exercise, to go back 'Home' to Palestine than Hannah Semer, Menachem Begin, or Golda Meir? Queen Victoria herself belonged to an Israelite Society that traced the ancestry of its membership back to the lost tribes of Israel. When the word 'Judaism' was born, there was no longer a Hebrew-Israelite state. The people who embraced the creed of Judaism were already a mixture of many nations, races, and strains, and this diversification was rapidly growing..."

Jewish Author Confirms Identity of True Israel as Being The Whites of Western European Descent - Yet Tries to Link Khazars to True Israel: As you know the Christian Israel Identity doctrine underlies everything we teach and do and write. Similar, but not to be confused with "British-Israelism," the Christian Israel Doctrine holds that the people generally known as the Caucasian people are the true and literal descendants of the Israel people of the Bible. This knowledge unfolds many wondrous new insights into the Scriptures.

At the same time, if we are Israel, then who are these people today called "Jews?" Well, judge them by their fruits, brother and sister Christians! This comes to the meat of our study today, as related, in part by Pastor James Bruggeman of Stone Kingdom Ministries.

Nearly 20 years ago a book, which was written by a noted Jewish author, should have shocked "Judeo-Christianity" to its very foundation. It didn't! Promoted by Random House, which is a major (Jewish-owned) publishing firm, "The Thirteenth Tribe," [293] by Arthur Koestler revealed that most modern "Jews" Are Not Israelites! Under the heading of "A brief History of the Terms for Jew" in the 1980 Jewish Almanac is the following: "Strictly speaking it is incorrect to call an Ancient Israelite A 'Jew' or to call a Contemporary Jew an Israelite or a Hebrew." [294]

In fact, according to Koestler, they are not even Semites (descendants of Noah's son, Shem); instead they descend from Japheth and are identified with Ashkenaz, Togarmah, Magog, and the Huns. The ramifications which this revelation and admission should have had upon "Judeo-Christian" theology are momentous to contemplate. [295] Sadly, the Judeo-Christian clergy almost unanimously ignored the book; and thus most of their flocks were deprived of even hearing of this astounding discovery and its far-reaching implications. However, "The Thirteenth Tribe," has not faded away. Instead, it (and other booklets, tracts, etc., about it) have been circulating widely in America's Christian underground for the past two decades. [296] Concurrently, the truth that many Caucasians of European descent are the true Israelites has also been circulating and gaining a growing number of adherents.

Many Jews were undoubtedly displeased to have Koestler pull aside their "God's Chosen People" mask. [297] Fortunately for the Jews, the Judeo-Christian ministers "stayed in line" as their masters directed by ignoring the book. But the proliferation of its message could not be stemmed in the Christian underground. This has become worrisome to the Jewish/Zionist hierarchy. What could they possibly do to counteract Koestler's exposé? What they needed was "damage control."

Enter: "The Tribes," by Yair Davidy. Not being on the inside of Zionist power circles, we must admit that whether or not "The Tribes," is a consciously-directed piece of damage control, we cannot say with certainty. To us, however, it appears to fit the bill. Our purpose in this short study, therefore, is to provide an extensive review, analysis and commentary of this new 480-page book, should your friends or pastor throw it up into your face, when talking about the True Tribes of Israel. You may simply think to yourself: "But if The Tribes is a book simply meant for damage control, then why take the time to fuss with it at all?"

The answer is that we believe that God is at work through all of this. In His sovereignty, He has apparently chosen to let the false Israelites expose themselves. In fact, God told us in His Word that such would be the case. Before we give you those specific verses, however, some background clarification of terminology is necessary for those new to this concept: Koestler correctly states that most Modern Jews are from Khazar/Mongol/Nun ancestry. What he failed to mention, however, is that among several other admixtures one is from Edom, the descendants of Esau. Jewish authorities, even admit that Edom is in modern Jewry. [298] Esau was the twin brother of Jacob. Jacob was the father of twelve sons and hence, the Twelve Tribes of Israel (and hence, the title of Davidy's book, The Tribes). By right of creation, God chose Jacob to receive the covenant blessings even before the twins were born. Esau/Edom felt cheated of the birthright, even though he had previously sold it to his brother, and thereafter, as God had foretold, his descendants have hated the Israelite descendants of Jacob and been at war with them. The war continues to this day.

The war fare is not always open. The Edomites, being in much smaller numbers (as God foretold), prefer to use cunning and stealth, trickery and deceit, and whenever possible, to have others do their "dirty work" for them. In prophecy, the term, "the daughter of Zion," refers to True Israel at some future time. Similarly, "the daughter of Edom" refers to the descendants of Edom at some future time. Bible students know that Israel was disobedient to Yahweh, the Almighty God, and thus they were to be punished for a period of "seven times." Our purpose in this study is not directed towards Bible chronology, but let it suffice to say that this meant the punishment would last for many centuries. Now read what God prophesied through Jeremiah in the Book of Lamentation: "The punishment of thine iniquity is accomplished, O daughter of Zion; he will no more carry thee away into captivity: he will visit thine iniquity, O daughter of Edom; he will discover thy sins." [299]

God is telling Israel that at some future time their punishment will be over, and THEN He will punish Edom for their iniquity. In doing so, he says he will "discover" [300] Edom's [301] sins. What is most interesting about all this is HOW God will reveal their iniquities. He says they will do it to themselves! "Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, that dwellest in the land of Uz; the cup also shall pass through unto thee: thou shalt be drunken, and shalt make thyself naked." [302]

The figurative language here says they will be drunken; they will do things that a person in his right mind would not ordinarily do. [303] They will make themselves naked; in other words, they will remove their covering; they will take off their mask; they will remove their "God's Chosen People" garment and will stand exposed for who they are for all the world, including True Israel, to see! They will truly do it to themselves. And with Koestler's and Davidy's books, they have done it! [304]

Koestler has done in The Thirteenth Tribe by admitting that Jews are not Israelites, as well as those books listed in the Footnote. The mask has come off. Now comes Mr. Davidy and in attempting to do damage control, to reclaim Israelite status for the Jews, to put the mask back on, he has admitted and confirmed that many western people are Israelites. The subtitle of his book says just that "The Israelite Origin of Western Peoples." Praise Yahweh the Almighty!

Since Yahweh has caused Davidy and Koestler to expose the truth of who Israel IS and who Israel is NOT, it is only appropriate that a ministry such as our, which proclaims the True Christian Israel Identity Message, examine Davidy's book in depth and to make such use of it as the Lord wills.

The long-time student of Christian Israel identity does not have to wade too far into Davidy's book to discern his purposes. Several of them, he tells in the opening pages; others are never admitted but become clear before one finishes the first hundred pages. As stated previously, we believe that one of the purposes of the book is to counteract the spreading knowledge among Christians that the modern Jews are primarily descended from the medieval Khazar tribes. Koestler demonstrated from historical facts that Jews are neither Semitic nor Israelites. The History of The Jewish Khazars, by D.M. Dunlop, pp. 4-15; proves the Khazars came from the tribe of Japheth. However, in The Tribes, Mr. Davidy now goes to great lengths in attempting to link the Khazars to Israelite tribes. At the same time, he confirms and even occasionally adds to existing information concerning the tribal migrations of the so-called "lost ten tribes." We will elaborate on this later.

Without Mr. Davidy ever stating it, who could expect him to? It is to us that the overriding purpose of The Tribes is to drive home the alleged fact that modern Jews, though of Khazar descent, are nonetheless, primarily from the tribe of Judah. The very important corollary to that assertion is to deny Judah's identification with the German People. That Germanic identification has now been generally accepted in Christian Israel circles. With this Jewish author now admitting that most of the Israelite tribes are found in the peoples of Western Europe or their descendants in the USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa, etc., the battle is now joined and headed for the climax in determining who is Judah today: the Germanic people or the Jews. With this as background we can now proceed to systematically review The Tribes.

In his "Introductory Preview" Mr. Davidy states: "The Tribes produces evidence that most of the ancient Israelites assimilated to foreign cultures and forgot their origins. In the course of time they reached the British Isles and north-west Europe whence related nations (such as the U.S.) were founded... Proofs adduced are derived from Biblical, Talmudic, Historical, Archaeological, and Linguistic sources as well as from Folklore, Mythology, National Symbols, and National Characteristics."

As Christians, we have a serious problem in accepting anything using the Jewish Talmud as a reliable source. Most Christians have no idea of the absolute filth and blasphemy in these "holy books" of the Jews. Don't be misled by the sanitized versions now appearing in bookstores and, yes, even through Judeo-Christian book distributors! If you know Freud (who was a Queer) was obsessed with sex (Just like the Jewess Dr. Ruth), then Freud is a choir boy compared to the degeneracy rampant in the Talmud.

Come to think of it, perhaps Freud was only "borrowing" his ideas from the Talmud. For the naive Christian, let him understand that the Talmud teaches that Christ, our Savior, was conceived by a whore, Miriam (Mary), during her menstrual period; and that the father was a Roman soldier. It gets worse, but you get the idea. Thus, unless there is corroborating evidence from other and reliable sources, we place no credibility in any "fact" which cites the Talmud as its source.

     Author's Stated Purposes: On page 3, Mr. Davidy states: "Many of the conclusions reached, though sometimes seemingly obviously, are, in effect, potentially revolutionary in their implications."

Oh yes indeed, we will see a most earth-shaking turn of events, political and religious, when most of True Israel wakes up to her identity as the Bride of Christ! [305] This will certainly sweep Edom from their present (mostly hidden) positions of power.  "The goal of this work was primarily a study which it was hoped would lead to a deeper and more widely spread understanding of Biblical and Historical truth." (p. 3) We couldn't agree more, the sooner, the better. "So hopefully, at least some amongst the peoples identified within the following pages as descendants of Israelite Tribes will gain a deeper appreciation for themselves and for the Jewish people who are their Tribal brother 'Israelites.'" (p. 3)

Aha! Here is the first occurrence of this theme that the Jews are our brother Israelites. We will prove otherwise from the Scriptures shortly. Just four pages later, he repeats this refrain after giving an accurate statement of the dispersion of the tribes after the Assyrian Captivity; "whence they migrated in several waves to the extreme north and west of Europe from which their descendants settled North America, Australasia [sic], and South Africa. The peoples in these said nations today are thus in the Biblical and historical sense brothers of the Jews who came from the remaining southern kingdom of Judah...The Jews and the Lost Ten Tribes together for the Israelite or Hebrew nation."

On page 228, Mr. Davidy misapplies prophecy to indicate a future joining of the Jews with us, True Israel: "If the theory set forth in this present work is correct, and all the evidence strongly indicates that it is (with two very major exceptions!), it means that the Jews and many of the peoples in northwest Europe are in a Biblical sense of the same stock and have a mutual destiny. The Lost Ten Tribes 'from the north country and...from the coasts of the earth [306] are destined to re-unite with the Tribes of JUDAH: 'They shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all.' [307] The unity of origin and destined future union of the Jews with the Lost Ten Tribes of necessity indicates a need for the two bodies even now to evidence a certain empathy towards each other.'" Over and over again the idea recurs that the Jews are the racial-familial brothers of those of us from northwest European stock. He fails to prove that point historically (which we will discuss further on) and he certainly does not prove it Scripturally, despite his occasional citation of an Old Testament passage.

Indeed, the Scriptures prove just the opposite, as we shall now demonstrate. Bible students will recall that after the death of Solomon, the Kingdom of Israel split into two separate nations. The northern ten tribes seceded and were then known as the House of Israel. The tribes of Benjamin and parts of Levi and Simeon remained allied with the tribe of Judah and were collectively known as the House of Judah. The northern House of Israel and most of the Southern House of Judah were carried away captive by the Assyrians beginning about 745 B.C. They never returned. Hence, since the majority of all twelve tribes were deported by the Assyrians, the idea of the "ten lost tribes of Israel" is somewhat of a misnomer. At about 586 B.C. the remainder of the House (or Kingdom) of Judah was carried away to Babylon. Most of them never returned either. Less than 50,000 returned to the old land of Israel at the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. The descendants of these Judahites provided the line from which came Mary, the mother of Yahshua (Christ), and Joseph, his foster father.

By the time Christ came, there were now at least two different types of people in the land of Israel who were called "Jews." Some were Israelites of the tribes of Judah, Levi or Benjamin, or collectively, "Judahites," although called "Jews" in your English language Bible. Others called "Jews" in your Bible were Edomites who also lived in the land of Judea, and who had adopted the religion of Judaism. King Herod was of partial Edomite blood, and thus it is not surprising that he would kill a large number of baby Israelite boys in attempting to kill the Christ child. Therefore, when Christ came preaching the Gospel of the Kingdom to "the Jews," it is understandable why some "Jews" believed on him and others believed not and tried to kill Him.

After the death, burial and resurrection of the Savior, the apostles began preaching the good news first to the Judahite Israelites in Jerusalem and Judea, Samaria and Galilee. Those who were truly Israelites responded to the news by becoming Christians. Those who had become "Jews" by religion (Edomites and others) clung to Judaism (Tradition of the Elders, which later became known as Judaism). This religion of Judaism, incidently, was not the true Mosaic/Hebrew religion, but was a perverted form of it which Yahshua denounced as "the traditions of men."

Judaism-- The World's Strangest Religion: Yet the Jews themselves say that Judaism is not a religion: "Judaism was not a religion but a law." [308] Which shows that one of the great myths of our time is that a Jewish synagogue is the same thing as a Christian church. Even the Jews disagree with this, just as they do the definition of Judaism. Most people think that the only difference is that Christians believe that the Messiah has already arrived in the personage of Jesus Christ while the Jews reject Christ.

What Are The Real Differences?

1). Christians believe that those who accept Jesus Christ as their Savior and lead a righteous life will be rewarded with eternal life in heaven while sinners who are unforgiven will go to a burning hell. But the Jewish Encyclopedia (1948 edition) relates a different story:  "Heaven, it was thought, must merely be an idealized state of existence on earth!" [309] "Beliefs about the hereafter never solidified into dogmas in Judaism ...Traditional Judaism consigns this subject to the realm - of those hidden matters on which it is deemed inadvisable to speculate. The final destiny of the individual is subordinated to the question of the future of the Jewish people." [310]

Thus Judaism is based on the future success of the Jewish people and not upon a heavenly reward from God. However, Orthodox Jews believe that the Judgement Day will arrive when all Gentiles are dominated by the Jewish Nation! When Jews join a synagogue, they sign a contract to pay so much money per year. The better the seating, the higher the price. There have been court cases of Jews being sued by the Rabbi after dropping out and not paying the contract in full. They may still owe hundreds or thousands of dollars! Tickets are also sold for special events in the synagogue during High Holy Days.

2). Christians will accept anyone into a church whether they can give large or small voluntary donations or nothing at all. Christians also give millions of dollars a year to help poor people throughout the world regardless of what religion they follow. The Jews do not believe in giving money to any organization unless it benefits a Jewish cause.

Judaism is the only religion in the world which has no "missionary" program. They frown on converts and believe that one must be born of a Jewish mother in order to be recognized as a Jew. Today may Jews will accept one born of a Jewish Father.

It is Jewish blood which makes one a Jew, not a race. Jews actively try to discourage converts. Many who have married Jews and sought to become converts say they are never truly accepted by the other Jews as a "fellow Jew." Yet David Ben Gurion said anyone is a Jew who says they are.

3). Christian churches spend millions annually on missionary efforts world-wide to win one and all to the faith of Jesus Christ. All who are baptized and accept Christ as their Lord and Savior are happily welcomed into the fellowship of Christianity.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1948 edition, regarding the striking differences which exits between Judaism and other religions states: "The very name Judaism sharply differentiates it from other religions. Whereas Buddhism centers in Buddha, Christianity in Christ, Mohammedanism in Mohammed, Judaism centers in no particular personality - but the Jewish people themselves...while Christianity is based upon events in the life of Christ, Judaism is based on occurrences in the history of the Jews. Christians look to Jesus Christ for their salvation and Godliness. In Judaism the center of gravity is the Jewish people themselves. Jewish history records a continuous struggle against other nations and their religions...Judaism has grown out of the soul of the Jewish people and has been nourished by their life-blood. Hence it is not called Mosaism, prophetism, rabbinism, but Judaism - after the Jewish people themselves!" [311]

This is more clearly explained by Karl Marx, who has been given the title of the "Father of Communism," but this is because Christians do not realize that Communism is a Jewish Talmudic concept. Hence Marx stated: "The Jewish people as a whole will be its own Messiah.

It will attain world dominion by the dissolution of other races, by the abolition of frontiers, the annihilation of monarchy, and by the establishment of a world republic in which the Jews will everywhere exercise the privilege of citizenship. In this new world order the Children of Israel will furnish all the leaders without encountering opposition.

The Governments of the different peoples forming the world republic will fall without difficulty into the hands of the Jews. It will then be possible for the Jewish rulers to abolish private property, and everywhere to make use of the resources of the state. Thus will the promise of the Talmud be fulfilled, in which is said that when the Messianic time is come the Jews will have all the property of the whole world in their hands." [312]

The Jewish Encyclopedia states that another important difference is that Christians believe in "grace" wile Jews believe in "justice." Grace is defined as a Christian receiving "the unmerited love and favor of God...and the forgiving of one's enemies as we would have them forgive us."

Judaism believes in "Justice" which is defined as "the reward or penalty as deserved just deserts or the punishment for a wrong." In other words, they reject the Christian ideal of loving one's enemies or the "turning of the check." Judaism teaches the punishment and even destruction of their enemies.

Judaism is based upon the "eternal hatred of all enemies" and calls for an "eye for an eye" and "a tooth for a tooth" philosophy. Thus the exacting of the "vengeance" upon all opponents constitutes the very core of this strange religion and it is expressed in their famous motto: "Never Forgive - Never Forget!"

Could any religion be more opposite of Christianity? The most respected leader within every Jewish community is he who has accumulated the most wealth! Judaism is based upon the rewards of this life with its goal being financial success, luxury and living a life of pleasure and materialism.

"The Reflex," a magazine produced for Rabbis explains the role of the Rabbis: "He is valued most as the executive manager of a wealthy congregation. He knows and cherishes the power of money and is adept in matters of finance, mortgages and loans!"

Bernard Lazare, one of the greatest Jewish writers in all history in his book "Anti-Semitism" wrote: "The Jew is not satisfied with de-Christianizing, he destroys Catholic or Protestant faiths, he provokes indifference but he imposes his idea of the world, of morals and of the life upon those whose faith he ruins. He works at his age old task, the annihilation of the religion of Christ!" [313] Lazare also wrote in this same book: "The only conquest the Jews have ever made is by the holding of gold. They became the masters of their masters - they dominated them. For the Jews love of gold, there can be no question!"

"The London Jewish World" declared: "Fundamentally, Judaism is anti-Christian!" [314]

Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) became the first and only known Jew to be the Prime Minister of England. He wrote a book in 1858 entitled "Lord George Bentick: A Political Biography," where he stated: "The people of God co-operate with atheists; the most skillful accumulators of property ally themselves with communists; this peculiar and chosen race touch the hand of all the scum and low casts of Europe! And all this because they wish to destroy that ungrateful Christendom whose tyranny they can no longer endure!"; "The anti-religious but, above all, anti-Christian efforts which distinguish the present epoch have a character of concentration and universality which marks the stamp of the Jew, the supreme patron of the unification of peoples, because he is the cosmopolitan people par excellence; because the Jew prepares by license of the libre-pensée, the era called by him 'Messianic' - the day of his universal triumph. He attributes its near realization to the principles spread by the philosophers of the eighteenth century; the men at once unbelievers and Cabalists, whose work prepared the Judaising of the world. The character of universality will be noted in L'Alliance-isrélite-universelle, in the Universal Association of Freemasonry, and in the more recent auxiliaries, L'Alliance-universelle-religious, open to those who are still frightened off by the name of Israelite and finally in the Ligue-universelle de l'enseignement..." [315]

Most Christians believe that the Jews follow only the Old Testament of the Holy Bible and reject the New Testament. The truth is their "real bible" is the Talmud. The Talmud is the bible of Judaism. The Old Testament is used for window dressing purposes to deceive Christians into believing that the Jews worship the same God as they do, however, the Jews god is Satan - and they will admit this is true when there are no non-Jews or Christians present. Chief Rabbi Hertz states in the Babylonian Talmud: "During the exile Israel (the Jews) found itself. It not only rediscovered the Torah (which to a Jew means the Talmud, not the first five books of the Bible as Christians are led to believe) and made it the rule of life, but under its influence new religious institutions such as the synagogue, congregational worship without priests or ritual."

Arsene Darmester, who has been long recognized in Jewish circles as an authority on the Talmud, said: "Nothing, indeed, can equal the importance of the Talmud...The daily study of the Talmud, which among Jews began with the age of ten to end with life itself, necessarily was a severe gymnastic exercise for the mind, thanks to which it acquired incomparable subtlety and acumen...The study of Judaism is that of the Talmud, as the study of the Talmud is that of Judaism...Thus became possible the strange phenomenon, unique in history, I believe, of a people dispersed to the four corners of the earth, yet one, of a nation without a land, yet living. The miracle was accomplished by a book, the Talmud."

Elizabeth Dilling, also an authority on the Talmud has the following to say about it: "Bible scholars are aware that Jesus Christ denounced the Pharisees. He said they nullified all the Commandments of God by their Tradition, 'teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.' [316] His invective, in truth, cannot be equaled. All of Matthew 23 is like a whiplash. He likened Pharisaism to a whited sepulcher, indeed beautiful outwardly, but 'inside full of dead men's bones and of all uncleanness.'

Christ climaxed one condemnation after another with the expletive, 'Hypocrites!' He called the Pharisees children of them that killed the Prophets. He foretold they would go on killing, crucifying and persecuting until the guilt for all the righteous blood shed from Abel on down would be upon them. 'Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?' Christ asked? Christ is as utterly devastating of Pharisaism in the record of John 8. Although He admitted that His hearers were descendants of Abraham, He said they were NOT the children, but were only the seed of Abraham. He said they were of the devil, when He said: 'Ye (scribes and Pharisees - Jews) are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.' [317]

The Missing Link: 'But,' says the disinterested Christian, 'what has that to do with us today? What a group of Pharisees did two thousand years ago is over and done with!' However, the missing link in Christian understanding on the subject of 'Pharisees' is best supplied by the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943): 'The Jewish religion as it is today traces its descent, without a break, through all the centuries, from the Pharisees. Their leading ideas and methods found expression in a literature of enormous extent, of which a very great deal is still in existence. The Talmud is the largest and most important single piece of that literature...and the study of it is essential for any real understanding of Pharisism.'

Concerning the Pharisees, the 1905 Jewish Encyclopedia says: 'With the destruction of the Temple (70 A.D.) the Sadducees disappeared altogether, leaving the regulation of all Jewish affairs in the hands of the Pharisees. Henceforth, Jewish life was regulated by the Pharisees; the whole history of Judaism was reconstructed from the Pharisaic point of view, and a new aspect was given to the Sanhedrin of the past. A new chain of tradition supplanted the older priestly tradition. [318] Pharisaism shaped the character of Judaism and the life and thought of the Jew for all the future. [319] Historically speaking, scripture believers had accepted Christ as the Messiah foretold. They were no longer 'Jews,' but called themselves 'Christians.' (These were the True Israelites, not Jews, the Jews have never accepted Christ, nor the Christian religion). They were persecuted as such by the Pharisees. The word 'Pharisee' comes from the word 'separated.' [320]

The Babylonian Talmud, Sole Authority: You may ascertain by turning to top Jewish authorities today that the Babylonian Talmud, the written form of the Tradition of the Pharisees, is the sole authority of the so-called 'Jewish' religion, or Judaism.

Rabbi Louis Finklestein was chosen in 1937 by the Kehillas (Jewish communities) of the World as one of the top 120 Jews best representing 'a lamp of Judaism' to the World, together with Maxim Litvinov (Finklestein), the Communist Commissar and bank robber terrorist; atheist communist Albert Einstein; whose indefatigable Marxist reds, Harold Laski and his friend Felix Frankfurter (U.S. Supreme Court Justice) who shared honors with Rabbi Finklestein and others. Finklestein has long headed the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, with branches in New York and Los Angeles. In his two-volume word 'The Pharisees,' Rabbi Finklestein writes: 'Pharasaism became Talmudism...But the spirit of the ancient Pharisee survives unaltered. When the Jew...studies the Talmud, he is actually repeating the arguments used in the Palestinian academies. From Palestine to Babylonia; from Babylonia to North Africa, Italy, Spain, France and Germany; from these to Poland, Russia and Eastern Europe generally, ancient Pharasaism has wandered.'

In Rabbi Finklestein's history of the Jews, he states: 'The Talmud derives it authority from the position held by the ancient academies, both of Babylonia and of Palestine, were considered the rightful successors of the older Sanhedrin...At the present time, the Jewish people have no living central authority comparable in status to the ancient Sanhedrins or the later academies. Therefore, any decision regarding the Jewish religion must be based on the Talmud as the final resume of the teaching of those authorities when they existed.' [321]

The Talmud: Heart's Blood of the Jewish Faith,' was the heading of a November, 1959, installment of a best-selling book by the Jewish author, Herman Wouk, which ran serially in the 'New York Herald-Tribune.' To quote: 'The Talmud is to this day the circulating heart's blood of the Jewish religion. Whatever laws, customs or ceremonies we observe - whether we are Orthodox, Conservative, Reform or merely spasmodic sentimentalists - we follow the Talmud. It is our common law.'

Why Was It So Often Burned?: Why is the Talmud kept so unknown to non-Jews? Why was there no usable English translation of the Talmud until the Soncino Edition, 1934-48? Why, in European history, when the laws of the Talmud became commonly known, was it burned over and over by order of the Popes, excoriated by Martin Luther, denounced everywhere, and its followers exiled form one country after another down through the centuries?

The Talmud's basic law is that only the Pharisee Jew ranks as a man, or human being. All others rank as animals, 'the people who are like an ass - slaves who are considered the property of the master.' The attitude resulting from such teachings has been resented by non-Jews in all countries and centuries. Such resentment, however, is always portrayed by Jews a 'persecution of the Jews.'

Moses, on the contrary, was most insistent upon having one law for the stranger and for the 'home-born' and in teaching that the stranger must not be oppressed. [322] In fact, he ordered: 'Love ye therefore the stranger; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.' [323] It was only the abominators eh warned against.

Babylonian Talmud - The Law: The Babylonian Talmud is the law for so-called Judaism. However, its pornographic, anti-Jewish and anti-Christian doctrines have often caused hostility against it. It may then be argued by some Jews that there is a Palestinian Talmud which is innocuous. Nevertheless, you may look up the fact that Jewish authorities state it was lost for a thousand years, has missing parts and lacks the 'Gemara' and other essentials, and is only used as a scholar's curiosity. Note the statement of British Chief Rabbi Hertz in his foreword to the Soncino edition of the Babylonian Talmud: 'The Palestinian Talmud ...was for many centuries almost forgotten by Jewry. Its legal decisions were at no time deemed to possess validity, if opposed by the Babylonian Talmud.'

Was Christ Just To Pharisees?: Without some knowledge of the written form of the 'Tradition of the Pharisees,' the Babylonian Talmud, one is unable to intelligently judge whether Jesus Christ was fair and just in His acid denunciations of Pharisaism, or not. One needs proof, offered by the irrefutable exhibits from Jewish authorities that the Talmud reverses every one of the Ten Commandments, the teachings of Moses and the Prophets, and enshrines their opposites under a 'whited sepulcher' which is a disguise for murder and 'all uncleanness,' as Christ charged. Murder of non-Pharisees (non-Jews) is always permitted; theft, sodomy, incest, rape are all permitted. For example, the righteousness of grown men violating baby girls under three is a favorite topic for discussion in book after book of the Talmud. Talmudic literature is one long paean of praise for the very name Babylon, and all that it means to Babylonian Talmudism today, whereas it is a term of reproach in Old and New Testaments.

Note the Foreword to the first English translation of the Babylonian Talmud by the late Chief Rabbi of Great Britain, J.H. Hertz, who, like Rabbi Finklestein, was one of the 120 Jews chosen in 1937 by the Kehillas of the World as best holding up the 'lamp of Judaism:' 'The beginnings of Talmudic literature date back to the time of the Babylonian Exile in the Sixth pre-Christian Century...When a thousand years later, the Babylonian Talmud assumed final codified form in the year 500 after the Christian era, the Roman Western Empire had ceased to be.' Rabbi Hertz extolls the Babylonian Exile, saying: 'The Babylonian Exile is a momentous period...During that Exile Israel found itself. It...rediscovered the Torah and made it the rule of life...' What he really means is that it was discovered how the Torah or Bible could be used as a 'whited sepulcher' for Babylonian degeneracy, as even a cursory study will reveal.

One Rabbi Akiba was a First Century Talmud 'sage,' of whom Moses was even supposedly jealous! Rabbi Hertz lauds Rabbi Akiba: 'Akiba was the author of a collection of traditional laws out of which the Mishna actually grew. He was the greatest among the rabbis of his own and of succeeding times...His keen and penetrating intellect enabled him to find a Biblical basis for every provision of the Oral Law.'

Still enthusing over the Babylonian derivation of Pharisaism, Rabbi Hertz continues: 'When we come to the Babylonian Gemara, we are dealing with what most people understand when they speak or write of the Talmud. It's birthplace, Babylonia, was an autonomous Jewish center for a longer period than any other land; namely from soon after 586 before the Christian era to the year 1040 after the Christian Era - 1626 years.' You will note in the Talmud that the word 'Gemara' designates the argumentation of the rabbis, the ultimate decision being summarized as the 'Mishnah.'

Bible Versus Oral Law (Talmud): The Bible under Talmudic Judaism is considered to be a collection of simple tales fit only for fools, women and children. The Talmud 'sages' thus must find new meanings in it by letter and number tricks which reverse the plain meaning and create out of it the permission to do otherwise forbidden crimes and misdeeds. The words of the Bible are continually misused and misquoted for purposes of blasphemy and reversal.

Stealing for themselves the title of 'Israelites,' the Talmud 'sages' teach that 'God made a covenant with Israel only for the sake of that which was transmitted orally.' [324] And the Biblical 'basis' of this is given as Exodus 34:27. But that verse states, instead: 'And the Lord said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.' - the very opposite! [325] The Talmudic reversal of Moses' written words are said to have been transmitted 'orally,' and through Moses himself - believe it or not! Bearing in mind that the Scribes were the Pharisee teachers of the Law of Moses, carefully distorted to comprise the Talmud, note: 'There is greater stringency in respect to the teachings of the Scribes than in respect to the Torah...so that a Biblical law may be transgressed.' [326]

The Torah in its narrow sense is the Old Testament, and in a still narrower meaning the first five books (Pentateuch) of Moses. it its wider Judaistic use it means the Old Testament as misinterpreted by the Pharisaic Talmud. Always with Judaism the Talmud ranks above the Bible in every way.

A Talmud passage from the Book of Nedarim (vows) of the Soncino edition of the Talmud states: 'As will be seen on 37a, Scripture was generally regarded as the study of children only, adults usually investigating the deeper meaning...From this we see that it was usual to teach the Bible to girls in spite of the Talmudic deduction that daughters need not be educated. [327] The opposition of Rabbi Eliezer to teaching the Torah to one's daughter [328] 'He who teaches his daughter Torah is as though he taught her lewdness.' - was probably directed against the teaching of the Oral Law, and the higher branches of study [329]...The context shows that the reference is to the higher knowledge of Biblical law.' The Talmud states: 'A heathen who studies the Torah deserves death for it is written, Moses commanded us a law for an inheritance; it is our inheritance, not theirs.' [330]

Reference is also made to the 'Noachian laws' which the non-Jew may study 'but not laws which do not pertain to them.' Also: '...(the) objection was to the studying of the Oral Law...Rabbi Johanan feared the knowledge of Gentiles in matters of Jurisprudence, as they would use it against the Jews in their opponents' courts.' Understandably, since all Talmud laws discriminate against the non-Jew and rank him a virtual animal, these were apt observations.

The Jewish Encyclopedia is still more open about what is in Sanhedrin 59a of the Talmud, above, threatening death for revelation of 'Torah' laws to Gentiles: 'for such knowledge might have operated against the Jews in their opponents' courts.' This observation follows a dissertation on the laws on cheating and getting the best of Gentiles in trade and in court. [331]

The Babylonian Talmud: The Babylonian Talmud is composed of 'Mishnah' (or 'Halacha'), or laws formulated by the Pharisees whose teachings comprise the Talmud, and 'Gemara,' or argumentative teachings about these laws. There are 63 books in the Babylonian Talmud, largely divided without topical organization.

All Talmud books have 'Mishna' (plural 'Mishnaim'). Some lack a 'Gemara.' The 'Mishnah' or law of one or another Pharisee may be referred to, for example, as the 'Mishnah of Rabbi Akiba,' or of 'Eliezer ben Jacob.'

The name Mishnah is applied in particular to the collection of Halachoth, or laws, made by Judah Hanasi (generally known as Rabbi) and his colleagues at the beginning of the 3rd Century C.E.' (Note: 'C.E.' stands for 'Common Era,' to avoid 'A.D.' or 'Year of Our Lord,' from the Latin, Anno Domini). [332]

Continuing to quote from the Jewish Encyclopedia: 'The Mishnah represents the culmination of a series of attempts to bring order into the vast mass of traditions which had been transmitted orally for many centuries...The compilation of the Mishnah is not, however, the work of one man, or even of the scholars of one age, but rather the result of a long process extending over a period of two centuries.'

Also: 'In the Palestine Pharisee Talmudic center at Jabneh (for it was never in Jerusalem but at Jabneh where the Jerusalem Talmud was composed) there was a concerted effort on the part of the sages of Jabeneh (about 90 C.E.) to assemble and harmonize the Halachah...Akiba (died about 135 C.E.) arranged the Halachoth in logical order and probably constructed the framework of the present day Mishnah; (4) the collection of the Akiba was enlarged and brought up to date by his disciple Meir (Note: Who, the Talmud says, was a descendant of Nero, a convert to Talmudism). (5) it became the custom, after the time of Akiba, for every head of an academy to compile his own Mishnah so that the confusion that resulted...motivated Judah Hanasi to compile a standard authoritative Mishnah; (6) although it is reported that Judah made use of thirteen different collections of Halachoth in his work, his Mishnah is based largely upon the collection of Meir, and indirectly, therefore, upon that of Akiba.' [333] Judah Hanasi, who compiled the Mishnah, was born about A.D. 135 and died after A.D. 200 (same authority, 'Judah Hanasi'). 'Nasi,' meaning 'prince' of Jewry, was the title given the head of the Sanhedrin court, which meted out life and death under Talmudic law.

Talmud - Six Main Divisions: The Talmud is divided into six main divisions called 'Sedarim' (orders), but each division and each volume is a hodge-podge of every subject imaginable. The main and overall characteristics of the Talmud are: pomp, silliness, obscenity and more obscenity, a setting up of laws seemingly for the purpose of inventing circumventions, and evasions; delight in sadistic cruelty; reversal of all Biblical moral teachings on theft, murder, sodomy, perjury, treatment of children and parents; insane hatred of Christ, Christians and every phase of Christianity. The Six Divisions of the Babylonian Talmud, called 'Seder' (plural Sedarim), are:

   1). Zeraim (seeds).

   2). Seder Moed (festivals).

   3). Seder Nasim (women).

   4). Seder Nezikin (damages).

   5). Seder Kodashim (sacrifices).

   6). Seder Tohoroth (cleanness)."

It is the Talmud, and nothing else, that binds international Jewry into a solid body. Rabbi Morris N. Kertzer says: "The Talmud consists of 63 books of legal, ethical and historical writings of ancient rabbis. It was edited five centuries after the birth of Jesus. It is a compendium of law and lore. It is the legal code which forms the basis of Jewish religious law and it is the textbook used in the training of rabbis."; "The Talmud has been the banner which has served as a rallying sign to the Jews, dispersed in diverse countries; it has maintained the unity of Judaism." [334]

Without any question, The Talmud (Known to Jesus in His time on earth in a flesh body as "The Tradition of The Elders") stands as the Supreme Authority of Jewish Law [Their lies to the contrary notwithstanding], philosophy and ethics; it contains the unchanging moral code by which the religious and social life of the Jews has been regulated to this day.

The Jews believe in the teachings of the Talmud and act in accordance with its commands. Whereas the teachings of the Christian Bible are available to all, for it is to be found everywhere. On the other hand, only a very few non‑Jews have even so much as heard of the Talmud, and still fewer know of its teachings, for it is scores of volumes in length and shrouded in secrecy by the Jews.

Now, for a summary of references to Jesus in the Talmud:

Sanhedrin 67a: Jesus referred to as the son of Pandira, a soldier. Mother a prostitute.

Kallah 1b. (18b): Illegitimate and conceived during menstruation. Mother a Prostitute.

Sanhedrin 67a: Jesus was hanged on the eve of Passover.

Toldath Jeschu: The Birth of Christ related in most shameful expressions.

Abhodah Zarah II: Christ referred to as the son of Pandira, a Roman soldier, a Prostitute Mother.

Schabbath XIV: Christ again referred to as the son of Padira the Roman soldier.

Sanhedrin 43a: On the eve of Passover they hanged Jesus.

Schabbath 104b: Called a fool and no one pays attention to fools.

Toldoth Jeschu: Says Judas and Jesus engaged in a quarrel with human excrement.

Sanhedrin 107b: Seduced, corrupted and destroyed Israel.

Zohar III (282): Died like a beast and buried in animal's dung heap.

Hilkoth Melakhim: Attempt to prove Christians err in worship of Jesus.

Abhodah Zarah 21a: Reference to worship of Jesus in homes unwanted.

Orach Chaiim 113: Avoid appearance of paying respect to Jesus.

Iore Dea 150, 2: Do not appear to pay respect to Jesus by accident.

Abhodah Zarah (6a): False teaching to worship on the first day of Sabbath.

Kerithuth (6b p. 78): Jews called men, Christians are not called men.

Makkoth (7b): Innocent of murder if intent was to kill Christian.

Sohar (II 64b): Christian birth rate must be diminished materially.

Schabbath (116a) Tos: Gospels called volumes of iniquity, heretical books.

Schabbath (116a): Talmudists agree that the books of Christians are to be burned.

Chullin (91b): Jews possess dignity even an angel cannot share.

Hilkoth Akum (V. 12): Quote Scriptures forbid mentioning the Christian God.

Choschen Ham (226 1): Jew may keep lost property of Christian found by Jew.

Babha Kama (113b): It is permitted to deceive Christians; Jew may lie and perjure to condemn a  Christian; Name of God not profaned when lying to Christians.

Kallah (1b p. 18): Jew may perjure himself with a clear conscience.

Schabbouth Hag. (d): Jews may swear falsely with subterfuge wording.

Zohar (1 160a): Jews must always try to deceive Christians.

Choschen Ham (425 5): Jews are not to prevent the death of a Christian.

Hilkkoth Akum (x,1): Do not save Christians in danger of death, instructed to let die.

Abhodah Zarah (25b)T: Even the best of the Goim [Christians] should be killed.

Sepher Or Israel (177b): If Jew kills a Christian he commits  no sin.

Zohar (11 43a): Extermination of Christians Necessary.

Hilkhoth Akum (x,1): Make no agreements and show no mercy to Christians.

Hilkhoth Maakhaloth: Christians are idolaters.

Abhodah Zarah (22a): Do not associate with gentiles, they shed blood.

Abhodah Zarah (22a): Christians have intercourse with animals.

Iore Dea (198, 48): Female Jews contaminated when meeting Christians.

Makkoth (7b): Innocent of murder if intent was to kill a Christian.

Zohar II (64b): Christian likened to cows and asses.

Kethuboth (110b): Psalmist compares Christians to beasts.

Sanhedrin (74b) Tos: Sexual intercourse with Christian same as intercourse with beast.

Kethuboth (3b): The seed [children] of Christians valued same as the seed of a beast.

Iore Dea (337, 1): Replace dead Christians like you would a lost cow or ass.

Schabbath (116a) Tos: Gospels called the volumes of iniquity, and heretical books.

Schabbath (116a): Talmudists agree the books of Christians  are to be burned.

Chullin (91b): Jews possess dignity even an angel cannot share.

Sanhedrin (58b): To strike a Jew is the same as slapping the face of God.

Zohar (1, 25b): Those Jews who do good to Christians never  rise when dead.

Iore Dea (148, 12H): Jews are to hide their hatred for Christians.

Babha Bathra (54b): Christian property belongs to the first  Jew claiming it.

Babha Kama (113b): It is permitted for a Jew to deceive Christians.

Babha Kama (113a): Jew may lie and perjure himself to condemn a Christian.

Babha Kama (113b): The name of God is not profaned when a Jew lies to Christians.

Kallah (1b, p. 18): Jew may perjure himself when lying about Christians.

Schabbouth Hag (6d): Jews may swear falsely by the use of  subterfuge wording.

Zohar (1, 160a): Jews must always try to deceive Christians.

Choschen Ham (425, 5): Do not prevent a Christians death.

Iore Dea (158, 1): Christians who are not Jews' enemies must also die.

Hilkkoth Akum (X,1): Jews are not to save Christians in danger of death.

Sanhedrin (59a): Christians who study the Jews' "Laws" {Talmud} to be put to death.

Zohar (1, 25a): Christians are to be destroyed when no danger of discovery.

Abhodah Zarah (26b)T: Even the best of the Goim [non‑ Jews] should be killed.

Iore Dea (157, 2) H: Jew may deceive Christians.

Sepher Or Israel (177b): If a Jew kills a Christian he commits no sin. He has done God a service.

Alkut Simoni (245c): A Jew shedding the Blood of a Christian is offering a Sacrifice to God.

Zohar (II, 43a): Extermination of Christians is a necessary Sacrifice to God.

Zohar (L, 38b, 39a): A Jew to receive a High Place in Heaven if he kills a Christian.

Hilkhoth Akum (X,1): Jews are to show no mercy to a Christian.

Kallah, 1b, (18b): "Jesus was illegitimate and conceived during menstruation."

Scabbath XIV: "Jesus is referred to as the son of a Roman soldier and a Jewish Prostitute."

Sanhedrin, 107b: "This passage states that Christ seduced  and destroyed Israel."

Hilkoth Melakhim: Suggests that Christians sin by worshiping Jesus Christ.

Hilkoth Maakhaloth: "Christians are idolaters."

Chaggigah, (1b): "A Jew is considered to be good in the eyes of God, in spite of any sins he may commit."

Babha Kama (113b): "The name of God not profaned, if a Jew lies to a Christian."

Kethuboth (113a113b): "When a grown‑up man has had intercourse with a little girl...It means this: When a Grown up Man has Intercourse with a Little Girl it is nothing, for when the girl is less than this Three Years Old it is as if one puts the finger into the eye tears come to the eye again and again, so does Virginity come back to the Little Girl Three Years Old."

Sanhedrin (59a) & Abohodah Zarah 8‑6: "Every goy [non‑Jew] who studies the Talmud and every Jew who helps him in it, ought to die."

Midrasch Talpioth 225‑L: "Jehovah created the non‑Jew in human form so that the Jew would not have to be served by beasts. The non‑Jew is consequently an animal in human form, condemned to serve Jews day and night."

Tract Mechilla: "Almighty God studies the Talmud standing, because He has such respect for that book."

Simeon Haddarsen fol. 56‑D: "When the Messiah comes every Jew will have 2800 slaves."

Nadarine, 20, B; Schulchan Aruch, Choszen Hamiszpat 348: "A Jew may do to a non‑Jewess what he can do. He may treat her as he treats a piece of meat."

Josiah 60, 6, Rabbi Abarbanel to Daniel 7, 13: "As soon as the King Messiah will declare himself, and He will destroy Rome and make a wilderness of it. Thorns and weeds will grow in the Pope's palace. The He will start a merciless war on non‑Jews and will overpower them. He will slay them in masses, kill their kings and lay waste the whole Roman land. He will say to the Jews: 'I am the King Messiah for whom you have been waiting. Take the silver and gold from the goyim."

Szaaloth‑Utszabot, The Book Of Jore Dia 17: "A Jew should and must make a false oath when the goyim [non‑Jew] asks if our books contain anything against them."

Schulchan Aruch, Choszen Hamiszpat 348: "A Jew may rob a goy [non‑Jew] that is, he may cheat him in a bill, if unlikely to be perceived by him."

Schulchan Aruch, Choszen Hamiszpat 348: "All property of other nations belongs to the Jewish nation, which, consequently, is entitled to seize upon it without any scruples [This is what the Jews use for justification to steal the land of the Palestinians]. An orthodox Jew is not bound to observe principles of morality towards people of other tribes. He may act contrary to mortality, if profitable to himself or to Jews in general."

Tosefta, Abhodan Zarah VIII, 5: "How to interpret the word 'robbery.' A goy [non‑Jew] is forbidden to steal, rob, or take women slaves, etc., from a goy or from a Jew. But a Jew is not forbidden to do all this to a goy."

Schulchan Aruch Edit, I, 136: "All vows, oaths, promises, engagements, and swearing, which, beginning this very day of reconciliation till the next day of reconciliation, we intend to vow, promise, swear, and bind ourselves to fulfill, we repent of beforehand; let them be illegalized, acquitted, annihilated, abolished, valueless, unimportant. Our vows shall be no vows, and our oaths no oaths at all."

Schulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 539: "At the time of the Cholhamoed the transaction of any kind of business is forbidden. But it is permitted to cheat a goy [non‑Jew], because cheating of goyi at any time pleases the Lord."

Schulchan Aruch, Choszen Hamiszpat 388: "It is permitted to kill a Jewish denunciation everywhere. It is permitted to kill him even before he denounces."

Livore David 37: "If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explanation. Who ever will violate this order shall be put to death."

Abhodah Zaran 26b, Tosephoth: "A Jew who kills a Christian commits no sin, but offers an acceptable Sacrifice to God."

Are you naive enough to believe that a religious book which encourages incest, such as the Sanhedrin volume of the Talmud does, or unnatural intercourse, or rape of non‑Jews; or bestiality, as found in this filthy book; do you believe this could be the basis of Jesus' teaching? If you do, then you are guilty of the vilest form of blasphemy.

Forgery, indeed, has become a science among the Jew, the only other science the Jews have been able to understand and prefect, is that of killing. They are the people who have devised the mass killing machines, such as the Atomic bomb. Among the many fictitious compositions forged by the Jews, about this time, was the so‑called "letter of Aristeas."

Orpheus was dragged into the service of the Jews; Hesiod and Homer were made to sing of the Jewish Sabbath; and Aeschylous, Euripides, and Sophocles were made to avow Jewish ideas of God; while a most impudent forgery of the Jews outside of Palestine, was a large collection of the Sibylline [books on witchcraft, magic and etc.] Oracles.

The private manner in which the Sibyl communicated counsel and warning to men, rendered her an admirable instrument in the hands of the Jewish propagandists; by them she was transformed into a prophetess of Jehovah: terrible wars and dreadful calamities were foretold, after which, it was said, the Jews would assume the supremacy and lead the nations into a blessed era of universal peace, etc. In spite of all this mendacity and artfully disguised propaganda, and of the barefaced attempts of Philo and the allegorical school, to foster Jewish tales upon the Greeks, the Jews continued to be regarded with contempt by the Greeks and the Romans, who laughed at their vain‑glorious pretensions and flatly refused to take part in the deception.

The pretensions of the Jews to an honorable and remote antiquity, for example, were ridiculed. For the Jews to pretend that the gifts of civilization were made through their instrumentality was, according to the Greeks and the Romans, preposterous: what, it was asked, had the Jews done for art, literature or science?

Instead of being the teachers of Plato and the Greek philosophers, as the Jews impudently pretended they had been, it was pointed out that the Jews were barbarians when Greek culture had arisen, and that all the horde of small peoples, shifting from slavery in one country to servitude in another, the Jews were the lease productive and the poorest in civilization. The Jews, the Greeks and the Romans insisted, were the descendants of the dregs of the Egyptian populace, a despicable rabble, suffering from leprosy and "a pestilential disease which disfigured the body," unclean and diseased morally as well as physically. Jerusalem, they pointed out, was a refuge for "the scum and the refuse" of all the adjoining nations. The Jews, they said, offered human sacrifices [like the worshipers of Israel and Saturn, whose "day" the Jews supposedly kept holy] and were "a people of unbridled lust, tainted with execrable knavery." Meanwhile the Jews dissimulated, and secretly determined to make another attempt to exterminate their Israelite fellow‑citizens.

When the exigencies of the Parthian war had depleted the Eastern provinces of Roman troops, in 116 A.D. a sudden preconcerted uprising of the Jews took place, characterized by revolting atrocities. Humanity is, when it is allowed to learn about them, is always shocked at the horrid cruelties which the Jews committed in the cities of Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrene, and Russia where they dwelt in treacherous friendship with the unsuspecting inhabitants, until they were in control and could exterminate them at will.

In Cyrene the Jews massacred 220,000 Greek and Roman citizens; in Cyprus 240,000; and in Egypt a very great multitude; in Russia it has been estimated that they exterminated over 60‑million Christians.

Wherever the Jews outnumber the rest of the population and their uprisings are successful, the Jews behave in the most revolting manner; many of their non‑Jewish neighbors they sawed asunder, and they licked up and smeared themselves with the blood, and devoured the flesh of their victims, and twisted the entrails of the Christians about their bodies and danced Jewish dances until they dropped from exhaustion.

After this exhibition of their "spirituality" the Jews were forbidden to set foot on the island of Cyprus, and Cyrene had to be re‑colonized. This outbreak was suppressed by Roman reinforcements under Tubro, dispatched by Trajan, and the Jews learned once again that, however successful their secret machinations might be, the frenzied onrush of Oriental fanaticism was unavailing against the cool bravery of disciplined Roman troops.

Trajan died in 117 A.D. and was succeeded by his relative Hadrian, and once more the Jewish agitators became active. Rebellion was encouraged by the statement that it was unlawful to pay taxes to a non‑Jewish master, flattering promises were made that a conquering Messiah would soon appear, and invest the favorites of Jehovah with the Empire of the Earth and domination over all the non‑Jewish peoples.

This propaganda produced an extraordinary ferment among the credulous Jews, who, it is said, had their fanaticism still further stirred up by a rabbi called Akiba. Thus, according to the Jews' own stories, after the Jews had been thrown into another paroxysm of fanatical frenzy, by the fact that Hadrian had issued edicts against mutilation and circumcision, and about 130 A.D. had ordered Jerusalem to be rebuilt in Roman style, it was by announcing himself as their long expected Messiah that a man called, apparently Simon, attracted followers. His name does not appear in Roman records, and it is not known whether he was a fanatic or an impostor, but he was immediately acclaimed as the long expected Messianic King by the rabbi Akiba, who became his amour‑bearer.

The Roman forces in Palestine were, as usual, small, and a "holy war" against the Romans being proclaimed, nearly all the Jewish towns which had no Roman garrison joined the "Mullah," who was thus enabled to persecute cruelly the Christians who refused to follow him, to kill many Jews suspected of desiring to live at peace with Rome, and to raise a formidable revolt. To his adherents this rebel Messiah seems to have been known as Bar Cocheba, "the son of the star," but by the rabbis he was called Bar Coziba, "the son of deceit." Severus, recalled from Britain by Hadrian, quelled this rebellion, and the Jews were forbidden to set foot in Jerusalem, which became a Roman town.

Under succeeding emperors the Jews, taking advantage of the facilities, afforded by the caves and caverns of Palestine, for leading a lawless life, some times caused disturbances, but these, although professedly patriotic, were mainly outbreaks of brigand, and never assumed a serious aspect. Some people imagine that about 135 A.D. the Jews were scattered abroad by some mysterious agency, which, since then has prevented their return to Palestine. This absurd superstition is encouraged by the pretense, and by the misleading phrase "the dispersion of the Jews." It is simply another of their attempts to take more Israelite prophecies upon themselves, so as to continue in their deception of the world.

Many Jews were carried off by their conquerors, of course, to such places as Babylonia, Greece, Alexandria and Rome, but a far larger number of the Jews left Palestine on their own accord and for their own gain. This was so, especially, during the latter stages of Persian rule and later, when the Greeks offered special inducements to occupiers of new colonies; and among the very large number of Jews who emigrated for their own benefit, must be included all those Jews who left Palestine because of the seemingly endless disorder and anarchy maintained there by the few who preferred to remain.

Since the first century A.D. the "Jews of the Diaspora," that is the Jews who prefer to live outside Palestine, have always been much more numerous than those who have had to live in Palestine; but the Jews outside could have "returned" to Palestine at any time, if they had desired to do so. The prohibition by Hadrian, against their presence in Jerusalem soon lapsed, and although it was revived by both Constantine and Omar, it never applied to the other parts of Palestine. The truth is that Palestine fell a victim to Jewish lust for world‑power, to religiously fostered hatred, and to selfish greed; after ruining her, the Jews abandoned Palestine.

The great Jewish pretense, however, the Jews did not abandon; its activities may be traced in many countries at many periods of history; particularly noteworthy are its phases of feverish activity towards the end of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and in the first few decades of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries A.D. Palestine was never a desirable place in which to live, until Great Britain, at the expense of many British lives and much British treasure, made it so; and even now, though American citizens are taxed to maintain, and American soldiers die to guard this Zionist toy, it fails to attract the Jews in any great numbers. In spite of the fact that Palestine has been invested by the Jewish pretenses with an entirely fictitious value (or perhaps because of it), the Jews of today show no greater eagerness to "return" than did their ancestors.

It has only been through the continual propaganda by the Zionists that the Jews of Russia are in great danger, that the Russian Jews are going to the State of Israel. Which most use only as a transfer point on their way to America and other nations of the West.

Therefore, we must face the truth, that after 2000 years of crying about a homeland, now that they have one, stolen from the Palestinians they have to be hog‑tied and drug there by the Zionists. Are you willing to believe that such statements found in the Talmud, such as those presented, are those of Christianity? But I doubt if you are faithful enough to Christ to even care!

Paul, who was "a Pharisee of Pharisees," (i.e., an expert in Babylonian Judaism), was a True Israelite (of the tribe of Benjamin), and thus converted to Christianity. But the "false Jews" (false Israelites [335] refused to believe in Christ. Yahshua Himself tells us why some "Jews" believed and some "Jews" refused to acknowledge Him as Messiah. Perhaps this passage in the gospel of John has never impressed you before as to its full import. Christ was here speaking to the unbelieving Jews: "But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you." [336]; "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me." [337]

Do you see that? First, recall that in every instance where the word "sheep" is used symbolically, it is always referring to Israel, Never to any other people! So the two very important things Christ was stating here were: (1) True Israelites (sheep) would "follow" Christ. They would respond to the Gospel; they would become Christians. (2) The Jews who did not believe (nor follow) Christ because they were not Israelites! It's just that simple. [338]

Now, look at world history for the past 2,000 years. Why do you think that it has been predominantly the Caucasian race of people who have by-and-large become Christians? It is for the simple reason that they were the Israelites! They had been dispersed to all four points of the compass, but migrated primarily in a northwesterly direction; i.e., into Europe, Collectively, these nations became known as Christendom.

Conversely, why have the Jews, as a people, rejected Christ for these past 2,000 years, and have always considered attempts to convert them as persecution? Again, because they are not His Sheep! There is much more Scriptural evidence that could be cited, but this alone gives the lie to any such notion that the Jews of today are Israel. They Cannot be; otherwise they would have become Christians centuries ago.

Parenthetically, it is an historical fact that when Jews were forced to become Christians by the overzealous church, those who did "convert" (the Marranos of Spain, for example) generally reverted to Judaism when the threat of persecution was over. No, we do not expect today's Jews to ever convert to Christ. They are not Israel; they are Israel's ancient enemies. The only redeemer or messiah they look for is one which see the Jewish people collectively as the messiah. [339]

In that regard, notice what Rabbi Abraham Feld wrote in his letter commending Mr. Davidy: "Upon reading Mr. Yair Davidy's book on the dispersion of the ten lost tribes, and contemplating on how most people will receive this as startling new information, I was reminded of a law that U.S. President Bush recently endorsed. On March 20, 1992 the President signed a historic joint Resolution of both Houses of Congress recognizing the Seven Noachide Laws as the 'bedrock of society from the dawn of civilization" and urged America to "return the world to the moral and ethical values contained in the Seven Noachide Laws.'...Mr. Davidy's masterly documented and profoundly thoughtful work is helping bring the world forward in the dynamic process of Redemption."

They refused to acknowledge the only True Redeemer. They are looking for another kind of redeemer: themselves as God!  [340] the epitome of humanism: "I will be like the Most High..." [341] They are proclaiming: "We Jews will be like the Most High." The spurious Noachide Laws are a Jewish fable. They are not found in the Christian Bible. Instead, the Word warns us against such: "...Wherefore rebuke them sharply...Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth." [342] Such are the Noachide laws. Its followers and promoters uniformly reject the deity of Christ, as does Mr. Davidy.

Other Jewish sources could be brought forth to support the above statement that the Jews believe they will corporately be the messiah, the saviors and rulers of the world; but we shall limit ourselves here only to Mr. Davidy's contention for that blasphemous idea. The 53rd chapter of Isaiah has long been understood by orthodox Christians to a most vivid prophecy of Yahshua the Christ, the savior and redeemer. But Mr. Davidy applies it to the Jews: "Historically, the Jews of Judah were often senselessly hated, persecuted, and despised. This situation [sic] had been predicted by Isaiah: 'He is despised and rejected or men: a man of sorrows...he was despised and we esteemed him not ...he hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted...he opened not his mouth, as a lamb to the slaughter...the Lord has laid upon him the iniquity of us all.' [343]; The Jews is the servant of God and the witness to Monotheism: 'Ye are my witnesses...and my servant who I hath [sic] chosen...before me there was no God formed neither shall there be after me.' [344] [345] and deny the Truth of the Biblical Promises and the Oneness of God, he was persecuted: '...For thy sake are we killed all the day long; we are counted as sheep for the slaughter.'" [346]

This is the familiar "We-are-the-persecuted-ones" theme which is answered below. Mr. Davidy then launches right into a warning against anyone who would dare deny to the Jew his usurped position as "God's Chosen People.": "Anti-Semitism [347] is a form of mental sickness...[348] which amongst more intelligent sufferers requires some modicum [sic] of rational justification, this justification is provided by faults, real or imagined, which reflect more on the haters than on the hated. [349] Jewish behavior and attitudes very often are of necessity formed by reaction to the conditions imposed upon them in their HOST [350] country."

Two thoughts in this last sentence require comment: their behavior and the fact that they are aliens in a "host" country. First, notice that he justifies Jews' generally obnoxious, anti-Christian behavior by claiming they have no choice but to act that way. No, they act that way because it is their nature to act that way. God predestined them to act that way for his own purposes. [351]

One of their own, Samuel Roth, a well known author and publisher in New York in the 1930s wrote in his book "Jews Must Live:" "America is full of businesses bearing old Christian names, but which are really owned and run by Jews. Most of them have been acquired in the manner I have just described, the way the Jew creates something out of nothing (slow strangling). The Jew, better than anyone else in the world knows how to dispossess the poor and the members of the middle classes. To fit this case, the old P.T. Barnum adage needs only a little changing. A gentile enters business every minute, with two Jews waiting to take him out of it."

Then, concerning the persecution theme and host-alien relationship, Roth wrote: "Have not Jews been admitted from time immemorial, freely, kindly, almost happily by every nation at whose gate they have knocked for admittance...Have the Jews ever had to petition a country for admission - the first time? Read for yourself the story of the progress of Jewry through Europe and America. Wherever they come they are welcomed, permitted to settle down, and join in the general business of the community. But one by one the industries of the country close to them because of unfair practices (by the Jews towards Christians) until it no longer being possible to hold in check the wrath of a betrayed people, there is violence and, inevitably, an ignominious ejection of the whole race from the land. There is not a single instance when the Jews have not fully deserved the bitter fruit of the fury of their persecutors...Jewish history has been tragic to the Jews and no less tragic to the neighboring nations who have suffered them. Our major vice of old, as of today, is parasitism. We are a people of vultures living on the labor (of the host nation) and the good nature of the rest of the world...We come to the nations pretending to escape persecution, we the most deadly persecutors in all the wretched annals of man."

Expulsions of Jews from Host Nations: 1). A.D. 250, Carthage; 2). 415, Alexandria; 3). 554, Diocese of Clement (France); 4). 561, Diocese of Uzzes (France); 5). 612, Visigoth Spain; 6). 642, Visigoth Empire; 7). 855, Italy; 8). 876, Sens; 9). 1012, Mayence; 10). 1181, France; 11). 1290, England; 12). 1306, France; 13). 1348, Switzerland; 14). 1349, Hielbronn (Germany); 15). 1349, Hungary; 16). 1388, Strasbourg; 17). 1394, Germany; 18). 1394, France; 19). 1422, Austria; 20). 1424, Fribourg & Zurich; 21). 1426, Cologne; 22). 1432, Savory; 23). 1438, Mainz; 24). 1439, Augsburg; 25). 1446, Bavaria; 26). 1453, Franconis; 27). 1453, Breslau; 28). 1454, Wurzburg; 29). 1485, Vincenza (Italy); 30). 1492, Spain; 31). 1495, Lithuania; 32). 1497, Portugal; 33). 1499, Germany; 34). 1514, Strasbourg; 35). 1519, Regensburg; 36). 1540, Naples; 37). 1542, Bohemia; 38). 1550, Genoa; 39). 1551, Bavaria; 40). 1555, Pesaro; 41). 1559, Austria; 42). 1561, Prague; 43). 1567, Wurzburg, Genoese Republic; 44). 1569, Papal States; 45). 1571, Brandenburg; 46). 1582, Netherlands; 47). 1593, Brandenburg, Austria; 48). 1597, Cremona, Pavia & Lodi; 49). 1614, Frankfort; 50). 1615, Worms; 51). 1619, Kiev; 52). 1649, Ukraine; 53). 1654, LittleRussia; 54). 1656, Lithuania; 55). 1669, Oran (North Africa); 56). 1670, Vienna; 57). 1712, Sandomir; 58). 1727, Russia; 59). 1738, Wurtemburg; 60). 1740, LittleRussia; 61). 1744, Bohemia; 62). 1744, Livonia; 63). 1745, Moravia; 64). 1753, Kovad (Lithuania); 65). 1761, Bordeaux; 66). 1772, Jews deported to the Pale of Settlement (Russia); 67). 1775, Warsaw; 68). 1789, Alace; 69). 1804, Villages in Russia; 70). 1808, Villages & Countrysides (Russia); 71). 1815, Lubeck & Bremen; 72). 1815, Franconia, Swabia & Bavaria; 73). 1820, Bremes; 74). 1843, Russian Border Austria & Prussia; 75). 1862, Area in the U.S. under Grant's Jurisdiction; 76). 1866, Galatz, Romania; 77). 1919, Bavaria (foreign born Jews); 78). 1938-45, Nazi Controlled Areas; 79). 1948, Arab Countries.

British/Israel Distinguished from Christian Israel Identity: Much of Mr. Davidy's material and conclusions reflects or parallels standard "British-Israel" doctrine. This is to be distinguished from what we teach. In the United States, the most popular exponent of "British-Israel" has been Herbert W. Armstrong, his Worldwide Church of God, and its offshoots. Undoubtedly,

Armstrong "borrowed" the basics of his theology from earlier "British-Israel" teachers and scholars such as Professor Charles Totten of Yale at the turn of the century. Bishop J.H. Allen, Howard Rand of Destiny Publishers and others whose work we admire in many respects. The current growing acceptance of what is variously called "Christian Israel Identity," "Kingdom Identity," "Israel Identity," or other similar terms is to a great extent an outgrowth of "British-Israelism."

However, it is distinguished from it primarily by one VERY MAJOR difference, namely: Who constitutes Judah in the world today? British-Israel proponents claim the Jews do. Christian Israel Identity claims that the Germanic peoples are Judah, with some of Judah in other western nations as well.

The Christian Israel movement further claims that today's Jews are descended from Israel's ancient enemy, the Edomites, who are now intermingled with the Khazars of Ashkenaz, Tograman, and Japheth. Because of the admission by the Jews themselves in recent decades that they are indeed of Khazar and Edomite ancestry, the position of British-Israel adherents in that regard has become almost untenable.

Nevertheless, it is instructive to learn something about the roots of British-Israelism. Before we commence that brief historical overview however, we hasten to add that God has always had a tiny remnant who knew Israel's identity. Among these would be the Waldensians, the Hussites and the Puritans. This is why Paul, writing to Israelite Christians at Rome, wrote in Romans 11:25: "...blindness In Part has happened to Israel." This knowledge of True Israel's identity did not originate with British-Israelism. Space prevents further elaboration on its earlier adherents in this study.

Recall from the above listing that the English had expelled the Jews in 1290 A.D. For over 350 years they were kept out. In the mid-1600s, Oliver Cromwell had led a successful revolution against the English monarchy. As did many of his fellow Puritans, Cromwell was already inclined to believe he was a literal Israelite descended from the "lost Ten Tribes."

In fact, during his reign as "Lord Protector of the Commonwealth," a number of his close advisors pressed Cromwell to appoint 70 elders (after the manner of ancient Israel under Moses) to his Privy Council. Meanwhile, after the Jews had been expelled from Spain in 1492, many of them had fled to Holland as their next host country. Here lived one, Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel, who saw an opportunity.

Two factors made Cromwell susceptible to the scheme of Rabbi ben Israel. First, his Israel identity conviction and secondly, the fact that revolutions cost money. "[An] unpublished motive for the readmission of the Jews was of an economic and political nature. For not only were so many Jews very successful merchants but others of their number were International Financiers and Bankers. And England needed the money." [352]

One of the unsung heroes of Jewish Law and the Jewish cause was Manasseh ben Israel (1604-1657), scholar, Rabbi, and legal philosopher, who abandoned his life's work of religious pursuit in order to frame the magnificent legislation which, when presented forcefully and logically to Cromwell, bespoke its own purpose so well that it left the government with no recourse other than that of enacting it into British statute, allowing for the readmission of the Jews into England. [353]

Because King Edward I of England had been the first to expel the Jews, the Jewish Money-Barons in France, Holland and Germany decided it would be poetic justice if they tried out their planned revolutionary technique in England first. They used their underground agents, or Cells, to cause trouble between the king and his government; employers and labor; ruling class and workers; Church and State.

The plotters injected controversial issues into politics and religion, to divide the people into two opposing camps. First they divided the people in England into Catholics and Protestants, then they divided the Protestants into Conformists and Non-Conformists.

When King Charles I was brought into disagreement with his Parliament a Jewish Money-Baron in Holland, named Manasseh Ben Israel, had his agents contact Oliver Cromwell. They offered him large sums of money if he would carry out their plan to overthrow the British throne. Manasseh Ben Israel, and other German and French money-lenders financed Cromwell.

Fernandez Carvajal of Portugal, often referred to in history as "The Great Jew," became Cromwell's Chief Military Contractor. He re-organized the Round Heads into a model army. He provided them with the best arms and equipment money could buy. Once the conspiracy was under way, hundreds of trained revolutionaries were smuggled into England and were absorbed into the Jewish Underground. The same thing is going on in America today.

The head of the Jewish underground in England at that time was a Jew named De Souze. The Great Jew, Fernandez Carvajal, had used his influence to have De Souze appointed Portuguese Ambassador. It was in his house, protected by diplomatic immunity, that the leaders of the Jewish revolutionary underground remained hidden and worked out their plots and intrigue. [354]

Once the revolution had been decided upon, the Jewish plotters introduced Calvinism into England to split Church and State, and divide the people. Contrary to general belief, Calvinism is of Jewish origin.

It was deliberately conceived to split the adherents of the Christian religions and divide the people. Calvin's real name was Cohen! When he went from Geneva to France to start preaching his doctrine he became known as Cauin. Then in England it became Calvin. History proves that there is hardly a revolutionary plot that wasn't hatched in Switzerland; there is hardly a Jewish revolutionary leader who hasn't changed his name.

In addition to the religious controversy, the revolutionary leaders organized armed mobs to aggravate every situation injected into politics and labor by their masters. Isaac Disraeli, 1766 - 1848, a Jew, and father of Benjamin Disraeli who afterwards become Lord Beaconsfield, deals with this angle of the British Revolution in detail in his two volume story "The Life of Charles II."

He remarks that he obtained considerable information from the records of Melchior de Salem, a Jew, who was the French Envoy to the British Government at that time. Disraeli draws attention to the great similarity, or pattern, of the revolutionary activities which preceded both the British and the French revolutions. In other words the handiwork of the secret and real directors of the World Revolutionary Movement could clearly be seen in both.

The evidence which absolutely convicts Oliver Cromwell of participating in the Jewish Revolutionary Plot was obtained by Lord Alfred Douglas, who edited a weekly review "Plain English" published by the North British Publishing Co.

In an article which appeared in the issue of September 3, 1921, he explained how his friend, Mr. L.D. Van Vlackert of Amsterdam, Holland, had come into possession of a missing volume of records of the synagogue of Muljeim. This volume had been lost during the Napoleonic wars. The volume contains records of letters written to, and answered by the Directors of the Synagogue. They were written in German. One entry, dated June 16, 1647 read: "In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England; This however impossible while Charles living. Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which do not at present exist. Therefore advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with arrangements for procuring an assassin, though willing to help in his escape." [355] In reply to this dispatch the records show E. Pratt wrote a letter dated July 12, 1647, addressed to Oliver Cromwell. "Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed, and Jews admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles should be given an opportunity to escape. [356] His recapture will then make trail and execution possible. The support will be liberal, but useless to discuss terms until trial commences."

On November 12th that same year Charles was given the opportunity to escape. He was of course recaptured. Hollis and Ludlow, authorities on this chapter of history, are both on record as considering the flight as the stratagem of Cromwell.

After Charles had been recaptured events moved ahead. Cromwell had the British Parliament purged of most members he knew were loyal to the king. Notwithstanding this drastic action, when the House sat all night on December 5, 1648, the majority agreed "That the concessions offered by the king were satisfactory to a settlement." Any such settlement would have disqualified Cromwell from receiving the Blood-Money promised him by the International Money-Barons through their agent E. Pratt, so Cromwell struck again. He ordered Colonel Pryde to purge Parliament of those members who had voted in favor of a settlement with the King. What then happened is referred to, in school history books, as "Prude's Purge." [357] When the purge was finished fifty members remained. They are recorded as "The Rump Parliament." they usurped absolute power.

On January 9, 1649, "A High Court of Justice" was proclaimed for the purpose of putting the King of England on trial. Two thirds of the members of the Court were "Levellers" from Cromwell's Army.

The conspirators couldn't find an English lawyer who would draw up a criminal charge against King Charles. Carvajal, instructed an alien Jew, Isaac Dorislaus, Manasseh Ben Israel's Agent in England to draw up the indictment upon which King Charles was tried. Charles was found guilty of the charges leveled against him by the International Jewish money-lenders, not by the people of England.

On January 30, 1649, he was publicly beheaded in front of the Banqueting House at Whitehall, London. The Jewish money-lenders, directed by the High Priests of the Synagogue of Satan, had had their revenge because Edward I had expelled the Jews from England. Oliver Cromwell received his Blood-Money just as Judas had done.

History proves that the International Jewish money-lenders had a purpose other than revenge for getting rid of Charles. They removed him to obtain control of England's economy and government. They planned to involve many European countries in war with England. Great sums of money are needed to fight wars. By loaning the Crowned Heads of Europe the money required to fight wars they fomented, the Internationalists were enabled to rapidly increase the National Debts of all European Nations.

The chronological sequence of events from the execution of King Charles in 1649 to the institution of the Bank of England in 1694 shows how the National Debt was increased. The International Bankers used intrigue and cunning to throw Christians at each others' throats.

1649: Cromwell financed by Jews, waged war in Ireland. Captures Drougheda and Wexford. British Protests blamed for persecution of Irish Catholics.

1650: Montrose in rebellion against Cromwell. Captured and executed.

1651: Charles II invades England. Defeated and flees back to France.

1652: England involved in war with Dutch.

1653: Cromwell proclaims himself Lord Protector of England.

1654: England involved in more wars.

1656: Trouble started in American Colonies.

1657: Death of Cromwell, Son Richard named Protector.

1659: Richard, disgusted with intrigue, resigns.

1660: General Monk occupies London. Charles II proclaimed King.

1661: Truth revealed regarding intrigue entered into by Cromwell and his cohorts Ireton, and Bradshaw, causes serious  public reaction. Bodies are exhumed and hung from gallows on Tyburn Hill, London.

1662: Religious strife is engendered to divide members of the Protestant denominations. Non-Conformists to the established Church of England are persecuted.

1664: England is again involved in war with Holland.

1665: A great depression settles over England. Unemployment and shortages of food undermine the health of the people and the Great Plague breaks out. [358]

1666: England involved in war with France and Holland.

1667: Cabal agents start new religious and political strife. [359]

1674: England and Holland make Peace. The men directing international intrigue change their characters. They become match-makers. They elevate Mr. William Stradholder to the rank of Captain-General of the Dutch Forces. He became William Prince of Orange. It was arranged that he meet Mary, the eldest daughter of the Duke of York. The Duke was only one place removed from becoming King of England.

1677: Princess Mary of England married William Prince of Orange. To place William Prince of Orange upon the Throne  of England it was necessary to get rid of both Charles II, and the Duke of York, who was slated to become James II.

1683: The Rye House Plot was hatched. The intention was to assassinate both King Charles II and the Duke of York. It failed.

1685: King Charles II died. The Duke of York became King James II of England. Immediately a campaign of L'Infamie was started against James II. The Duke of Monmouth was persuaded, or bribed, into leading an insurrection to overthrow the king.

On June 30, the Battle of Sedgemoor was fought. Monmouth was defeated and captured. He was executed July 15th. In August Judge Jeffreys opened, what historians have named, "The Bloody Assizes." Over three hundred persons concerned in the Monmouth Rebellion were sentenced to death under circumstances of atrocious cruelty. Nearly one thousand others were condemned to be sold as slaves. This was a typical example of how the Secret Powers, working behind the scenes, create conditions for which other people are blamed.

They in turn are liquidated. King James still had to be disposed of before William of Orange could be placed on the throne to carry out their mandate. Every person in England was bewitched and bewildered. They were not allowed to know the truth (the people are never allowed to know the truth, and when it is presented to them they will not believe it). They blamed everyone, and everything except the "Secret Powers" who were pulling the strings (the same thing that is happening at the present time in America). Then the conspirators made their next move.

1688: They ordered William Prince of Orange to land in England at Torbay. This he did on November 5th. King James  abdicated and fled to France. He had become unpopular by reason of the campaign of L'Infamie, intrigue and his own foolishness and culpability.

1689: William of Orange and Mary, were proclaimed King and Queen of England. King James did not intend to give up the Throne without a fight. He was a Catholic, so the Secret Powers set up William of Orange as the Champion of the Protestant Faith. On February 15, 1689, King James landed in Ireland.

The Battle of The Boyne was fought by men of definite, and opposing, religious convictions. The Battle has been celebrated by Orangemen on the 12th of July ever since. There is probably not one Orangeman in ten thousand who knows that all the wars and rebellions fought from 1640 to 1689 were fomented by the Jewish International money-lenders for the purpose of putting themselves in position to control British politics and economy.

The Jews were permitted back into England and from that time we can trace the cozy relationship between the Jews and the British which developed much of the "British/Israel" doctrine. Their first objective was to obtain permission to institute a Bank of England and consolidate and secure the debts Britain owed them for loans made to her to fight the wars they instigated. History shows how they completed their plans.

By 1694, the Bank of England was established; it was the English equivalent of "our" Federal Reserve System, the Jews controlled the money system which creates paper "money" out of thin air, and fastens every dollar or British pound of it on the people as debt. Truly did God warn us in his word about being "unequally yoked together with unbelievers."

In the final analysis, none of the countries and people involved in the wars and revolutions obtained any lasting benefits. No permanent or satisfactory solution was reached regarding the political, economic, and religious issues involved. The only people to benefit were the small group of Jewish money-lenders who financed the wars and revolutions, and their friends and agents, who supplied the armies, the ships, and the munitions.

It is important to remember that no sooner was the Dutch General sitting upon the throne of England than he persuaded the British Treasury to borrow £1,250,000 from the Jewish Bankers who had put him there. The school book history Informs our children that the negotiations were conducted by Sir John Houblen and Mr. William Patterson on behalf of the British Government with money-lenders whose identity remained secret.  A search of historical documents reveals that in order to maintain complete secrecy the negotiations regarding the terms of the loan were carried on in a church. In the days of Christ the money-lenders used the Temple. In the days of William of Orange they desecrated a church.

The Secret Power behind the World Revolutionary Movement pulled the necessary strings and brought about "The Wars of the Spanish Succession." In 1701 the Duke of Marlborough was made Commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Holland. No less an authority than the Jewish Encyclopedia records the fact that for his many services the Duke of Marlborough received not less than £6,000 a year from the Dutch Jewish Banker, Solomon Medina.

British/Israel became quite popular in certain circles in England by the Nineteenth Century and MUCH of its teaching is still valid today for the simple reason that it fits the Bible, which we will demonstrate from the 1886 book: "Lost Israel Found in the Anglo-Saxon Race."

However, the "Jews are Judah" aspect had to fall sooner or later, as all falsehoods do. That has been the task and joy of Bible teachers in the past decades. From British/Israel's initial belief that only England constituted the Lost Ten Tribes, the understanding gradually broadened to include many of the other nations of northern and western Europe. Here let Mr. Davidy summarize, which is mostly accurate, but please remember to take careful note his placement of the "Jews-as-Judah lie" buried in the middle of the various tribal identities: "The patriarch Jacob (Israel) had four wives and twelve sons. His firstborn was Reuben whom he begat from Leah, his first wife. Leah also bore (to Jacob) Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon. The handmaiden of Leah was Zilpah who bore to Jacob, Gad and Ashier. Indications are that the above Tribes became significant formative elements amongst the following nations: Reuben in France, Simeon in Brittany, Ireland and Wales; Simeon and Levi in Lombardy [northern Italy]; Judah amongst the Jews; Issachar in Switzerland; and Zebulon in Holland. Gad was important in Sweden, and Asher in Scotland. Rachel was the sister of Leah and Jacob's second wife. She gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin."

In pathetically trying to link the Khazars with dispersed Israelites, primarily with the tribe of Judah, it was necessary for Mr. Davidy to dissuade his readers of any possible notion that any other modern nation or people, such as the Germanic people, could be Judah. This he attempts in a number of ways, and an undiscerning reader could very well be persuaded by the "appearance" of scholarliness when dealing with the German question. The discerning reader, on the other hand, will notice the fatal flaw in Davidy's theory regarding both the Germanic peoples and the Khazars: there is no proof for either! Again, the critical question is: Who is Judah?

Treatment of the Germanic Peoples: The first thing the discerning reader might notice is that Germany and the Germanic people are virtually ignored for about the first hundred pages. Once, on page 74 the northern German region of Thuringia is mentioned as a "temporary" abode of the Angles. The one prominent mention of Germany in its modern history is in a very negative light, concerning, Surprise! the Nazis.

On page 10, Mr. Davidy gets in his lick about how the Germans, not specifically the Nazis, but the Germans, allegedly exterminated more than six million Jews, even though this decades-long propaganda lie is being gradually exposed by honest scholars such as England's top historian, David Irving. Then, in a classic example of the Jewish tactic of accusing your enemy of what you yourself have done, he asserts on page 11: "The Germans in the Second World War had attempted to conquer Britain. They had plans, if successful [sic], to deport all of the male population as slave labor to the Continent. They were developing means of mass-sterilization and in effect meant to exterminate the British people as we know it."

No documentation of this outrageous charge is given. However, that precise program was proposed to be applied "against" the Germans by an American Jew, Theodore N. Kaufman, in his book "Germany Must Perish!"

Following are pertinent extracts: "For quite patently, to fight once more in democratic defense against Germany with any goal in view save that country's extinction constitutes, even though it lose the war, a German victory. To fight, to win, and not this time to end Germanism forever by exterminating completely those people who spread its doctrine is to herald the outbreak of another German war within a generation. (p. 11); And so it is with the people of Germany. They may respond for a while to civilizing forces; they may seemingly adopt the superficial mannerisms and exterior behaviorism of civilized peoples but all the while there remains ever present within them that war-soul which eventually drives them, as it does the tiger, to kill. And no amount of conditioning, or reasoning, or civilizing - past, present or future - will ever be able to change this basic nature. (p. 15); There is in fine, no other solution except one: That Germany must perish forever from this earth! And, fortunately, as we shall now come to see, that is no longer impossible of accomplishment. (p. 83); Quite naturally, massacre and wholesale execution must be ruled out...There remains then but one mode of ridding the world forever of Germanism - and that is to stem the source from which issue those war-lusted souls, by preventing the people of Germany from ever again reproducing their kind. This modern method, known to science as Eugenic Sterilization, is at once practical, humane and thorough." (p. 86)

Makes one wonder how Planned Parenthood or their equivalent is dong in Germany, doesn't it? Kaufman predicted that if his plan were fully implemented, there would be no more Germans after two generations. Again and again, Mr. Davidy's technique vis à vis the Germanic people and the land of Germany is first to ignore them. When that option is not possible, since history clearly records those tribes whom he identifies (correctly) as Israelites as actually being located in modern Germany, he then adopts the "just passin' through" scenario. Mr. Davidy provides source documentation for many of his identifications of tribes through history and with modern nations, but with Germany, well - see the following.

Before going on, let's look at the "Real Holocaust" perpetrated by the Jews against Christianity and the White Race. Two examples should suffice to show just how vicious and blood thirsty they are when they are in absolute control, as they have been in Russia since 1917: "The Jews were now free to indulge in their most fervent fantasies of mass murder of helpless victims. Christians were dragged from their beds, tortured and killed. Some were actually sliced to pieces, bit by bit, while others were branded with hot irons, their eyes poked out to induce unbearable pain. Others were placed in boxes with only their heads, hands and legs sticking out. Then hungry rats were placed in the boxes to gnaw upon their bodies. Some were nailed to the ceiling by their fingers or by their feet, and left hanging until they died of exhaustion. Others were chained to the floor and left hanging until they died of exhaustion. Others were chained to the floor and hot lead poured into their mouths. Many were tied to horses and dragged through the streets of the city, while Jewish mobs attacked them with rocks and kicked them to death. Christian mothers were taken to the public square and their babies snatched from their arms. A red Jewish terrorist would take the baby, hold it by the feet, head downward and demand that the Christian mother deny Christ. If she would not, he would toss the baby into the air, and another member of the mob would rush forward and catch it on the tip of his bayonet.

Pregnant Christian women were chained to trees and their babies cut out of their bodies. There were many places of public execution in Russia during the days of the revolution, one of which was described by the American Rohrbach Commission: 'The whole cement floor of the execution hall of the Jewish Cheka of Kiev was flooded with blood; it formed a level of several inches. It was a horrible mixture of blood, brains and pieces of skull. All the walls were bespattered with blood. Pieces of brains and of scalps were sticking to them. A gutter of 25 centimeters wide by 25 centimeters deep and about 10 meters long was along its length full to the top with blood.

Some bodies were disemboweled, others had limbs chopped off, some were literally hacked to pieces. Some had their eyes put out, the head, face and neck and trunk were covered with deep wounds. Further on, we found a corpse with a wedge driven into its chest. Some had no tongues. In a corner we discovered a quantity of dismembered arms and legs belonging to no bodies that we could locate.'" [360]; "The Red Terror became so wide‑spread that it is impossible to give here all the details of the principal means employed by the [Jewish] Cheka(s) to master resistance; one of the most important is that of hostages, taken among all social classes. These are held responsible for any anti‑Bolshevist movements (revolts, the White Army, strikes, refusal of a village to give its harvest etc.) and are immediately executed. Thus, for the assassination of the Jew Ouritzky, member of the Extraordinary Commission of Petrograd, several thousands of them were put to death, and many of these unfortunate men and women suffered before death various tortures inflicted by cold‑blooded cruelty in the prisons of the Cheka.

I have in front of me photographs taken at Kharkoff, in the presence of the Allied Missions, immediately after the Reds had abandoned the town; they consist of a series of ghastly reproductions such as: Bodies of three workmen taken as hostages from a factory which went on strike. One had his eyes burnt, his lips and nose cut off; the other two had their hands cut off.

The bodies of hostages, S. Afaniasouk and P. Prokpovitch, small landed proprietors, who were scalped by their executioners; S. Afaniasouk shows numerous burns caused by a white hot sword blade. The body of M. Bobroff, a former officer, who had his tongue and one hand cut off and the skin torn off from his left leg.

Human skin torn from the hands of several victims by means of a metallic comb. This sinister find was the result of a careful inspection of the cellar of the Extraordinary Commission of Kharkoff. The retired general Pontiafa, a hostage who had the skin of his right hand torn off and the genital parts mutilated.

Mutilated bodies of women hostages: S. Ivanovna, owner of a drapery business, Mme. A.L. Carolshaja, wife of a colonel, Mmo. Khlopova, a property owner. They had their breasts slit and emptied and the genital parts burnt and having trace of coal. Bodies of four peasant hostages, Bondarenko, Pookhikle, Sevenetry, and Sidorfehouk, with atrociously mutilated faces, the genital parts having been operated upon by Chinese torturers in a manner unknown to European doctors in whose opinion the agony caused to the victims must have been dreadful. It is impossible to enumerate all the forms of savagery which the Red Terror took. A volume would not contain them. The Cheka of Kharkoff, for example, in which Saenko operated, had the specialty of scalping victims and taking off the skin of their hands as one takes off a glove...At Voronege the victims were shut up naked in a barrel studded with nails which was then rolled about. Their foreheads were branded with a red hot iron Five Pointed Star.

At Tsaritsin and at Kamishin their bones were sawed...At Keif the victim was shut up in a chest containing decomposing corpses; after firing shots above his head his torturers told him that he would be buried alive. The chest was buried and opened again half an hour later when the interrogation of the victim was proceeded with. The scene was repeated several times over. It is not surprising that many victims went mad." [361]

Now we will continue, on pages 86 and 87 the author (Davidy, The Tribes) mentions the Goths (Ostrogoths and Visigoths), Lombards, Suebi (Swabians), Franks, Gauls, Vandals and many other tribes in relation to Italy, Switzerland, Spain, France, Belgium, Holland, England and Scotland, Denmark, and the other Scandinavian countries - but no Germany. Take a map of Europe and notice how he almost encircles it without ever mentioning it. This is typical in the book whenever he is discussing the many nations of Israel in Europe today.

"The Galatians were identifiable in Europe with both part of the Celts and Belgae and with early groups in Germany. The area of Germany played a similar role to that of Scandinavia and received Tribes coming from Scythia often via Scandinavia and about to continue westward into Gaul and Britain." (p. 98).

Elsewhere and at great length, he shows how, though some portions did move on from Scandinavia, that Israelites Tribes remained to constitute the vast bulk of those nations today. Not so with Germany, he maintains, and no documentation for his assertion is given. "Just as the Scythians were leaving Scythia, new peoples began to appear in the west largely passing through Scandinavia, Pannonia (Hungary), and Germany." (p. 110) No source given regarding Germany. "After the Scythian Barbarians evacuated 'Germany,' going to France, Holland, Britain, Switzerland, and elsewhere, the native 'Germans' re-asserted themselves and participated in the forcible 'Germanicisation' of hordes of Slavonic and other peoples who had swept into Germany in the 500's C.E. to fill the vacuum left by the evacuating Scythian/Israelites." (p. 111) [362] "Most of these peoples, like the Franks and Anglo-Saxons, who invaded the west had sojourned for some time in Germany and Scandinavia before evacuating the German area." (p. 295) Again Davidy's assertion-opinion, gives no source.

"Tacitus (Roman historian, c. 100 A.D.) ('Germania' 2) wrote concerning the 'Germans' of his time, meaning largely Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian, and Frankish groups who were ultimately to evacuate the geographical region of Germany." (p. 359) Again a Davidy assertion; with no source given that they evacuated Germany completely.

"The Anglo-Saxons, especially the Saxons, present a particularly difficult problem for Mr. Davidy since any historian worth his salt knows of the Anglo-Saxon connection with present Germany. The great British historian, Mr. Sharon Turner, proved the connection definitively. Nor was the Saxon presence limited to the northwest portion of Germany. Witness that Saxony less than a century ago was in central Germany bordered on the south by Bavaria and on the east by Prussia. Here is how the author denies the Anglo-Saxon-German bond: '[R]ecent archaeological and related reappraisals of the invaders of Britain in the period of Anglo-Saxon invasions reveal very little connections with German culture which has led some modern authorities to begin to doubt that they even came from Germany!" (p. 111)

What authorities have decided this astounding rewrite of history? He cites one Jewish author who wrote a magazine article about ancient DNA. But just in case that little subterfuge is ineffective, on page 301 Mr. Davidy uses the no relation approach: "[In England] South of the Mercians and Angles were the Saxons who had no relation to the people later known as 'Saxons' in Germany." Baloney! This is simply another bald and straight-faced assertion with no proof offered. Such arrogant audacity is what in Yiddish they call Chutzpah.

On the same page, though, Mr. Davidy correctly explains that: "The Saxons were descended from the Sacae of Scythia, and their name means 'Sons-of-Isaac.' Abraham, the forefather of the Hebrew (sic: wrong: Heber was) race, had been Divinely assured, 'In Isaac will your seed be called' [363], which may be understood as a promise that that portion of his seed which would most blatantly fulfill the worldly aspect of his hereditary mission would bear a name recalling his own, as the Anglo-SAXONS, 'Sons-of-Isaac,' indeed do!"

The Teutonic Peoples: Another little complication in Mr. Davidy's scheme of isolating any Israelite tribes from being tied to the modern Germanic people is the matter of the Teutonic tribes. He identifies them being either or both of the That of the Goths of the tribe of Gad, or with Tahat, [364] of the tribe of Ephraim and Tahan, son of Ephraim, son of Joseph. He has the Teutons also evacuating Germany for England. With no proof, of course, just another chutzpah assertion.

Then on page 305 he claims: "The appellation 'Teuton' is sometimes misapplied to the Germans who are mostly unrelated to them." Need we say it? No proof or support for that statement. He reiterates the same prevaricating theme on page 383: "The Teutons and Teutonarii were to be swept up in the Anglo-Saxon host moving westward (Just passing' through, you see). The name 'Teuton' applied to the modern Germans is apparently a misnomer of very recent date and is historically misleading since this people did not remain (as far as can be determined) on German soil." Again no documentation.

No, the misleading is by Mr. Davidy in his patent attempt to continuously denigrate the Germanic people. Among numerous other standard sources, the Scholar's Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, in volume 26, under Teutonic declares they are Germanic. All these obfuscation by Mr. Davidy are reminiscent of the British-Israel teachings about the Germans; namely, that they are descended from the ancient Assyrians!

Again, foremost among the publicizers of this nonsense has been the Worldwide Church of God, now rapidly declining in influence. The late Herbert W. Armstrong, founder of the sect, was especially ardent in promoting it. He did not originate the idea though, for it is found in the writings of Edward Hines, a famous British/Israel author (ca. 1870). But the German/Assyrian connection also pre-dates Hines. In support of their theory of the German/Assyrian identity, various proofs are brought forth to show that indeed the modern German people came from ancient Assyria...We agree! Their proofs prove that they came from Assyria, not that they were Assyrians! Recalling Bible history, it is a fact that millions of Israelites (of all twelve tribes, not just ten) were taken into captivity into Assyrian lands in the eighth century B.C. Thus, our logical contention is that Israelite Judahites came from Assyria and are the predominant tribe of the Germanic peoples today.

Let us now subject both theories to the standard of truth: the Word of God. Are the Germanic people Assyrians or Judahites? The Biblical test is very simple: bring back the Gospel of John again, and chapter ten in the passages referred to earlier. The sheep (Israelites) will hear His voice and follow Him (I.e., become Christians). Did they?

The record of Christian history is clear. Mr. Davidy correctly makes the case for England and France as territory of modern Israel. Yet, if we consider the era from Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation forward, we observe that Germany was a primary source in the movement to break the hold of corrupted Roman Catholicism over Christendom. In the centuries following, England gradually became the primary source, but France - although a contributor to Protestantism, certainly did not have as great an impact as Germany. Germany is certainly every bit as much a major component of Christendom as France. Yet, Mr. Davidy welcomes France into the modern Israelite fold, but denies Germany. Why?

The Answer is Very Clear: If the modern Jews admit that modern Germany is representative of Judah, then who are the Jews? They are left in outer darkness, so to speak. So from the time of Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel whispered into the ears of Oliver Cromwell about the Jews being Judah and England being the regathered "lost ten tribes," we suspect that the question of Germany was at first not an issue. Later, however, when the truth began to be recognized by some that other nations in Europe were also of Israelite stock, that is when it became necessary for the Jewish brothers of the British/Israel proponents to feed them with the lie that Germany was Assyria...or Gomer, or any other people. But at all costs, from the Jews' perspective, the true identity of Germany with Judah must be prevented! The Scofield Bible notes that Gomer is modern Germany originates from the Talmud, as Scofield was  Jew.

An interesting parallel is evident here: In the Gospels we read how the evil High Priest, Caiaphas (probably of mixed Edomite-Israelite stock), convened a council of the chief priests and his Pharisee buddies in order to plot the murder of Yahshua (Jesus) the Christ. In John 11, verse 48, one participant outlined their desperate situation, saying that if they did nothing, then "all men will believe on him, and the Romans will come and take away our place and our nation."

In other words, these men who were at the pinnacle of religio-political power in Judea under the authority of the Romans were greatly fearful that the Romans might give them pink slips and install Yahshua and His disciples in their place. The Caiaphas, even though an evil man, is impelled by the Holy Spirit to say in verse 48 and 50: "Ye know nothing at all, nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not."

So, according to Divine predestination, they arranged the execution of the King of the Universe, whose human lineage came from the Israelite Tribe of Judah. Caiaphas then went to warn his brother Jews, that if Christ was not stopped: "And not for that nation only, but that also he (Christ) should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad." [365] He was afraid that Christ would gather together the True Tribes of Israel and come and destroy them.

Likewise, in recent centuries we see a similar situation has developed on a national scale. From the Jewish perspective, they have achieved near world domination, although the control is still somewhat hidden to the masses. Their plans along these lines, which were summarized in "The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion," were exposed by the great American patriot, Henry Ford, in his incomparable book, "The International Jew." Consequently, in the decades since Ford's death, the Jews have gained control of the Ford Foundation and it is one of the largest funders of programs and projects inimical to the best interests of Christian America. But that's another story.

But the True Judahites, the Germanic peoples, as long as they exist will always pose the most dangerous threat to the Jews' desire to rule the world. Remember the Huns' desire to rule the world? Huns=Khazars=Edomites=Jews. It all fits. Thus, Theodore Kaufman proposes that it is expedient for the Jews that the whole nation of Germany die, lest the Jews be exposed as usurpers and lose their fragile hold on near-global domination. By God's sovereign plan, Kaufman's proposal was not executed.

But has the reader ever wondered why the national news and entertainment media, now fifty years after the defeat of Germany are still, and as loudly as ever, driving into the minds of the Western people two things: the poor, persecuted Jews (Holocaustmais); and those wretched, evil, brutish Germans? It is beyond the scope of this study to judge or analyze herein the actions of Hitler, but we are simply pointing out the slanderous and hateful propaganda against the Germanic peoples to his day which continuously spews forth from the electronic toilets (TV and movies) of Hollywood. You see the Jews know something that the Judeo-Christian ministers, pastors and etc., are very careful not to point out:  "In that day will I make the governors of Judah like an hearth of fire among the wood (among the Jews), and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they shall devour all the people round about, on the right hand and on the left: and Jerusalem shall be inhabited again in her own place, even in Jerusalem. The Lord also shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David and the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem (The Khazar Jews) do not magnify themselves against Judah." [366]

     The Ultimate Insult: We have discussed the attempts of the Jews in the past few centuries to link Germany with Assyria or Gomer. Mr. Davidy, however, is perhaps breaking new ground in his identification of Germany. He nearly always has the Israelite tribes just passing' through or evacuating for points west or north. Nonetheless, he doesn't identify Germans with Assyria though either. Then who are the modern Germans? Like Kaufman, Mr. Davidy reverts to the classic tactic of labeling your enemy what you yourself are. According to Mr. Davidy, the Germans are Esau/Edom! His sources? Why, the Talmud, of course! "The name (Edom) applied to a certain physical type (the so-called 'Nordic' one) as well as to the later inhabitants of Germany in Europe. The appellation has importance in connection to the Lost Israelites as well as to several other peoples and it is these latter ones who became ancestors to some of the present-day Germans." (p. 132).

Correction: The only modern Germans whose ancestors sprang from Edom are those who have names like Goldberg, Epstein, Blumenthal., Rothschild, etc., i.e., the Khazar Jews living in Germany, and elsewhere, for that matter. "Esau became ancestor to the founder-settlers of early Rome, to part of the German people, and to part of the ruling elite in Continental Europe. 'And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing where with his father blessed him.'" [367] (p. 352)

We have no problem with the accuracy of the portion of this statement which is from the Book of Genesis. We merely demonstrate that Mr. Davidy is falsely identifying who is Jacob (Israel) and who is Esau/Edom, for in truth Esau/Edom have been assimilated with the Khazars. [368]

His sources for the above statement are again the Talmud, along with a Jewish author named Eisenstein. Sorry, maybe it is something genetic, but we simply cannot trust those sources. [369] "Most Italians are not Israelite however (True, but some undoubtedly are) but are of mixed origins with a stock related to the Greeks in ascendancy and including a constituent from Edom. Esau, the twin brother of Israel (Jacob) was the forefather of the Edomites and became the arch-enemy of Israel. Descendants of Edom are in addition numerous amongst the Germans and in the European ruling classes. Even in those nations herein proved to be basically Israelite in many respects, there exist Edomite and Canaanite elements." (p. 431) The last sentence is true: The Khazar-cum-Edomite Jews are found in nearly every modern nation, any nation that will host [370] them! The previous concerning Edom in Germany we have answered. The reference to the ruling classes needs explanation, however.

In Jacob's deathbed prophecies (Genesis 48) over his twelve sons, he gave Judah the blessing of being the tribe from whence would come the rulership. This, of course, had its singular fulfillment in the birth of Yahshua (Jesus) the Messiah. But it also has its national fulfillment in the Germanic/Saxon people, not the Jews! A study of European history will reveal that nearly all the monarchies of European history will reveal that nearly all the monarchies of Europe sprang from the Saxon/Germanic peoples.

For example, at the time of World War One, the Kaiser of Germany, the Czar of Imperial Russia, and King George V of England were all first cousins. The British monarchy, though, being very public relations-minded, realized that it did not help their public image to be known as "The House of Coburg-Saxe-Gotha" while at the same time, their British subjects were dying in trenches fighting the boys from Coburg-Saxe-Gotha (Germany). Thus came the name change to "The House of Windsor." Despite his fervent denial of any permanent German association with Israelite tribes, Mr. Davidy allows the following:

*"The Hessians are descended from the Chatti, who descend from the Franks who were of the tribe of Reuben." (p. 162).

* "Franks and Gauls were associated with the Westphalia area of Germany. 'Phalia,' he states, is 'most likely derived from that of Phalui, the second son of Reuben." (p. 163)

* "Saxons in the West Holstein region came from the Scythians (Israelites)." (p. 360).

Mr. Davidy's final assault on the German/Judah/Israelite identity is another baseless assertion somehow distinguishing between Germans who emigrated to America in the 1800s (Perhaps true Israelites, accord to him) and those who remained in Germany, "Peoples belonging to the Lost Israelite Tribes sojourned in regions now known as Russia, Poland, Central Europe, and Germany, and throughout the European Continent. In the course of time all identifiable bodies moved into western Europe mostly evacuating their previous habitats. In some cases segments of these entities may have remained behind and from their descendants perhaps emerged many of the Continental immigrants to North America, etc. A separate study, in the case of Germany at least would seem to indicate that those who went to the U.S.A. in the 1800s were somehow different from those who stayed behind..." (p. 430).

In an appendix to "The Tribes" dealing with his sources, Mr. Davidy acknowledges "the debt to Senstius." This is not to be passed over lightly. Mr. Davidy gives a bibliography of some 23 pages of source materials. Of all those works cited, he singles out only two, S.G. Olsen and Parl Senstius, for a separate section in this appendix.

Senstius published a book in Leipzig, Germany, in 1931: "Die Stamme der Israeliten und Germanen," (The Races of Israel and Germany) demonstrating numerous connections of various migrating Israelite tribes with the modern German people. Those connections that don't upset Mr. Davidy's anti-German theory, he accepts from Senstius. But then he lists many other connections (Which would upset his theory) and these Mr. Davidy acknowledges that he either "did not consider" or he simply declares that he "does not accept" them. "Historically, most of the said Tribes whose identification was accepted by us  (emphasis in original) did not remain in Germany but moved out. Those Israelites who did stay in Germany later emigrated en masse to the U.S.A. and elsewhere - this migration having been a specific one entailing whose religious groups, social classes, villages, and even localities with the adjacent neighborhoods and groups remaining almost untouched..." (p. 451)

Although there may have been such cases, it was certainly not universally true. When many of our ancestors came to America, only part of the family came; the rest remaining in Germany. Mr. Davidy's desperate attempts to somehow evacuate Germany of all Israelite connections fails utterly. Both the Bible and history are clear that Germany, like Britain, has contingents from virtually all twelve tribes. But whereas Britain is identified primarily as Ephraim (Mr. Davidy agrees), Germany primarily represents Judah.

The "Khazars-Are-Israel" Fantasy: That latter connection is so intolerable to Mr. Davidy that not only does he have to negate it "by hook or by crook," but thanks to Koestler's "The Thirteenth Tribe," he must now also invent a Khazar/Israelite connection.  This he has no reluctance to tackle. But the same methods are applied here as with the anti-German statements. Chutzpah! Simply assert the lie often enough and it will gradually be accepted. Now, where have we heard that before? Thus, as early as page 5, we find: "From inhabitants of the Kingdom of 'Judah' are descended the modern Jews..." We don't accept that at face value, Mr. Davidy; prove it! He, of course, cites no documentation for it. Over and over again throughout "The Tribes," this theme-and-variations is repeated. "The modern day Jews descend from Judah, Simeon, Benjamin, Levi, and some portions of the other tribes." (p. 226) No documentation here either.

With Koestler's The Thirteenth Tribe revealing the Khazar origin of the Jews, Mr. Davidy then proceeds to invent a Khazar-Israel connection!

"The State of Israel and The Jews: The Jews are descended from those Children of Israel who were not taken into exile by the Assyrians in addition to some of those who were, but later re-attached themselves to those who had remained. Most Jews come from the Tribe of Judah followed by the Tribes of Benjamin and Simeon together with Levi, as well as important contingents from Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh) and Issachar. - Judah is the determining factor." (p. 433)

Documentation, you have to be kidding; only Chutzpah here. "These remaining two tribes became the Jews of history." (p. 8) No documentation. On page 294, he states that "Some modern Jews may descend from the Khazars..." Huh? Like about 95+ percent of them? He attempts to link the Khazars with Benjamin, Ephraim and Asher on pages 127, 285 & 300 with no proof whatsoever offered in support.

On page 71, he states that the tribes of Simeon and Manasseh settled in the Khazar Kingdom. Aha! Finally, here a source is cited; but alas, the source turns out to be a Jewish encyclopedia. Novices to the information in this study may wonder why we are not more trusting of Jewish sources.

Our answer is that we are simply taking Christ at His word in John 8:44 where He described the unbelieving Jews (Edom converts to Judaism) in these blunt terms: "Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it."

If Christ said they were liars, why should we believe their descendants about anything, unless there is outside corroborating evidence? We shouldn't; and we don't. Now here is a tricky statement. Notice the sentence construction: "It will be later shown that certain evidence indicates the Naphtalites as having ultimately migrated to Scandinavia, on the whole, apart from small splinter groups, one of which amalgamated with the Khazars." (p. 64)

The casual and uninformed reader would undoubtedly assume that the initial clause "It will be later shown that certain evidence indicates..." applies to all the rest of the sentence. Not so. The later evidence does show the tribe of Naphtali going to Scandinavia, but no evidence shows Naphtalites "amalgamated with the Khazars." Another interesting but ultimately baseless claim is made regarding some of the modern Scots: "Some groups of Sacae-related Israelites including bands of Goths and Naphtali remained in the Caucasus region of Scythia and elsewhere. These were eventually to amalgamate and form the Khazar nation (no source) which converted to Judaism and some of whose descendants are to be found today among the modern Jews. The real core of the Khazar nation federation was centered on the Akatziri or 'Agathyrsy' as the Greeks called them...the Agathyrsi sent a contingent across the sea to Scotland where it became identified as the Picts." (pp. 106-107); "South of the Sali were the Agathyrsi who became the nucleus of the Khazar nation in Scythia and from whom a portion migrated to Scotland where they became known as the Picts. One portion (at least) of the Agathyrsi were black-haired and may be represented in the tall dark Scotts [sic] still apparent today." (p. 269); "The Agathyrsi, Khazars in the south of Scythia were attributed descent from Manasseh and Simeon." (p. 367).

In the three excerpts above, the weak link is the Khazar-Agathyrsi connection. It is backed up by only one source, a certain Jewish author named Abraham Epstein. Here again we will apply John 8:44. Mr. Davidy cites Lempriere's Classical Dictionary of 1788 identifying the Picts as being from the tribe of Judah. We agree. Just identify Judah correctly and not as the Khazars.

Of further interest is this excerpt from the Scottish Declaration of Independence in 1320 A.D.: "Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations, our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenia Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, (i.e., circa 250 B.C.) to their home in the west where they still live today." [371]

We also have the following, as further proofs of the errors of Mr. Davidy: "...Our first question here is, When did the Khazars and the Khazar name appear? There has been considerable discussion as to the relation of the Khazars to the Huns on the one hand and to the West Turks on the other. The prevalent opinion has for some time been that the Khazars emerged from the West Turkish empire.

     Early references to the Khazars appear about the time when the West Turks cease to be mentioned. Thus they are reported to have joined forces with the Greek Emperor Heraclius against the Persians in A.D. 627 and to have materially assisted him in the siege of Tiflis. it is a question whether the Khazars were at this time under West Turk supremacy. The chronicler Theophanes {died circa A.D. 818} who tells the story introduces them as 'the Turks from the east whom they call Khazars.'...

     A similar discussion on the merits of the different races is reported from the days before Muhammad, in which the speakers are the Arab Nu'man ibn-al-Mudhir of al-Hirah and Khusraw Anushirwan. The Persian gives his opinion that the Greeks, Indians, and Chinese are superior to the Arabs and so also, in spite of their low material standards of life, the Turks and the Khazars, who at least possess an organization under their kings. Here again the Khazars are juxtaposed with the great nations of the east. It is consonant with this that tales were told of how ambassadors from the Chinese, the Turks, and the Khazars were constantly at Khusraw's gate, [372] and even that he kept three thrones of gold in his palace, which were never removed and on which none sat, reserved for the kings of Byzantium, China and the Khazars.

In general, the material in the Arabic and Persian writers with regard to the Khazars in early times falls roughly into three groups, centering respectively round the names of (a) one or other of the Hebrew patriarchs, (b) Alexander the Great, and © certain of the Sassanid kings, especially, Anushirwan and his immediate successors.

A typical story of the first group is given by Ya'qubi in his History. After the confusion of tongues at Babel, [373] the descendants of Noah came to Peleg, [374] son of Eber, [375] and asked him to divide [376] the earth among them. He apportioned to the descendants of Japheth [377] - China, Hind, Sind, the country of the Turks and that of the Khazars, as well as Tibet, the country of the (Volga) Bulgars, Daylam, and the country neighboring on Khurasan.

In another passage Ya'qubi gives a kind of sequel to this. Peleg [378] having divided the earth in this fashion, [379] the descendants of 'Amur ibn-Tubal, [380] a son of Japheth, went out to the northeast. One group, the descendants of Togarmah, [381] proceeding farther north, were scattered in different countries and became a number of kingdoms, among them the Burjan (Bulgars), Alans, Khazars, [382] and Armenians.

Similarly, according to Tabari, [383] there were born to Japheth Jim-r, [384] Maw'-', [385] Mawday, [386] Yawan (Javan), [387] Thubal (Tubal), Mash-j (read Mash-kh, Meshech [388] and Tir-sh (Tiras). [389] Of the descendants of the last were the Turks and the Khazars (Ashkenaz). There is possibly an association here with the Turgesh, survivors of the West Turks, who were defeated by the Arabs in 119/737, [390] and disappeared as a ruling group in the same century. Tabari says curiously that of the descendants of Mawgh-gh (Magog) were Yajuj and Majuj, adding that these are to the east of the Turks and Khazars. This information would invalidate Zeki Validi's attempt to identify Gog and Magog in the Arabic writers with the Norwegians. The name Mash-kh (Meshech) is regarded by him as probably a singular to the classical Massagetai (Massag-et). A Bashmakov emphasizes the connection of 'Meshech' with the Khazars, to establish his theory of the Khazars, not as Turks from inner Asia, but what he calls a Jephetic or Alarodian group from south of the Caucasus.

Evidently there is no stereotyped form of this legendary relationship of the Khazars to Japheth. The Taj-al-Artis says that according to some they are the descendants of Kash-h (? Mash-h or Mash-kh, for Meshech), son of Japheth, and according to others both the Khazars and the Saqalibah are sprung from Thubal (Tubal). Further, we read of Balanjar ibn-Japheth in ibn-al-Faqih and abu-al-Fida' as the founder of the town of Balanjar. Usage leads one to suppose that this is equivalent to giving Balanjar a separate racial identity. In historical times Balanjar was a well-known Khazar center, which is even mentioned by Masudi as their capital.

It is hardly necessary to cite more of these Japheth stories. Their JEWISH origin IS priori OBVIOUS, and Poliak has drawn attention to one version of the division of the earth, where the Hebrew words for 'north' and 'south' actually appear in the Arabic text. The Iranian cycle of legend had a similar tradition, according to which the hero Afridun divided the earth among his sons, Tuj (sometimes Tur, the eponym of Turan), Salm, and Iraj. Here the Khazars appear with the Turks and the Chinese in the portion assigned to Tuj, the eldest son. Some of the stories connect the Khazars with Abraham.

The tale of a meeting in Khurasan between the sons of Keturah (Genesis 25:1; 25:4; 1 Chronicles 1:32-33) and the Khazars (Ashkenaz Genesis 10:3) where the Khaqan is Khaqan is mentioned is quoted from the Sa'd and al-Tabari by Poliak.

The tradition also appears in the Meshed manuscript of ibn-al-Faqih, apparently as part of the account of Tamim ibn-Babr's journey to the Uigurs, but it goes back to Hishim al-Kalbi. Zeki Validi is inclined to lay some stress on it as a real indication of the presence of the Khazars in this region at an early date. Al-Jahiz similarly refers to the legend of the sons of Abraham and Keturah settling in Khurasan but does not mention the Khazars. Al-Di-mashqi says that according to one tradition the Turks were the children of Abraham by Keturah, whose father belonged to the original Arab stock.

Descendants of other sons of Abraham, namely the Soghdians and the Kirgiz, were also said to live beyond the Oxus..." [391] Now let us turn our attention to a number of the positive aspects of Mr. Davidy's book. Actually, in its 480 pages, there is much confirmation of what both the British/Israel and Christian/Israel Identity movements have been teaching.

* On pages 79 & 80, he discusses the fact that there were two land regions known in ancient days as Cush/Ethiopia. Much confusion has resulted from the fact that many modern Bible students do not realize that Cush also referred to the area of modern Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan. This is especially important in recognizing the fact that Moses did not marry a Negro Cushite.

* On pages 98-102 Mr. Davidy notes the migrations of the Galatians (Gauls) were not only westward across Europe, but some contingents of them went back eastward to Asia Minor. Now you know to whom Paul was writing in his epistle to the Galatians. They were Israelites, of course.

* Mr. Davidy confirms that the Scandinavian gods, Odin and Thor, were in fact great war leaders of the Goths. The Greek god, Bacchus, was an historical personage who came from ancient Israel according to the author quoting the ancient Greco-Roman historian, Diodorus Siculus.

* Another interesting theory about which we would need further confirmation concerns Zoroaster: "Also at this time, in the region of Hara and Bactria [to where the northern House of Israel had been deported], there arose a religious reformer named Zarathustra (Zoroaster) whose original doctrine was monotheistic and even Biblical in character. After Zoroaster's death, his religion was paganized by the Median tribe of Magi, even though the original message had been Hebraic. [We can fully understand that as a possibility. Look at modern teachings of mainline Protestant denominations compared to the teachings of Luther, Calvin, Wesley, etc. Not much difference] Zoroaster, according to Iranian tradition had been taught by the prophet Jeremiah or by one of Jeremiah's pupils."

* On several occasions, Mr. Davidy cites sources which showed ancient Chinese records as describing Israelite migrations as far east as northern China. The Danites, for example, were described as blond-haired, blue-eyed and fair-complected. Eventually, though, they reversed course and headed west.

* Another speculative possibility is that the land of Sinim referred to in Isaiah 49:12 is Australia! Bullinger's note suggests China, but that is only a guess on his part. China would not appear to fit the prophecy but Australia certainly would. Mr. Davidy notes that the Latin Vulgate Bible translates sinim as Australis. A Latin dictionary confirms that australis means southern. Australia, the great continent in the southern hemisphere is one of the desolate heritages which True Israel now possess.

Mr. Davidy is also a breath of fresh air when it comes to countering the liberal, politically-correct nonsense floating about in recent years. He accurately avers on page 15: "The nations identified in this book as being of the Israelite-seed of Abraham were those who mainly conducted European colonialist policies from the eighteenth to twentieth centuries.

The overall effects of colonialism, in most cases, were very beneficial, despite claims to the contrary. French, British, and Dutch colonialism put a stop to internecine warfare, ended human sacrifice and slavery, founded and/or improved irrigation systems, reformed agricultural practices and public hygiene, built bridges, roads, public words, and so on. Wherever they ruled the local population greatly increased in numbers, in health, and in respect for basic human dignity. The colonial powers also often (but not always) made large profits for their own citizens and helped themselves by exploiting opportunities for investment which the subject countries offered. This investment usually benefitted all parties. This was part of the blessing of Abraham, the power was given and it was used of good, even though, more often than not, the initial conscious motivation in colonization was a lust for power and material gain. The overall effect was beneficial...Even today these people [Israelites] remain the only real morally motivated advancers of international justice in this world...Millions of people throughout the world (if not tens of millions) have not starved to death or massacred each other only because the 'Anglo-Saxon' nations saved them. The only real restraint on tyranny anywhere today is that exercised by these countries."

What Difference Does Israel Identity Make?: This is a valid question which is frequently put to us who believe and understand the truth. Christian Israel literature has a much more complete and Scriptural answer but it would include at least part of Mr. Davidy's answer on page 442 that: "The origin of individual nations explains much of their subsequent destiny...In the same way as propensities for music and the like are often inherited, so too are tribal traits for better or for worse. This does not mean that any group has the right to feel itself racially or otherwise somehow 'superior' to any other or to be prejudiced against those who are not family-members."

God foretold one of the missions of His True Israel in Isaiah 49:6: "I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation to the end of the earth." This is obviously, a prophecy which has its singular and greatest fulfillment in Christ; but it also applies nationally to the Israel people's commission to carry the news of this great salvation "to the ends of the earth." Dr. Davidy states: [A] "'light to the Gentiles' is reminiscent of the fact that despite all the mistakes, corruption, and evil that the Anglo-Saxon nations may have done, on the Whole, they have been a civilizing influence amongst the Gentiles and modern 'western' concepts of human rights...are due to them more than to anybody else."

We would add that the True Israel people were to be His servants and "witnesses in the earth." Yes, despite all our sinfulness and falling short of the mark of perfection, we Christian Israelites have tried to carry the Gospel to all the other nations of the earth.  In God's sovereignty, this was all part of "The Plan." Our perfection is not yet; but the day will come when we will have attained unto the resurrection unto life eternal. Then it will fully come to pass that all peoples, races, tongues, tribes and nations will bow down and worship the King of kings and the Lord of lords.

Since God took on human flesh in the form of Christ Yahshua, Christendom (Christian Israelites) have been His servants and witnesses, even if imperfectly. False Israel, the modern Jews, have rejected Christ for 2,000 years because they are not His sheep. Consequently, they have not in any way helped to spread the Gospel; they have never been a blessing to the people of the world, but have instead been a curse to all, and have always and everywhere been among Christianity's most fierce opponents.

Now we can understand, and why Mr. Davidy tries so desperately to invent a Khazar-Israel link. It is the Jews' last futile attempt to keep the mask in place as "The People of the Book." It all makes sense when true and false Israel are correctly identified. May God speed the day when all of True Israel awakens from her blindness to her own identity. Then she will turn to Yahweh and say "Thou art my God!" "Who is blind, but my servant (Israel)?" [392]; "...blindness in part is happened to Israel..." [393]

Lost Israel Found In the Anglo-Saxon Race: Established in history; verified in prophecy, by E.P. Ingersoll: From Abraham to the Dividing of the Kingdom: It is appropriate now to show that Abraham has, at the present time, a literal offspring in the world, every numerous, and that they are increasing at an unparalleled rate.

It is known to all readers of the Bible, how cursorily soever may be that reading, that Abraham begat Isaac, that Isaac begat Jacob, and that Jacob begat the twelve patriarchs; that these patriarchs went down into Egypt, where they dwelt some 400 years; that they were brought out from thence, some two millions or more of people, by Moses; passing through the Red Sea on dry ground, they were led on by the divine direction to Mount Sinai, where God gave to his people Israel his law, written by the finger of God himself. From thence, after the institution of the Mosaic ritual, this people were led on, by a cloudy pillar by day but of fire by night, through that great wilderness, being fed on manna, a bread from heaven, and water from the rock, so that no one suffered from either hunger or thirst for forty years in that great wilderness, until they reached the very borders of the promised land; that here they entered the land of Canaan by passing through the river Jordan on dry ground, although the waters of the river at that time overflowed all its banks. [394]

So also, all know how this people, the descendants of Abraham, the whole nation of twelve-tribed Israel, were planted in Canaan; each tribe being assigned his portion by lot, B.C. 1491. Here this people lived some four hundred years under Judges, till B.C. 1095, when Saul was anointed as their king. As the successor to Saul, David was anointed by divine command, as kind, during whose reign the nation prospered greatly. Next Solomon, David's son, was anointed king, and he built the Temple, surpassing in splendor all buildings the world has ever seen. This temple was built by divine direction, "according to the pattern shown in the Mount."

After Solomon's death, Rehoboam came to the throne; immediately a trouble arouse, caused by the vast expenditure in building the temple. The old men, therefore, came to Rehoboam, to inquire if something could not be done to lighten this terrible burden. But his only reply was, "I don't know; I'll think about it." Rehoboam then conferred with the young men, who advised him to "make his finger thicker than his father's loins," in reference to the taxes.

This advice he followed; and proclaiming an assembling of all the people, he closed his speech by saying, "My father chastised you with whips, I will chastise you with scorpions." [395] As the result of this speech ten tribes went off with Jeroboam, a political leader at that time, and thus formed the Kingdom of Israel, leaving the other two tribes to constitute the Kingdom of Judah. [396]

Here now let it be distinctly understood  and borne in mind, that the whole Hebrew nation was at this time divided, thus forming two kingdoms; the kingdom of Israel, with ten tribes, and the kingdom of Judah, of two tribes, Judah and Levi. [397] These two kingdoms continued henceforth separate, Judah having for its capital Jerusalem, while Israel's capital was Samaria. So, also, from this time on to the final consummation, it is found that the divine predictions are no longer uttered to the twelve-tribed Israel, but either to the Kingdom of Judah, or to the Kingdom of ten-tribed Israel. The failure to notice this fact has been one great obstacle to the proper apprehension of the prophecies. The failure, I say, to have notice that the prophecies, for the most part, are not directed to the whole Hebrew nation, but directly to Israel, (ten-tribed) on the one hand, or to Judah as distinctly on the other.

By the observances of this rule much confusion may be avoided. This division of the Hebrew nation into two kingdoms took place about 980 B.C.; and from this time on these two kingdoms are addressed the one as Judah and the other as Israel. And it will be found that by this latter term "ten-tribed Israel" is commonly, if not always, meant.

History of Israel (Ten Tribes): Immediately after the separation of these two kingdoms, Jeroboam made two golden calves, [398] and set the one in Dan and the other in Bethel, to prevent his people from going up to Jerusalem to worship. The seems to have been the beginning of that system of idolatry which finally culminated in Baalism, one of the chief rites of which was the public prostitution of every female before the altar of Baal upon her entering the state of puberty.

By the practice of these diabolical ceremonies, therefore, Israel became so corrupt that the divine patience could no longer forbear; and hence Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, was sent by God to besiege Israel and carry the nation captive, which was accomplished by destroying Samaria, the capital, and transporting all of its inhabitants to Assyria and placing them in the cities of the Medes, on the River Gozan, 720 B.C. [399] Here these tribes became lost, as to the history of the world, but not to the all-seeing eye of him who had placed them there for their discipline and for the development of that wondrous plan by which the world was to be brought into obedience to Jesus Christ, and Satan and all his works utterly overthrown.

From that time to the present the inquiry has been, "What has become of lost Israel?" And this inquiry has been so urgently made during the last hundred years that every nook and corner of the globe has been searched in the hope of finding these lost ten tribes of Israel; but all in vain. So that now, in their despair, some exclaim "There are no lost tribes of Israel, and hence there are none to be found." But how has this search been made: What has been the order of it? What were the objects sought? And would they be known if found? Let us look at the facts.

The facts are, this search has been made without any definite plan. The detective in searching for a criminal must have the exact description given of his man, his age, complexion, indeed his very photograph, so that he may distinguish this man from all the other in the world wherever found, or in whatever multitude soever he may have concealed himself. But in the hunt after lost Israel who has consulted the one only record where both the whereabouts and the photograph of Israel is to be found? Who? What is the description there given? The whereabouts is said to be "the isles of the sea," [400] and the photograph is given in Genesis 28:12-13, viz.: The wealthiest of all nations, "though shalt lend unto many nations, but thou shalt not borrow." "And the Lord shall make thee the head, and not the tail; and thou shalt be above only, and not beneath." This photograph, then, is of a nation whose wealth is unparalleled by that of any other nation, and whose political influence is to be high above all the other nations.

But instead of hunting for a nation having these peculiarities, we have ransacked the nooks and by-places of the earth to find the nation "high above all others" and searched the poor-houses for the world to find the wealthiest of all nations! [401] And all in vain. But as soon as this divine description of lost Israel was discovered, the hunt has not been at random, nor in vain. The great wonder now is, why had this not been seen before? Ah, why? Because this is just as Israel's God would have it.

Why is it that of all the histories that have been written in two thousand years now past, not one contains the first mention of the "Kingdom of Israel" that was placed in the cities of the Medes, on the River Gozan, about eight hundred miles northeast of Jerusalem, on the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea? Why is this?

Why, of all the histories of ancient or modern times has no one ever undertaken the task, till recently, of gathering up the fragments, searching out and arranging in their due order the traces of the wanderings of Israel? Who can answer this question? But this work has now been performed, now in these ends of the earth, in which the wanderings of this people have been traced for 2,500 years. [402]

We are, therefore, now prepared with materials suitable for hunting up and identifying "lost Israel" when found. Our first inquiry, then, will be touching the captivity of Israel; whether all of the "ten tribes" were indeed carried away by Shalmaneser? In answer to this question, it is found that Dan and Simeon were not disturbed; they remained still in Palestine, in their original lot.

But here, it must be noticed, that some time after the twelve tribes had been located in Canaan, Dan found his lot too small for the great increase of his people. Hence, a company was formed for finding another place unoccupied, to which they might migrate, and there settle.

Such a place was found in the extreme north of Canaan, occupied by the natives whom Joshua had been commanded to destroy, a little city called Laish. This they destroyed with all its inhabitants, and on the ruins built for themselves a city and called it Dan, after the name of their tribe. This branch of the tribe of Dan was carried captive into Assyria and placed on the River Gozan with the others. But the other Dan, he that occupied the old homestead, what shall he do? To unite with Judah, he and Simeon, that they cannot do; for with Judah they are at "sword's point."

What shall they do, then? They must go somewhere; not only because Judah is their enemy, but more especially because of the fear of their greater enemy Shalmaneser. Now it is known that Dan was a mariner, the "he abode in ships," [403] and also it is known that when Solomon was building the temple some 250 years before this, Dan was employed in company with the Phoenicians, in importing tin, from Brittany, (now Cornwall) in England, for the making [of] brazen vessels for the temple.

Dan's Migration to Ireland: From historic evidences that have come to light recently, it seems that Dan had long been familiar with the then Western World; that he had been accustomed to the performance of voyages with the Phoenicians all over the Mediterranean Sea, and beyond outside the Straits of Hercules; and that alone, unaccompanied by any of his neighbors, he had sailed to Egypt, and from thence into Greece, taking with him a colony of his own people; and that these Danai are said to have been among the first settlers in Greece.

It is farther stated, that Dan was engaged in the sacking of Troy; that afterwards he conquered Macedonia, and that Alexander seems to have descended from this very tribe of Israel. It is furthermore stated, that Dan settled, after the sacking of Troy, in that very region, where he built twelve cities. Josephus says that the Lacedemonians were the very kindred of the Jews (i.e., Judahite Israelites, not Edomites).

Perhaps, now, it can be understood why The World Book Encyclopedia by the following, states: "The Jews were once a sub‑type of the Mediterranean race, but they have mixed with other peoples until the name Jew has lost all racial meaning."

Judeo-Christian Heritage Is A Hoax: It appears there is no need to belabor the absurdity and fallacy of the "Judeo-Christian heritage" fiction, which certainly is clear to all honest theologians. That "Judeo-Christian dialogue" in this context is also absurd was well stated in the author-initiative religious journal, Judaism, Winter 1966, by Rabbi Eliezar Berkowitz, chairman of the department of Jewish philosophy, at the Hebrew Theological College when he wrote:  "As to dialogue in the purely theological sense, nothing could be more fruitless or pointless. Judaism is Judaism because it rejects Christianity; and Christianity is Christianity because it rejects Judaism. What is usually referred to as the Jewish-Christian traditions exists only in Christian or secularist fantasy."

There is no doubt this is true! And the fantasy exists in Christian and Secularist minds only because it was implanted there by the persistent propaganda of the masters of intrigue of the ADL-AJC Network. Nevertheless, there can be no doubt that knowledgeable theologians, Jewish and Christians who constantly allude to "our Judeo-Christian heritage" are for their own specious purposes perpetuate a grotesque and fantastic hoax.

Boston: A Harvard Divinity School professor, John Strugnell, was removed this week as chief editor of the Dead Sea Scrolls not only because of his poor health, but because of a tirade against Israel and Judaism, his colleagues said. The remarks, in which he called Judaism "a horrible religion" that "should have disappeared," came as a surprise to some colleagues working with him to decipher the ancient texts of the Old Testament. Strugnell made the remarks in a recent interview published in Haaretz, a Tel Aviv newspaper.

In the Haaretz interview, Strugnell, 60, said he was not against Jews but their religion, according to an account soon to be published in the Biblical Archaeology Review. "I can't allow the word anti-Semitism to be used," he is quoted as saying, "Anti-Judaist, that's what I am."

The Encyclopedia Americana calls Hyrcanus a Jewish high priest [135‑105 B.C.] who forced the Idumeans to become "Jews." Idumea is the Greek for Edomites. The works of Josephes relates how the Idumeans were forced to accept Judaism. In the Bible Esau, Edo, Mt. Seir and Idumea are interchangeable for the offspring of ESAU, Jacob's twin brother.

760: Halakhot Pesukot (attributed to Yehudai b. Nahman).

761: The Karate schism led by Aan ben David.

762‑767: Aan b. David lays the foundation of Karaism.

768‑814: Reign of Charlemagne begins.

797: Isaac sent by Charlemagne on an embassy to Harun al‑Rashid.

800: Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

814: "Capitula de Judefs" of Charlemagne and Ludwig decide that Jews should not have church utensils in pledge. Arabic numerals are established.

827: Eberard, "Magister Judaeorum" under Louis I. the Pious, king of the Franks, protects the Jews against Agobard, Bishop of Lyons.

845: Council of Meaux, under Amolo, bishop of Ly­ons, enacts anti‑Jewish decrees, renewing those of Constantine and Theodosius II.

850: Al‑Mutawakkil orders the "Peoples of the Book" to wear yellow kerchiefs.

862: Viking Russ tribe seizes control of Northern Russia.

874: Vikings settle Iceland.

875: Nahshon b. Zadok researches on the Jewish calendar.

878: Ibrahim ibn Ahmad orders Jews of Sicily to wear a badge.

900: Spain begins to drive out the Moors (Arabs).

932: Printed books from wood blocks are developed in China.

981: Eric the Red begins settlement of Greenland.

998: End of Khazar Kingdom.

1000: Vikings begin exploration of North America.

1007: Persecution at Rouen by Robert the Devil.

1012: Jews driven from Mayence by Emperor Henry II. Expulsion of Jews from Mainz.

1013: (Apr. 19) Massacre at Cordova by soldiers of Sula­iman ibn al‑Hakim.

1021: Al‑Hakim renews the 'Pact of Omar' in Egypt. Muslim Druse sect is found by Caliph al‑Hakim.

1054: Byzantine Empire breaks with Holy Roman Church.

1066: Banishment of the Jews from Granada. Jews settle in England. England conquered by William of Nor­mandy.

1078: Pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) promulgates canoni­cal law against Jews holding office in Christen­dom. Jerusalem conquered by the Seljuks.

1079: Jews repulsed from Ireland. This is the origin of St. Patrick's Day, as when he drove the snakes from Ireland.

1085: Pope Gregory VII. protests against Jews being placed by the King of Castile in authority over Christians.

1090: "Fuero" (decree) of Alfonson VI, appoints duel means of settling litigation between Christian and Jew. Henry IV, grants Judah ben Kalo­nymus and Jews of Speyer protection to life and property.

1096‑99: First Crusade; Jews massacred along the Rhine and elsewhere. Contemporary history deletes the killing of Jews and falsely records the Crusade was to oust the Muslims from the Holy Land.

1099: The Jews of Jerusalem burned in a Synagogue by the Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon.

1103: The "Constitutio Pacis" of the imperial court at Mayence assures the Jews of the emperor­'s peace.

1117: Persecution at Rome; appearance of a false Messiah at Cordova.

1120: Calixtus II, issues bull "Sicut Judaeis," the charter of the Roman Jews.

1124: Ladislaus I, of Bohemia decrees that no Christian shall serve Jews.

1144: Alleged martyrdom of St. William of Norwich (first case of blood accusation).

1144 A.D. Norwich: A twelve-year-old Christian boy was crucified and his side pierced at the Jewish Passover. His body was found in a sack hidden in a tree. A converted Jew, called Theobald of Cambridge, confessed that the Jews took blood every year from a Christian child because they thought that only by so doing could they ever obtain their freedom and return to Palestine; and that it was their custom to draw lots to decide whence the blood was to be supplied; Theobald said that last year the lot fell to Narbonne, but in this year to Norwich.

The boy was locally beatified and has ever since been known as St. William. The Sheriff, probably bribed, refused to bring the Jews to trial. [404] There is an illustration of an old painted rood-screen depicting the Ritual Murder and Sacrifice of St. William; the screen itself is in Loddon Church, Norfolk, unless the Power of the Jewish Money has had it removed. No one denies this case as a historical event, but the Jews of course say it was not a Ritual Sacrifice. [405]

The Jew, C. Roth stated, in reference to this case: "Modern enquirers, after careful examination of the facts, have concluded that the child probably lost consciousness in consequence of a cataleptic fit, and was buried prematurely by his relatives." [406] How these so-called enquirers arrived at a conclusion like that after all those years, Mr. Roth does not say; nor is it a compliment to the Church to suggest that its ministers would allow the boy's death to be celebrated as a martyrdom of a saint without having satisfied themselves that the wounds on the body confirmed the crucifixion and the piercing of the side. John Foxe's Acts and Monuments of the Church records this Ritual Sacrifice, as did the Bollandists and other historians. The Prior, William Turbe, who afterwards became Bishop of Norwich, was the leading light in insisting that the crime was one of Jewish Ritual Sacrifice; in the Dictionary of National Biography (edited by a Jew) it is made clear that his career, apart from this Ritual Sacrifice, is that of a man of great strength of character and moral courage.

1146‑1148: Second Crusade; Jews massacred throughout France and Germany. Beginning of the Almohad persecution in northern Africa and Southern Spain; Jews flee, or pretend to accept Islam.

1150: Statutes of Aries appoint a special Jewish oath.

1156: Jews of Persia persecuted on account of Pseudo-Messiah, David Alroy. Civil wars fought in Ja­pan.

1160. Gloucester: The body of a Christian child named Harold was found in the river with the usual wounds of crucifixion. Sometimes wrongly dated 1168. [407]

1161: Abraham ibn Daud completes Sefer ha‑Kabbalah. Chinese use explo­sives in warfare.

1168: Latins and Greeks, Jews and Saracens, granted right of being judged by their own laws in Sicily. Maimonides completes commentary on the Mishnah.

1171: Thirty-one Jews and Jewesses of Blois Burned on the charge of having used human blood in the Pass­over. Destruction of the Blois community;

1171. Blois, France: At Passover, a Christian child was crucified, his body drained of blood and thrown into the river. [408]

1172: Persecution of the Jews of Yemen. Messianic excitement.

1174: Sultan Nureddin Mahmud removes all Jews of Syria and Egypt from public offices.

1178: Riot at Toledo, at which Fermosa, the Jewish mistress of Alfonso VIII., is killed.

1179: The third Lateran Council passes decrees protect­ing the religious liberty of the Jews. Jews of Boppard and Neighborhood slain because body of Christian woman found on banks of Rhine. Jews expelled from Bohemia.

1179. Pontoise: A Christian boy named Richard was tortured, crucified and bled white. Philip Augustus's chaplains and historians, Rigord and Guillaume l'Armorician, attested this case. The body of the boy was taken to the Church of the Holy Innocents in Paris and he was canonized as St. Richard. [409]

1180: First Maimonidean con­troversy. Maimonides completes Mishneh Torah.

1181. Bury St. Edmunds: A Christian child called Robert was sacrificed at Passover. The child was buried in the church and its presence there was supposed to cause "miracles." [410]

1182: (April) Philip Augustus of France banishes the Jews from his hereditary provinces and takes one‑third of their debts.

1187: Jerusalem captured by Saladin.

1189: Attack on the Jews of London at coronation of Richard I. Third Crusade. Last recorded Viking voyage to North America.

1190: (May 17) Self‑immolation of 150 Jews at York to avoid baptism. Anti‑Jewish riots; massacre at York. Maimonides completes Guide of the Perplexed. Genghis Khan begins conquest of Asia.

1192. Winchester: A Christian boy crucified. [411]

1192. Braisne: Philip Augustus attended to this case personally, and had the criminals burnt. It was a case of the crucifixion of a Christian sold to the Jews by Agnes, Countess of Dreux, who considered him guilty of homicide and theft. [412]

1194: "Ordinances of the Jewry" passed in England for registering Jewish debts, thus preparing the way for the exchequer of Jews. ­

1198: Jews permitted to return to France by Philip Au­gustus for 15,000 livres in silver. ­

1200: Bishop Conrad of Mayence issues an oath in German for Jews of Erfurt.

1204: Crusaders capture and sack Constantinople.

1205: (July 15) Innocent III. writes to Archbishop of Sens and Bishop of Paris laying down the principle that Jews are bound to perpetual subjection be­cause of the Crucifixion.

1209: Council of Avignon issues restrictive measures against the Jews. (July 22) French Jews attacked and plundered; 200 murdered.

1210: Jews of England imprisoned by King John. Extortions of John Lackland. Mongols invade China.

1210‑11: French and English rabbis emigrate to Pales­tine. Settle­ment of 300 French and English rabbis.

1212: The Jews of Toledo killed by Crusaders under the Cistercian monk Arnold; first persecution of Jews in Castile.

1215: Magna Carta of England signed by King John which limits rights of the crown in Jewish debts to the principal. Pope Inno­cent III. Among many anti‑Jewish measures, decrees the Jew badge.

1221: Jews killed at Erfurt.

1222: Golden Bull of Hungary refuses Jews the right to hold public office. Council of Oxford imposes restrictions on the English Jews.

1227: Council of Narbonne reenacts the anti‑Jewish decrees of the fourth Lateran Council.

1228: Sixth Crusade results in capture of Jerusalem.

1230: (Dec.) "Statutum de Judeis" in France by Louis IX prohibits Jews from making contracts or leaving their lords' lands.

1232. Winchester: Christian boy crucified. Details lacking. [413]

1234: (Dec. 10) Jews of Fulda find a murdered Christian; 261 Jews killed as a consequence.

1235. Norwich: In this case, the Jews stole a Christian child and hid him with a view to crucifying him. Haydn's Dictionary of Dates (1847), says: "They (the Jews) circumcise and attempt to crucify a child at Norwich; the offenders are condemned in a fine of 20,000 marks." [414]

­

1235: Blood libel at Fulda.

1236:  Frederick II. takes Jews of Sicily under his pro­tection as being his "servi camerae" (first use of this term). Persecutions in West France. Frederick II Hohenstaufen introduces the concept of servicamerae. 12th‑13th cent. Hasidei Ashkenazi; Sefer Hasidim com­piled. 12th‑14th cent. Tosafot (France and Germany).

1238. Fulda, Hesse-Nassan: Five children murdered; Jews confessed under torture, but said the blood was wanted for healing purposes. Frederick II exonerated the Jews from suspicion, but the Crusaders had already dealt with a number by putting them to death. Frederick II called together a number of converted Jews, who denied the existence of Jewish Ritual Sacrifice. But Frederick's bias is evident in his own words when, in publishing his decision, he gives his objects in calling these people together, "although our conscience regarded the innocence of the aforesaid Jews adequately proved on the ground of several writings." Had Frederick II lived today, he would have relied little upon religious literature in deciding whether Jewish Ritual Sacrifice exists or not. [415]

1240: (June 25) Disputation before Louis IX. of France between Nichoias Donin and the Jews represented by Jehiel of Paris, Moses of Coucy, Talmudist and itinerant preachers and two others. Disputation of Paris. Mongols capture Moscow, destroy Kiev.

1241: (May 24) Riot at Frankfort on account of a Jewish convert, Jewish Parliament summoned to Worchester, England. Tatars reach the frontiers of Silesia.

1242: Burning of Talmud at Paris.

1244: Archduke Frederick II. the Valiant, of Austria, grants privileges to the Jews ("Privilegium Frede ricianum"). Twenty‑ four wagon‑loads of Talmuds and other manuscripts (1200) burned at Paris. Jerusa­lem captured by the Khwarizms.

1244. London: A Christian child's body found unburied in the cemetery of St. Benedict, with ritual cuts. Buried in St. Paul's.[416]

1246: James I. of Aragon, in the Ordenamiento of Huesa declares Jews to be "in commanda regis," Council of Bèziers forbids Jews to practice medicine.

1247. Valreas, France: Just before Easter, a two-year-old Christian girl's body was found in the town moat with wounds on forehead, hands and feet. Jews confessed that they wanted the blood of the child, but did not say that it was for ceremonial purposes. Pope Innocent IV said that three of the Jews were executed without confessing, but the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1903, Vol. III, p. 261, says they confessed.

1250. Saragossa: A Christian boy crucified, afterwards canonized as St. Dominiculus. Pius VII, 24th November 1805, confirmed a decree of the Congregation of Rites of 31st August, according this canonization.

1255. Lincoln: A Christian boy called Hugh was kidnaped by the Jews and crucified and tortured in hatred of Jesus Christ. The boy's mother found the body in a well on the premises of a Jew called Joppin or Copinus. This Jew, promised by the judge his liufe if he confessed, did so, and 91 Jews were arrested; eventually 18 were hanged for the crime. King Henry III himself personally ordered the juridical investigation of the case five weeks after the discovery of the body, and refused to allow mercy to be shown to the Jew Copinus, who was executed.[417]

1249: Innocent IV issues bull against blood libel.

1254: (Dec.) Louis IX. expels Jews from France.

1255: (July 31) St. Hugh of Lincoln disappears, and the Jews are accused of murdering him for ritual pur­poses. Blood libel at Lincoln.

1257. London: A Christian child sacrificed.[418]

1259: Jahudan de Cavalleria becomes "bayle‑general" and treasurer of Aragon. Provincial council of Fritzi­ar for province of Mayence repeats several of the canonical restrictions, including the badge (first time in Germany).

1261. Pforzheim, Baden: An old woman sold a seven-year-old Christian girl to the Jews, who bled her, strangled her and threw the body into the river. The old woman was convicted on the evidence of her own daughter. A number of Jews were condemned to death, two committing suicide.[419]

1261: Expulsion from Brabant, by Henry III. of all Jews except those living by trade.

1263‑64: Disputation at Barcelona between Pablo Christiani and Nahman­ides. Jews of London sacked.

1264: Massacres at London, Canterbury, Winchester, and Cambridge by the barons in revolt against Henry VII. Charter of Boleslav V the Pious.

1265: (May 2) Persecution at Sunzig; 72 persons burned in synagogue.

1267: (May 12) Synod of Vienna, under Cardinal Guida, orders Jews to wear pointed hats.

1270: (June 23) Persecution at Weissenburg. Death of Nahmanides.

1273: (Nov. 4) Jews of Lerida obtain permission to sub­stitute oath by the Ten Commandments for the oath "more Judaici."

1274: (July 7) Gregory X. issues bull against blood accusation. Mongols attempt invasion of Japan but fail.

1275: Jews expelled from Marlborough, Glouchester, Worchester, and Cambridge, at the request of Queen‑ mother.

1276. London: Christian boy crucified.[420]

1279. Northampton: A Christian child crucified. "They (the Jews) crucify a child at Northampton for which 50 are drawn at horses' tails and hanged." [421]

1280: Alfonso X. orders all Jews of Leon an d'Castile to be imprisoned till they pay 12,000 maravedis, and 12,000 for every day of delay in payment. English Jews forced to attend sermons of Dominicans.

1286: (June 28) Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg (1220‑93), chief rabbi of Germany, imprisoned when about to emigrate. Sancho of Castile in Cortes of Palencia orders Jews to submit their cases to the ordinary alcaldes (abolition of legislative autonomy). (Nov. 30) Bull of Honorius IV. to archbishops of York and Canterbury against Talmud. Zohar in final form completed by Moses b. Shem Tov de Leon.

1286. Oberwesel, on the Rhine: A Christian boy named Werner was tortured for three days at Passover, hanged by the legs and bled white. The body was found in the river. A sculptured representation of this Ritual Sacrifice is still in the Oberwesel Church.[422]

1287. Berne: Rudolf, a Christian boy, was murdered at Passover in the house of a rich Jew called Matler. Jews confessed that he had been crucified; many were put to death. [423] A stone monument still exists in Berne commemorating the crime. It is called The Fountain of the Child-Devourer, and is now on the Kornhausplatz. It represents a monster, with a Jewish countenance, eating a child. The figure wears the Judenbut, the hat prescribed for the Jews to wear by decree of the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. This monument was first placed in a street of the Jews' quarter as a reminder of the monstrous crime and as a punishment for the whole of Berne Jewry. Later, it was removed to its present location.

1287: (May 2) All Jews in England thrown into prison.

1288: Jews burned at Troyes.

1288. Troyes, France: some Jews were tried for a Ritual Sacrifice and 13 were executed by burning. [424]

1290. Oxford: The Patent Roll 18 Edward I, m. 21, 21st June, 1920, contains an order for the Gaul delivery of a Jew, Isaac de Pulet, detained for the murder of a Christian boy at Oxford. One month later, King Edward issued his decree expelling the Jews from the Kingdom. It was the Oxford murder which proved the last straw in toleration for the English. Hugh was locally beatified, and his tomb may still be seen in Lincoln Cathedral, but the Jewish Money Power has evidently been at work, for between 1910 and 1930, a notice was fixed above the shrine which reads as follows: "The body of Hugh was given burial in the Cathedral and treated as that of a martyr. When the Minster was repaved, the skeleton of a small child was found beneath the present tombstone.

There are many incidents in the story which tend to throw doubt upon it, and the existence of similar stores in England and elsewhere points to their origin in the fanatical hatred of the Jews of the Middle Ages and in the common superstition, now wholly discredited, and that ritual murder was a factor of Jewish Paschal Rites. Attempts were made as early as the 13th century by the Church to protect the Jews against the hatred of the populace and against this particular accusation."

No one who studies the case history questions the historical facts in this case; but the Jews and their Judaised Christians unite in denying the fact of this Ritual Sacrifice.

1290: (Nov. 1) Jews banished from England.

1291: Acre captured by the Muslims; end of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Death of Abraham Abulafia. Crusades end as Muslims rout Christians in Palestine.

1294: (Aug. 7) Bolko I. of Silesia grants Jews "Privile­gium Frederi­cianum."

1295: (June 23) Boniface VIII. enters Rome and spurns the Torah presented to him by Jewish deputation.

1298: Persecution of the Jews in Germany instigated by Rindfleisch; Mordecai ben Hillel a martyr.

1298‑1299: Rindfleisch persecutions.

1300‑1306: Third Maimonidean controversy.

1301: Jews plundered and slain at Magdeburg.

1303: Ordinance of Philip the Fair enacts that all tri­als between Christians and Jews be decided by regular courts.

1306: Expulsion of Jews from France under Philip the Fair.

1309‑78: "Avignonese captivity" of the popes.

1315: (July 28) Jews recalled to France by Louis X. for twelve years.

1320: The Pastoureaux persecutions in France ("gezerat ha‑ro'im").

1321: The leper persecution in France ("gezera£mezora'i­m"). (June 24) Second expulsion of the Jews from France. Five thousand slain in Dauphinè on charge of well‑poisoning.

1322: (Pentecost) Talmuds burned in Rome. Expulsion from the Kingdom of France.

1334: (Oct. 9) Casimir III. the Great, of Poland, grants Jews "Privile­gium Fredericianum."; extends the charter of 1264.

1336: Civil war lasting until 1392 begins in Japan.

1337: (May) Armleder massacres at Ensisheim, MÜhlhausen, Rufach, etc. Beginning of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Before 1340, Jacob b. Asher completes Arba'ah Turim.

1346: Blood accusation at Munich.

1347: Bubonic plague spreads from China to Cyprus.

1348: (Feb. 28) The Ordenamiento of Alcaza orders all usury to cease. (July 16) Karl IV. forbids Jews being summoned before the Vehmgericht. Black Death massacres in Spain and France. The Jews introduce the Bubonic Plague into England as their revenge for having driven them out in 1290. Protective bulls of Clement VI.

1348‑49: Persecution of the Jews in central Europe on ac­count of the Black Death. Pope Clement VI. issues two bulls protecting them. Immigra­tion from Germa­ny.

1350: Alfonso IV. of Portugal enforces the badge (first in the Peninsu­la).

1351: Cortes of Valladolid demands the abolition of the judicial autonomy of Spanish‑Jewish communities. Jews burned at Königsberg in Neumark. Plague reac­hes Russia; Europe's toll tops 25 million.

1353: Jews invited back to Worms on account of their usefulness.

1356: Charles IV grants the Electors the privilege of taxing the Jews.

1359: Jews recalled to France.

1360: Samuel Abulafia dies under torture on the charge of peculation. Manessier de Vesoul obtains from King John a decree permitting Jews to dwell in France.

1363: Tamerlane begins conquest of Asia.

1365: Jews expelled by Louis the Great from Hungary; many go to Wallachia.

1368: Mongol dynasty ends in China; Ming dynasty begins.

1370: All Jews imprisoned and robbed in Austria.

1380: (Nov. 15) Riot at Paris; many Jews plundered, several killed, most fled.

1381: A synod at Mayence regulates the rabbinical marriage laws.

1386: Beginning of the union between Poland and Lithua­nia.

1387: Jews expelled from Basel.

1388: Witold of Lithuania grants charter to Jews of Brest‑Litovsk.

1389: (Apr. 18) The charge of insult to a priest carry­ing the sacrament leads to the massacre of the Jews in Prague.

1390: Turks conquer Asia Minor.

1391: (June 6) Spanish horrors begin; Ferdinand Martinez incites the mob against the Jews of Seville; anti­‑Jewish riots spread throughout Castile and Arago­n. Massacres and conversions.

1394: (Nov. 3) Third and last expulsion of the Jews from France, under Charles VI.

1399: Blood libel in Poznan.

1400: Persecution of the Jews of Prague at the instiga­tion of the convert Pessach; Lipmann of MÜhihausen among the sufferers.

1403: (Oct. 25) Juan II. of Castile withdraws civil jurisdiction from Jews.

1405: Jews expelled from Speyer.

1407: (Oct. 26) Jews attacked at Cracow.

1410: (Sept.) Meïr Alguades slain on charge of host‑des­ecration.

1411: Vincent Ferrer raises the populace against the Jews and passes oppressive legislation.

1413: (Jan. 7) Religious disputation at Tortosa arranged by Pope Benedict XIII., between Geronimo de Santa Fè and Vidal ben Ben­ veniste ibn Labi; Joseph Albo.

1415: (May 11) Bull of Benedict XIII. against the Talmud and any Jewish book attacking Christianity. ­

1419: Martin V against forced conversion.

1419‑36: Hussite Wars.

1420: Charges of host‑desecration lead to the putting to death of a number of Jews and to the expulsion of the remainder from Lower and Upper Austria. Expul­sion from Lyons.

1421: Wiener Gesera; expulsion from Austria. Second general massacre of Jews in all the Spanish Provinces.

1423: Jews expelled from Cologne.

1424: Jews expelled from Zurich.

1425: Joseph Albo completes Sefer ha‑Ikkarim.

1427: Papal edict prohibits transportation of Jews to Palestine in ships of Venice and Ancona.

1431: Burning of Joan of Arc as a witch at Rouen.

1432: Rabbinical synod at Valladolid. Host‑tragedy at Segovia, a synod at Avila, under Abraham Benvenis­te Senior, provides for an educational system for Jewish Spain.

1434: Annihilation of the Jews of Majorea.

1435: Jews expelled from Speyer. Massacre and conversion of the Jews of Majorca.

1438: Jews expelled from Mayence.

1440: Jews expelled from Augsburg.

1447: Casimir IV. of Poland grants special privileges to Jews.

1450: Ludwig X. of Bavaria throws all the Jews in forty towns into prison and confiscates their property.

1451: Nichoias de Cusa enforces the wearing of the Jew badge in Germany.

1452‑53: John of Capistrano incites persecutions and expulsions.

1453: Constantinople captured by the Turks; end of the Hundred Years' War. Onward, Jews favored as a valuable trading and artisan element in the Otto­man Empire. Byzantine Empire; Middle Ages end; Renaissance begins.

1454: (May 2) Forty‑one Jews burned at Breslau, and Jews expelled from Brunn and Olmu, through Capistrano. Death of Abraham Benveniste. Privileges revoked; riots in Cracow. Movable‑type printing press is introduced.

1455: England's war of the Roses is fought.

1458: Jews expelled from Erfurt.

1460: (March 5) The states of Austria demand that no Jew be permitted to dwell there. Jews Expelled From Savoy.

1462. Rinn, Innsbruck: A Christian boy called Andreas Oxner was bought by the Jews and sacrificed for his blood on a stone in the forest. The body was found by his mother in a birch-tree. No Jew was apprehended because, the border being near, they had fled when the crime was made known. The Abbe Vacandard, defender of the Jews, says there was no trial. Well, of course there wasn't. Even in 1995 there is no trial for a crime where the criminals have escaped! The boy was sanctified by Pope Benedict XIV, in his Bull Beatus Andreas, Venice, 1778, which says he was, "cruelly assassinated by the Jews in hatred of the faith of Jesus Christ."

This last is admitted by Pope Clemet XIV, who wrote his report on the investigation he made into the matter of Jewish Ritual Sacrifices when, as Cardinal Ganganelli, he had been commissioned by Pope Benedict XIV to go into the matter; and in this report, he said: "I admit the truth of another fact, which happened in the year 1462 in the village of Rinn, in the Diocese of Brixen, in the person of the Blessed Andreas, a boy barbarously murdered by the Jews in hatred of the faith of Jesus Christ."  No one questions the historical occurrence of this case. An engraving on wood representing the Ritual Sacrifice still exists in the church.

1464: (Apr. 12) Jews plundered and Murdered by soldiers in Cracow.

1467: Eighteen Jews burned at Nuremberg.

1468: Jews expelled from Neisse by the gilds. Blood accusation brought against Jews of Sepulveda.

1468. Sepulveda, Segovia, Spain: The Jews sacrificed a Christian child on a cross. The Bishop of Segovia investigated the crime, and ordered the culprits to Segovia, where they were executed. It is important to know that this Bishop was himself a son of a converted Jew; Jean d'Avila was his name. Colmenares's History of Segovia records the facts of the case, which was juridically decided by a man of Jewish blood. That may be the reason that one finds no mention of it in Strack's book in defence of the Jews, The Jew and Human Sacrifice.

1469: Jews plundered and slain at Posen.

1470: Jews expelled from Bishopric of Mayence.

1473: Marranos of Valladolid and Cordoba Massacred. Expulsion from Mainz.

1474: Marranos of Segovia massacred.

1475: Bernardinus of Feltre preaches against the Jews in Italy. The Jews charged with the murder of Simon of Trent for ritual purposes. Riots in Padua and elsewhere in Italy and Sicily. Jews expelled from several towns. Blood libel of Trent. Beginning of Hebrew printing (Rashi printed in Reggio di Calab­ria).

1475. The Case of St. Simon of Trent: In 1475, a three-year-old Christian boy named Simon disappeared in the Italian town of Trent; the circumstances were such that suspicion fell upon the Jews. Hoping to avert this suspicion, they themselves "found" the child's body in a conduit where they afterwards confessed to having thrown it into the conduit. Examination of the body, however, revealed that the boy had not drowned; there were strange wounds on the body, of circumcision and crucifixion.

About seven Jews were arrested; they were tortured and confessed that the boy had been Ritually Sacrificed for the purpose of obtaining Christian blood to mix with the ceremonial unleavened bread; these confessions were made separately and agreed in all essential details. The Jews were tried and were ultimately executed. The officer in charge of the investigation of the crime, Jean de Salis de Brescia, had before him a converted Jew, Jean de Feltro, who described how his father told him that Jews of his town, Lanzhut, had killed a Christian child at Passover to get the blood of which they partook in wine and cakes.

No one has ever dared to try and deny the historical events of this case; only the Jews invent "reasons" why it was not Ritual Murder! But there is no escape from the opposite conclusion. In 1750 in answer to a Jewish appeal from Poland, the Inquisition sent Cardinal Ganganelli (later he became Pope Clement XIV) to investigate and report on the whole subject, with particular reference to the many cases then being reported in Poland; although this man went out with a biased mind in favor of the Jews.

In his report, he says: "With my weak faculties I endeavored to demonstrate the non-existence of the crime which was imputed to the Jewish nation in Poland," hardly the spirit in which to enter upon such an investigation), he actually says of this Trent case [425]: "I admit then as true the fact of the Blessed Simon, a boy three years old, killed by the Jews in Trent in the year 1475 in hatred of the faith of Jesus Christ (although it is disputed by Basnage and Wagenseil); for the celebrated Flaminio Cornaro, a Venetia Senator, in his work On the Cult of the Child St. Simon of Trent (Vence, 1753) disposes of all the doubts raised by the above mentioned critics."

The Jews try to throw discredit on the judges who condemned the Jewish murderers by quoting Pope Sixtus IV who refused to sanction the cult of St. Simon; but the reason for this was that the cult was not then authorized by Rome, but was a popular movement without authority and contrary to Church discipline; this same Pope later expressed his approval of the verdict on the Jews in the Papal Bull XII Kal. July, 1478.

We have not only the testimony as to the correctitude of the proceedings from Sixtus IV; but also that of several other Popes; such as Sixtus V, who regularized the popular cult of St. Simon by ratifying it in 1588, as cited by Benedict XIV in Book I, Ch. xiv, No. 4 of his On the Canonisation of the Saints; also by this same Pope Benedict XIV in his Bull Peatus Andreas of 22nd February, 1755, in which he confirms Simon as a saint, a fact omitted from the arguments of that advocate for the Jews, Strack [426]; Gregory XIII recognized Simon as a martyr, and even visited the shrime; and, as already stated, Clement XIV was obliged to recognize that it was a case of Jewish murder in hatred of Christianity.

In short, the Ritual Murder of St. Simon at Trent is supported by such evidence that those who doubt it are thereby condemning without reason high juridical and ecclesiastical authorities whose probity and intelligence there is not the slightest excuse to deny.

1476: Blood accusation in Regensburg through the convert Wolfram.

1477: Jews plundered at Colmar and burned at Passau; the rest expelled through Bishop.

1478: Jews expelled from Diocese of Bamberg on account of Simon of Trent affair. Spanish Inquisition is begun by Ferdinand and Isabella, period of explo­ration by Europeans begins.

1480: Inquisition established in Spain.

1480: Venice. This case, as admitted in the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906, Vol. XII, p. 410, was settled by trial. Three Jews were executed.

1481: The inquisition against the Maranos established in Seville and at other places in Castile.

1482: Inquisition established in Aragon; Thomas de Torquemada {a Jew}, chief inquisitor. Portuguese colonize African Gold Coast.

1483: Torquemada appointed inquisitor general. Expulsion from Warsaw.

1484: Jews expelled from Aries.

1485: Padua, Italy: The victim in this case was canonized as St. Lorenzino, Benedict XIV mentioning him as a martyr in Bull Beatus Andreas. This case was attested by the Episcopal Court of Padua.

1486: (Dec. 10) Another 900 Jews "reconciled."

1488: (Jan. 25) First auto at Barcelona. (May 24 and July 30) Autos da fè at Toledo: at former, 21 Jews burned, 400 punished; and latter, 76 burned. Bart­holomew Daz sails around Cape of Good Hope.

1490: (Dec.) Jews expelled from Geneva.

1490: Toledo. This is a most important case, the circumstances of which have been clarified by W.T. Walsh in his interesting book on Isabella of Spain, 1931 (Sheed & Ward), in which he devotes pp. 441 to 468 to his researches on this Ritual Murder charge.  Had it not been for Mr. Walsh, one might be influenced by the Jewish Encyclopedia's statement (1903, Vol. III, p. 262) that "Modern historians even deny that a child had disappeared at all" in this case"

Strenuous efforts were made by Loeb and H.C. Lea to clear the Jews from guilt of this murder; as also by Abbe Vacandard. Walsh shows that on October 27th, 1490, a Jew named Yuce confessed to having been present at the crucifixion of a Christian boy called Christopher at La Guardia, near Toledo.

He made this confession without the "aid" of any torture; he was not even threatened with that for one year after his confession. On July 19th, 1491, Yuce was promised immunity from punishment for himself and described the whole crucifixion and gave the names of his accomplices.

On October 25, 1491, a jury of seven noted Renaissance scholars who occupied the Chairs at Salamanca University examined the case and were unanimous in finding Yuce guilty. Not until after this did Yuce undergo torture.

This torture was applied to make him say for what reason the boy Christopher had been crucified instead of being killed in any other way; but no "leading"questions were employed in the examination. After this, the case went before a second jury of five learned men of Avila, who considered the evidence concerning Yuce's accomplices, who had been arrested and under examination; they unanimously declared them guilty. Eight Jews (some of them Marranos, or pretended converts to Christianity) were executed.

Writing of the efforts made to discredit the trials in this case, Walsh says (p. 464): "Must we assume that they (the two learned juries) were all murderous fanatics, willing to sacrifice innocent men, and that Dr. Loeb, Dr. Lea, and on the Catholic side the somewhat too credulous Abbe Vacandard were better qualified to weigh the evidence after the lapse of four centuries?" Walsh was not an "anti-Semite." He was a historian, and did not suggest that Ritual Murder was part of any official Jewish ceremony. But he said: "The historian, far from being obliged to make wholesale vindication of all Jews accused of murder, is free, in fact, bound to consider each individual case upon its merits."

Walsh states (p. 441) that this case of Ritual Murder was "one of the chief factors, if not the decisive one, in the decision of Fernando and Isabel" (for the expulsion of the Jews from Spain). He shows that the complete record of testimony in the trial of one of the accused has been available since it was published in 1887 in the Bulletin of the Royal Academy at Madrid (Vol. XI, pp. 7-160), from the original manuscript. (This was of course before the Jewish Communist revolution)!

Walsh charges Lea, the pro-Jewish author, of intellectual dishonesty (p. 628) in writing in his Inquisition in Spain decrying the influential men who were jurors in this case. "If the Inquisitors sent eight men to a shameful death without being convinced beyond a reasonable doubt of their guilt, the honest verdict of history cannot shrink from finding not only Torquemada and his judges, but King Fernando and Queen Isabel, Cardinal Mendoza and several of the most illustrious professors of Salamanca University guilty of complicity in one of the most brutal judicial murders on record."[427]

1492: (Aug. 2) Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Expul­sion from Castile and Aragon. Conquest of Granada; discovery of America. Onward, the sultans open the gates of the Ottoman Empire for the refugees from Spain. Christopher Columbus discovers West Indies.

To Christopher Columbus, 1492: Ferdinand and Isabelle, by the grace of God, King and Queen of Castile, of Arragon, of Sicily...For as much as you, Christopher Columbus [The real motives for the expeditions of Columbus were vastly different than what we have been led to believe by the controllers of the contents of the history books.

It is true that those who came to the Caribbean and then into Mexico did so under the banner of Christ, just as the Pilgrims did. But there were deep, underlying motives that our establishment history books have failed to mention. Which we believe to be deliberate deceptions.

The history books have failed to tell us of the real motives for the exploration of the Americas by Spain and have been very quick to tell the world that the great eviction of the Jews from all of the countries of Europe was started in England by King Edward I in the year 1290 and that he was a "Racist, Extremist and Anti-Semitic."

Actually he was coerced into signing the great eviction notice by the people of England. The other countries of Europe followed his lead in 1492, Spain was the last to drive the Jews out of their country. In every case, it was the Christian Church that started the action. In Europe the predominant belief was that of the Catholic Church. In Catholic Spain the Jews were treated very kindly, just as they are now in the United States, and, for that matter, in all of the other Celto-Saxon countries [The Christian Nations of the West].

From the Jews' point of view, the 1000 year millennium before 1492 was considered the golden age of Spain and Portugal. These people were protected by the kings and utilized as treasurers, tax collectors (they were called tax farmers - and serve the same purpose in America), lawyers and of course, money lenders. But they were under increasing pressure from the Church because of the heresies that they were intentionally planting into the Church, as well as their excesses as tax collectors and money lenders.

The Pope finally initiated what has become known as the Inquisition. It was within the Inquisition that the Catholic Church made its most terrible strategic blunder. In doing what they did, they failed the admonition: "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? and what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?" And again: "And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, and will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." [428]

The final results have been that the entire Christian Kingdom of God has suffered in general and the Catholic Church has suffered in particular. What did the Catholic Church do? It gave the Jews the option of being baptized and converting to Catholicism.

The Jews of Spain and Portugal took them up on it and were baptized in wholesale numbers and joined the Church. As a result of this horrible blunder on the part of the Catholic Church, the Jews were now within the church like the Trojan horse, with some of them rising to the higher ranks within the Church, until 1866, when they took absolute control, and now rule the Catholic Church through the "Black Pope." They could now even more efficiently implant their heresies. All the while that they pretended to be Christian, they still practiced their Jewish faith. The name converso, or converted, was given to the multitude of Jews who were baptized and claimed to be Christian. Within that group of conversos were the Marranos. They were the Jews who supposedly converted but actually remained Jews in thought and action. The problem was that nearly all, if not all, of the conversos still remained loyal to the Jewish religion and cause. As we shall see, that situation has plagued all of us to this very day.

When the Catholic Church finally realized its blunder, it sought out the Marrano Jews and systematically executed them by burning them at the stake. The undercover investigations to find them would have made the KGB, CIA and the FBI look like school boys. They found them within the nobility and even they weren't spared. These were the circumstances in Spain when Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand finally, on the 30th of March, 1492, gave the known Jews four months to leave the country. Some went to Sicily were they formed the organization we know today as the Mafia, and some went to Holland.

                                                                                             Columbus And The Conversos

The conversos, of course, did not leave because they were not Christians, weren't they? But the Marranos who had not yet been found out were living from day to day, knowing that they had to leave or face the stake. In reality, all of the conversos knew that they would one day need to find a new home because of their true sympathies. Many of them were within the household of the royal family.

The king and queen's advisors were conversos and later found out to be Marranos. The kings treasurer was a Marrano. It was this group of very powerful men who found the money to finance the voyages of Columbus. They had very personal reasons to find a way to get the thousands upon thousands of Jews out of Spain before they were executed.

It is not our purpose here to prove, one way or the other, the genealogy of Columbus. For several hundred years now that argument has flourished. The Italians claim him to be Italian. The Spanish researchers claim that he was born in Spain of a Jewish family. Pastor Earl Jones of the Christian Crusade for Truth, Star Route 2, Box 39, Deming, New Mexico 88030, who furnished this information has read the research that has been done, some of it by Jewish historians, some of it by Catholic Church historians and some by Plain Spanish historians. Perhaps, strangely, the Catholic Church historians lean towards Columbus being a Jew.

In our opinion, for whatever it is worth, he was a Spanish converso, born of Jewish parents and named Cristobal Colombo. He simply borrowed the name of Christopher Columbus from a Christian Italian young man of about the same age but in no way related. Either way, it doesn't make any difference. What counts is what he knowingly did. His first and foremost mission was to get the finances for his voyages. Spanish historians know that the Marranos, who were the immediate advisors of the king and queen, advised them to grant the money for the voyages of Columbus.

They told the king that they would find a way to obtain the money to pay for the voyages. The Marrano advisers had already obtained the promise of the required money from the other wealthy Jews of Spain but the king and queen did not know that. Of course, these advisors were trying desperately to find a way to get the Marranos out of the country before they were found and executed. The king and queen accepted the proposals.

Foremost among the Marrano advisors to the king was Luis de Santangel. He played such an important part in providing the money for Columbus' voyage that his statue occupies a place on the great Columbus monument in Barcelona. The Santangel family was among the wealthiest, the most influential, and the most powerful in all of Aragon (a part of Spain).

The Santangels came from a place called Calatayud, or Calatal-Yehud, one of the wealthiest Jewish communities in Spain. Because of their wealth, the Santangel family obtained high offices in the government. The Santangels were the Rothschilds of the time. It was because of the pressing need to get the Jews out of Spain that Luis de Santangel loaned the crown 17,000 ducats, interest free, to equip Columbus' ships for the voyage.

Columbus had reverted to his original name of Colombo while in the presence of the advisors to the king and queen. The word Colombo is of Jewish origin and it means Jonah or dove, according to the Jewish historian, Cecil Roth. The Marrano advisors knew that Columbus was "their" man. Again, whether he was a Jew or not is not the point. He claimed to be one while around them. Columbus knew that the American continent was here and he knew exactly where they were. He knew of the maps of the Libyans, the Carthaginians, the mariners from Tarshish, the Romans and the Vikings. He deliberately said he was going to India. He even discussed such names as Kubla Khan and Cathay.

The reason for the misinformation about India is obvious. Talk among the European Jews at the time was wild with tales of the discovery of the lost ten tribes of Israel after Marco Polo returned from his overland route and said that he found Jews living on an island off the coast of India. This was an additionally powerful incentive for the funding of his voyage. Also, he knew the tales of fabulous wealth in gold and silver, particularly of the Seven Cities of Cibola in the land of the Toltecus in the New World. He demanded from the king and queen that he receive one tenth of all gold, silver and precious gems that all of the expeditions that followed would find. He also demanded to be named Admiral of the Ocean Sea.

The king and queen reluctantly agreed to these demands, of course with a little nudging from Luis de Santangel! So it appears that even Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand knew that here was the chance to find a home for the Marranos. To tie the package all together, the date of the promulgation of the expulsion edict to the people of Spain was made on the same day that they were told that Columbus was funded to make his voyages. Was that only a coincidence? Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand were a unique combination. The Queen was very devout in her Catholic faith and consequently, whenever the Church spoke, she responded with fervor. The King, on the other hand, was more political in his nature. His concern was for the geopolitics of the matter and what would be best for his financial position. But then, King Ferdinand himself was partly Jewish on his mother's side! His mother was the grand-daughter of the wealthy Jewess Paloma of Toledo. Thus, he, too, had more than a passing interest in a safe place for the Spanish Jews. The marriage between Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon was arranged by Rabbi Abraham Seneor, Isabella's chief tax collector!

The marriage between Isabella and Ferdinand was not popular with the Castilian grandees. They wanted her to marry either the king of England or the king of Portugal. The objections were largely from the ecclesiastics of the Catholic Church and those in favor were primarily from the powerful and wealthy Jews of both Aragon and Castile. The treasury of Aragon was depleted at the time and wealthy Marranos provided the money for young Ferdinand to visit Isabella. The bridal gift was provided by wealthy Marranos of both parts of Spain. "Confidence in an unfaithful man in time of trouble is like a broken tooth, and a foot out of joint." [429]

When Columbus first landed in the Western Hemisphere he immediately started the search for gold. He came upon the Arawak Indians who were very timid and even cowardly. These Indians were totally annihilated within a few years. He pressed on, from island to island, searching. He knew he was somewhere close to the huge quantities of gold that the stories of just a few hundred years before him had related. He found some gold on the island of Hispaniola and Jamaica. This is what he needed in order to show the king and queen of Spain that it was time to start a significant expedition to the new world and this they did. Each successive trip of ships and men to the so-called new world found more and more gold.

During the four voyages of Columbus, he had traveled to what is now Panama, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and other parts of Central America. His last voyage was in 1502, just a few years before the time of Cortez and his Conquistadores of Mexico.

The Spaniards truly found a new home for the Marranos. There is an old wives' tale that says, "When someone hands you a lemon, make lemonade." In 1502, the same year as the last voyage of Columbus, Juan Sanchez of Saragossa, Spain received permission from King Ferdinand to establish trading posts in the "New World." He brought to Cuba five shiploads of merchandise to trade with the natives. Juan Sanchez was a Marrano. He was the nephew of Ferdinand's treasurer, who also was a Marrano, of course. Other conversos, who were noblemen, followed immediately. They received large tracts of land from the king and raised their families in the new world. The king and queen knew that the Marranos were coming to the new world.

In 1509 an agreement was reached allowing any Jew to travel to the new world if they would pay the crown 20,000 ducats each. The ransom was then raised to 40,000 ducats and then, even to 80,000 ducats. It is significant that they had the money with which to pay! There is no question but that they controlled the economy and politics of Spain.

Remember, this was solely because they had the "license" from the king to loan money at usury which, of course, is banking. With that money in Spain they could send their children to the finest schools, live in the finest homes, and receive ranks of nobility.

With that extraordinary education, they became the lawyers, judges and statesmen. The ordinary Spanish citizen, Christian by faith, was denied the financial wherewithal to rise above the peasant class. Whatever meager earnings that he labored for was taxed by the king's "tax farmers" to the extent that he was always struggling to feed his family.

When so-called conversos arrived in the new world with adequate money to travel and set up their shops, they quickly reverted to openly practicing their Jewish faith.], are going by our command, with some of our vessels and men, to discover and subdue some Islands, and Continent in the ocean, and it is hoped that by God's assistance, some of the said Islands and Continent in the ocean will be discovered and conquered by your means and conduct.

1492‑93: Expulsion from Sicily.

1494. Tyrnau, Hungary: A Christian boy was bled white and killed. The Jews culprits were betrayed by the confessions of women, who were persuaded to do so by the sight of some instruments of torture, which however were not applied to them. The Jews, arrested after this confession, themselves confessed this was the fourth child they had killed for the blood, but they said they wanted this for medical purposes. [430]

1494: Jews plundered in Naples. Blood accusation at Tyrnau.

1495: Jews expelled from Florence, but readmitted after a few months on account of their utility; Jews Expelled From Lithuania.

1496: Expulsion of Jews from Syria. Manoel of Portugal orders the Jews to accept baptism or leave the country.

1497: Onward, refugees from Portugal welcomed by the sultans. John Cabot discovers Newfoundland.

1498: The exiles settled in Navarre banished. Jews expelled from Nuremberg and Ulm.

1498: The Charles VIII of France in 1489 ordered all Jews to embrace Christianity and become loyal citizens and good subjects or suffer forfeiture of their goods and chattels, also expulsion from his domain. The heads of Sephardim Jewry thereupon wrote in their extremity to the Elders of Zion, the Sanhedrin, then sitting in Constantinople, asking for advice as to what they should do. The mischievous reply to this appeal has come up to us across the years of history, and shows itself as being directly responsible for the growth of the Zionist Movement, which came 400 years later, throughout the earth. The Constantinople Elders responded: "Dear beloved brethren in Moses: We have received your letter in which you tell us of the anxieties and misfortunes which you are enduring. We are pierced by as great pain to hear it as yourselves. The advice of the Grand Satraps and Rabbis is the following: As for what you say that the King of France obliges you to become Christians: do it, since you cannot do other­wise...As for what you say about the command to despoil you of your goods make your sons merchants, that little by little they may despoil the Christians of theirs. As for what you say about their attempts on your lives; make your sons doctors and apothecaries, that they may take away Christian lives. As for what you say of their destroying your synagogues; make your sons canons and clerics in order that they may destroy their churches. As for the many other vexations you complain of: arrange that your sons become advocates and lawyers, and see that they always mix themselves up with the affairs of State, in order that by putting Christians under your yoke you may dominate the world and be avenged on them. Do not swerve from this order that we give you, because you will find by experience that, humiliated as you are, you will reach the actuality of power."

1501: (July) Fifty-four Jews burned at Seville.

1502: Appearance of the Pseudo-Messiah Asher Lammlein. Columbus discovers Nicaragua.

1503: Jews permitted to return to Lithuania. Judaizing followers of Zechariah of Kiev burned at Moscow.

1505: Jews expelled from Orange. All slain at Budewis on a child-murder accusation. Portuguese colonize Mozambique.

1506: Massacre of Marranos in Lisbon.

1507: First world map showing "America" is produced, although a map of America had been in existence for more than a thousand years; and was probably a copy of the one made by the Ancient Israelites.

1508: Burning of Jewish books at Frankfort. Thirty-eight Jews burned in Berlin for Child Murder.[431]

1510. Brandenburg: Several Jews were accused in Berlin of buying a small Christian boy, bleeding him and killing him. They confessed, and 41 were executed.[432]

1513: Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean.

1517: Martin Luther publishes his 95 theses and begins the Reformation.

1519: Expulsion from Regensburg.

1520-23: First compete editions of the Talmud printed.

                                                                                                   The Illuminati of Spain

1520: The Illuminati, as a Spanish sect called the Alombrados was founded about 1520. Ignatius Loyola, a Jewish Spanish Basque, while a student at Salamanca (1527), was tried by an ecclesiastical commission for alleged sympathy with this sect but was acquitted with an admonition.[433]

1524: The Jews of Cairo threatened with destruction by Ahmad Shaitan, Viceroy of Egypt. Jews return to Genoa.

1529: (May 21) Thirty Jews burned at Posing on Blood Accusation. Solomon Molko (Diogo Pires, 1501-32 begins his Messianic agitation.

1531: Clement VII issues a bull establishing the Portuguese Inquisition for Marranos.

1534: Henry VIII is excommunicated and founds Church of England.

1534-36: Sigismund I absolves Jews from wearing the badge. Calvin publishes Institution Chretimenne.

1541: Jews expelled from Naples. Expulsion from Prague and crown cities. Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi River.

                                                                                                 The Order of The Jesuits

1541: The Order of the Jesuits was founded in 1541. We give the following quotations from the Encyclopedia Britannica. "The Company of the Jesuits was founded by Don Inigo de Loyola (Ignatius Loyola, a Jew), a Spanish nobleman and soldier, on April 5, 1541, at the church of Saint Paul without the Walls, near Rome, under the sanction of the Pope, Paul III. It has six grades. These are novices, scholastics, temporal, coadjutors, professed of the three vows, and professed of the four vows, the latter two grades being the only ones which confer a share in the government and eligibility for the offices of the society. Its head, virtually a commander‑in‑chief, is known as the General. He wields absolute power over the members who are pledged to blind obedience. The General claims his authority from the Pope."

The "fourth vow" is one of special allegiance to the Pope promising to go in obedience to him for missionary purposes whensoever and whithersoever he may order, a pledge seriously qualified in practice, however, by the power given to the general of alone sending out or recalling any missionary. "The question has long been hotly debated whether, in addition to these six avowed grades, there be not a seventh, answering in some degree to the Tertiaries of the Franciscan and Dominican orders, secretly affiliated to the society, and acting as its unsuspected emissaries in various lay positions. This class is styled in France 'Jesuits of the short robe,' and some evidence in support of its actual existence was alleged during the lawsuits against the company under Louis XV. The Jesuits themselves deny the existence of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their constitutions. On the other hand, there are clauses therein which make the creation of such a class perfectly feasible if thought expedient.

One is the power given to the general to receive candidates secretly, and to conceal their admission, for which there is a remarkable precedent in the case of Francis Borgia, Duke of Gandia, afterwards himself general of the society; the other is an even more singular clause, providing for the admission of candidates to the company by persons who are not themselves members of it...The general, who should by the statutes of the society reside permanently at Rome, holds in his hands the right of appointment, not only to the office of provincial over each of the great districts into which the houses are mapped, but to the offices of each house in particular, no shadow of electoral right or even suggestion being recognized. The superiors and rectors of all houses and colleges in Europe must report weekly to their provincial on all matters concerning the members of the society and all outsiders with whom they may have had dealings of any sort. The provincial, for his part, must report monthly to the general, giving him a summary of all details which have reached himself. But, as a check on him, all superiors of houses in his province are to make separate reports directly to the general once in three months, and further to communicate with him, without delay, every time any matter of importance occurs, irrespective of any information which the provincial may have forwarded.

Nor is this all; an elaborate system of espionage and deletion forms part of the recognized order of every house, and, in direct contrast to the ancient indictment and confession of faults in open conventual chapter, every inmate of a house is liable to secret accusation to its superior, while the superior himself may be similarly deleted to the provincial or the general.

Nor is the general himself exempt from control on the part of the society, lest by any possible error he be unfaithful to its interests. A consultative council is impose on him by the general congregation, consisting of six persons, whom he may neither select nor remove, namely, four assistants, each representing a nation, an admonisher or adviser (resembling the adulates of a military commander) to warn him of any faults or mistakes, and his confessor. One of these must be in constant attendance on him; and, while he is not at liberty to abdicate his office, nor to accept any dignity or office outside it without the assent of the society, he may yet be suspended or deposed by its authority. There would seem at first to be an effectual external check provided, however, in the fact that, while all the officers of the society, except the council aforesaid, hold of the general, he in turn holds the Pope, and is his liegeman directly, as well as in virtue of the fourth vow, which he has taken in common with the other professed. But such is the extraordi­nary skill with which the relations of the society to the papacy were originally drafted by Loyola, and subsequently worked by his successors, that it has always remained organically independent, and might very conceivably break with Rome without imperiling its own existence.

The general has usually stood towards the Pope much as a powerful grand feudatory of the Middle Ages did towards a weak titular lord paramount, or perhaps as the captain of a splendid host of 'Free Companions' did towards a potentate with whom he chose to take temporary and precarious service; and the shrewd Roman populace have long shown their recognition of this fact by styling these two great personages severally the 'White Pope' and the 'Black Pope.' In truth the society has never, from the very first, obeyed the Pope, whenever its will and his happened to run counter to each other. The merited odium which has overtaken the Inquisition, usually officered by Dominicans, has induced the Jesuits, whose own controversial methods had been different, to disclaim all connection with that tribunal, and to represent their society as free from complicity in its acts. But, in truth, it was Ignatius Loyola himself who procured its erection in Portugal in 1545‑6, and F. Nithard, one of the very few Cardinals of the society, was inquisitor‑general of that kingdom in 1655.

The first successes of the Indian mission were entirely amongst the lowest class; but when Robert de'Nobili, to win the Brahmins, adopted their insignia and mode of life in 1605, a step sanctioned by Gregory XV, in 1623, the fathers who followed his example pushed the new caste‑ feeling so far as absolutely to refuse the ministrations and sacraments of religion to the pariahs, lest the Brahmin converts should take offense, an attempt which was reported to Rome by Norbert, a Capuchin, and by the bishop of Rosalia, and was vainly censured in the pontifical briefs of Innocent X in 1645, Clement IX in 1669, Clement XII in 1734 and 1739, and Benedict XIV, in 1745. The 'Chinese rites,' assailed with equal unsuccess by 9 popes, were not finally put down until 1744, by a bull of Benedict XIV...By these rites the Jesuit missionaries had virtually assimilated Christianity to heathenism, and their practical reply in opposition to a papal decree in 1700 was to obtain an edict from the emperor of China declaring that there was nothing idolatrous or superstitious in the inculpated usages, while in 1710 they flung Cardinal Tournon, legate of Clement XI, into the prison of the Inquisition at Macao, where he perished. Finally, they disobeyed the brief of suppression issued by Clement XIV in 1773, which enjoined them to disperse at once, to send back all novices to their houses, and to receive no more members. It is thus clear that the society has always regarded itself as an independent power, ready indeed to cooperate with the papacy so long as their roads and interests are the same, and to avail itself to the uttermost of the many pontifical decrees in its own favor, but drawing the line far short of practical submission when their interest diverge."

The Jesuit power [which has, since it creation, been under total control of the Jews], appeared much weakened in England by the rise of the Jewish Power with the advent of Cromwell, persisted nevertheless in its efforts to recapture its former status in that land. During the reign of James II, it schemed and intrigued incessantly through its representatives Father St. Germain [Once regent of the Jesuit College of Clermont] and his successor Father Columbiere.[434]

After the enactment of the limitation of the English throne to Protestant succession the Jesuit diplomatists were hard put. To quote the Encyclopedia further: "After many difficulties they had succeeded in getting a footing in France, through the help of Duprat, bishop of Clermont, who founded a college for them in 1545 in the town of Billom, besides making over to them his house at Paris, the Hotel de Clermont, which became the nucleus of the afterwards famous college of Louis‑le‑Grand, while a formal legalization was granted to them by the states‑general at Poissy in 1561." From the Jesuit College at Ingolstadt is said to have issued the sect known as "The Illuminati of Bavaria" founded by Adam Weishaupt [a Jew] under the guidance of Nicolai, in 1776. Weishaupt, its nominal founder, however, seems to have played a subordinate though conspicuous role in the organization of this sect. [435] On July 21, 1773, the Pope had abolished the order of Jesuits but Frederick II of Prussia encouraged and protected them with a view no doubt of using their political knowledge and skill against the Bourbons, the Hapsburgs and the Pope.

The well‑known authority on theocratic organizations, Heckethorn, writes the following concerning the Jesuits: "There is considerable analogy between Masonic and Jesuitic degrees; and the Jesuits also tread down the shoe and bare the knee, because Ignatius Loyola thus presented himself at Rome and asked for the confirmation of the order. Not satisfied with confession, preaching, and instruction, whereby they had acquired unexampled influence, they formed in Italy and France, in 1563, several 'Congregations,' i.e. clandestine meetings held in subterranean chapels and other secret places. the Congregationists had a sectarian organization, with appropriate catechisms and manuals, which had to be given up before death, wherefore very few copies remain." [436]

To show the further similarity of the Jesuit‑Judaic‑Masonic‑Gnostic‑Brahmin‑Illuminati theology we now quote from a MS. in the library of the Rue Richelieu at Paris entitled Histoire des congregations et sodalites jesuitiques depuis 1563 jusqu'au temps present (1709).[437] "Initiation. From this, as well as other works, we gather some of the ceremonies with which aspirants were initiated into the Order. Having in nearly all Roman Catholic countries succeeded in becoming the educators of the young, they were able to mold the youthful mind according to their secret aims. If then, after a number of years, they detected in the pupil a blind and fanatic faith, conjoined with exalted pietism and indomitable courage, they proceeded to initiate him; in the opposite case, they excluded him.

The proofs lasted twenty‑four hours, for which the candidate was prepared by long and severe fasting, which, by prostrating his bodily strength, inflamed his fancy, and, just before the trial, a powerful drink was adminis­tered to him. Then the mystic scene began ‑‑ diabolical apparitions, evocation of the dead, representations of the flames of hell, skeletons, moving skulls, artificial thunder and lightning, in fact, the whole paraphernalia and apparatus of the ancient mysteries. If the neophyte, who was closely watched, showed fear of terror, he remained for ever in the inferior degree; but if he bore the proof well, he was advanced to a higher grade.

At the initiation into the second degree (Scholastici) the same proofs, but on a grander scale, had to be undergone. The candidate, again prepared for them by long fastings, was led with his eyes bandaged into a large cavern, resounding with wild howlings and roarings, which he had to traverse, reciting at the same time prayers specially appointed for that occasion. At the end of the cave he had to crawl through a narrow opening, and while doing this, the bandage was taken from his eyes by an unseen hand, and he found himself in a square dungeon, whose floor was covered with mortuary cloth, on which stood three lamps, shedding a feeble light on the skulls and skeletons ranged around.

This was the Cave of Evocation, the Black Chamber, so famous in the annals of the Fathers. Here, giving himself up to prayer, the neophyte passed some time, during which the priests could, without his being aware of it, watch his every movement and gesture. If his behavior was satisfactory, all at once two brethren, representing archangels, presented themselves before him, without his being able to tell whence they had so suddenly started up, a good deal can be done with properly fitted and oiled trap‑doors, and, observing perfect silence, bound his forehead with a white band soaked with blood, and covered with hieroglyphics; they then hung a small crucifix round his neck, and a small satchel containing relics, or what did duty for them.

Finally, they took off all his clothing, which they cast on a pyre in one corner of the cave, and marked his body with numerous crosses, drawn with blood. At this point, the hierophant with his assistants entered, and, having bound a red cloth round the middle of the candidate's body, the brethren, clothed in bloodstained garments, placed themselves beside him, and drawing their daggers, formed the steel arch over his head. A carpet being then spread on the floor, all knelt down and prayed for about an hour, after which the pyre was secretly set on fire; the further wall of the cave opened, the air resounded with strains, now gay, now lugubrious, and a long procession of specters, phantoms, angels, and demons filed past the neophyte like the 'supers' in a pantomime.

Whilst this farce was going on, the candidate took the following oath: 'In the name of Christ crucified, I swear to burst the bonds that yet unite me to father, mother, brothers, sisters, relations, friends; to the King, magistrates, and any other authority, to which I may ever have sworn fealty, obedience, gratitude, or service.

I re­nounce...the place of my birth, henceforth to exist in another sphere. I swear to reveal to my new superior, whom I desire to know, what I have done, thought, read learnt, or discov­ered, and to observe and watch all that comes under my notice. I swear to yield myself up to my superior, as if I were a corpse, deprived of life and will. I finally swear to flee temptation, and to reveal all I succeed in discovering, well aware that lightning is not more rapid and ready than the dagger to reach me wherever I may be.'

The new member having taken this oath was then introduced into a neighboring cell, where he took a bath, and was clothed in garments of new and white linen. He, then, finally repaired with the other brethren to a banquet, where he could with choice food and wine compensate himself for his long abstinence, and the horrors and fatigues he had passed through.

In 1614, there was published at Cracow what purported to be the Secret Instructions given to members of the Society of Jesus. It is said that Hieronymus Zahorowski, who had recently severed his connection with the society, published the book with the cooperation of Count George Zbraski and other polish enemies of the order but the repudiation or the work by the society is no conclusive evidence of its spuriousness as it has been its policy from the beginning to deny all discreditable reports and to take the chance of being proved unver­acious." [438]

It will suffice to give the headings of the chapters forming the Book of Secret Instruction of the Society of Jesus.[439] The Preface specially warns superiors not to allow it to fall into the hands of strangers, as it might give them a bad opinion of the Order. The Chapters are headed as follows:

"I. How the Society is to proceed in founding a new establishment.

II. How the Brethren of the Society may acquire and preserve the friendship of Princes and other distinguished Personages.

III. How the Society is to conduct itself towards those who possess great influence in a state; and who, though they are not rich, may yet be of service to others.

IV. Hints to Preachers and Confessors of Kings and great personages.

V. What conduct to observe toward the clergy and other religious orders.

VI. How to win over rich widows.

VII. How to hold fast widows and dispose of their property.

VIII. How to induce the children of widows to adopt a life of religious seclusion.

IX. Of the increase of College revenues.

X. Of the private rigor of discipline to be observed by the society.

XI. How 'Ours' shall conduct themselves toward those that have been dismissed from the society.

XII. Whom to keep and make much of in the society.

XIII. How to select young people for admission into the society, and how to keep them there.

XIV. Of reserved cases, and reasons for dismissing from the society.

XV. How to behave towards nuns and devout women.

XVI. How to pretend contempt for riches.

XVII. General means for advancing the interests of the society.

The intermeddling of this society in the affairs, political, ecclesiastical and civil, of many countries, is related in numerous works, and repeatedly produced the suppression and expulsion of the order, though it constantly reappeared with new names. In 1716 the French army was infested with Jesuitical and anti‑ Jesuitical societies. The Parliament of Paris suppressed them in 1762. They were abolished by papal bull in 1773 at the demand of France, Spain, Portugal, Parma, Naples and Austria. They are, however, still to be found everywhere, and they hold considerable property in England. A modern writer justly calls the 'Black International.'"

Historically, the Jesuits are given credit for the Gunpowder Plot of 1605, fomenting the Thirty years war, the encouragement of the aspiration of Mary Stuart which led to her execution, the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV, 1685, and numerous other great events of history. Which is no doubt true as the Protocols attest that the Jews have been behind every revolution and war in the world for more than a thousand years. The Sanfedesti was founded at the epoch of the suppression of the Jesuits for the defense of religion, the privileges and jurisdiction of Rome and the temporal power of the popes. Their successors were the Calderari.[440]

1542: Jews expelled from Bohemia because of fires in Prague and other towns. Pseudo-Messiah (David Reuveni?) burned at Evora.

1543: Luther publishes his attack on the Jews.

1548: Eighteen hundred Marranos released from prisons of the Inquisition in Portugal.

1549: Obadiah of Bertinoro's commentary on the Mishnah published.

1550: (April 2) Jews banished from Genoa.

1551: Jews expelled from Bavaria and Wurttenberg. ­

1554: Rabbinical synod at Perrars. Censorship of Jewish books introduced. Solomon ibn Verga's Shevet Yehudah published.

1555: Paul IV issues the bull "Cum Nimis Absurdum" that Jews be confined to ghettos. Jews expelled from the Palatinate. Peace of Augsburg. Joseph Caro's Beit Yosef published.

1556: Twenty-four Jews of Ancona hanged and burned by order of Paul IV.

1558: Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England.

1558-60: The Zohar printed.

                                                                                                           The Defenders

1562: The Defenders, a Roman Catholic Order, was founded in 1562.

This Irish Catholic organization, similar to that of the Spanish Guarduna, was founded in 1562 by Roger Moore behind whom were French and Spanish Jesuits [Jews]. According to Captain Pollard, author of The Secret Societies of Ireland, "The nominal function of the Defenders was the protection of the fugitive priests during the period of proscription and the holding of the passes while Mass was celebrated in some mountain glen. The enemies of the faith being the Protestants, and the Protestants standing for the Constitutional authority of Britain, the Defenders soon became a criminal association of law‑breakers and bandits." [441]

In 1641 they rose and massacred many Protestants, but were duly crushed by Cromwell in 1649. This Irish Catholic element was already opposed by the Roman Catholic Archbishop Plunket, of whom Captain Pollare writes: "Archbishop Oliver Plunket, Roman Catholic Primate of Ireland, who had attempted to put down the criminal association of Defenders in the South of Ireland, was accused by the infamous Oates; and at his trial at Westminster certain of these Irish priests, who had been censured by him, gave false evidence against him. The Archbishop, though innocent, was, through the false evidence of these members of the secret society, sentenced and duly hanged at Tyburn."

1564: Joseph Caro's Shulhan Arukh published.

1566: Joseph Nasi created Duke of Naxos.

1567: (June 15) Jews expelled from Genoese territory.

1568: Isaac Luria Levi (1534-72), Cabalist, pretends to be the Messiah, son of Joseph.

1569: (Feb. 26) Bull of Pius V. "Hebraeorum Gens." Expels Jews from Papal States except Rome, Bologna, and Ancona.

1569-72: Moses Isserles' Mappah published.

1570: Solomon Ashkenaze sent as an envoy to Venice by Sultan Selim II.

1572: Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day.

1573: The Jew Lippold executed at Berlin; all Jews expelled from Brandenburg.

1576: Stephen Bathori allows the Jews of Poland to carry on trade without restrictions. Stephen Bathori issues decrees against blood libel.

1582: Jews Expelled from Seilsia. Gregorian calendar is introduced.

1584: Gregory XIII orders compulsory sermons to Jews.

1586: The Jews of Poland establish Council of Four Lands; Mordecal Jafe probably its first president.

1588: Destruction of the Spanish Armada by the English.

1590: Marranos settle in Amsterdam.

1592: (Aug. 17) Papal edict forbids Jews to admit Christians into synagogues, etc.

1593: Clement VIII expels the Jews from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona. The first Marrano settlement in Holland made at Amsterdam under Jacob Tirado.

1595: Dutch colonize Guinea Coast.

1596: Persecution of the Persian Jews by Shah Abbas the Great.

1597: Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah by Gedaliah b. Joseph ibn Yahia published. Expulsion from Milan.

1599: The 1599 Edition of the Geneva Bible was printed. Every edition of the Geneva Bible contains thousands of marginal notes authored by the leaders of the Reformation. Those leaders were men such as John Calvin, John Knox, Miles Coverdale, and others. Strangely enough, there has never been a really comprehensive study of those marginal notes. Stranger still is the fact that the majority of today's Protestants consider themselves "Calvinists" and have almost no conception of what John Calvin [442] believed in or stood for. The most "Calvinistic" of the Geneva Bibles was the edition printed from 1599 onwards, though the first edition of 1560 contained enough Calvinistic marginal notes to incense the Anglican clergy. In a memorandum to the translators of the Bishops' Bible, Archbishop Parker wrote:  "Item to make no bitter notes vppon any text, or yet to set down any determinacion in place of controversie." [443]

By 1599 the marginal notes had reached "maximum Calvinism." Compare the "two and fortie months" marginal notes in Revelation 11:2:  "Meaning, a certain time: for God hath limited the times of Antichrists tyranie." [444]; "Or a thousand, two hundred and threescore days, as is said in the next verse: that is a thousand two hundred and threescore yeeres, a day for a yeere, as often in Ezechiel & Daniel, which thing I noted before 2,10.

The beginning of these thousand two hundred and threescore yeeres were account from the passion of Christ, whereby (the partition wall being broken down) wee were made two of one, Ephesians 2,14. I say one flocke vnder one Shepheard, Iohn 10,16, and the end of these yeeres precisely falleth into the Popedome of Boniface the eight who a little before the end of ye yeere of Christ a thousand two hundreth ninetie foure, entered the Popedom of Rome, in the feast of S. Lucie (as Bergomenis saith) hauing put in prison his predecessor Coelestinus, whom by fraud, vnder color of oracle, he deceived: for which cause, there was well said of him, Intrauit vt vulpes, regauit vt leo, moriuus est vt canis.

That is, he entered like a foxe, raigned like a lion, and died like a dogge. For if from a thousand two hundred ninetie foure yeeres thou shalt take the age of Christ which he liued on earth, thou shalt finde there remaineth just 1260 yeers, which are mentioned in this place and many others." [445]

Most of the "Marian exiles," or those Englishmen who left England rather than be burned at the stake by Bloody Mary, settled in places like Frankfurt and Strasbourg. A minor squabble over the order of church services escalated into a full-blown schism with the arrival of a Dr. Richard Cox and his group from England. John Knox, Knox traveled back and forth between Geneva and Scotland. At one time he was captured in Scotland and became a galley slave, and his followers left and eventually settled in Geneva.

Geneva in the 1550s was a center for Biblical textual scholarship. Not surprisingly, the Marian exiles decided to translate a complete version of their own into English. Up until that time the only existing English translations were the New Testament translation of William Tyndale and a couple of government-controlled versions put out by the state-run government-controlled English Church. All the translations that had been one in Geneva up until that time were from Hebrew and Greek into French, for the benefit of French Huguenots.

No one today knows exactly who translated what in the Geneva Bible. William Whittingham is generally given credit as the general editor. What is known is that the translators labored literally night and day from 1556 until 1559. Marginal notes continued to be added and expanded upon until 1599. The Geneva Bible was the first Bible to divide Scripture into verses and the first to put interpolated words (words that do not appear in the Hebrew or Greek manuscripts that are added to clarify the meanings in English) into italics.

Though the Great Bible was the "official" Bible for the government-run English Church the Geneva Bible immediately became the most popular in England. Even after the appearance of the King James Bible in 1611 the Geneva Bible remained the most popular version for many years.

Archbishop William Laud exerted his influence to prevent the printing of the Geneva Bible in England and from 1616 onwards all English editions of the Geneva Bible were printed in Amsterdam. The King James Bible was almost never used in Scotland until the issuance of the "Canons and Constitutions Ecclesiastical" in 1636 which stipulated that each parish should possess a Bible "of the translation of King James."

Despite orders from higher ups, many of the leading ministers in Scotland continued to use the Geneva Bible. Today most of those who consider themselves Calvinists have never heard of a Geneva Bible. A completely annotated Geneva Bible, with all the marginal notes of John Calvin, John Knox, and the other Reformers, has not been printed since 1644, until 1991 when a facsimile was printed.

There is a note in the Preface, p. iii, which states: "Note: Be careful when attempting to interpret marginal notes. In the 16th century The Bible was not just a Spiritual Guide, it was a Legal Document. The word 'argument' used before the chapters is even used today by attorneys on motions and briefs. This is further illustrated by the admonishment to study and obey God's statutes and judgments. There are no statutes in the New Testament (God's statutes are found in Exodus 20 to the End of Deuteronomy in the Old Testament), indicating a serious difference of opinion with today's 'God's Law is put away in Christ' crowd."

For the last three centuries Protestants have fancied themselves the heirs of the Reformation, the Puritans, the Calvinists, and the Pilgrims who landed at Plymouth Rock. This assumption is one of history's greatest ironies. Today's Protestants laboring under that assumption use the King James Bible. Most of the newer Bibles such as the Revised Standard Version are simply updates of the King James. The irony is that none of the groups named in the preceding paragraph used a King James Bible nor would they have used it if it had been given to them free. The Bible in use by those groups until it went out of print in 1644, was the Geneva Bible. The first Geneva Bible, both Old and New Testaments, was first published in English in 1560 in what is now Geneva, Switzerland.

At the time Geneva was a city-state. Geneva did not become part of Switzerland until 1815. William Shakespeare, John Bunyan, John Milton, the Pilgrims who landed on Plymouth Rock in 1620, and other luminaries of that era used the Geneva Bible exclusively. Until he had his own version named after him, so did King James I of England. James I later tried to disclaim any knowledge of the Geneva Bible, though he quotes the Geneva Bible in his own writings. As a Professor Eadie reported it: "...his virtual disclaimer of all knowledge up to a late period of the Genevan notes and version was simply a bold, unblushing falsehood, a clumsy attempt to sever himself and his earlier Scottish beliefs and usages that he might win favor with his English churchmen." [446]

The irony goes further. King James did not encourage a translation of the Bible in order to enlighten the common people: his sole intent was to deny them the marginal notes of the Geneva Bible. The marginal notes of the Geneva version were what made it so popular with the common people. The king James Bible was, and is for all practical purposes, a government publication.

There were several reasons for the King James Bible being a government publication. First, King James I of England was a devout believer in the "divine right of kings," a philosophy ingrained in him by his mother, Mary Stuart. Mary Stuart may have been having an affair with her Italian secretary, David Rizzio, at the time she conceived James. There is a better than even chance that James was the product of adultery. [447] But will all this study and writings of the Bible, few become aware of what the Bible actually was.

                                                                                                               The Bible

It is amazing how many millions of Christians over the centuries have poured over the pages of the Holy Bible without taking note of a fundamental truth: The Bible is a book written by, for, and about Israelites. And by this we do not mean the Jews for they are no part of Israel. While it is possible that this truth may not send spiritual shock waves through any given congregation, or even any individual, but it should.

How people could read the best selling book of all history and not be more concerned about the subjects of that book remain a mystery. Seldom does one hear any adverse comment when it is made known that the Koran was written by and for Arabians. It is common knowledge that the Vedas contain the sacred scripture for the Hindu people; yet that book proceeded from their kind and hand is not disputed. People seem to have no trouble relating the Talmud exclusively to the Jewish synagogue and those who profess Judaism, and as such are called Jews.

We have yet to meet a Christian who wanted to claim the Talmud. The historical archives confirm that almost all people have strong links to a particular religious creed. It should not come as a surprise, then, for the Christian to find that his ties and Biblical roots go back to a people called Israel. This study is with the purpose that our Christian community learn and absorb this truth.

The Bible is inseparably linked to the people who comprise the Anglo‑Saxon, Celtic, Germanic, Scandinavian and kindred family in the earth. The spiritual eyes of millions of Christians need to be opened wide to the racial origins of the Bible. The Bible shares a genetic continuity in history from Genesis to the Revelation Letter.

"And he had in his hand a little book opened" was the statement of John, who in a vision saw the people of the Book preparing to take its message overseas. History has since demonstrated the willingness of the White Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian, Celtic and kindred people to endure the hardships of the journeys in order to bring others the blessings of the open Book. So long as that Book continues to remain open in the hands of Almighty God's people, they are in possession of the perfect guide and chart which will enable them to follow the course of their God-given heritage to a glorious destiny.

Westward, ever westward, has been the course of Empire as the ships of the People of the Book plowed the seas, bringing our forefathers to the Isles from whence they set sail to the uttermost parts of the earth. In obedience to the prophecy of the Scriptures: "Ephraim (Israel) feedeth on wind, and followeth after the East wind (Always going Westward - ever Westward to the ends of the earth - the West Coast of the United States of America): he daily increaseth lies and desolation; and they do make a covenant with the Assyrians, and oil is carried into Egypt." [448]

And wherever they went, the open Book accompanied them on their journeys. As they colonized, they evangelized: proclaiming the truth out of the Book in their hand! In establishing governments, building cities, organizing communities and administering law, the guiding hand of Almighty God, whose purposes were revealed to them through the open Book, enabled His people to build (Far better than they knew) a type of civilization whose foundation was to rest upon the administration of righteousness.

Familiarity with the open Book and the reason for sailing westward is well illustrated in a statement from the Mayflower Compact of 1620, which began "In the name of God." It proceeded: "Having undertaken for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honour of our King and country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the Northern part of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine our selves together into a civil body politic."

It was the knowledge of the teachings of the open Book and the desire to follow these teachings which brought the Pilgrim fathers to our shores to build anew a civilization in conformity with the requirements of the law as set forth in this national document.

Let us turn back to the time before ever the Bible, as we know it, was written. In so doing we will discover that the outstanding men of our Race were pressing forward to a God-given destiny and as they lived, and worked, and labored, they wrote into the record of the Book their faith, while in each succeeding generation men of renown carried on the work of faith as the race continued on towards its destiny. Thus, in an ever-increasing crescendo the Race of the Book moved forward with the open Book of the Race which, when finally completed was taken by this Race to the less fortunate, that they might also freely read and partake of its blessings.

Amounting almost to a paradox is the fact that the open Book from which we are now to receive counsel, instruction, advice and guidance today is largely the history of our race and an account of God's dealing with our forefathers. But along with the recording of that history the future of the Race was also pre-written and we will do well to follow the Divine instruction!

That Christianity has been the basic historic religion of the Nordic branch of the Caucasian Race for the past two thousand years is something worthy of consideration. Moreover, it should occasion no great surprise to find that the Anglo‑Saxon, Celtic Germanic, Scandinavian, and kindred people of the earth are more closely linked to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob/Israel of Bible fame than any other people in history Research confirms that the Israelites of the Old Testament are directly linked to the Israelites of the New Testament. Moreover, the same blood that links Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to the twelve Apostles and early Christians also flows in the blood of the modern day Anglo‑Saxon, Germanic and kindred people of the earth. There is a racial connection between the subjects of the Bible and the main followers of Christianity.

There is a racial significance to the major religions of the world, and no amount of historical revision will alter this. The religions of Buddhism, Shintoism, Taoism, and all forms of the transcendental worship are linked to the Far East. Certainly none of these religions rose out of the Caucasian world! The Moslem faith arose out of the Arabic world. Judaism arose out of the Jewish mind.

Hinduism was not born in the Occidental western Caucasian world. Historically, one major religion has been associated with the Western Caucasian world; Christianity. Just as the Moslem faith has followed the Arabs in their migrations over the earth, Christianity has followed the Caucasians in their wanderings. Voodooism has always found a home in the hearts of the black race, but never within the Western Christian world. There is a positive chemistry between Christianity and the blood of the Caucasian race. That there might be a link between genetics and faith in Jesus Christ is something that has yet to be fully explored by those who major in religious issues.

That the Holy Bible has always been the Book for historic Christianity no one would deny. And, what people in history have been responsible for the stewardship, printing, and transmission of the Bible? None other than the Caucasian peoples of the Anglo‑Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian, and kindred people of the earth! The Bible has Always found a home in the heart of the Caucasian race. Its influence upon the other races has been sparse, sporadic, transient, and meager at best, the claims of the Judeo‑Christian evangelists on television and radio notwithstanding. The moral values of the Bible appear to take root Only within the minds and hearts of the Caucasian Race. The fact that the Anglo‑Saxons have always been the custodians of the Bible links them inseparably to the people of God and of Scripture. Lost Israel has been found: we are they! The Bible is an Israelitish book written for and about the same people who have always found a place for it within their homes, churches and public life.

It is impossible to give a true record of Anglo-Saxon activities without always taking into consideration the Book (Regardless of what the anti-Christs, humanists, communists and etc., wish you to believe). Wherever this Race has gone, whether the fact of the presence of the Book is mentioned or not, the writings of this Book and the spirit of its message have always played a most prominent part in all our undertakings.

The importance of the open Book in the hand of the pioneers of our Race is clearly and appropriately depicted in the figurehead of the man on the prow of the sailing ship in whose hand is held the open Book, and who, yet reading, is moving forward as the vessel sails the sea. This figurehead of the earthly Americans sailing to our shores should be a continuous reminder to our generation that this nation was founded upon the Book and God's Laws.

But the Book has not always been opened. Evil forces have sought again and again to close it; knowing that, so long as it remains open, the irresistible forward march of a Race destined to conquer evil and establish righteousness and peace cannot be stayed!

In the early Christian century the disciples of our Lord brought the open Book to the Isles and to a people residing in those isles whose forefathers, because of their refusal to keep His laws, had been led captive into Assyria. From the land of the Assyrians this Race had moved north and west: migrated through southern and central Europe and, after centuries, finally reached the isles north and west of Palestine. It was to them who Jesus sent His disciples to when He told them to go "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." To Israel in the Isles they went, and to them they brought the open Book. Thus, after centuries, the open Book was placed at the disposal of His people. As a result Christianity took root downward and grew upward in the isles of the sea. A few centuries passed during which Christianity flourished in the Isles, then the Book was again closed. During the period known as the Dark Ages the light of spirituality was all but extinguished, for there was no open Book to which the people might have access.

The Bible had been written in a language which the common people did not understand and chained to the altar of the Church. This period of darkness ended in a spiritual revolution. Society of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was agitated to its profoundest depths as the Reformation began. The invention of the printing press had reduced the Bible from the bulky hand-written Book to a little Book and translated into the common language of the masses: placing it in the hands of the people, opened, that all might read its contents. John saw a Mighty One holding that Book open.

Men now had access to the Bible and the result, insofar as evil forces were concerned, was to arouse them to frenzy, for they knew that the open Book spelled disaster to all their plans. The Spanish Armada was equipped and launched with the avowed purpose of forever closing that Book. But it was to remain open and no physical power on earth could stop the Reformation.

With the opening of the Book there began a period of activity for the Anglo-Saxon-Israel people, first to acquire a knowledge of what was written therein and afterwards to spread that knowledge throughout the world. Such was the task assigned to this people of whom the Lord said through Isaiah the Prophet: "And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth." [449]

In fulfillment of that mission the Anglo-Saxon peoples have taken the Bible and translated it into over a thousand different languages and in their missionary activities given it to the nations. Missionary Societies in Great Britain and in the United States of America have, for over a century, been actively carrying out the mission laid upon His Israel people.

Upon careful examination, the Bible proves to be the family history of one people; the Israel people of God. And touches the other races only when they come into contact with the people of the book, the Israelites. The Bible refers to many people and nations, but its primary focus is always Israel. The Bible is the manufacturer's handbook for His people in time and creation. Everything that Israel needs to know for this life is contained within the canon of the Bible, a book that has been Divinely inspired and preserved throughout time. The Holy Bible is intended to enable the Israelite people to be theocrats (ruled by God) in this earth. Its principles, laws, and precepts govern every area of life. All of man's is couched by God's Word. There is no escape from the Holy Scriptures, for they follow man and government him in every possible area. Scripture is both infallible and unchangeable because it issues from a sovereign God. The key to a successful and prosperous life is to read meditate, memorize, and apply Scripture to every area of one's life.

The early chapters of Genesis cover the creation of the universe, the vegetable and animal kingdom, and the final work of God's hand in the creation of man. The fall of Adam and the Genesis Flood are all a major focus of the early portion of Genesis. The post flood history of nations, the building of the Tower of Babel, and the multiplication of nations and people are covered in these early chapters.

Beginning with Genesis 12, the remainder of the Bible is focused on Abraham and his offspring. Abraham became the father of eight sons born to three different women: Sarah, Hagar, and Keturah. Only one of these sons become the focus of the Bible. The birth of Isaac, the seed of promise which God made with Abraham and Sarah, becomes the object of the Bible. Like a giant laser beam, the Holy Scriptures zero in on the Promise Seed of Abraham. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob/Israel become the central focus of the bible from Genesis 12 to the remainder of the Bible. Every mention of other people and nations is always in relationship to Israel, and their interaction with the primary focus of the Bible.

Jacob, son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham, became the father of twelve sons. They are, beginning with the eldest: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. These twelve men became heads of twelve tribes that multiplied into a mighty nation numbering just short of three million people at the time of the exodus from Egypt. In subsequent history, millions of these Israelites populated the earth.

In Genesis 13:16 Abraham is promised that his seed will number as the dust of the earth. Genesis 15:5 records the promise that Abraham's seed would become as populace as the stars of the sky. Genesis 22:17 confirms that the seed of Abraham would become numbered like the sands of the sea shore. Rebekah was prophesied to be the mother of thousands of millions in Genesis 24:60. God promised Jacob that he would become a nation and A Company of Nations in Genesis 35:11. From Joseph's sons Ephraim and Manasseh would come a multitude of nations.[450]

A number of questions flow out of these Biblical promises made to Abraham and his seed. Where are the thousands of millions who were to spring from Isaac and Rebekah? What people make up the company of nations promised Jacob/Israel? Where is the Multitude of Nations that were to spring from Ephraim and Manasseh? We need to account for hundreds of millions of people to fulfill all of the promises and covenants of the Bible!

The people known in modern history as "Jews" have never at any time fulfilled the promises made to Abraham. However, they have been found among the multiplied missions that constitute the Anglo‑Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian, and kindred people of the earth. Lost Israel has been found, and the Bible is the record of these people It is time that their discovery as the subjects of the Bible be known to all who have spiritual eyes to see and ears to hear.

The Bible is indeed an Israelitish book. Every author of Scripture descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob-Israel. The family history of the Israelite Race of people is contained within the pages of the Holy Bible. The Bible is the composite history and genealogical record of Israel. The genealogical records of Egypt, Babylon, China, Japan, and the other nations is missing from the Bible because the Bible is not their record!

The first five books of the Bible or Law, is said to have been written by Moses, an Israelite. The historical records of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, I and II Samuel, I and Ii Kings, I and II Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah focus on the Israelites descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob/Israel. All of the books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon flow from the pen of inspired Israelite writers. Every prophet of Scripture was an Israelite raised up to prophesy to either or both Judah and Israel, the two primary families within Israel.

The New Testament is no exception to all that has previously been confirmed about the Bible. Every writer of the New Testament was an Israelite. All of the Gospels, the Epistles, and the Revelation Letter are inspired and preserved records of the Israelite people.

There is no book and no writer of the New Testament who does not have racial roots into the stock of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob/Israel From the first chapter in Matthew's Gospel to the final restoration of the twelve tribes in a new heaven and new earth in Revelation 21, the New Testament is an Israelitish book. To make the family history of the Bible include the entire world is to wreck and ruin the entire plan of a supernatural and provident God. Failure to correctly identify Biblical Israel and understand the Bible message has resulted in the Church world seeking to build a program of world evangelism. The attempt of modern Christianity to evangelize the world has erased the color line in the Church, greatly accelerated interracial marriage, and brought the Church of Jesus Christ to a day of real peril. Universalism in salvation history is not found in the Bible. It is the vain imagination of man running wild before God and in disobedience to His Word.

Is it not about time that we were content to leave the non‑Israelites of the world to follow their gods and their religions and rest content in the knowledge that God has ordained the Bible and the salvation history contained therein for His people Israel? Why do we want to rewrite the Bible in the image of fallen man? Why do we seek to make the Bible something that God did not intend?

Let the non‑Israelites of the world follow their gods, build their temples, and read their religious books. Bring back the Israelite missionaries that are running to the far corners of the earth with a program God did not ordain. is it not about time that we believed God and Scripture and be content to hear the words of Jesus Christ in Matthew 15:14: "...I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel." As for Israel, let them follow Jesus Christ, be faithful to His Commandments, and evangelize their own kind. What God hath ordained let no man seek to change.

Whenever the Anglo-Saxon people allow the Book to be closed, through neglect or a refusal to heed its warnings or listen to its message, the ensuing spiritual decadence brings retribution in sorrow, trouble and national calamities. The forces of evil were unable to close the open Book at the time of the Spanish Armada, but now they have succeeded in bringing about the closing of the Book in the evil doctrine of modernism. The teachings of this sugarcoated Judeo-Christian atheism have literally closed the Book to the understanding of multitudes of our people.

Our people, today, face a crisis of such magnitude as has never before been experienced by our nation or people. It was a day of evil for our land when modernism entered our seminaries and graduated into the pulpits of our churches - and it was brought in through traitors to Almighty God and the Lord Jesus Christ, and by their enemies; who falsely claimed to be Christian. With the advent of this Judeo-Christian modernism the Book began to close and people turned away from its truths until today millions never look into its pages nor read its message.

A state of spiritual decadence is afflicting our land with unbelief, from the men who stand in our pulpits to those who sit in the pews and the multitudes that crowd the streets of our cities. Let us once again open the Book before it is too late, that there may be a revival of interest, bringing such a spiritual awakening that it will enable God to save us.

Let those who are in authority seek for Divine guidance as they pilot the Ship of State through troubled waters. They must yet open the Book and follow the instructions of God contained in this Book of books; there is no other solution for the crisis ahead, nor can we expect victory over our enemies until there is compliance with these requirements.

Of Israel the Lord said: "Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him. But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries. For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off." [451]

Today that Mighty Angel has "in his hand a little book opened." Let us obey His voice and follow the instruction of the opened Book that our enemies may become God's enemies and our adversaries His adversaries. If we continue to provoke Him by refusing to believe, to read, to study and to be guided by the instruction of the open Book, there will be no one but ourselves to blame for the troubles and national calamities that will come upon us.

May the figurehead, the man with the open Book, so markedly portraying the reason for America's greatness, be a symbol of a soon awakening throughout our land to the need of opening our Bibles that God's Will may be done and our country and people saved from all their enemies.

1600: English East India Company is chartered.

1600's: "{Jews} ate the English nation to its bones." [452]

1602: Dutch East India Company is formed.

1604: Russia begins settlement in Siberia.

1606: Willem Jansz discovers Australia.

1607: English founded North American colony of Virginia.

1610: Hudson Bay is discovered.

1612: Portuguese Jews granted right of residence in Hamburg.

1613: First Romanov Czar.

1615: Jews return to Frankfort and Worms.

1618: Beginning of Thirty Years' War.

1619: First Black Slaves arrive in Virginia.

                                                             Do You Know Who Really Brought The Black Slaves to America?

No study of the White Slave issue would be complete without mentioning something of the Black Slaver which also existed side by side with White Slavery. The truth of the following will, no doubt, anger many people because for some reason they think that the Jews are above criticism.

Say anything you please about a White Man or Woman but utter one little peep about some of the more sordid past of the Jews, and condemnation comes from all sides. Well let the condemnation come the facts of history are facts even though the enemies of truth have tried to hide and change much of it. Throughout history Jews have faced charges of economic exploitation of Gentile communities around the world. Indeed, no single group of people have faced blanket expulsion in so many places around the world as frequently as have the Jews. The patter and the charges are familiar: monopolization, usury "sharp practices," selling "cheap" goods, frequent bankruptcies, etc.

All such claims seem to preface the expulsion orders and are vigorously denied both by those charged and by the Jewish writers of history. But this is not the only charge that is made against Jews. Jews have been conclusively linked to the greatest criminal endeavor ever undertaken against an entire race of people - a crime against humanity - the Black African Holocaust. They were participants in the entrapment and forcible exploitation of millions of Black African citizens into the wretched and inhuman life of bondage for the financial benefit of Jews. The effects of this unspeakable tragedy are still being felt among the peoples of the world at this very hour.

Deep within the recesses of the Jewish historical record is the proposed irrefutable evidence that the most prominent of the Jewish pilgrim fathers used kidnaped Black Africans disproportionately more than any other ethnic or religious group in New World history, with the exception of White slaves who were brought to the Americas at a rate of about 10 Whites to 1 Black, and participated in every aspect of the international slave trade. The immense wealth of Jews...was acquired by the brutal subjugation of Black Africans purely on the basis of skin color - a concept unfamiliar to Moses. Now compiled for the first time, the Jewish sources reveal the extent of their complicity in Black slavery in the most graphic of terms. Until now, the facts herein were known only to a few.

Most have always assumed that the relationship between Blacks and Jews has been mutually supportive, friendly and fruitful, two suffering people bounding to overcome hatred and bigotry to achieve success. But History tells an altogether different story.

This portion of this study will focus on the hidden record of Blacks and Jews from the Jewish historical record. Rabbi Henry Cohen, author of the book, "Justice Justice," makes a telling point. "[T]he parallels between the Nazi terror and the American slave trade are more startling than we may realize.

When Negroes were brought from the heart of Africa to the American South, one-third died en route to the African coast and one-third died in the suffocating prisons on board ship. Once here, families were purposely broken up; husbands, wives, and children forced to go their separate ways. Must we be reminded of the death toll in the suffocating boxcars bound for Auschwitz or of the tearing of children from their mothers' arms." [453]

Furthermore, in Roberta Strauss Feuerlicht's, "The Fate of the Jews: A People Torn Between Israeli Power and Jewish Ethics," she confronts the reality of her people's western development: "[W]hether so many [Southern] Jews would have achieved so high a level of social, political, economic and intellectual status and recognition, without the presence of the lowly and degraded slave {both Black and White}, is indeed dubious. How ironic that the distinctions bestowed upon [Jewish] men like Judah P. Benjamin were in some measure dependent upon the sufferings of the Negro slaves they brought and sold with such equanimity." [454]

It is a relationship that needs further analysis - one that is not fully known. Hidden and misunderstood, it is indeed time to reopen the files to review and reconsider, "The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jew." Throughout the history of the practice, Jews have been involved in the purchase and sale of human beings. This fact is confirmed by their own scholars and historians.

In his book, "A History of the Jews," Solomon Grayzel states that "Jews were among the most important slave dealers" in European society.[455]

Lady Magnus writes that in the Middle Ages, "The principal purchasers of slaves were found among the Jews...[T]hey seemed to be always and everywhere at hand to buy, and to have the means equally ready to pay." [456]

Henry L. Feingold stated that, "Jews who were frequently found at the heart of commerce could not have failed to contribute a proportionate share of the [slave] trade directly or indirectly. In 1460, when Jews were the masters of the nautical sciences in Portugal, that nation was importing 700-800 slaves yearly." [457]

The success of these medieval merchants was enhanced by their supreme linguistic abilities. They spoke Arabic, Persian, Roman, Frankish, Spanish and Salvonic and "displayed a business acumen far in advance of the times." [458] "When the conspirators get ready to take over the United States they will use fluoridated water and vaccines to change people's attitudes and loyalties and make them docile, apathetic, unconcerned and groggy. According to their own writings and the means they have already confessedly employed, the conspirators have deliberately planned and developed methods to mentally deteriorate, morally debase, and completely enslave the masses. They will prepare vaccines containing drugs that will completely change people. Secret Communist plans for conquering America were adopted in 1914 and published in 1953. These plans called for compulsory vaccination with vaccines containing change agent drugs. They also plan on using disease germs, fluoridation and vaccinations to weaken the people and reduce the population." [459] The Jews' participation in the slave trade, particularly their trafficking in non-Jewish slaves, incited the moral indignation of Europe's Gentile population. The Europeans reacted by taxing the Jews and some were expelled from their host countries, for this activity.[460]

The expulsion of the Jews by European governments was not unusual, with most of the complaints centered around economic exploitation, monopolizing, or "sharp practice." By 1500, with the exception of certain parts of Italy, Western Europe had closed its doors to the Jewish people.[461]

Over the next centuries the centers of Jewish development moved into the Western Hemisphere were land and commercial opportunities proved the incentives for immigration. The open and ungoverned territory and the docile and vulnerable native population offered an irresistible attraction to the "Maligned race."

They acquired great wealth in their Caribbean and South American enterprises and eventually moved into the American Northeast which became the economic focal point. It started with the forced expulsion of the Jews from the Spanish Empire and with the early explorer and "discoverer" of America, Christopher Columbus. Columbus, Jews and the Slave Trade: "Not jewels, but Jews, were the real financial basis of the first expedition of Columbus." [462]

On August 2, 1492, more than 300,000 Jews were expelled from Spain, [463] ending their five century involvement in the Black hostage trade in that region. In fact, the Spanish Jews amassed large fortunes dealing in Christian {White} slaves and became quite prominent within Spain's hierarchy.[464]

They had obtained the most important offices and positions of trust in the cabinets and counting houses of the rulers and had maintained great influence over the regional trade causing many to believe that the Jews exercised an unhealthy domination over the economy of the region. [465] The rulers were convinced enough to order all Jews to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain.

The Marranos: The Secret Jews: The Marranos were those compulsorily converted Jews and their descendants who outwardly became Christians but secretly continued to meet in the synagogue, celebrated feast days and observed the Jewish Sabbath. The name Marrano may be derived from the old Castilian Marrano {swine} or perhaps from the Arabic mahran {forbidden}. In 1350, Spain began a series of conversion drives to convert all Jews in Spain to Christianity, and in unprecedented numbers, and with little resistance, the Jews converted.[466] This rush to mass conversion, an event, unparalleled in Jewish history, is perhaps best summed up by Cecil Roth: "It was not difficult for insincere, temporizing Jews to become insincere temporizing Christians."  [467] The "Marranos," also called conversos {the converted}, or nefiti {the neophytes}, or "New Christians," were simply charged with not being Catholic. The same applied to the Muslims, who were expelled in like manner and in greater numbers than the Jews.[468] Some fifty thousand Jews chose to convert rather than leave their land and their riches.[469]

Contrary to popular notions, those who left were not refugees searching for religious freedom, but entrepreneurs looking for economic opportunities. When they fled, they brought few Torah scrolls and eve fewer copies of the Jewish holy book Talmud with them. When asked what he thought most Marranos knew of Judaism after their flight from Spain and Portugal, Roth answered in one word - "Nothing." [470] The majority fled south and eastward to North Africa and to centers like Salonika, Constantinople, Aleppo and Damascus, [471] while others sought and found refuge in the Netherlands where they "established synagogues, schools, cemeteries and a high level of wealth and culture." [472] Most escaped "with considerable sums of money." [473] Though scattered throughout the globe by political, economic and religious circumstances, they would reunite later in a an unholy coalition of kidnappers and slave makers.

The day after the Spanish expulsion, Christopher Columbus, whose actual name was Cristobol Colon, took a group of Jewish refugees with him to the New World.[474] Queen Isabella signed the expulsion decree and Columbus' voyage order the very same day. But it was not the queen or the king who funded the voyage. George Cohen, among many Jewish historians, proclaims that wealthy Jews financed the expeditions of Columbus, and adds that the story of Isabella's jewels "is not founded on facts," but rather it was an invention "intended to glorify the Queen." [475] Three Marranos, Luis de Santagel {or Santangelo}, [476] a wealthy merchant, Gabriel Sanchez, [477] the royal treasurer and his assistant, Juan Cabrero, influenced Queen Isabella to help them finance the voyage. Cabrero and Santagel invested 17,000 ducats, which would be well over $100,000 today.[478]

Alfonso de la Caballeria and Diego de Deza also provided funds; Abraham Ben Samuel Zacuto provided astronomy and navigation equipment and Isaac Abravanel also assisted. Six prominent Jews accompanied Columbus including Mastre Bernal, a physician; Marco, a surgeon; Roderigo Sanchez, and inspector; Luis de Torres, an interpreter; and sailors Alfonso de la Calle,[479] and Roderigo de Triana, who is claimed to be "the first white man ever to see the new world." [480] Torres settle in Cuba and has been credited with introducing tobacco to Europe from his vast tobacco plantations.[481] Cecil Roth's History of the Marranos: "The connection between the Jews and the discovery of America was not, however, merely a question of fortuitous coincidence. The epoch-making expedition of 1492 was as a matter of fact very largely a Jewish, or rather a Marrano, enterprise. [482] Columbus, the Jew? A few scholars, including Roth, present strong evidence that Columbus was himself a Jew. He hid his Jewishness, they say, because 'no Spanish Jew could ever have expected aid from the king and queen of Spain, so the explorer claimed to be an Italian Catholic.'" [483]

Tina Levitan, author of Jews in American Life, found the first reference to Columbus' Jewishness in print in a diplomatic document dated fifty-eight years after the discoverer's death. The French ambassador to Spain, she reveals, refers to "Columbus the Jew," [484]

Furthermore she states: "From him we learn that Cristobal Colon {who never called himself Christopher Columbus and never spoke of wrote Italian} was the son of Susanna Fontanarossa {also spelled Fonterosa} and Domingo Colon of Pontevedra, Spain, where those bearing such surnames were Jews, some of whom had been brought before the Spanish Inquisition...Letters written by him to strangers have the customary X at the top to indicate the faith of the writer, but of the thirteen letters written to his son only one bears an X, and that letter was meant to be shown to the King of Spain. The others have in the place of the X a sign that looks like the Hebrew characters B and H, initials used by religious Jews meaning in Hebrew, 'With the Help of God.'" [485]

Harry L. Golden and Martin Rywell, authors of Jews in American History: Their Contribution to the United States of America, are quite insistent about the Jewishness of Columbus. They cite where Ferdinand, Columbus' son, writes that his father's "progenitors were of the blood royal of Jerusalem..."  [486] In Columbus' words, "for when all is done, David, that most prudent king was first a shepherd and afterwards chosen King of Jerusalem, and I am a servant of that same Lord who raised him to such a dignity." [487]

One Jewish author insists that "all existing portraits of the discoverer gave him a Jewish cast of countenance." Another claimed a "certain soft-heartedness in Columbus is a Jewish trait." [488] His lineage also pointed to Jewish roots - his mother's maiden name was Suzanna Fonterosa, "daughter of Jacob, granddaughter of Abraham and a Jewess. His father, Domingo Colon, was a map-seller. Did not Columbus write the King of Spain that his ancestors were interested in maps?" [489]

Columbus, the Slave Dealing Jew? Christopher Columbus was an experienced sailor long before his infamous voyage west. Sir Arthur Helps writes that, "In the course of [his] letters [Columbus] speaks after the fashion of a practiced slave dealer." In fact, in 1498, his five ship expedition brought 600 Indians to Spain as slaves. Two hundred were given to the masters of the ships and four hundred sold in Spain.[490] Columbus employed slave labor in gold mining even before sailing for the New World. He helped to start the Portuguese West African settlement of San Jorge El Mina (St. George of the Mines) in present-day Ghana, formerly known as the Gold Coast.[491]

When the Spaniards found gold in the New World, reports Eric Rosenthal in his book, Gold! Gold! Gold!: The Johannesburg Gold Rush, they started  "on a gold hunt of such intensity that the natives came to believe the white men suffered from some disease curable only by the limitless application of this metal...[When] Columbus discovered that, apart from some poor alluvial deposits, the gold simply did not exist, he forced the harmless Indian aborigines into slavery...The entire importation of gold from the New World for the first 20 years after 1492 represented in case only $300,000 a year, and the total then recovered, worth about $5 million, cost at least 1 ½ million Indian lives.[492] Columbus was anything but a blessing to the New World population. The Europeans, led by Columbus, brought unprecedented brutality to the West leaving the remains of whole communities of Red people in their wake." [493]

On Hispaniola Columbus found gold and a docile Arawak population. He lavished praise on the natives and gained their trust and affection and then proceeded to enslave them. According to Columbus: "They are cowards, a thousand running away from three, and thus they are good to be ordered about, to be made to work, plant, and do whatever is wanted, to build towns and be taught to go clothed and accept our customs." [494] Cities began to spring up all over the island of Hispanola. The traffic in slaves - African and Indian {and Whites} grew rapidly, and some Jews were engaged in this trade as agents for the royal families of Spain and Portugal.[495] Whether or not Columbus was a Jew, as so many Jewish historian now claim, has not been definitively proven. It is clear that his brutality against and enslavement of the native population was financed by Jewish investors. The history books appear to have confused the word Jews for the word jewels. Queen Isabella's jewels had no part in the finance of Columbus' expedition, but her Jews did. [496] [497]

1620: Mayflower arrives at Plymouth Rock, Cape Cod and founded colony; Battle of the White Mountain.

1623: Separate council for Lithuania established (Poland-Lithuania).

1624: Ghetto established at Ferrara. Excommunication of Vriel da Costa.

1626: Dutch founded New Amsterdam (New York).

1629: (June 26) Lippman Heller forced to leave his post as rabbi in Prague.

1630: Death of Isaiah Horwitz in Palestine.

1633: Colony of Connecticut is established.

                                                                                                              Jansenism

1638: Jansenism was founded in 1638.

This was a peculiar form of Calvinism inaugurated by Cornelius Jansenius (1585‑1638) from Louvain in the Netherlands. The doctrine of Jansenism is exposed in a work called Augustinus, written by Jansenius, and published after his death in 1640. According to Jansenius' theory of Predestination, man was either saved or damned according to God's own will, regardless of his merits or demerits. From the Low Countries, Jansenism penetrated into France and its chief center was in the Port Royal Abbey near Paris. It was Duvergier de Hauranne who had been a good friend of Jansenius during their student days who, as abbot of Saint Cyran, introduced Jansenism into Port Royal. Antoine Arnauld was the leader of the Jansenists and was followed by Pasquier Quesnel. Many great minds of the seventeenth century were Jansenists, among the Le Maitre de Sacy, Blaise Pascal, Lancelot, Nicole and Fontaine, Secretary of State of Louis XV.

Janensim, which had undergone severe treatment in France under Louis XIV, revived under the Regency in 1715, and found supporters among the learned and the high clergy against the policy of the Pope. It is during this period that among the Jansenist sectarians there arose the strange occurrences practiced by what became known as the Convulsionaries of St. Medard.

The Jansenist party was very rich thanks to the boite a Perrette (Perrette's box). This was a special fund Jansenism took out all the money for its political and other needs. It had taken its name from the servant of Mr. Nicole, a leading Jansenist, who had started the fund and confided the care of it to his servant. In 1778 it amounted already to 1100 livres and in 1865 was still very substantial. Modern Jansenism, which, since the 18th century, had its chief seat in the Netherlands, principally Utrecht, joined in 1889 the German party of the Old Catholics founded in 1871 which, supported by Bismarck, had been one of the elements leading him to his Kulturkampf policy against the Catholic Church and institutions.[498]

1637: Russian explorers reach Pacific coast of Siberia.

1639-40: Dutch West India Company grants Jews of Guiana full religious liberty.

Ancient Order of Hibernians (A.O.H.)

1641: The Ancient Order of Hibernians, a Roman Catholic, organization, was founded in 1641.

In The Secret Societies of Ireland Captain Pollard writes that, founded in 1641, "The notorious modern society known as The Ancient Order of Hibernians is the direct successor of the original society of Defenders; in common with its ancestor it attempts to enable the clerics to exercise control in politics. [499] It claims in its own official history, published in 1910, to be the oldest secret society in Ireland. Independent researches show that the claim is sound and that the present [1920s] A.O.H. is the descendant of certain criminal organizations of the past. The open admission of this chain of descent by its own historian is important. American sources trace the A.O.H. to 1565 but the date 1641 is the one commonly accepted. The Jesuit influence in the development of the Defenders was reinforced, and their ceremonies and symbolism slowly changed to an elementary ritual closely modeled on that of the ceremony of initiation to the Society of Jesus of the period. This ritual has descended with many accretions and monderisations to the present time; and the American branch of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, misled by it, traces its origin back, not to 1641 and the Guarduna, but to 1563 and the foundation of the Society of Jesus.

The A.O.H. of America is powerfully organized and has over six thousand lodges, and it is said by Heckethorn to be divided into two degrees; in the first no oath is exacted and no real secret communicated. The second or inner degree is confided to officials, who receive their passwords and signs from the Board of Erin in Ireland, who send an emissary ever three months."

In 1878, the American order split into two groups. Shortly afterwards the Irish followed suit. "In America the breach was later healed, but in Ireland it continued until 1902, when a conference was called and both parties agreed to work under a joint board of control representing both sections. his board was termed the A.O.H. Board of Erin." Another split, occurring in 1905, lasted two years. "Ten years ago, the real A.O.H. of Ireland represented a powerful Nationalist weapon, hostile to the forces of extremism and devoted the Irish Parliamentary party, but the Board of Erin A.O.H. was revolutionary."

1642: Six hundred Jews of Amsterdam with Isaac Aboab as hakam settle at Pernambuco. French founded Montreal in Canada; King Charles I battles Parliament in English Civil War.

1646: Jews in Brazil side with the Dutch in their war with the Portuguese.

1647: (June 16) A letter from Oliver Cromwell to Ebenezer Pratt reads: "In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England; This however impossible while Charles living. Charles cannot be executed without trial adequate grounds for which do not at present exist. Therefore advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with arrangements for procuring an assassin, though willing to help in his escape." {King Charles I was in prison at the time}.

1647: (July 12) A letter from Ebenezer Pratt to Oliver Cromwell reads: "Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed, and Jews admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles should be given an opportunity to escape. His recapture will then make a trial and execution possible. The support will be liberal, but useless to discuss terms until trial commences."

Charles was allowed to escape from prison and was recaptured, of course. Then through Cromwell's influence, Parliament was purged of members who held allegiance to the king. This action is known as "Pryde's Purge." Only fifty members remained and became known as the "Rump Parliament." Again, because of Cromwell's influence, two thirds of the High Court Of Justice consisted of "Levellers" from Cromwell's army. The conspirators couldn't find an English lawyer to draw up the criminal charges against Charles I. Manasseh Ben Israel's agent, Isaac Dorislaus, drew up the indictment. King Charles I was found guilty and was publicly beheaded on January 30, 1649.

1648: The beginning of the Cossack persecutions of the Jews in Poland under Chmielnicki. Treaty of Westphalia.

1648-49: Chmielnicki massacres (Poland-Lithuania).

Cromwell, financed by the same Jewish International money lenders, waged war against Ireland. He captured Drogheda and Wexford, which are famous battles in the fight against the Irish and Scotch. British Protestants were blamed for the persecution of Irish Catholics, even though there was only a small portion of Protestants who were involved.

The world in general, and Protestants in particular, are still suffering from this contrived action on the part of Oliver Cromwell. We have the Irish Republican Army and the Sinn Fein, which is an Irish patriotic organization advocating boycott and resistance against England.

1649-60: The Commonwealth in England. Jews expelled from Hamburg.

1650: The Marquess of Montrose, James Montrose, a Scottish Coventanter who was in opposition to Cromwell. He, because of a burning desire to avenge the death of King Charles I gathered a small army and attacked England in rebellion against Cromwell. He was captured and executed.

1651: Charles II, who was in exile in France, invaded England. He was defeated and retreated to France.

1652: England was involved in another contrived war with the Dutch. All of these wars and skirmishes were financed by the Jewish money lenders with funds loaned at usury.

1653: Cromwell proclaimed himself Lord Protector of England. England became involved in more wars. These were contrived wars similar to the "police actions" of the United States' wars in Korea and Vietnam.

1654: (July 8) Twenty-four Jews land at New Amsterdam from Brazil. Portuguese recapture Brazil. Jews arrive in New Amsterdam (New York) and found congregation; refugees from Brazil found communities in West Indies.

In 1624 numerous Jews had settled in North Brazil, which was under Dutch Dominion. The old German traveler Uienhoff, who was in Brazil between 1640 and 1649, reports: "Among the Jewish settlers the greatest number had emigrated from Holland.' The reputation of the Jews was so bad that the Dutch Governor Stuyvesant (1655) demand that their immigration be prohibited in the newly founded colony of New Amsterdam (New York). It would be interesting to investigate whether the Family Delano belonged to these Jews whom the Dutch Governor did not want. It is known that the Sephardic Jewish families which came from Spain and Portugal always intermarried; and the assumption exists that the Family Delano, despite (so‑called) Christian‑confession, remained purely Jewish so far as race is concerned.

What results? The mother of the late President Roosevelt was a Delano. According to Jewish Law [500] the woman is the bearer of the heredity. That means: children of a full‑blooded Jewess and a Christian are, according to Jewish Law, Jews. It is probable that the Family Delano kept the Jewish blood clean, and that the late President Roosevelt, according to Jewish Law, was a blooded Jew even if one assumes that the father of the late President was Aryan.

     We can now understand why Jewish associations call him the 'New Moses;' why he gets Jewish medals ‑‑ highest order of the Jewish people. For every Jew who is acquainted with the law, he is evidently one of them." [501]; "The Jews who have arrived would nearly all like to remain here, but learning that they (with their customary usury and deceitful trading with the Christians) were very repugnant to the inferior magistrates, as also to the people having the most affection for you; the Deaconry also fearing that owing to their present indigence they might become a charge in the coming winter, we have, for the benefit of this weak and newly developed place and land in general, deemed it useful to require them in a friendly way to depart; praying also most seriously in this connection, for ourselves as also for the general community of your worships, that the deceitful race, such hateful enemies and blasphemers of the name of Christ, be not allowed further to infect and trouble this new colony, to the detraction of your worships and dissatisfaction of your worships' most affectionate subjects." [502]

1655: (Oct.) Manasseh ben Israel goes to London to obtain from Cromwell the readmission of Jews into England. England takes Jamaica from Spain.

1655-56: Massacres during wars of Poland against Sweded and Russia (Poland-Lithuania). Trouble started in the American Colonies. This was also a contrived "police action." England's loss of the American Colonies because of our War of Independence, and what they immediately planned to do about that loss, will be discussed in detail later.

1657: (Feb. 4) Resettlement day; Oliver grants Carbajal right of residence for Jews in England. Oliver Cromwell dies. His son Richard was named Protector. Two years later, he became disgusted with the intrigue and resigned.

1658: Congregation of Jews founded at Newport (America).

1659: Jews expelled from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona.

1660: General Monk occupied London. Charles II was proclaimed King. Jews expelled from Kiev by Alexis.

1661: The truth was revealed regarding the intrigue entered into by Cromwell and his two coharts, Ireton and Bradshaw. The public became incensed and violent. The bodies of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw were exhumed and hung from gallows on Tyburn Hill, London! English take control of Bombay in India.

1662: Religious strife was engendered to divide members of the Protestant denominations. Non‑ Conformists to the established Church of England were persecuted.

1664: England is again involved in war with Holland. Wars and "police actions" are used extensively to fuel the fires of the Hegellian Dialectics to create the economic and political world that is desired for the self‑chosen few. We cannot overemphasize this point and we must take the study of it very seriously. These wars made England a debtor nation {Sound familiar?}. The Bible says that; "...the borrower is servant to the lender." [503] Riot in Lemberg (Lvov) (Poland-Lithuania).

1665: A great depression settled over England. Depressions are oftentimes used for the same purpose as wars. Unemployment and shortages of food undermined the health of the people and the Great Plague broke out. The Great Fire of London, known as "The Great Cleanser," ended the plague. Shabbethai Zebi (1626-1676) publicly accepted as the Messiah at Smyrna; fervor spreads throughout the Jewish world. [504]

1666: England involved in war with France and Holland. More money loaned at interest to all three nations. Great fire of London - caused by the Jews because of their being expelled from England in past.

1667: CABAL agents start new religious and political strife {The events of this group that is now known by that name is very important because the families involved came on down through history and were the promoters of the doctrine of "Dispensationa­lism" and the Balfor Declaration, which provided for the new state of Israeli in the Mideast}. (Feb. 14) Jews run races at the Roman carnival for the last time.

1670. Metz: As this was a very strongly established case, one does not find any mention of it in Strack's book in defense of the Jews. A three-year-old Christian boy was lost by his mother on the way to a well. The boy was wearing a red cap, and witnesses had seen him carried away by a Jew mounted on a horse. This Jew was Raphael Levi. At first, the boy's body could not be traced. The Jews, becoming frightened, spread the report that wolves must have killed him in the forest. The forest was searched and eventually the head, neck and ribs of a boy were found, together with clothes which were identified as the missing boy's, red cap and all, by the boy's father.

But as these clothes were neither torn nor bloody, it was concluded that the wolf story was a "blind," and then witnesses came forward who had seen Raphael Levi with the boy in such places and at such times as to remove all doubt of his guilt. Levi was sentenced to death by the order of the parliament of Metz, and was burned alive.[505]

1670: Jews banished from Vienna and Lower Austria by Emperor Leopold I. Synod of Lithuanian rabbis and deputies settle spheres of jurisdiction in relation to central kahals.

1671: Frederick William, the Great Elector, grants a privilege for twenty years to fifty families driven from Austria. Jews permitted to settle in the Mark of Brandenburg.

1674: England and Holland made peace. The men directing international intrigue change their characters. They become peacemakers instead of the warmakers {Just like what is going on between Russia and the West at the present time}. They elevate plain Mr. William Stadholder to the rank of Captain‑General of the Dutch Forces {Remember, Manasseh Ben Israel was a powerful figure in Holland}. Stadholder became William, Prince of Orange. It was arranged that he meet Mary, the eldest daughter of the Duke of York. The Duke was only one place removed from becoming King of England.

1677: Princess Mary of England married William, Prince of Orange. To place William upon the throne of England it was now necessary to get rid of both Charles II and the Duke of York, slated to become James II. Death of Spinoza in The Netherlands.

1678: Appearance of the Pseudo-Messiah Mordecai Moshiah of Eisenstadt.

1680: (June 30) Auto da fe at Madrid. Riots in Brest-Litovsk (Poland-Lithuania).

1682: (May 10) Auto da fe at Lisbon. Riots in Cracow (Poland-Lithuania).

1683: The "Rye House Plot" was hatched. The intention was to assassinate both King Charles II and the Duke of York. It failed. Turkish army over runs Vienna.

1685: King Charles II died. Jews given religious freedom in England. The Duke of York became King James II of England. Immediately a campaign of L'Infamie was started against James II {The name L'Infamie was given during the French Revolution in 1787 to a group in France who planted disinformation and other propaganda to cause the public to react violently against targeted leaders}. One must always keep foremost in their mind that the "great conspirators" always, always take advantage of any weakness of the flesh or the carnal mind to destroy a person. If they can find nothing carnal, they create a lie.

More about the L'Infamie will be discussed when we cover the French Revolution {As all of this history is intertwined}. The Duke of Monmouth was persuaded, or bribed, into leading an insurrection to overthrow King James II. On June 30th, the Battle of Sedgemoor was fought. Monmouth was defeated and captured. He was executed July 15, 1685.

In August Judge Jeffreys opened, what historians have named, "The Bloody Assizes." Over three hundred persons concerned in the Monmouth Rebellion were sentenced to death under circumstances of atrocious cruelty. Nearly one thousand others were condemned to be sold as slaves. This is another example of the Machiavellian concepts used by the Jewish Internationalists. Working behind the scenes, they create conditions for which other people are blamed. Still others are aroused to actively oppose those they blame.

They, in turn, are then liquidated {This seems complicated but is not. We see the very same thing happening now regarding the current U.S. position of negotiating with the PLO. All sorts of attempts are being made to make the PLO look bad whether any real evidence exists or not. Take for example the bombing of Lybia, which was presented to the American people as a response to the bombing of a whore house in Germany. Lybia was later proved to be innocent of the bombing}.

King James still had to be disposed of before William of Orange could be placed on the throne to carry out their mandate. Every person in England was bewildered, as they were not allowed to know the truth. Then the conspirators made their next move.

1686: Jews the victims of the imperialist soldierly at the recapture of Buda from Turks. English establish Dominion of New England.

1687: Jews of Poznan attacked (Poland-Lithuania).

                                                                                                Camisards of the Cevennes

1688: The Camisards of the Cevennes was organized in 1688. The Camisards were actually a survival of the Waldenses and the Pastoureaux. Calmeil, an authority on mental aberrations quoted by Madden Phantasmata,[506] thus describes the characteristics of the Camisard movement: "The prophetic madness (of the Camisards) made its appearance in Dauphine and Vivarais in 1688; it very soon spread itself over a vast number of places, and continued without any interruption among the Calvinists for nearly twenty years. It was especially in the course of the year 1689, that the phenomena of theomania excited the greatest astonishment and rose to the height of its violence. The theomaniacs could then be counted by hundreds; men, women, girls, boys, young children, all of the believed they were inspired and imbued with the breath of the Holy Spirit.

The punishment of fire, the rack, the torture of the pendaison, even the massacres performed by armed troops, whose efforts were directed to the extermination of the pretended prophets, the military executions, all the torments that it was possible to invent, to repress the violence of this religious fanaticism, only augmented the force of the evil which they were employed to abate or suppress.

When, towards the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Calvinists rose up in good earnest to constitute small bodies of troops, and to dispute inch by inch the soil which had given them birth, with the king's soldierly, by whom they were confronted, this war of extermination was preceded by the apparition of a sort of swarm of pretended prophets and prophetesses. Towards 1701, at one time two hundred of the inspired, who had fallen into the hands of their enemies, were sent to the galleys.

The madness of the theomaniacs was less talked of during the years 1703 and 1704 than it had been previously; but it is certain that all the armed bands who contended with the royal troops for those two years, never took the field except at the instance of some inspired celebrities. And it is certain that the words of those prophets were listened to as if they had emanated from the mouth of the Holy Spirit; that the inspirations of these monomaniacs habitually decided either the life or death of the Catholics who fell into the power of the Protestants; and there was often at that time to be seen the same person fulfilling among the Camisards the functions of a prophet, and the functions of a commander.

It was not till the year 1704 that the Marechal de Villars had the charge of the command in Languedoc; this Marechal saw, nevertheless, entire cities in Ested with theomania.[507] It was towards the latter end of 1706 that they (the Camisards) came to England, from the mountains of the Cevennes, where their countrymen had for a considerable time maintained a contest with the troops for the persecuting Louis XIV. As exiles for conscience' sake, they were treated with respect and kindness; but they soon forfeited all claim to respect by the folly or knavery of their conduct. Of this group Elias Marion knavery of their conduct. Of this group Elias Marion was the prominent figure; the others acting only subordinate parts. He loudly proclaimed that he was the messenger of Heaven, and was authorized to denounce judgments, and to look into futurity.

     All kinds of arts were employed by Marion and his associates to excite public attention ‑‑ sudden droppings down as though death‑struck; sighs and groans, and then shrieks and vociferations, on recovering; broken sentences, uttered in unearthly tones; violent contortions; and desperate strugglings with the spirit, followed by submission and repentance; were all brought into play. The number of the believers in their power soon became considerable...After a time the sect which they had formed died away, but its ruin was less to be attributed to the punishment of the prophets, or the recovery of reason by their votaries, than by a report which was spread that they were nothing more than the instruments of designing men, who wished to disseminate Socinianism, and destroy orthodoxy." [508]

1688: They ordered William, Prince of Orange to land in England at Torbay. This he did on November 5th. King James abdicated and fled to France. He had become unpopular by reason of the campaign of L'Infamie, intrigue and his own foolishness and culpability. They found the carnal mind of the king and they exploited it by making it known to the public. Public opinion can be controlled so very easily, particularly when one has control of all the public news media as is the case at the present time. Instead of "The news fit to print," it is "The news printed to fit."

1689: William of Orange and Mary, were proclaimed King and Queen of England. King James did not intend to give up the throne without a fight. He was a Catholic, so the Jewish Internationalists set up William of Orange as the champion of the Protestant faith. On February 15th, 1689, King James landed in Ireland. The Battle of The Boyne was fought by men of definite, and opposing religious convic­tions.

It all started in England and as we go through the pages of time we will see how they fine‑tuned the techniques for revolution to an art form. If we are more fully to understand the technique that they created, we must spend considerable time in England. Once the technique used in England is explained in sufficient detail, then the rest of the revolutions, right up to the current time, will be easily understood.

There is much more to be written about Merry England and how the Jewish International money‑lenders used that country and the people to build the Plutocratic, Elite‑Capitalist, Bolshevik, Zionist {Jewish} system, designed to rule the world. The purpose of this study in history is not to sow derision among us. All of us, to one extent or another, have been forced into this ungodly Babylonian system. But for us to be a part of an evil system and at the same time think we are doing right, is wrong. Because at the present time the Jewish Internationalists now have the world in the palm of their hands. We are taught that if we are good students and do as they say, we will be rewarded commensurate with our abilitites to perform.

"Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their honorable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst {Have no understanding of the Word of God}. Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it {Hell is referring to the grave}...Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!" [509] An analogy to this is that of a large dairy. We are in the milking string in the milking barn. Those cows that produce more, get more feed and better treatment. Those that produce less, get less.

Can you not see it, We do not have Liberty. We are finger printed, photographed and licensed. We must have licenses to drive on our streets, to own an automobile, to get married, to build a house. The government owns our children. They must be educated as the government says. We are not even allowed to determine how we will treat our own illnesses when we get sick. The farmers are told how much, how many acres they may use and what crops to plant on those acres. "Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage." [510]

Back to "Merry" England! When England was forced to allow the Jewish International money‑lenders back into England under Oliver Cromwell, we find a country whose nobility was practically worthless. They were, for the most part, corrupt and by position of birth alone they controlled the destiny of the people. Some were inbred, in violation of God's Law, to the extent that many were functional idiots. God's judgment was coming upon England for her many sins. The just and the unjust alike were to suffer. And that suffering is not yet finished! As the World Revolutionary Movement gathered power and moved into other countries, the takeover could only be accom­plished when the leaders of those countries likewise became corrupt. We will realize this as we continue this history lesson and we will see that the United States of America has been no exception. The Nobility of England allowed the intermarriage between the ruling aristocratic families and the non‑Christian Sephardic Jews shortly after the formation of the Bank of England. Because of their money, and because England was corrupt, these men very quickly obtained positions of leadership in the government. Within fifty years, the English people no longer were in control of their own finances.

The well known English historian and author Hilaire Belloc wrote: "Marriages began to take place, wholesale, between what had once been the aristocratic territorial families of this country and the Jewish commercial fortunes. After two genera­tions of this, with the opening of the twentieth century those of the great territorial English families in which there was no Jewish blood were the exception. In nearly all of them was the strain more or less marked, in some of them so strong that though the name was still and English name and the traditions those of purely English lineage of the long past, the physique and character had become wholly Jewish and the members of the family were taken for Jews whenever they traveled in countries where the gentry had not suffered or enjoyed this admixture." [511] The die was cast. Starting at the time of Cromwell, and certainly during the reign of Charles II and the infamous CABAL, an arrangement was made where the drive, ambition, native sense of intrigue and above all the par excellence of money matters of the Jewish International money‑lenders and the greed, corruption and culpability of the English Nobility, agreed to rebuild England and develop what has become known as the Plutocratic, Bolshevik, Elite‑Capitalist, Zionist World Order.

1689-1725: Peter the Great Czar of Russia.

1690: Ninety Jews from Curaco settle at Newport, R.I.

1695: Jews forbidden to enter Sweden by Charles IX. Jews settle in Charleston, S.C.

1698. Sandomir, Poland: The highest tribunal in the land, that of Lublin, condemned a Jew for Ritual Sacrifice, the local court having exculpated him.[512]

1700: The house of Oppenheimer in Vienna attacked by a mob. Eisenmenger attempts to publish his "entdecktes Judenthum." Judah Hasid and his group arrive in Jerusalem in Palestine.

1701: Bervis Marks Synagogue built in England.

1703: Jonas Aaron settles in Philadelphia. Death of Samuel Oppenheimer in Austria.

1704: English seize Gibraltar from Spain.

1710: The 'Judenordung' of Hamburg determines the social condition of the Jews of the city.

1712: First public synagogue in Berlin. Jews of Sandomierg expelled after blood libel (Poland-Lithuania).

1716: (July 24-25) Serious uprising against the Jews at Posen.

1718: Colonel Baltzer Wedmar, in a Stockholm Lodge Lecture, said that Swedenborg was a Mason and that he had seen his signature at the Lodge at Lund. These assertions were confirmed by King Gustavus III.

                                                                          The Rite of Swedenborg or Illuminati of Stockholm

1721: The Rite of Swedenborg or The Illuminati of Stockholm was founded in 1721. Emmanuel Swedenborg was born on Jan. 29, 1688, at Stockholm. His father, Jasper Swedenborg, was the son of Daniel Isaksson of Fahlun, Sweden. In 1719, Jasper Swedenborg family was ennobled by Queen Ulrika and his name was altered from Swedberg to Swedenborg. [513] Emmanuel Swedenborg was initiated at Lund in 1706 and progressed to the higher degrees of the Templars as practiced in Sweden.

Founded in 1721,[514] the Rite was first introduced into England by Chastanier, Springer (Swedish Consul), C.F. and August Nordenskjold and others who were members of the first Swedenborgian Society in London, known as the Thesophical Society of the New Jerusalem, not to be confused with the Rite of French Theosophists.

The rite was carried from London to the Americas by a Swedenborgian Minister, Brother Samuel Beswick. He lived at Strathroy, Canada, and was the author of a work upon the Swedenborgian Rite. This rite, called the Illuminati of Stockholm, was well known until the middle of the 18th century when it amalgamated with that of Zinnendorf.

What is properly known as the rite of Swedenborg was another modification of the order of the Illuminati of Avignon effected by the Marquis de Thome, in 1783, wherein he endeavored to restore the true meaning of the doctrine of the Swedish mystic.[515]

Joanny Bricaud, in "Les Illumines d'Avignon," 1927, gives us some curious details on this movement: "Strange thing! The era of the Encyclopedists and philosophers was also the era of the prophets and the thaumaturgists. In face with Voltaire, Diderot, d'Alembert, incredulous and skeptic, arose Swedenborg, Martines de Pasqually, Saint‑Martin, Mesmer, and Cagliostro, founders of mystic groups given up to every practice of theurgy, magic, and illuminism."

Bricaud said, Dom Pernety, the founder of the Avignon group, was born at Roanne, in Forez, 1716, and became a Benedictine of Saint‑Maur. While at the Abbey‑Saint‑German‑des‑Pres, he came across many books on Hermetic lore and Alchemy, and became thoroughly inoculated with this fever of the age. Finding monastic life intolerable, he gave it up and went to Avignon, where he founded his Hermetic Rite, 1766. Later he was in Berlin, still keeping in touch with his adepts.

Gradually his hermeticism became invaded by the mysticism of Swedenborg and Boehme, he became a seer and illumine, having as a guide a so‑called Angel Assadai, receiving communications from an invisible power known as Sainte‑Parole. M. Bricaud further says that there exists in the Bibliotheque Calvet at Avignon, a strange manuscript of 155 pages in Pernety's own handwriting, which was seized in his house during the Revolution.

It dates from Berlin, 1779‑1783, and Avignon, 1783‑1785, and is an account of the evocations and questions of his initiates to this Sainte‑Parole and the replies of that power. The initiates are inscribed by occult numbers, which form the basis of their Jewish cabalistic operations, when consulting Sainte‑Parole. Nothing was done without the approval of this unknown power. As Weishaupt has said:  "We cannot use men as they are; they must be shaped according to the use that is to be made of them."

In the same way Pernety and his initiates were tested, admonished, and bemused until the power obtained absolute faith and obedience from them. They were consecrated on a hill above Berlin, regenerated, and illuminised; Pernety was destined to found a society for the "new people of God," and build a new city in preparation for a "new heaven and new earth." He was to be the center and pontiff and another adept, Comte Grabianka, was to be king.

The six‑year‑old daughter of the latter was to be isolated from parents and country for seven years to be prepared as oracle through whom he was to rule. Finally, the temple called Thabor was established near Avignon, and the group became known as the Illumines d'Avignon. Their cult was absolutely secret, and in a general way their ideas were those of Swedenborg, but they also professed a cult of the Virgin, apparently the Great Mother of the Gnostics. Don Pernety died in 1796, and the last survivors entered Martinism.

As for Swedenborgianism, in Les Sectes et Societes Secretes, from the pen of Le Couteulx de Canteleu, we find a short but interesting sketch of Swedenborg and his systems. He relates the following, which is a little different than that given above concerning the birth of Emanuel Swedenborg: the son of a Lutheran Bishop of Skara in Sweden, and was born in Upsala about 1688. In 1743 he began to spread his beliefs, a mixture of mysticism, magnetism, and magic.

As with all such doctrines, he had two systems: one for dupes and fools which was apparently to reform Christianity by a fantastic deism, the reigning faith in his New Jerusalem; his followers believed in his marvelous visions and prophecies, his talks with angels and spirits. The other led straight to godlessness, atheism, and materialism, where, as in Hermeticism, God was only a sun, a spirit of Light, a spiritual heat vilifying the body. To these latter he represented his doctrine as being that of the Egyptians and the Magi, and these adepts went whole‑hearted for the Revolution as restoring to man his primitive Equality and Liberty.

In England alone he had 20,000 such followers in 1780, who looked for the Revolution to overthrow all other beliefs; Swedenborg's god was to be the only king left! In Avignon he had many adepts who mingled with the Martinists, being known as illuminated Theosophists, and among these were found the same vows in favor of an anti‑social, anti‑religious revolution.

In a Foreword to one of Emanuel Swedenborg's books on The Doctrine of the New Church, the new Jerusalem, translated in 1797, from the Latin of the Amsterdam edition of 1769, it is said in explanation of this doctrine: "To be at the same time in the natural world and in the spiritual world, to live in the former in the society of men, and find oneself in the latter in the society of the angels, to see them, to speak with them, to hear them, to move in a kingdom of spiritual substances; here, doubtless, is more than is needed to disconcert the materialistic understanding of the wise men of today."

It is therefore, not surprising that de Luchet considered that, Theosophists, Swedenborgians, magnetizers and Illumines were a national danger. As told by Cretineau‑Joly, Cardinal Caprara, in a confidential memoire, October 1787, said: "The danger approaches, for from all these mad dreams of Illuminism, Swedenborgianism and Freemasonry, there must evolve a terrifying reality. The visionaries have their day, the revolution which they forebode will have its day."

It was into the lodges of the Amis reunis that Mirabeau and Bonneville introduced Weishaupt's Illuminati. One of its chiefs was the famous revolutionary Savalette de Langes, Keeper of the royal Treasure, but secretly deep in every mystery and lodge, and all plots against religion and Royalty.

They called themselves Philalethes, seekers of Truth; it was a form of Martinism, and, according to Clavel, led to the deification of man, being a mixture of the dogmas of Swedenborg and de Pasqualis. To cover his intrigues, Savalette de Langes at times gave up the common Lodge to adepts, brothers, and sisters of high rank, who danced and sang of equality and liberty, while unknown to them, in the upper Lodge, was the secret committee guarded above and below by two freres terribles. Among the principal members of this committee were Willermoz, Chappe de la Heuziere, Mirabeau, Comte de Gebelin, and Bonneville. There the codified correspondence of the Grand Orient was received by Savalette de Langes and dealt with by the Committee. To be admitted to these councils they had to swear, as Chevalier du Soleil, hatred of Christianity and, as Chevalier Kadosch, hatred to Crowns and Papacy.

They had a branch in Paris, and this was frequented by Saint‑Germain, Raymond, Cagliostro, Condorcet, Dietrich, brothers of Avignon, and students of Swedenborg and Saint‑Martin. Outside they passed as charlatans, visionaries, evoking spirits and working prodigies, while secretly searching out accomplices in the Masonic Lodges.

1723: Residence of Portuguese Jews legalized by a letter patent in France. General Council of Jews of Piedmont in Italy.

1724: Death of Samson Wertheimer in Austria.

                                                                              Supreme Gonseil and Grand Orient De France

1725: The Supreme Gonseil and Grand Orient De France. Freemasonry was introduced in France in about 1730, some say 1725. Its implantation bore a singular character. Due to the time of exile spent in France by Queen Henrietta, widow of Charles I (1649), English ways and customs had become fashionable among the members of the French aristocracy. The exiled English Royal Family and their adherents, warmly welcomed by the Jesuits of France, plotted in secret to regain the throne for Charles II. Later, when the Catholic King James II was also overthrown in 1688, he found refuge in France and his son. The Pretender, and later his grandson, Charles Edward, headed numerous plots fermented to enable them to regain their father's and grandfather's throne from William of Orange.

Meanwhile Masonry had been instituted in England (1717) and introduced in France in 1730. The Jacobites, partisans of the Pretender, secretly plotting as they constantly were, found the newly created Masonic lodges a ground no less well adapted to serve their ends than the Jesuits' colleges whence all their schemes emanated. Lodges, having thus become fashionable resorts for French aristocrats, presented a double aspect, one which might almost be termed theatrical, inasmuch as the comedy of equality between the lord and his valet was enacted in the Lodge, and the other far more serious was of a political character.

This latter aspect of budding English symbolic Freemasonry in France was anxiously watched by the minister Cardinal de Fleury who ordered its suppression in 1737. Up to that time the French lodges that had been formed considered themselves as depending from the English Grand Lodge, had an English Grand master and were confining their activities to the practice of the three grades of Blue Masonry.

Then appeared the would‑be reformers of masonry. At their head, in France, was the Chevalier de Ramsy, and with their advent came the innovation of a fourth grade followed by others. This was the beginning of Scotch Masonry whose unavowed aim seems to have been to interpose itself between the existing Lodges and the governing Grand Lodge of France.

DeRamsay, who was one of the foremost exponents of Scotch Rites and already dreamed of the Universal masonry of Albert Pike, exposed some of his theories in his famous Discourse made in 1740. By that time, the Grand Lodge of France, known as the Grand English Lodge of France, was no longer headed by an English Grand master, but by the Duc d'Antin who was succeeded by Louis, Prince de bourbon, Comte de Clermont, who held the office of Grand master from 1743 until 1771.

During his Grand mastership, in 1754, the name Chapter of Clermont was given to what might be called an offshoot of the Primitive French masonry on which, later, the Chevalier de Bonneville grafted some additional degrees.

This name "Chapter of Clermont" has been the cause of much confusion arising from the fact that a Jesuit college founded in Paris, in 1550, also bore the name of Clermont College and had been a center for Jacobite secret plotting against the Protestant rulers of England.[516] This grafting of higher degrees on those of Symbolic or Blue masonry gave Scotch masonry its vitality and strength and a continual superposition and absorption of one rite, to and by another, took place.

The period during the Grandmastership of the Comte de Clermont was eventful for the craft. A Masonic writer, William H. Peckham, in his work on Scottish rites, gives a succinct but clear sequence of some of the changes undergone by Masonry in France mentioning Thory, Le Blanc, de Marconny, Ragon and Clavel as his sources.

Thus we learn that the English Grand Lodge of France became the "Grande Loge du Royaume" in 1756, and declared itself independent; further, that an inner body known as the Supreme Council of the Emperors of the East and West had been founded in 1754 by the Chevalier de Bonneville. It had its chamber in the Grand Lodge of France and, likewise, was under the authority of the Grand Master Comte de Clermont whose substitute Chaillon de Joinville was also that of the Council. The Supreme Council of the Emperors of the East and West practiced twenty‑five degrees.

As to the disorders in the bosom of masonry they are attributed to the negligence of the Comte de Clermont who, in 1744, had ceased to take much interest in the Lodges and delegated his authority to two appointees, one a banker named Baure and the other a dancing master by the name of Lacorne who sold charters and degrees. The latter caused a succession in the Grand Lodge whose members rejected him and he formed an independent Grand Lodge.

Both these Grand Lodges, as also the Council of the Emperors of the East and West, constituted Lodges and granted charters throughout the kingdom, but in 1772, the Council united again with the primitive Grand Lodge, and becoming one body they practiced the right of perfection of twenty‑five degrees.

At that time, the Grand Master was the Duc de Chartres, later Philippe Egalite, Duc d'Orleans, who had succeeded the Comte de Clermont in 1771. But ten years previously, on August 29, 1761, a Jew Stephen Morin, had obtained a charter from the Council of the Emperors of the East and West and had gone to America as Grand Inspector General. There he founded what is now known as Scottish Rites.

Morin held his authority from the Comte de Clermont who, at the request of Lacorne, charged him with establishing Masonry in all parts of the world. His patent was signed by Chaillon de Joinville, Prince de Rohan, Lacorne, Savalette de Buckolay, Taupin, Brest De La Chaussee, Count de Choiseul, Chevalier de Lenoncourt and D'Aubertin. [517]

The early history of French Freemasonry is a maze of quarrels, but finally, in 1766, under the auspices of a new Grande Loge Nationale de France, afterwards called the Grand‑Orient, a representative system was at last adopted but the quarrels continued, the Orient and the original Grand Lodge being each supported by a separate Rosicrucian organization besides its own proper lodges. [518] In contradiction to other Masonic authorities, Yarker makes the assertion that the primitive Scottish Rite of 33 degrees was established at Namur in 1770 by Marchot and in 1787 united with the Grand Orient. [519]

In "Le Culte de la nature dans la Franc‑maqonnerie Univreselle," D. Margiotta states that Adam Weishaupt and his favorite, Baron von Knigge, introduced the organization of the Holy Vehm as well as certain legends of Illuminism into masonry in 1783. The only persons exempted from the jurisdiction of this terrible court of "Justice," the Holy Vehm, were the clergy, women and children, Jews and heathens and certain members of the higher nobility.

The [French] Revolution issued from the Masonic Lodges, said Lombard de Langes. France, in 1789, counted over 2,000 lodges affiliated to the Grand Orient: The adepts numbered over 100,000. The first events of 1789 were but masonry in action. All the Revolutionaries of the Constituent Assembly were 3rd degree initiates. In the Viennese Freemasonic newspaper of December 1927, the Freemason Arthur Singer of Budapest published the following interesting document which he claims to have taken from a book by Comte Vogt d'Hunolstein, which appeared in 1864 under the title Unpublished letters of Marie‑Antoinette.

It is a letter from the unhappy queen to her sister Marie Christine. "I believe that as far as France is concerned, you worry too much about Freemasonry. Here, it is far from having the significance that it may have elsewhere in Europe; here everything is open and one knows all.

Then, where could the danger be? One might well be worried if it were a question of a political secret society. But on the contrary the government lets it spread, and it is only that which it seems: an association, the objects of which are union and charity. One dines, one sings, one talks, which has given the king occasion to say that people who drink and sing are not suspect of organizing plots. Nor is it a society of atheists, for, we are told, God is on the lips of all. They are very charitable. They bring up the children of the poor and dead members, they endow their daughters. What harm is there in all that?

A short time ago the Princess de Lamballe was named Grand Mistress of a Lodge. She told me all the charming things they said to her. Many glasses were emptied, many verses sung. Then two good young maidens were endowed. Admitted. One can do good without all that fuss: but one must let everyone act according to their wishes, the more so when good only results."

The letter sounds as if it had been written yesterday by one of our good American Masons concerning American Freemasonry. Masonry in France became dormant during the French Revolution, but in 1799, a national union was effected by Roettiers.

No sooner, however, was this done, and the statutes, originally based on the English constitutions thoroughly revived, than French Masonry again suffered from an invasion of mysticism, first in the form of the Scottish Philosophic Rite [including such profundities as the luminous ring and the white and black Eagle], and secondly in the American Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 33 degrees, which the charlatan De grasse‑Tilly expounded with great success but which in 1804 was amalgamated with the Grand Orient, the great marshals Massena and Kellerman being then the leading members of the two bodies.

The union did not last, as Napoleon disliked the constitution of the Supreme Council which was largely influenced by the aristocracy. His brother, Joseph, assisted by Murat and Cambaceres, was allowed to take office in the older organization.

During the reactionary Catholic policy of the Grand master Murat the younger (1852‑62), the liberties of the Orient were greatly interfered with and its funds almost exhausted. Since then it has slowly recovered. Murat was succeeded by General Magnan who had been appointed by Napoleon III to group all Masonic bodies into one. This he succeeded in doing in 1862 with the exception of Scottish Rites, then under Jean Baptist Viennet, which still held aloof.

In 1868, the Supreme Conseil [of Scottish Rites] and the Alliance Israelite Universelle became merged in the person of the Jew Adolphe Cremieux who was president of both. We must not omit to mention that Cremieux was also a member of the Rite of Mizraim which in 1862 was absorbed by the Grand Orient of France. On attaining the 18th degree, a Grand Orient Mason automatically becomes a member of the Alliance Israelite Universelle. The Grand Orient ceased to require belief in a personal God as a test of membership in the year 1877. From the political movements, the origins of which can be traced to the influence of the Grand‑Orient de France, one is forced to believe it to be a political organization. [520]

The following quotations from the speech made by Domenico Anghera, Grand master of the Supreme Council of Scottish Rites when conferring on General Giuseppe Garibaldi the 33rd degree and administering his oath of allegiance, are here of interest in view of the connection of the two Masonic powers in France. "...Our first step, as builders of the new temple to the felicity of human glory, must be destruction. To destroy the present social state, we have suppressed religious teaching and the individual rights of persons. As we have overthrown the temporal power of the Pope, our most terrible and infamous enemy, by means of France and Italy, we must now break France, the strongest prop of the spiritual power. That we must do with the help of our own power and that of Germany." [521]

Brother, thou hast finished thy instruction as chief of Freemasonry. Pronounce thy supreme oath. "I swear to recognize no fatherland but that of the world. I swear to work hard, everywhere and always, to destroy frontiers, borders, boundaries of all nations, of all industries, no less than of all families. I swear to dedicate my life to the triumph of progress and universal unity and I declare to profess the negation of God and the negation of the soul.' [This is just another organization working toward a New World Order or One World Government]. And now, Brother, that for thee, fatherland, religion and family have disappeared for ever in the immensity of the work of Freemasonry, come to us, illustrious, most puissant and very dear Brother and share with us the boundless authority, the infinite power that we hold over humanity. The only key of progress and happiness, the only rules of good, are thy appetites and instincts."

On the 4th Sept. 1870, the Second Empire fell at the battle of Sedan. The International and Freemasonry seized power, calling their government "The Government of National Defense," and that same day the handpicked ministry of Freemasonry was constituted with Leon Gambetta as Minister of the Interior. Its eleven members, all deputies of Paris had, according to him, been acclaimed by the people. They were: Emmanuel Arago, Cremieux, Jules Favre, Ferry, Gambetta, Garnier‑Pages, Glais‑Bizoin, Pelletan, Picard, Rochefort, Jules Simon. Nine of them at least were Freemasons, three were Jews ‑ Cremieux, Glais‑ Bizoin and Gambetta. The Mayor of Paris, Etienne Arago, nominated twenty other mayors to provincial posts, twelve of whom were prominent Freemasons, the other being merely nonentities.

The fourth of September was the nominal proclamation of the Republic, but that date marked the actual seizure of power in France by Freemasonry just as the 20th of September of the same year marked its seizure of poor in Italy. Then came the "Commune," famous through history for its revival of the atrocities of the first French Revolution of 1793.Slaughter, ruin, torture, all again perpetrated in the name of the people who mutely suffered and died that the Men of Destiny might rule upon the earth! [522]

1727: (April 26) Jews expelled from Russia and the Ukraine by Cathrine. (Nov. 15) Act passed by General Assembly of New York permitting Jews to omit "on the faith of a Christian" from oath of abjuration.

1729: The political roots of Zionism spring from the period of Enlightenment, with the secular philosophies of Moses Mendelssohn (1729‑86). He was instrumental in the thinking of a large group of intellectual wealthy Jews who later formed the first World Zionist Council. Albert Jospe, in his B'nai B'rith biography of Mendelssohn, called him "the Jewish Plato." Plato was a Greek philosopher who believed in a world order. The human race, he wrote, was made up of three classes; an intellectual ruling class, with power over a second military class, which controlled the third class ‑‑ slaves.

Moses Mendelssohn's variation from Plato in this line of thinking was the belief that the intellectual, wealthy Jews should be and are the "elite" rulers of mankind. He stated that: "Judaism was not a religion but a law."

1730: Death of Nehemiah Hayon in Ottoman Empire. First public synagogue in New York.

                                                                                         The Convulsionaries of St. Medard

1731: The Convulsionaries of St. Medard was founded in 1731. St. Medard was the name of a cemetery in Paris wherein was the tomb of a famous Jansenist, the deacon Francois de Paris, and it was said that miracles of all descriptions took place there. The first recorded case of convulsions in the St. Medard cemetery occurred in August 1731. On this subject, Madden tells us the following: "The tomb of the deacon Francois became the scene of wonderful cures, and some very remarkable conversions, which were reputed miraculous. People who came there, especially afflicted with nervous disorders, appear to have been affected in a singular manner, some with cataleptic, others with hysteric and convulsive symptoms.[523] The convulsionnaires exhibited not only occasionally, but frequently, all the phenomena which are ascribed by mesmerists to animal magnetism, somnambulism, ecstasies, raptures, submission of the will and the senses to the power of the volition of another person, connected in some way with the dominant idea which possessed their minds at the time of falling into the trance.

Increased subtlety of thought, quickness of perception, heightened powers of imagination, a vivid energizing influence, fraught with enthusiasm and even eloquence; claims to clairvoyance, to communion with another world, to 'spirit life,' all these phenomena were to be found too, though not all in the same individual, in occasional instances in this epidemic of convulsive theomania...Till the month of August, 1731,' says Picart, 'the wonders wrought at the burying place of the deacon Paris were not accompanied with any considerable difference from those mentioned in Scripture or ecclesiastical history. Those who were afflicted with sickness, and begged the holy deacon's intercession, were laid upon or under his tombstone, which was raised from the ground, and were cured. But in August, 1731, god [a god but not the Almighty God of the Bible] was pleased to work his miracles in a different manner; violent pains, agitations of the body, extraordinary convulsions, were the means by which the sick were healed, not all at once, but gradually. this happened to one Abbe Becheran, to Chevalier Follard, an ancient officer in the army, and to several others. The number of people afflicted with convulsions increased so fast, and consequences of the meetings at the tomb appeared, or were represented to the King, so dangerous, that on the 27th of January, 1732, he issued an order to shut up the little churchyard belonging to St. Medard's parish, where M. de Paris was buried, and to open it only when necessary for burials.

Some weeks after­wards, the Abbe Becheran was arrested and confined at St. Lazare, and set again at liberty about three months after in June. But the miracles and convulsions did not cease upon these oppositions; on the contrary, they daily spread further, and gained ground. Towards the end of the year 1732, those who were in convulsions began to foretell what was to happen, to discover secrets, to make speeches, pathetic exhortations, sublime prayers; even those who at other times were wholly unable to perform any such things." [524]

Montgeron informs us: 'There is nothing which the convulsionnaires did not undertake to mortify themselves, to break down and to enfeeble their bodies. The most of those from the time they had convul­sions, hardly made use of a bed; they laid down with their clothes on, winter and summer, with only one covering, some lying on planks, and others on the bare ground, others on logs of wood, and some of them on bars of iron.'

The fact is, not only the means used for effecting cures were evil in themselves, but many of the leading persons by whom the remedy of the Grand Secours was administered or superintended were persons of ill repute.

Montgeron reckons that four thousand enthusiasts were employed to kick, and to strike without cessation the infirm, and all those young girls who begged for the violence of their blows. 'They were not ashamed to maintain' says Calmeil 'that it was to be ignorant of pious and charitable duties, not to obey under these circumstances the desires of the convulsion­naires whilst the reasonable Jansenists repeated aloud, that it was only a frantic madness which could suggest to these young women to encounter such dangers, and make an excuse for the criminal barbarity of those who had the audacity to boast of the advantages of so scandalous a mode of mortification, or rather martyrdom, and the wickedness to consent to take on them the office of executioners.'

An observer has recounted that a young girl, named Jeanne Mouler, had insisted upon their administering to her as many as a hundred blows with an andiron, on the stomach, and that a brother, who had one day given her sixty, had caused a breach in a wall at the twenty‑fifth blow, and then went on repeating the same violence on her person which had been previously inflicted upon her. Montgeron, acknowledging that he was the person designated 'the brother,' who inflicted the blows, adds: ‘The convulsionnaire continued to complain that the blows that I was giving her was so slight that they did not bring her any relief, and she forced me again to put the andiron into the hands of a large strong man...This person in no way spared her. Having seen, by the proof that I had already given, that he could not administer too violent blows, he bast­inadoed her in so frightful a manner, always in the hollow of the stomach, that they shook the wall against which she was leaning. [525]

The convulsionnaire made them immediately give her, with all their force, the hundred lashes that she had already asked for, counting as nothing, those sixty which I had already given her.' A physician, hearing an account of these things, maintained that they could not be true, as according to him it was physically impossible. He objected, amongst other things, that the flexibility and the softness of the skin and flesh, and all the other fibrous parts of which the skin and the flesh are essentially composed, are incompatible with a force and resistance so extraordinary...They allowed him to make an anatomical demonstration, to set forth all his proofs, and in the end, for reply, they said to him, come and verify the facts, He hastened to do so, and at the very sight he was struck with astonishment. Scarcely believing his eyes, he begs to administer himself the secours...They immediately put into his hands the iron instruments, the strongest and the fittest to beat effectually; He spared nothing, he struck with the greatest violence, he thrust into the flesh the instrument with which he was armed, he made it penetrate beyond the surface...Notwithstanding which, the convulsionnaire laughed at all his vain efforts; all the blows which he gave her only served to do her good, without leaving the slightest impression, the least trace, or any vestige whatever, not only in the flesh, but even on the skin itself."

Among other duly attested cases of torture to which the Convulsionnaires submitted the most astonishing are those of crucifixion and burning. [526] Like the Fakirs of India, these people seemed to have achieved invulnerability and the power to defy nature! Science, so far, has still to find a satisfactory explanation of this phase of phenomena. Hippolyte Blanc, another writer, records the following observations: "The girl Sonet, nicknamed 'The Salamander,' was seen to rest in the flames for 36 minutes on one occasion without sustaining any burns." [527]

The mania of the convulsionnaires broke out at St. Medard, in the spring of 1731. The royal order, which caused the cemetery to St. Medard to be closed and the pretended miracles to cease, was issued in January, 1732.

In 1733, the Duc d'Anjou, the infant son of Queen Marie Leckzinska and Louis XV, fell a victim to a Jansenist plot which caused his death. In Phantasmata, already quoted, we read further: "From 1732 onward the delirium of theomania began to manifest itself more signally than it had hitherto done, by ecstatic phenomena, and cataleptic symptoms, by predictions, and pretensions to miraculous operations, in the same way as the Calvinist convulsionnaires progressed in their fanaticism in the Cevenue, when they were interfered with by the civil authorities; and many of their chiefs were imprisoned, as those of the Jansenists of St. Medard were immured in the Bastille, and the Bicetre. The plea or the pretext of persecution, and the consequent assemblage of the convulsionnaires of Paris in secret, concurred greatly and rapidly to augment the evils which it was intended to prevent by those governmental measures. And those evils were not effectually repressed during the following ten years. Nor were they totally then put a stop to. It was of no avail that, in the year 1762, the 'Grand Secours' was forbidden by act of parliament. The insanity of the convulsionnaire­s," says Hecker, "lasted without interruption until the year 1790." The convulsionnaires of St. Medard and the Camisards were only manifestations of Gnosticism such as have existed in the esoteric branches of various sects, religious and secret societies ever since the day of Paganism. Among others can be mentioned: The Albigenses, The Moravian Brethren, The Anabaptists, the Baptists, the Quakers, The Waldenses, the Shakers, the Methodists etc. Their name is legion! Sects rise, sects fall or fade away, but God remains.[528]

1748: Duniagrod, Poland: Jews condemned for Ritual Murder by Episcopal Court. Mentioned by Roth.

The Royal Order of Scotland

1750: The Royal Order of Scotland was founded in 1750 and was composed of two degrees, HRDM and RYCS, or those of Heredom and Rosy Cross. The antiquity and origin of "Mother Kilwinning" is a favorite theme with Masonic authors according to whom the degree of Heredom of Kilwinning was founded in the reign of David I, King of Scotland, and that of Rosy Cross by Robert Bruce in 1314. Robert Freke Gould, however, places the date of the foundation of the Royal Order of Scotland in "the middle of the last century," and gives us the name of William Mitchell, a Scotsman who obtained his patent as its founder from the Provincial Grand master of South Britain on July 22, 1750.[529]

The Strict Observance

1751: The Templar rite of the Strict Observance was founded in 1751 by Charles Gotthelf, Baron de Hund [born 1722] Chamberlain and Councillor of the Elector of Saxony, King of Poland, as well as Councillor of the Empress Maria Theresa.

The following main facts concerning the Strict Observance are mostly gathered from the profusely documented work of R. Le Forestier who, having made a comprehensive study of the subject, took as one of his chief authorities, Nettelbladt. In 1764, the Jewish adventurer Leucht, variously known as Johnson, de Martin, Robert de Leichten, Becher, Despocher, de Bousch, Somery, Scheel and Koening, made an attempt to amalgamate the Templar System of Clermont, the control of which he had seized the previous year from Rosa, with that of von Hund, with the view of  dominating the latter also. In this he failed.

Rosa had been the Legate for Germany, Holland and the kingdoms of the north while, in Paris, the Comte de Clermont occupied a similar position with regard to France, Spain, Portugal and Italy. The legend of the Strict Observance is very much involved. Stating that the Stuarts were the unknown superiors of the Order it claimed descent from Pierre d'Aumont, Banneret d'Auvergne, at the time of the death of the Grand Master Jacques de Molay and the successor of Beaujeu, Molay's nephew who, with two Commanders and five Knights had escaped to the Island of Mull where they encountered George Harris, the Grand Commander of Hampton Court, likewise a refugee.

They elected d'Aumont Grand Master and adopted the costume and customs of Masons in memory of d'Aumont and his companions who, for two years, had lived thus in disguise while exercising the trade to earn a livelihood. Not daring to recruit openly, the Templars were eventually permitted to marry to perpetuate the order. For over 250 years, admission to the degree of Scotch Master had been restricted t the sons of Templars and only within the last 150 years had the secrets of this order been available to Scotch Masters born of free parents. D'Aumont was succeeded as Grand Master by Harris.[530] According to Le Forestier, again quoting Nettelbladt, the initiation ceremony of the Strict Observance included the presentation to the postulant of a ribbon to which was appended a small cross which had been in contact with the Baphomet.[531]

At the Convent, sitting from June 4 to 24, 1772, at Kohlo in the Basse Lusace, it was decided to refuse further obedience to the illusive "Invisible Superiors" continually referred to by Hund, and the Duke Ferdinand...was, with the consent of the Banneret, elected Magnus Superior ordinis per germaniam Inferiorem and Grand Master of the United Lodges of Scottish Rites, the name of Strict Observance being abandoned as objectionable to Masons of other systems. From that time forward Hund's position in the order was purely and honorary one.[532]

1753: Pavalochi, Poland: Jews condemned for Ritual Murder by Episcopal Court. Mentioned by Roth.

1753: Zbytomir, Poland: In this case, a three-year-old Christian boy was murdered; Jews were tried by the Episcopal Court of Kiev and condemned to death. A painting supposed to commemorate this murder is even now visited by pilgrims to the Carthusian Monastery at Kalwarya near Cracow.[533]

The Martinist Order

1754: Martinez Paschalis first founded in Paris an order called the Elus Cohens or Priests, then in 1754 that of the Martinists. This order was reformed by Louis Claude de Saint Martin in 1775. It had ten degrees. St. Martin was on intimate terms with the Illumine Jean Willermoz who presided at two of the Great Masonic Conventions, that of Les Gaules in 1768 and that of Wilhelmsbad in 1782 at which was voted the death of the King of France. The Modern Martinist Order was established with three degrees in Paris in 1887 and was constituted in England in 1902. Its Grand Master, Marquis Stanislas de Guaita, died in 1897 and was succeeded by T. Ch. Barlet whose successor was Dr. Encausse, generally known as Papus, who became the occult adviser of the ill‑fated Czar Nicholas II.

Mr. A.E. Waite tells us that, while Papus was its Grand Master,[534] a Martinist "Supreme Council" was founded with power for the formation of regular lodges, male and female members being admitted on equal terms. This was in 1894. By the year 1899, there were general and special delegations of the Order established in a number of European Countries.

Great Britain included ‑‑ in the United States, the Argentine and Guatemala and even in more than one Oriental land. As regards the Martinist relations with Masonry, Mr. Waite tells us on page 161, Vol. II, of his New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry that Martinism "had of course shut its doors against Masons under authorized obediences." Yet, we are able to reproduce a private letter, dated March 26, 1906, written by "Dorec" to Theodore Reuss 33o 90o 96o English Mason, etc., in which the latter is incidentally informed "that John Yarker is our ['The Martinist'] delegate in London." [535]

Martinist Illuminism was founded, as we have seen, by Martines de Pasqually, who taught the doctrine of reintegration; from 1754 to 1768 he propagated his higher grades among the Masonic Lodges of France. M. de Maistre, in 1810, wrote that the Martinists had a cult and higher initiates or priests called by the Hebrew name of Cohen, and he observed that all these great initiates took part in the Revolution, though not to excess. Saint‑Martin, the unknown philosopher, was Pasqually's disciple and later considerably developed the movement, establishing his Loge Maconnique des Chevaliers de la bienfaisance at Lyons.

According to Louis Blanc: "Martinism made rapid progress in Paris; it reigned in Avignon; at Lyons it had a center whence it radiated to Germany and Russia. Grafted on Freemasonry, the new doctrines constituted a rite which was composed of ten grades...through which the adepts had succes­sively to pass; and numerous schools were formed with the sole aim of finding the key to the mystic code and spreading it. Thus, from one book (Des Erreurs et de la Verite par un philosophe inconnu) arose a vast crowd of... efforts which contributed to enlarge the mine dug under old institutions. In the name of pious spiritualism the unknown philosopher rises up against the folly of human cults. By paths of allegory he leads to the heart of the Mysterious Kingdom which man in his primitive state had inhabited."

The Illumines, organized under the law of secrecy, exercised important influences in revolutionary movements, and both Martinists and Swedenborgians allied themselves to the Illuminati of Weishaupt, as seen in the Wilhelmsbad Convent of 1782, the object of which was thus expressed by a horrified delegate, the Comte de Virieu who had been deceived by Saint‑Martin's mysticism: "There is a conspiracy being plotted so well planned and so deep that it will be very difficult for religion and governments not to succumb to it."

In the Rituel de l'Ordre Martiniste, edited by Teder, 1913, the adept of the third degree is warned not to reveal the mysteries: "But if, by the power of thy freewill and the blessing of the Divine One, thou shalt arrive at contemplating the Truth face to face, remember that thou must keep silence on the Mystery that thou hast penetrated, even should thy fidelity cost thy life. Ever remember the fate of the Great Initiators who have, even with the best of intentions, tried to raise, before the multitude, a corner of the sacred Veil of Isis."

Here follows a few named: Jesus, Jacques Molay, Parcelsus, Cazotte, Cagliostro, Saint‑ Martin, Wronski, Eliphas Levi, Saint‑ Yves d'Alveydre, and hundreds of others. And they continue: "Shouldst thou reveal the least of the Secret Arts or any part of the hidden mysteries that meditation may have led three to understand, there is no physical torture that is not sweet compared to the punishment that thy folly shall bring upon thee."

No material symbol can express the horror of annihilation both spiritual as well as physical which awaits the miserable revealer of the True Word, for God [sic] is without mercy, for whosoever may profane His sanctuary and brutally expose to unworthy eyes the unspeakable Secret. Finally, the Superior Inconnu in the Second Temple has to swear to "work with all my strength to establish on earth, the Association of all Interests (Profits), the Federation of all Nations, the Alliance of all cults and Universal Solidarity."

In 1913 "Papus," Dr. G. Encausse, was Grand Master and President of the Supreme Council of the Martinists. Under Nicholas II Russia was still a prey to Martinism. Papus and Philippe, the magnetic‑healer, created Martinist lodges, and spread the pernicious doctrines, helping to bring trouble upon Court and nobility. Philippe, writes Sokoloff in his Enquiry, was introduced to Court by the Jew Manoussevitch Manouilof, Rasputin's adviser, who in 1905, according to Paleologue, instigated the workmen's demonstrations helped to prepare the Pogroms of Kiev, Alexandrovsk, and Odessa. As the Jewish writer Dr. Angelo Rappoport, wrote, in 1918: "There is not a political organization in the vast Empire which was not influenced by the Jews or directed by them...Plehve was perhaps right when he said that the fight for political emancipation in Russia and the Jewish question were practically identi­cal."

Speaking of the occultism of the nineteenth century as elaborated by the Martinists, Papus, Eliphas Levi, and the Theosophists, which includes the queer ensemble of such things as metaphysical phenomena, spiritism, magic, astrology, hermetic medicine, the Jewish Cabala, esoteric numbers, mystic exegesis, and speculations on reincarnation and karma, and above all a doctrinal system presented as the common source from which all religions have been derived, Marcel Lallemand, in Notes on Occultism, writes: "It is in truth an avalanche of pompous words, grandiloquent expressions, apocalyptic phrases, mysterious signs and silences commanded by a pseudo‑initiation into the sacred mysteries...Under the influence of Theosophy, it is associated with visions of libraries hidden in the caves of the Himalayas, of fantastic ceremonies in the Egyptian Temples, etc...It is known that the occultists claim to be heirs of the secret traditions going back to the Egyptians and transmitted throughout the Middle Ages by the Rose‑ Croix, the Templars, etc...

Most of these occultists are attached to Freemasonry...This subterranean would works feverishly, and many public events are only comprehensible as a function of the agitation of these occultist‑termites, whose activity is one of the least equivocal signs of the spiritual disorder of the Modern World...It would also be legitimate to speak of a satanisation (rather than deification) of these obscure aspects of the human soul. It is in this that the danger of occultism lies, which often ends in mental and psychic disorder, leading many of its adepts to founder in sexual perversion, madness, or crime, as shown in the annuals of modern occultism." [536]

de Poncins writes further: "Occultism has more important repercussions than one thinks. A wave of occultism preceded and accompanied the two great revolutionary movements of 1789 and 1917. The Theosophists and Illumines of the eighteenth century, Jacob Boehme, Emmanuel Swedenborg, Martinez de Pasqualis, Cagliostro, the Comte de Saint‑Germain, etc., had their counterparts in the numerous Russian sects and in the magi and occultists of the Imperial Court, Philippe, Papus, the Tibetan Badmaev, and above all Rasputin, whose extraordinary influence contributed directly to the unchaining of the revolution."

Looking back over history, it seems to be evident that the spread of secret societies, illuminism, theurgy, and spiritism has always been a sure precursor of revolutions and the fall of Crowns. From its commencement the reign of Nicolas II of Russia was one long succession of mystics, prophets, and Illumines, instruments of the "Hidden Hand" who, by their strange practices and sometimes scandalous lives, contributed not a little to bring discredit upon the Court of Russia, eventually led to its downfall, and through death and destruction initiated the Jew‑led Soviet rule with its dream of World Revolution and World Domination, the dream of Grand Orient Illuminised Masonry. The first of these mystery workers of outstanding importance was Maitre Phillippe, chief of the School of Theurgy at Lyons. He described his work: "From the age of thirteen I have performed miraculous cures. I am an unconscious intermediary between humanity and a Superior Power who overshadows it. The astonishing results I daily obtain, I admire, but do not understand."

In 1900 he was introduced into the Court of Russia by Papus, the well‑known Martinist and Illumine, who looked upon Philippe as his "Master." Gradually he became indispensable to both Emperor and Empress.

In 1903, returning to Russia after an enforced absence, he initiated the Empress into the practices of spiritism and theurgy. It was he who inspired the Emperor with the idea of universal peace by general disarmament! He was finally forced to retire to Lyons, and died in August 1905. [537] Papus the Martinist and theurgist, whose real name was Dr. Encausse, first appeared in St. Petersburg in 1900, and about then or later introduced Martinism among the Russian aristocracy.

In 1905 he was again summoned to Russia in connection with the revolution of that year, his advice being considered valuable at Court. Paleologue, in his Memoires, 1916, tells how, "The very day on which Papus arrived in St. Petersburg a riot spread terror in Moscow and a mysterious syndicate proclaimed a general railway strike." And with regard to the later revolution Papus professed to be able to avert this catastrophe by means of his magic, but only so long as he remained in his physical body. Papus's last visit to Russia was in 1906 and he died, October 1916, in the Great War.

In his book, Rasputin: The Holy Devil, Fulop‑Miller writes of yet another: "One of the most curious phenomena of the Russian Imperial Court was the 'doctor of Tibetan medicine,' Badmaev...Shamzaran Bradmaev affirmed that he had acquired an exact knowledge of the secret doctrines of 'Tibetan magic' and medical science in his father's house (Transbai­kalia), as the knowledge was an ancient tradition in the family...There was a time in Russian politics when not only the Court, but the ministers and administrative officials were entirely under the sway of Badmaev...

He established a sanatorium distinguished from all others by its political character. His party affiliations and political views were carefully noted on the chart of every patient at the institu­tion...Bradmaev kept up an active correspondence with his patients after their treatment was over, in which, in addition to medical advice...he also have them political instructions. In the course of time medicine and politics and 'lotus essences' became more and more involved in each other, resulting in a fantastic political sorcery that had its origin in the Badmaev sanatorium, and that decided the destiny of Russia."

According to Paleologue, Protopopov, the Minister of the Interior, was brought into touch with the sinister monk Rasputin by Badmaev, the Mongolian quack. And writing of Rasputin, in his Inquiry into the Assassination of the Russian Imperial Family, Nicolas Sokoloff writes that Rasputin was surrounded and directed by three Jews: Ivan Theodorovitch Manoussevitch Manouilof, who had numerous connections both in Russia and abroad and before 1905 was long affiliated to the police in Paris.

It was he who introduced the famous Philippe to the Russian Court. Secondly, a Jewish banker Dmitri Rubenstein, who was unsuccessful­ly accused of intrigues with the Germans during the War. Lastly, his secretary, Aron Samouilovitch Simanovitch, a diamond merchant of Petrograd, a Jew by origin and religion. M.J. de Boistel, in the R.I.S.S., 15 November, 1934, writes: "It can be said that the occult sects which have formed themselves in the heart of Christian­ity, and Freemasonry itself, are almost all merely an adaptation, more or less crude, of the Jewish Cabalistic and Gnostic errors."

He gives the principal dates of the renaissance of this Jewish Cabalistic gnosticism as: 1855, the revival of Spiritism by Allan Kardoc; 1875, the formation of the Theosophical Society; 1885, the reconstitu­tion of Martinism; 1888, the restoration of the sect of Gnostics; 1912, the foundation of Symbolism; 1919, the opening of the International Metaphysical Institution.

In 1888, he tells us, F. Jules Doinel, departmental archivist of Loiret and member of the Council of the Grand Orient of France, revived the Gnostic Church, calling himself the First Patriarch, Valentin II. He grouped together high intellectuals, and in 1893 a Synod was constituted, a Hierarchy was established, and several bishops were created. Later F. Doinel repudiated these doctrines and returned to the Catholic Church. He was succeeded, as Patriarch, by F. Fabre des Essarts, known as Synesius, who founded the review, La Gnose, in 1909; in 1907, the rival Patriarch, Jean II (J. Bricaud), founded the review, Le Reveil Gnostique. After his resignation Doinel wrote: "Jewish Action, Jewish infiltration, Jewish hatred! How often have I heard Freemasons groan under the domination which the Jews impose upon the Lodges, upon the Philosophic Lodges, upon the Councils of the Grand Orient in all countries, at all points of the Triangle, the whole length of the vast world...Since the Revolution the Jews have invaded the Lodges...To the learned the Cabala; to the ignorant the Jewish spirit. The Cabala dogmatizes and makes of metaphysics, the metaphysics of Lucifer. The Jewish spirit directs action."

                                                                                                      A Lesson in History

Thomas Cromwell, a close relative and ancestor of Oliver, was the singular person who caused the first revolution of the 1500's in England. The intellect, the charisma, the cunning, the brutality and the sinister mind of this man completely overwhelmed all of England, including King Henry VIII, parliament, and the common Englishman. He had a very receptive person to work with in King Henry VIII. The king was an overbearing, overweight and obnoxious individual who had dreams of playing god. Thomas Cromwell knew this and took advantage of it. In all probability he was sent back to England specifically to do what he did. For you see, Thomas Cromwell was trained by the Jewish Venetian traders who were famous money lenders of the time. In fact, he was trained by Machiavelli and it is reported he carried Machiavelli's book, "The Prince" wherever he went. It was this book that trained his cunning and sinister mind. He was in the courts and lived in the manner of the families of the Borgias and the Medicis. He was a member of the Rosicrucians, an early occult organization that later became a part of the Freemasonry movement.

Thomas Cromwell returned to England and started loaning money to the poorer nobles, charging interest {usury} which is against God's Law. He titled himself a "scrivener," which is something between a money lender and an attorney. He became an influential and busy member of parliament and five years later, in 1528, he was able to convince the Catholic Cardinal Wolsey that he needed a man to oversee his business affairs with the various monasteries in England. It was the very job for which he had trained for so long. He immediately began to suppress the influence of the smaller churches and monasteries.

Some of these had existed as Christian Churches long before the Roman Catholic Church came to England. Extensive writings of historians, both secular and Christian, reveal that the Christian Church in England was started by Joseph of Ariamathea very soon after the Resurrection of our Saviour. Of course it was Cardinal Wolsey who received the blame and resentment from the people of England for this suppression. They felt that Wolsey had to be removed and Cromwell, in true Machiavellian style, placed himself between the people and Wolsey.

In his genius, he saw Wolsey disgraced and removed, and Cromwell stepped into the close company of Henry VIII. Wolsey had been the minister to the King and represented a very powerful position in the affairs of the country. Cromwell played on the King's ego and between them, the king became the head of the Christian Church in England. From there it was a downhill slide. Cromwell dissolved a large number of the Christian Churches and monasteries and divided the money received from their dissolution between himself and the king's treasury. The king got 20 percent and Cromwell and his henchmen got 80 percent.

Thomas Cromwell acted as a completely despotic dictator. He was ruthless and totally authoritarian. The people of England were extremely upset over the situation but did nothing. King Henry VIII also obtained more and more power, both in secular and religious affairs. King worship actually existed in England for a period of time. Thomas was extremely close to the king and his power and influence continued to increase until finally he over stepped his bounds, even with the king. Thomas Cromwell was executed in 1540 and the people of England, including the nobility, actually applauded as he hung on the scaffold. But the family of Thomas Cromwell became extremely wealthy and influential from the money he stole from the churches and monasteries.[538] What has been related about the life and affairs of Thomas Cromwell is a perfect example of Hegellian Dialectics in action.

Hegellian Dialectics is described as an idea which is placed in motion and is called the thesis. This argument may take some years to take effect. Then, a counter idea, called the antithesis, is brought to bear against the thesis. This counter antithesis also may take some years to become fruitful. As a result of this clash of ideas, a resulting state of affairs called a synthesis drops out. The synthesis is always different from either the thesis or the antithesis. When the power brokers of the world use this, and they do, it is a very easy matter, in time, to control the affairs of the entire world.

The Hegellian Dialectics occurred naturally in the world for many centuries, probably as long as recorded history. However, this situation in England with the affairs of Thomas Cromwell and King Henry VIII, was probably one of the first examples where it was intentionally placed in motion. It was conceived and directed by the International Jewish money lenders for the purpose of ruling the world. This will become very apparent as we continue with our history lesson. So Thomas Cromwell and his thesis created a dictatorial, authoritarian system where the government was sovereign and the king was god. This condition persisted for nearly one hundred years in England.

The Reformation in England

The despotic system that Cromwell created in England was a fertile seedbed for the growing Protestant Reformation. We will see that this became the antithesis of this great conspiracy. The resultant synthesis became the start of Mystery Babylon as will be shown.

The Roman Catholic Church had been in a violent struggle with Jewry for centuries, particularly over the issue of usury, the loaning of money for gain, or interest. When Martin Luther broke with the Catholic Church, he retained the same position with respect to usury. But when Luther died in 1546, just six years following the execution of Thomas Cromwell, the second generation of Protestant Reformers apparently was of a different opinion.

Maurice Pinay in his book, "The Plot Against The Church" states that Martin Luther was nationalistic in his thoughts and anti‑Jewish and the second generation was more "Judeo‑Christian" in their thoughts and actions.[539] Apparently Mr. Pinay was referring, at least in part, to the role that John Calvin played in the Christian thinking in England. Calvin changed the centuries‑old Christian belief against usury by stating usury was permissible if it was kept within bounds. The B'nai‑B'rith convention of Paris, France in May, 1936 claimed that John Calvin was of Jewish extraction and his name was originally Cohen.[540]

Even though the Catholic Church in England was not closely aligned with Rome, this clash which broke out between the Catholics and the Protestants was extremely vicious. The leaders in England felt certain that there were outside forces fanning this instigation. What happened next would eventually encompass the entire Christian West, including the future United States of America, and then finally include the entire world. That is the world as we see it today.

Volumes have been written on this subject and yet the average church‑going Christian, in modern times in this country, has very little grasp of the importance of this history to their faith. The bottom line is simply a question of whether we have a Christian Faith or a Judeo‑Christian Faith. This overview is, of necessity, short. To enable you, the reader, to study the details of this sordid conspiracy, a bibliography, a list of the books in which you may obtain more information is provided.

The Illuminati of Avignon

1760: The Illuminati of Avignon was founded in 1760 by Antoine Joseph Pernety, an unfrocked Benedictine, a Cabalist and alchemist. Modified in 1766 by Chastanier, one of the founders of the English Rite of Swedenborg, this rite was introduced into Paris in the Lodge Socrates of Perfect Union under the name of Theosophical Illumines. In 1770, Perney, founded La Grande Loge Ecossaise du Comtat Venaissin. This Lodge was raided in 1774 and its papers confiscated by order of the Pope. It was revived in 1789.[541] Among its members were Cagliostro and his friend Baron de Corbernon, Mesmer, Marquis de Thome and the Marquis de Puysegur, self‑styled Professor of "Mesmerism." In Les Illumines d'Avignon by Joanny Bricaud (page 103) we read that "today, its members having become affiliated to Martinism, the society has ceased to exist." This author also states that the degree of Knight of the Sun, founded by Pernety, which is divided into two degrees, forms not the 27th and 28th grades of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites.[542]

                                                                                                             Chapter Two

Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (America).

Ancient and Accepted Rite (England).

1761: The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (America) and Ancient and Accepted Rite is of Jewish origin, has 33 degrees. and they are named as follows: Symbolic or Blue Masonry: The Craft Degrees. These are practically the same as in Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England, Scotland and Ireland.

1. Entered Apprentice

2. Fellow Craft

3. Master Mason

4. Secret Master: of Illuminati Origin

5. Perfect Master: of Illuminati Origin

6. Intimate Secretary: of Illuminati Origin

7. Provost and Judge: of Illuminati Origin

8. Intendant of the Building: of Illuminati Origin

9. Elu of the Nine: of Jewish Origin

10. Elu of the Fifteen: of Jewish Origin

11. Elu of the Twelve: of Jewish Origin

12. Master Architect: of Illuminati Origin

13. Royal Arch of Solomon: of Illuminati Origin

14. Perfect Elu: of Illuminati Origin

A Council of Princes of Jerusalem confers the next two degrees:

15. Knight of the East: of Illuminati Origin

16. Prince of Jerusalem: of Illuminati Origin

A Chapter of Princes of Rose‑Croix confers the next two degrees:

17. Knight of the East and West: of Illuminati Origin

18. Knight Rose Croix: of Templar Origin

Black masonry, or Philosophical Lodges or Areopagi: These degrees conferred of Princes of the Royal Secret.

19. Pontiff: of Templar Origin

20. Master of the Symbolic Lodge: of Templar Origin

21. Noachite or Prussian Knight: of Jewish Origin

22. Knight of the Royal Axe or Prince of Libanus: of Unknown Origin

23. Chief of the Tabernacle: of Templar Origin

24. Prince of the Tabernacle: of Templar Origin

25. Knight of the Brazen Serpent: of Templar Origin

26. Prince of Mercy: of Templar Origin

27. Knight Commander of the Temple: of Templar Origin

28. Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept: of Unknown Origin

29. Scottish Knight of St. Andrew: of Templar Origin

30. Knight Kadosh: of Templar Origin

31. Inspector Inquisitor: of Unknown Origin

32. Master of the Royal Secret: of Unknown Origin

33. Sovereign Grand Inspector General. [543]

Red Masonry or Chapters: These degrees conferred in a Lodge of Perfection, presiding officer must be 16th degree at least.

In A sketch of the Philosophy, Traditions, and records of the Masonic Order of the Red Cross of Constantine by the Editor, [544] where we read:  "The Premier Conclave of England, which has existed from time immemorial, gave rise, it is said, to the foundation of the Council of 'Emperors of the East and West,' a body which was established in Paris about the year 1758 and is considered as the parent of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The Scottish Rite,' according to Le Forestier, 'issued from the Chapter of Clermont, as a development of the Ramsay Rite. Its foundation dates from 1748 at which period it was introduced into Germany by Count de Schmettau.'" [545] The Supreme Council is the arch‑stone of this edifice of degrees.

It is composed of a minimum of nine and a maximum of thirty‑three members, Grand Inspectors General of 33o. Is that a secret 33? [546] "But the one 'mission and object' (Mackey) of masonry is kept steadily in view; which is the worship of the god of this world, who is Satan, as the 'Grand Architect of the Universe;' and to accomplish this by inventing 'a religion in which all mankind agree;' and this, by putting all earth's religions upon a level, and uniting them together in Masonic worship, which is boldly avowed in ritual, lexicons, and philosophical degrees. This is  [547] called the image of the beast, made by 'them, that dwell on the earth' that is, everybody; every creed, and no creed; all who join the secret lodges.

But this world‑religion must have some form, and shape, to hold together; and be taxed; hence, it takes the form, or image, of the beast. Lodge despotism is as absolute as Romish despotism, and is the image of it...Note now the profound craft, by which this is to be accomplished, viz, masonry promises men salvation by ceremonies invented by men [just as Judaism the origin of Masonry], administered by priests, and inhabited by devils. This is the sum and substance of all the false religions on earth, and will ultimately unite them against Christ. But the only opponent Masonry dreads is Christ, who refused to worship Satan, and his followers."

In its present form, the Rite in France dates from 1804. "At that date the pecuniary situation of the Grand Lodge was however not up to its preten­sions. It was already in debt. Brother de Grasse had personal debts and Brother Abraham was a man of venal character. The Grand Orient paid the debts of the Grand Scottish Lodge and of Brother de Grasse, making a life pension of 800 francs to Brother Abraham and proposing the annexation of the Grand Central Lodge to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite among those recognized by the Grand Orient." [548]

In 1804, in France, a Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of the 33rd degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was duly constituted. In the construction of this Council, Comte Alexandre F.A. de Grasse‑Tilly, [the son of the Admiral] played a leading part. He had been initiated in Paris several years before he went to America where we find him a colonist of San Domingo. His successor was the Duc Decazes. In regards to the development of Scottish Rites in England, Stillson and Hughan state that: "After the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite had been established in England, the Templar body resigned control over the degrees of the 'Rose‑Croix' and 'Kadosch,' which then became incorporated with the rite, as the 18th and 30th; it was therefore necessary to suppress the old ceremonies and relegate them to Templar history, but they were still retained in some of the older English encampments."

A revised ritual was issued in 1851 consequent on the omission of the 'Rose‑Croix' and 'Kadosch.' [549] Presidents of the United States are honored by being made 33rd degree masons, Scottish Rites. King Edward VII and countless other magnates were 33rd degree Masons.

What does this prove? Unfortunately nothing! This is the great deception. The success of the entire system depends on the solid integrity and political and social prominence of its affiliates whose virtues make them valuable as decoys. "Ancient and Accepted Scottish rites" runs its own Secret Service which cooperates with the national Secret Services of all countries, serving the aims and purposes of Internationalism.

Another authority, Paul Rosen makes the following comment: "The philosophy of the degree of Kadosch (30o), the apotheosis and real aims of Masonic teaching, can be summed up in the following words: I, I alone, All mine, All for me, by any and every means." There are seven different ways of carrying out this program and consequently seven different grades of Knight Kadosch which are:

1. The Jewish Kadosch

2. The Primitive Christian Kadosch

3. The Kadosch of the Crusades

4. The Kadosch of the Templars

5. The Kadosch of the Puritan

6. The Kadosch of the Jesuit

7. The Scottish Kadosch (alone true Freemasonry).[550]

Blanchard, himself was a high mason whose Masonic studies were induced by a keen desire to fathom the truth and impart the result of his discoveries to those whom he feared might also be duped, thus sums up Scottish Rites: "Let the authoritative teaching of Dr. Mackey be continually borne in mind, that: 'the mission and object of Masonry is the worship of the Great Architect of the Universe.' It follows that the lodges must have something for their dupes to do, called worship. And what could wicked men and devils invent craftier or better suited to deceive the simple, than this very scheme of 'the Ancient Scottish Rite,' which now rules the rites of the world. It seizes and appropriates all of religion but its holiness and justice; and all of Christ but His truth and His atonement. It mixes things sacred with things profane, till the whole compound is profanity; and quoting the Bible as if it believed it true, which notoriously it does not, it has furnished a dark system, which angels flee from and which devils inhabit [551] Every Lodge is a Synagogue of Satan; its ritual is Sorcery." [552]

Anyone interested in the rituals etc., of this rite will find much that is interesting in D. Margiotta's Le Culte de la Nature dans la Franc‑Maconnerie Universelle. Masonic philosophy is well summarized in the following expose made of it by a Jewish Mason, Paul Rosen, in Satan et Cie: Official ritual of the 33rd and last degree of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites. "For the Sovereign Grand Inspector General the 33rd is the last degree of the Rite. The Order is the Great Avenger of the assassinated Grand Master and the grand champion of humanity, for the innocent Grand master is man, man who is Master, King of Nature, man who is born innocent and unconscious. Our innocent Grand Master was born for happiness and for the enjoyment of all rights without exception. But he has fallen under the blows of three assassin, three scoundrels have thwarted his hap­piness and rights and have annihi­lated him. The three infamous assassins are Law, Property and Religion. (Esoteric explanation of the legend of Hiram). Law, because it is not in harmony with the rights of the individual man and the duties of social man in society, rights which belong to all. Duties are but the immediate conse­quence of the right inherent in all, for the enjoyment of all rights.

Property, because the earth belongs to nobody and its fruits belong to all in proportion as they are required by each for the needs of his own well being. Religion, because religions are but philosophies evolved by men of genius and adopted by the people in the belief that they would increase their well being.

Neither law, property nor religion can be imposed on man and as they annihilate him by depriving him of his most precious rights they are assassins on whom we have sworn to wreak vengeance, enemies against whom we have declared war to the death and without quarter. Of these three infamous enemies it is on religion that we must concentrate our most deadly attacks, because no people has ever survived its religion. Once Religion is dead, Law and Property will fall to our mercy, and we shall be able to regenerate society by founding on the corpses of the assassins of man, Masonic Religion, Masonic Law, and Masonic Property." [553]

The Rite of Zinnendorf

1760: This rite was founded in 1766 by Zinnendorf, the chief surgeon of the general staff of Berlin and a Knight Commander in von Hund's Strict‑Observance. Zinnendorf received the rituals and instructions for this order from a Swede named Cklack. On December 27, 1770, Zinnendorf formed a Grand Lodge in Berlin with the cooperation of twelve lodges which had adopted his opinions. On March 29 of the following year, he demanded a constitution from the Grand Lodge of London. This he finally obtained in 1773 through the influence of Prince Louis George Charles of Hesse‑­Darmstadt, the Grand master of the Lodges following his system. [554] The Rite of Zinnendorf was absorbed at the Convent of Wolfenbuttel in 1778 into the Lodge of the Three Globes of Berlin.

                                                                                                         The Tugendbund

1786: The Tugendbund was founded in 1786. The name of Tugendbund or Union of Virtue was first given to the association of men and women who met at the house of the Jewess Henrietta Herz whose husband, Marcus Herz, a Jewish Illuminatus, was the disciple, friend and successor of Moses Mendelssohn.

Noted Illuminati were frequenters of this abode of licentiousness about which Graets, the Jewish historian, wrote: "The salon of the beautiful Henrietta Herz became a sort of Midianite tent. Here a number of young Jewish women assembled whose husbands were kept away by their business. The most prominent male member of this circle was Frederick von Gentz, the embodiment of selfishness, licentiousness, vice and depravity whose chief occupation was the betrayal of women." [555]

A so‑called Band of Virtue (Tugendbund) was formed of which Henrietta Hers, two daughters of Moses Mendelssohn [Dorthea and Rebecca Mendelssohn] and other Jewesses together with Christian profligates were members. He also adds that, "Mirabeau, in whose mind the storm‑charged clouds of the Revolution were already forming, and to whom the Jews owed so much during his secret diplomatic embassy (1786) to Berlin, was more in the society of Henrietta Herz than in that of her husband."

Later, in 1807, a second Tugendbund or Union of Virtue was formed, a purely political league of which Thomas Frost wrote: "The nucleus of the Association devised by von Stein which received the name of Tugendbund, or League of Virtue, was formed during the latter months of 1807...The initia­tions multiplied rapidly, and the League soon numbered in its ranks most of the Councillers of State, many officers of the army, and a considerable number of the professors of literature and science. By the active and zealous exertions of Stein, Hardenberg and Jahn, its ramifications spread quickly from the Balitc to the Elbe, and all classes were drawn within its influence. A central directorate at Berlin, presided over by Stein, had the supreme control of the movement, and exercised, through provincial committees, an authority all the more potent from emanating from an unknown source, and which was obeyed as implicitly as the decrees of Emperor or King." [556]

With Heckethorn, we follow the Tugendbund further, for he tells us that after its suppression by the police of Napoleon I, the Tugendbund continued, "...concealing itself however more strictly than before in the Masonic brotherhood." [557]

One of its first acts, "...was to send auxiliary corps to assist the Russians in the campaign of 1813. Prussia having, by the course of events, been compelled to abandon its temporizing policy, Gneisenau, Scharnhorst and Grollmann embraced the military plan of the Tugendbund. A levy en masse was ordered. The conduct of the patriots is a matter of history. But, like other nations, they fought against Napoleon to impose on their country a more tyrannical government than that of the foreigner had ever been. They fought as men only fight for a great cause, and those who died fancied they saw the dawn of German freedom. But those who survived saw how much they were deceived. The Tugendbund, betrayed [as all Jewish organizations do] in its expectations, was dissolved; but its members increased the ranks of other societies already existing, or about to be formed, such as the 'Black Knights' under Jahn, The Knight of the Queen of Prussia,' 'The Concordists' under Dr. Lang and the Deutscher Bund, founded in 1810." [558]

The Illuminati of Bavaria

1776: The sect of the Illuminati of Bavaria was founded on May 1, 1776 by the Jew, Adam Weishaupt, a professor at the University of Ingolstadt, educated by the Jesuits. We know that much has already been said, and more will be said about the Illuminati but it is such an important Secret Society that it would be hard to learn too much about it.  As it is the most powerful of all the Secret Societies, for its very foundation and leadership is made up of the "Learned Elders of Zion" and controls every facet of the Jewish conspiracy. So please bear with us. This society seems to have borne a close resemblance to the Order of the Golden Cross which was reorganized in 1767. According to Le Forestier, Illuminism was just as much masonry as the system of the Rose Croix, that of the Templars or the crowd of Masonic French degrees, and it is wrongfully accused of having taken in Bavaria the cloak of Masonry.[559] It was composed of three classes of adepts, each of which was again subdivided into degrees, in the following manner:

Preparation

Novice

Nursery

Minerval

Illuminatus Minor

Apprentice

Symbolic Fellow Craft

Master Mason

Masonry Illuminatus Major, or

Scotch Novice

Scotch

Illuminatus Dirigens, or Scotch Knight

Epopt, or Priest

LesserPrince, or Regent

Mysteries Magus, or Philosopher,

GreaterRex, King, Homme Roi, or Areopagite

In the March issue of the occult "Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes," began a French translation of the two most important collections of the original documents relating to the Bavarian Illuminati of Weishaupt:

"(1) Einige Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens. Munich, 1786.

 (2) Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften, welche die Illuminaten‑secte...betreffen en 2 parties, Munich, 1787."

Speaking of the occultists of Haute Maconnerie of the eighteenth century, the R.I.S.S. writes: "These Illumines were in fact the secret rampart of the Sect. The Illumines of France, with Martinez Paschalis, the unknown philosopher, Pernetty, and the whole school, which has left such deep roots in Lyons and its surroundings; the Illuminati of Bavaria, with Weishaupt and his accomplices. It was in these secret Lodges that the French Revolution was conceived and prepared; today it is in the Temples of the same Order, Jewish Cabalistic and Satanist, that the World Revolution has germinated and ripened...The plans of yesterday will better assist us to grasp the intentional and methods of today."

The documents are thus described: "Some Original Writings of the Order of the Illuminati which were found at the House of Zwach, former Councillor of Government, in the domiciliary visit carried out at Landshut, October 11‑12, 1786. The present collection has been published by the Supreme order of His Highness the Elector in order to convince the public of this and foreign countries of the undoubted falsity of the reasons given for the ceaseless outcry from the Illuminati against the injustice, violence, and prosecution to which they are subjected in Bavaria, and also at the same time to put them on their guard in Bavaria, and also at the same time to put them on their guard against this epidemic sect, and against all other such illegal and clandestine societies. For these merely set themselves to deceive credulous people and get money out of them ‑‑ and in place of spreading the truth and morality, as they profess to do, absolutely ruin the latter and suppress or completely falsify the former. If anyone doubts the authenticity of this collection, let them present themselves at the secret archives of this town, where orders have been given to show the originals. Munich, March 26, 1787."

The scheme of this Order is apparently to form a united machine absolutely controlled by the Superiors [The Learned Elders of Zion], who alone know its true aim. For this purpose there must be complete harmony among its members, no hatred, no jealousy, no unworthy egoism; having one spirit, one consideration, and one will! To help to bring about this desired orientation, a special list of books is prescribed upon which the members must build up their outlook. In one document Zwach speaks of the proposal to form a woman's order, to consist of two classes, each constituting a separate society, each remaining unknown to the other: one class of virtuous women, a means of obtaining money, secret information, and benefits for the real Order; the other of light women, to satisfy the passions of F.M. so inclined. "Both should be kept in ignorance that they are directed by the men's Order."

Of their camouflaged and supposed aim Spartacus (Weishaupt) writes: "As in the past, the future aim of the Order remains ‑‑ to interest man in bringing to perfection his mind and moral character; to develop humane and social sentiments, to oppose wicked designs in the world, to fight Agaustice, to help the unfortunate and oppressed, to encourage men of merit who are useful to the Order, and to spread knowledge of the sciences; and they are faithfully and solemnly assured that this is the real and not merely the supposed aim of the society. That it is vain to hope to gain greater power and riches by entering this Order."

But we can see this was for external consumption, for by reviewing Marie‑Antoinette et le Complot Maconnique, 1910, by Louis Daste, who quotes a rare brochure, The Role of Freemasonry in the XVIIIth Century, by F. Brunelliere, which said: "Weishaupt aimed at nothing less than the complete overthrow of authority, nationality, and the whole social system, in a word, the suppression of property, etc...As to his principle, it was absolute and blind obedience, universal espionage, the end justifies the means. This system of conspiracy so strongly organized which would have upheaved the world, spread through Germany, where it seized almost all the Masonic Lodges. Weishaupt sent to France Joseph Balsamo, so‑called Comte Cagliostro, to illuminize French Masonry. Finally he assembled a Congress at Wilhelmsbad in 1782, to which he convoked all German and foreign lodges...In 1785 the Illuminati were revealed to the Bavarian Government, who terrified, appealed to all Governments, but the Protestant Princes showed little haste in suppressing it. Weishaupt found refuge with the Prince de Saxe‑Gotha. He had for the rest taken great care not to tell everything to the Princes, or even to many of his initiates; he had hidden from them the appeal to the force of the masses; he had hidden from them the Revolution." [560]

Here we have the same sinister methods as found in all similar societies of today! Weishaupt further writes that the adept must learn the art of dissimulation, observing and probing others. Discovering secrets he must disclose them to the Superiors, who in turn promise not to make use of the information unless permitted by the informer!

The Order exacts complete submission in whatsoever concerns the affairs of the Order. They must practice perfect circumspection and discretion with regard to the world outside. Silence and secrecy constitute the soul of the Order, and even the Frater's grade is kept secret, save with equals, among whom there are signs for recognition. As to the true aim of this Order, a document drawn up by Zwach shows its political progress for one year in Bavaria.

Jesuits removed from all professorial chairs, and entirely cleared out of Ingolstadt University; penetration by F.M. of the Church, control of German schools, charitable societies, and other university chairs. On the recommendation of the Fratres, Pyladw was to become treasurer of the Ecclesiastical Council, and in this way the Order has the revenues of the Church at its disposal. Thus it was able to assist the Fratres and save some of the from the clutches of money‑ lenders! "The widowed Duchess has organized the Institute of Cadets absolutely according to the plan indicated by the Order; all the professors are members of the Order...and all the pupils become adepts of the Order. We will draw to us all the young priests of the Bartholomew endowment...there is every chance that we may in this way be able to provide all Bavaria with instructed priests."

Also among the documents were various recipes:

1). for Aqua Toffana, a poison imperceptibly slow but deadly.

2). One to bring about abortion; and

3). One concerning herbs having deleterious properties.

The Initiation took place after one, two, or three years of probation. In the Revers de silentio, a form signed by the candidate before the initiation, submission and silence is promised, and he is assured that there is in the Society nothing contrary to "State, morals, or religion." Before the Oath is administered it is said; a sword pointed at the breast: "Shouldst thou become a traitor or perjurer, let this sword remind thee of each and all the members in arms against thee. Do not hope to find safety; whithersoever thou mayest fly, shame and remorse as well as the vengeance of thine unknown brothers will torture and pursue thee."

Then in the Oath which follows he swears: "...eternal silence, and faithfulness and everlasting obedience to all superiors and regulations of the Order. I also renounce my own personal views and opinions as well as all control of my powers and capacities. I promise also to consider the well‑being of the Order as my own, and I am ready, as long as I am a member, to serve it with my goods, my honor, and my life...If I act against the rules and well‑being of the Society, I will submit myself to the penalties to which my superiors may condemn me..."

He received a classical name, by which he was henceforth known in the Order. He was required also to keep all things appertaining to the Order in a special place, having a label attached with the address of his superior, to whom the body had to be sent in case of his sudden death. In one of the recipes is found the description of such a box which, when opened by an uninitiated person, would at once burst into flames! To such an extent was secrecy and silence demanded! After the, alleged, breaking up of his Order Weishaupt and his followers sill secretly carried on their intrigues, for by 1789 the 266 Lodges controlled by the Grand Orient of Freemasonry were all Illuminized unbeknown to the large majority of the members, and a few months later the French Revolution of that date eventuated.

In 1794 the Duke of Brunswick, Grand Master of German Freemasonry, issued a Manifesto to all the Lodges showing how Masonry had been penetrated by this International Sect, and suggesting, for a time, suppression of all Freemasonry until it was freed from this unseen cancer. It said:  "A great sect arose, which, taking for its motto the good and happiness of man, worked in the darkness of the conspiracy to make the happiness of humanity a prey for itself. This sect is known to everyone: its brothers are known no less than its name. It is they who have undermined the foundations of the Order (Freemasonry) to the point of complete overthrow; it is by them that all humanity has been poisoned and led astray for several generations. The ferment that reigns amongst the peoples in their work. They founded the plans of their insatiable ambition on the political pride of nations. Their founders arranged to introduce this pride into the heads of the peoples. They began by casting odium on religion...They invented the rights of man, which it is impossible to discover even in the book of Nature, and they urged the people to wrest from their princes the recognition of these supposed rights. The plan they formed for breaking all social ties and of destroying all order was revealed in all their speeches and acts. They deluged the world with a multitude of publications; they recruited apprentices of every rank and in every position; they deluded the most perspicacious men by falsely alleging different intentions. They sowed in the hearts of youth the seed of covetousness, and they excited it with the bait of the most insatiable passions. Indomitable pride, thirst of power, such were the only motives of this sect; their masters had nothing less in view than the thrones of the earth, and the government of the nations was to be directed by their nocturnal clubs. This is what has been done and is still being done. But we notice that princes and people are unaware how and by what means this is being accomplished..." [561]

Later, a law was passed, as a result of all this, by the English Parliament in 1799, prohibiting all secret societies with the exception of Freemasonry. Today, it is said, these secret societies are still illegal, and although some call themselves semi‑public, an oath of secrecy is still required by their chiefs, concerning the most important and secret teachings, relating, more especially, to contact with the mysterious controlling power on the astral plane. According to Monsignor Dillon, 1885 (Mrs. Webster, Secret Societies): "Had Weishaupt not lived, Masonry might have ceased to be a power after the reaction consequent on the French Revolution. He gave it a form and character which caused it to outlive that reaction to energize to the present day, and which will cause it to advance until its final conflict with Christianity must determine whether Christ or Satan shall reign on this Earth to the end."

Was Weishaupt not merely the tool of another and more formidable Sect? Of this "Overshadowing Power," which is the life, as it were, of Illuminism, we are told, in "The Victories of Israel," by Roger Lambelin: "Josheph de Maistre who was, one knows, a Freemason of fairly high grade, noted the influence exercised by the Jews. In 1811, examining the causes of the French Revolution, in a letter written to his King from St. Petersburg, he says: 'The power of this sect oriented by Jewry, to bewitch Governments, is one of the most terrible and most extraordinary phenomena that have been seen in the world."

Again, Bernard Lazare, the Jewish writer, affirms: "It is certain that there were Jews even at the cradle of Freemasonry; Cabalistic Jews, as is proved by certain existing rites; very probably during the years which preceded the French Revolution they entered in still greater numbers into the councils of the society, and themselves founded secret societies.

There were Jews round Weishaupt; and Martinez de Pasqualis, a Jew of Portuguese origin, organized numerous illuminised groups in France and recruited many adepts, whom he initiated into the doctrine of reintegration (regeneration). The Martinist Lodges were mystic, while the other Orders of Freemasonry were rather rationalist, which proves that secret societies represented the two sides of the Jewish mind ‑‑ practical rational­ism and pantheism; that pantheism which, which a metaphysical re­flection of a belief in the One God, ends at times in a Cabalistic Theurgy."

And M. Roger Lambelin adds: "They are the ferments of revolution in all ethnic groups foreign to their race." Further, Rabbi Benamozegh says: "Is it surprising that Judaism has been accused of forming a branch of Freemasonry? What is certain is that Masonic theology is only theosophy at bottom, and corresponds to that of the Cabala...Those who will take the trouble to examine with care the connection between Judaism and philosophic Freemasonry, theosophy, and the mysteries in general...will cease to smile in pity at the suggestion that Cabalistic theology may have a role to play in the religious transformations of the future...It contains the key to the modern religious problem."

In an interesting book, "Les Juifs et le Talmud," by M. Flavien Bernier, we find some light thrown on this Pantheistic creed of the Cabalistic Jews and the "Deified Man" of Illuminism. He wrote, 1913:  "Now the dominating philosophic doctrine among learned Chaldeans...was absolute Pantheism. In the vast Temple which is the Universe, the learned Chaldeans suppressed the Creator...Everything was cause and effect; the world was uncreated and itself became its own god. Even the idea of Divinity was confounded with Universal Harmony which regulated all things, and with each of the things it regulated. God was therefore in turn, and as a whole, Earth nourisher of man, the dew which fertilized it, the Sun which gave light and heat, the wind which carried the fertilizing pollen of vegetation; God was the life principle which perpetuated the species, human and animal; which caused plants to germinate, grow, die, and spring into life again, which manifested even in apparently inanimate bodies. Identified as a kind of breath of Nature, uncreated and eternal. God emanated from the world not the world from God. It is realizable that such a system, which bears the imprint of a bizarre but undeniable poetry, would, in all ages, have the power to seduce the human mind. It would seduce it all the more that the system had, as immediate result, the increase of human pride in the cult of the 'Deified Man.'

In effect, if no Supreme Being as distinct from Nature was imposed over the latter by right of creation ‑‑ if all things had in some manner an intelligence or soul, and if God was merely the sum of all these conscious or unconscious souls of the Universe, a hierarchy would necessarily exist among these souls of which each was a part of God, but which could only contain God in a very unequal manner.

The divine principle would find itself distributed in less abundance in a stone than in a tree, which lives, breathes, grows, and dies; in a tree than in an animal, which thinks, perceives, and acts; in an animal than in a man who mediates on the past and future, solves the problem of Nature, corrects the latter's imperfections by his labor and ingenuity, and seeks to perfect himself indefinitely. At the summit of the ladder of beings Man, much more perfect and more intelligent than any of the others, evidently absorbed the greatest amount of the divine essence of which the Universe is composed. Having emptied the heavens of any being superior to himself, he was in truth God of the World, where all were apparently inferior and subordinate to him."

In a footnote the author adds: "Those of our readers who are familiar with the works of Hermetic Freemasonry will at once recognize the favorite ideas of the pontiffs of that sect, ideas which they have inherited from the alchemists of the Middle Ages, who held them from the Cabalistic Jews. The same may be said of the cult of the 'Deified Man,' which was the basis of Chaldean Pantheism, and which has remained that of Occultism, ancient and modern. Certain traditions give to Zoroaster, a Jewish Prophet, as Master...But, on the other hand, Chaldean thought acted powerfully upon orthodox Judaism and determined the growth of a sect in its midst which was to transform Israel...This sect was that of the 'Pharisees.'...

­What they borrowed (from the Chaldeans) in fact...was the essence of the Pantheistic doctrine...It was then that was formed from these borrowings that Kabalah (Kabbalah) of the Pharisees which was for long transmitted orally from Master to disciple, and was, 800 years later, to inspire the compilation of the Talmud, and found its completest expression in the 'Sepher ha Zohar.'...This religion of the 'Deified Man,' with which they were impregnated in Babylon, was only conceived as benefitting the Jew, superior and predestined being...The premise of universal domination found in the Law by the orthodox Jew was not interpreted by the Pharisees in the sense of the reign of the God of Moses over the Nations, but in the sense of a material domination which would be imposed by the Jews over the Universe. The expected Messiah...was to be a temporal King, all bloody from battle, who would make Israel master of the world and trample all peoples under the wheel of His chariot."

Have we not here the basis of the teaching in all these Orders and groups, mystic and occult, of the present time ‑‑ the cult of the life‑force, the I.A.O. the "Serpent Power," the all‑pervading ether? And have we not also the key to the Cabalistic Jews, in these Pharisees of old and of today; these so‑called "Divine Guardians" working behind and through these secret Orders, who profess to teach the doctrine of the deification of the adept, but who in very truth create Illuminised slaves controlled by the Cabalistic Jew, who claims to be the "Deified Man" as M. Bernier says, "the God people" rather than the "People of God."

In the Patriot, March 7, 1929, we find some interesting material in connection with Secret Societies and the French Revolution; it says: "In 1910 there was published a very remarkable book, entitled Marie‑Antoinette et le Complot Maconnique. It was written by M. Louis Daste, an erudite historian, who had spent a great deal of time in examining published and unpublished documents throwing light on the part played by secret societies in preparing the French Revolution...the extracts show, among other things, how anti‑Christian and revolutionary ideas were circulated by bodies ostensibly engaged in educating the French people. Behind these bodies was French Freemason­ry, which was and is, unlike our own Freemasonry, anti‑Christian, political, and revolution­ary."

It was the stated intention of the Founder to constitute a Protestant organization to fight Jesuitism, using Jesuitical methods [This was only a smoke screen to conceal the real objectives of the organization]. He was ably assisted in his efforts by Adolph, Baron von Knigge, Massenhausen, Bode, Anacharsis Clootz, Fischer, Zwack, Merz, Hertal, the Marquis de Constanza, Count Saviola, Bassus, Baron de Montgelas and Nicolai. Behind Nicolai was Moses Mendelssohn, and behind Mendelssohn the Jewish Kahal, the Jewish International World Government.[562]

"Nicolai had estab­lished about the year 1765 at Berlin a literary review with the object of propa­gating the pernicious doctrines of a shallow Illumi­nism, and, in that, the infancy of Ger­man liter­ature, when this periodical had scarcely a rival to encounter, the in­fluence it exerted was more extensive than can at present be even conceived. Bahardt and Base­dow, at the same time, in cheap and popular tracts, scattered among the lower classes the poison of infidelity; and they, as well as Nicolai, were in close communication with Weishaupt, carrying on with the most reckless violence, and with the weapons of a most shameless ribaldry, the warfare against Christianity. The great critic Lessing, the founder of the modern German literature, lent his powerful support to the anti‑Christian League. While librarian at Wolfenbuttel, he edited a work, composed by Reimarus, consisting of various irreligious essays entitled Fragments of Wolfenbuttel, and which, from the tone of earnest­ness and dialectic acuteness where they were written, exerted a very prejudicial influence over public opinion." [563]

As the organization of the Illuminati developed, so did its ambitions, which ended in a plot to subvert Freemasonry to its aim of world dominion by any and all means. But for the Freemason Baron Adolph von Knigge, a Templar, who succeeded in having it absorbed by Freemasonry, the order would have perished soon after its creation. After obtaining control of certain Masonic Lodges, Weishaupt and his associates recklessly vaunted their growing power.

 Their organiza­tion then, soon becoming permeated by the agents of their enemies, the Jesuits and Rose Croix Orders, they were denounced to the Elector of Bavaria, Charles Theodore, by the Duchess Marie‑Anne of Bavaria (Princess Clementine), has cousin whose secretary, Joseph Utzschneider, had, as an Illuminatus, become acquainted with certain methods of the order. Constanza had ordered him to hand over certain letters written by Frederic II to the Duchess Marie‑Anne and, suspecting blackmail, instead of complying with the request, he denounced the order.

On March 2, 1785, the Elector wrote his second and final edict, suppressing the order of the Illuminati, but it was not until July 10, 1785 that incriminating evidence was obtained on the activities of the sect when one of its members, a priest, Jacob Lang, was struck dead by lightning while walking with Weishaupt at Ratisbon [Some writers have it he was riding a horse when struck by lightning]. His body was placed in the chapel of Saint‑Emmeran and a Benedictine found some documents and a list of the members of the Illuminati sewn in his clothes.

These he handed over to the Councillor of the Government of Upper Bavaria. More papers were found when the authorities, who were watching Zwack's relations with a certain Jew, Mayer, the superintendent of Bassus' chateau of Sandersdorf, near Ingolstadt, decided to raid the place, and in 1787 the judge charged with the inventory of the succession of the valet of Baron Maendl, the Chamberlain of the Elector, found among his effect, an iron box full of papers concerning the Illuminati.

This discovery, Maendl, himself an Illuminatus, was summoned to explain. Among the details of his evidence is the statement that the Lodge Bader had 97 degrees. The coincidence of this number becomes of interest when compared with the 97 degrees of Memphis sent to England in 1762 by the Grand Orient of France. When Weishaupt was banished from Bavaria by his sovereign, he was received at the court of the Duke Earnest‑Lous de Saxe‑Gotha who, besides a pension, gave him the title of Honorary Councillor.

The Marquis of Constanza, his secretary, and Count Saviola, the Keeper of the Archives of the order, two Italian accomplices, were also banished with pensions of 400 and 800 florins respectively, and as Illuminism was already said to have found its way into Italy, there is no reason to suppose that these gentlemen failed in their administration of the subsidy.

The Gospel of Revolution

We see the foundation and growth of such societies as:

1). The Strict Observance of the Baron Hund and the notorious Jew Leucht who had assumed the name of Johnson, and several other aliases. It recruited its members in the Lodges and went from occultism into political intrigue, later even formulating a plan of economic and financial rule.

2). The Martinists, which, founded by a Portuguese Marrano Jew, Martinez Depasqualy, united political intrigues, fomented for the overthrow of the monarchy, together with magical practices. It numbered among its members the chief politicians who prepared the French Revolution. These were Savalette de Lange, William Law and Marabeau.

3). The Scottish Rite.

4). The Moravian Brothers.

5). The Alta Vendita.

6). The Egyptian Rites of Cagliostro (Mizraim).

The adepts of all these different rites knew but little beyond the fact that they had shaken off the yoke of Christian principles which were replaced by the cult of nature, and in almost all cases licentious­ness. They were but mere puppets manipulated by unseen men whose sinister aims were the destruction of Christianity and disruption of States and to whom all the above named orders or organizations were but so many recruiting grounds. It was only when each and all had gathered sufficient strength that the "Invisible Masters" attempted to unite them all under one supreme sway, namely that of Illuminism at the convent of Wilhelmsbad in 1782. Illuminism represented the efforts of the heads of the powerful Jewish Kahal which has ever striven for the attainment of political financial, economic and moral world dominion. The movement had been founded in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, Bernard Lazare, himself a Jew, has written that "There were Jews behind Weishaupt," and upon a close study of Illuminism, we find that the destructive forces which culminated in the French Revolution were of three kinds; financial, intellectual and anti‑Christian.

In the first class, we come upon the names of Jewish Financiers such as: Daniel Itzig, Friedlander, Ceerfbeer, Benjamin and Abraham Goldsmid, Moses Mocatta, and Veitel Heine Ephraim. In the second category, we find Moses Mendelssohn, Naphtali Wessely, Moses Hersheim, who are the inspirers of Lessing, Frederic Nicolai, Weishaupt, Mirabeau, l'Abbe Gregoire, the Duke of Brunswick‑Wolfenbuttel and Anacharsis Clootz.

Lastly, the third class is composed mostly of the group known as the Encyclopedists: d'Alembert, Diderot, Rousseau, Voltaire and of all the Cabalists practicing magic and among whom we find: Martinez Depasqualy, Leucht, the enigmatic Count of Saint Germain, Flake and Joseph Balsamo surnamed Cagliostro. The objects of this powerful organization of the Bavarian Illuminati, were:

1). The destruction of Christianity and of all Monarchical Governments;

2). The destruction of nations as such in favor of universal internationalism;

3). The discouragement of patriotic and loyal effort branded as narrow minded prejudice, incompatible with the tenets of goodwill to all men and the cry of "Universal Brotherhood;"

4). The abolition of family ties and of marriage by means of systematic corruption;

5). The suppression of the rights of inheritance and property.

The codified correspondence of the Grand Orient was received by Savalette de Langes and dealt with by the Committee. To be admitted to these councils they had to swear, as Chevalier du Soleil, hatred to Christianity and, as Chevalier kadosch, hatred to Crowns and Papacy. They had a branch in Paris, and this was frequented by Saint‑Germain, Raymond, Cagliostro, Condorcet, Dietrich, brothers of Avignon, and students of Swedenborg and Saint‑Martin. Outside they passed as charlatans, visionaries, evoking spirits and working prodigies, while secretly searching out accomplices in the Masonic Lodges.

Consorting with the chief disciples of Weishaupt, Mirabeau was initiated in Brunswick into the final Mysteries of Illuminism. Already he knew the value of Masonry in revolution, and on his return to France he introduced these mysteries among the Philalethes. It was then decided to illuminize all the lodges of France; for this purpose the Illuminati, Bode, or Aurelius, and Baron de Busche or Bayard, pupil of Knigge, were deputed to assist.

After much discussion it was resolved to adopt the Bavarian mysteries without changing the old forms of the lodges to illuminze them without revealing the name of the sect from whom the mysteries were received, and only to use Weishaupt's code in so far as it would hasten the revolution (Le Couteulx de Canteleu). From then the political aim was accentuated, a new grade was added, preserving Masonic emblems and rites, and this was passed on to the provinces. The closest alliance was concluded, and a general Convent of Masons in France and abroad was convoked by the secret committee for February 15, 1785. Savalette de Langes was elected president, and among the deputies were: Saint‑Germain, Saint‑Martin, Etrilla, Mesmer, Cagliostro, Mirabeau and Talleyrand, Bode, Dalberg, Baron de Gleichen, Lavater, Prince Louis de Hesse, and also deputies from the Grand Orients of Poland and Lithuania.

The Duc d'Orleans was then Grand master under its jurisdiction and order lodges of 282 towns in France and abroad (Mirabeau). At this Congress the French Revolution and its propagation throughout Europe was resolved upon even to the decree of regicide. The part, according to Mirabeau, to be taken by the people is thus described in his Memoires by Marmontel: “Have we to fear the great part of the nation which knows not our projects, and would not be disposed to lend us their support? ...

If they disapprove of them, it will be only timidly, without clamor. For the rest, does the nation know what it wants? We will make it want and say what it has never thought of...The nation is a large herd which thinks only of browsing, and which, with good dogs, the shepherds lead at will...One will have to impose upon the bourgeoisie who sees nothing to lose, but all to gain by the change. To stir it up one has the most powerful motives: poverty, hunger, money, rumors of alarm and fear, the frenzy of terror and rage with which we will strike their minds...What will we do with all this people while muzzling their principles of honesty and justice? Good men are feeble and timid; it is the blackguards who are determined. It is advantageous to people during revolutions to have no morals...there is not a single one of our old virtues which can serve us...All that is necessary for revolution, all that is useful to it is just ‑‑ that is the great principle."

About the beginning of the revolution a manifesto was issued from the committee of the Grand Orient addressed to all Masonic Lodges and Councils, to be used throughout Europe. By it, "...all the lodges were summoned to league together to unite their efforts for the mainte­nance of the Revolution, everywhere to seek followers, friends, and protectors, to propagate its flame, to stir up its spirit, to excite zeal and ardor for it in all countries and by all means in their power." After the receipt of this manifesto anti‑Monarchy and Republican ideas everywhere became dominant, and anti‑ religious ideas were used only to undermine nationalities.[564]

The Jew and high Mason, Cremieux, founder and president of L'Alliance‑israelite‑universelle, said in his manifesto, in 1860: "The net which Israel now casts over the terrestrial globe enlarges and extends...Our power is immense; learn to turn that power to our cause. The day is not far distant when all the riches, all the treasures of the earth, will become the property of the children of Israel."

In his book Marie‑Antoinette et le complot Maconnique, Louis Daste shows how that net was spread before and after the French Revolution of 1789. He writes: "From 1774 to 1783 we have seen Masonry unceasingly cover Marie‑Antoinette with the mud of its pamphlets. The hour approached when the sect was to strike the blow from which the Queen died."

It was the Affair of the necklace which was, according to G. Bord, "organized by the Strict Observance and the Amis Reunis of Paris." "The Jew Cagliostro," said ex‑Mason Doinel 33o, "...was the contemptible agent of this intrigue in which the popularity of the Queen foundered and the prestige of the unfortunate Louis XVI was ruined."

Further, Louis Blanc wrote, in 1848: "His initiation took place a short distance from Frankfort in a subterranean vault...(he was shown) a manuscript book in the first page of which could be read: We Grand Masters of the Templars; followed by an oath formula traced in blood. The book ...maintained that Illuminism was a conspiracy plotted against thrones, that the first blows would fall on France; that after the fall of the French Monarchy they would attack Rome. Cagliostro learned from his initiators that the secret society to which he henceforth belonged possessed a mass of money scattered in the banks of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, London, Genon, and Venice...As for himself, he handled a huge sum destined for the expenses of propaganda, received instructions from the Sect and went to Strasbourg."

On the seals of the lodge founded by him at Lyons were the three letters L.P.D. ‑‑ Lilia pedibus destrue, trample the (Burbon) lilies underfoot.[565] This, then, was his diabolical mission. When, therefore, Cagliostro arrived in Strasbourg, 1781, his first care was to control and set his tools in motion. The Cardinal Prince de Rohan, his dupe, and the Comtesse de la Motte, his accomplice, were made known to each other; the latter being in reduced circumstances, the Cardinal advised her to apply direct to the Queen, at the same time confiding to her his ambitions and his bitterness because of the Queen's refusal to see him. From then Mme de la Motte, pretending to be in touch with the Queen, under instructions from Cagliostro, acted as intermediary in a correspondence between the Queen, whose name was forged, and the Cardinal, which was nominally to bring about his restoration to the Royal favor and the realization of his ambitions, but was eventually to besmirch and compromise the unwitting Queen. Nothing was done without consulting Cagliostro.

In May, June, July 1784, the forged letters multiplied, written by Retaux de Villette and dictated by Mme de la Motte. Then at midnight, August 11, came the brief pretended interview in the park at Versailles between the Queen and the Cardinal. Nicole d'Oliva dressed as the Queen strongly resembled her; the Cardinal believed he had seen and spoken with Marie‑Antoinette. When, therefore, further forged letters twice asked him to find 60,000 livres for the Queen's bounties, both sums were willingly borrowed by the Cardinal from the Jew Cerfberr. The money was retained by Mme de la Motte!

In December, having come into touch with the Court jeweler, Boehmer, who was anxious to dispose of a diamond necklace worth 1,800,000 livres, she quickly planned to acquire it, in the same way, for herself. More forged letters from the Queen, along with advice from his oracle Cagliostro, reassured the Cardinal, and on February 1, 1785, the negotiations with Boehmer were completed; the necklace passed into the possession of Mme de la Motte, and the finest stones were sold in London by her husband.

Failing to receive the first payment of 100,000 ecus which fell due on July 30, Boehmer realized the fraud; the indignant Queen was informed of everything, and in August the Cardinal, Mme de la Motte, and Cagliostro were arrested, but not before most of the compromising letters were secretly burned. The Cardinal refused the King's offer to act as judge; they were, therefore, tried by Parliament, which was largely Masonised. The Cardinal and Cagliostro were acquitted, Mme de la Motte was condemned to be branded as a thief, whipped, and shut up, but was later secretly assisted to escape.

From London she waged her campaign of calumny against Marie‑Antoinette; in 1788 her Memoire justifi­catif was published, formed, said de Nolhac, of rage and lies, dragging the Queen through infamous mud. It was almost wholly retouched by M. de Calonne in a ferment of hatred against the Queen, whom he blamed for his disgrace from Ministerial office.

In 1789 appeared the Second memoire justificatif, again attributed to but repudiated by Mme de la Motte, and which outdid the first in filth and venom. Then followed an avalanche of indecent pamphlets, all based on the memoire with the double object of vilifying the Queen and besmirching minds with filthy pictures, killing in advance all pity in the hearts of the people and of her executioners; Lilia pedibus destrue. But Cagliostro was finished, the Secret Power, fearing disclosures, mercilessly broke him; forced to leave London, hunted through Europe, he was finally arrested in Rome by the Pontifical Police. After a long trial, recorded in Vie de Joseph Blasamo, 1791, he was condemned to death, commuted to imprisonment for life, and died in 1795. In a wretched garret in London, 1791, Mme de la Motte ended her life in terrible suffering, deserted by all. The Secret Power having no use for broken tools, had ceased to protect them.

In "La Revue," March 1, 1909, the editor wrote of an indecent pamphlet, O Marquez de Bacalhoa, published in February 1908, a month before the assassination of Don Carlos: "It is published in the form of the romances which appeared about 1780 on the private life of Louis XVI and Marie‑Antoi­nette ...It smothered the King in mud and did not spare Queen Amelia...The pages consecrated to the Queen were a mere tissue of infamous lies..."

The Portuguese Revolution of 1910 was the work of Jews of l'Alliance‑israelite‑universelle united to Freemasonry. Again we have Proudhon writing: "What mysteries of iniquity would be revealed if the Jews, like the mole, did not make a point of working in the dark."

Moses Mendelssohn, himself the head of the Haskalah [Jewish Illuminati], cooperated with the Bavarian Illuminati of Weishaupt and with the prominent members of the other revolutionary secret societies aspiring to political power, but, in 1784, the Elector of Bavaria made an abortive effort to stamp out the conspiracy which, being international, was necessarily impervious to local measures.

The poison of subversion was working in France, where on January 21, 1793, it culminated in the death on the scaffold of Louis XVI, an event that in Masonic jargon is known as "The second cannon shot." The capture of Rome by Cadorna in 1870 was the third. As a further confirmation of concerted Masonic action let us bring yet another illustration: In the first days of the French Revolution (1848), 300 Freemasons, with their banners flying over brethren of every rite representing French Freemasonry, marched to the Hotel de Ville, and there offered their banner to the Provisional Government of the Republic, proclaiming aloud the part they had just taken in the glorious Revolution. M. de Lamartine made them this answer, which was received with enthusiasm by the Freemasonry Lodges: "It is from the depths of your lodges that the ideas have emanated, first in the dark, then in the twilight, and now in the full light of day, which have laid the foundations of the Revolutions of 1789, 1830, and 1849." [566]

Fourteen days later, a new deputation of the "Grand Orient," adorned with their Masonic scarfs and jewels, repaired to the Hotel de Ville. They were received by A. Cremieux (The means for the attainment of Cremieux's ambition are set forth in a book entitled Paris: Capitale des Religions, by Jean Izoulet), and Garnier Pages, attended by Pages, who also wore their Masonic emblems.

The Representative of the Grand Master spoke thus: "French Freemasonry cannot contain her universal burst of sympathy with the great social and national movement which has just been effected. The Freemasons hail with joy the triumph of their principles, and boast of being able to say that the whole country has received through you a Masonic consecration. Forty thousand Freemasons in 500 lodges, forming but one heart and one soul, assure you here of their support happily to lead to the end of the work of regeneration so gloriously begun."

Brother Cremieux, a Jewish brother, member of the Provisional Government, replied: "Citizens and brothers of the Grand Orient, the Provisional Government accepts with pleasure your useful and complete adhesion. The Republic exists in Freemasonry. If the Republic do as the Freemasons have done, it will become the glowing pledge of union with all men, in all parts of the globe, and on all sides of our triangle." [567]

If the wielding of power and their national political economic and financial strength over the peoples by a few hidden hands can result in such calamitous upheavals as the French Revolution, the World War of 1914 and the Russian Revolution of 1917, were it not wise to apply the lesson of experience to ascertain whether the supposed harmless Masonry of today does not again serve as a screen or curtain behind which thrive secret societies no less subversive, revolutionary and demoralizing than those which we have just so briefly sketched?

We know that most of them such as the Martinists, the Illuminatis, the Scottish Rite and the Egyptian Lodges of Memphis and Mizraim still exist today, so, on what grounds can we base our assumption of a change of their revolutionary and anti‑Christian principles? In the face of late events, namely, the Peace Conference, the creation of the League of Nations, the amalgamation of international resources, the confiscatory inheritance taxes, the development of international finance, the proposed establishment of an international non‑Christian cult, have we the right to refrain from lifting the veil of Masonry behind which subversive movements are so conveniently hidden?

The Rosicrucians

The Rosicrucians were deeply involved in the formation of the Illuminati. So much so that speculation as to the origin of the Rosicrucians, and the many fables and legends connected with the subject have but ittle historical value.

Owing to the great discrepancy between the information contained in the following article and that given in the more modern editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica, it has been deemed advisable to reprint the former.[568]  "Rosicrucians, a name assumed by a sect or cabal of hermetical philosophers; who arose, as it has been said, or at least became first taken notice of in Germany, in the beginning of the fourteenth century. They bound themselves together by a solemn secret, which they all swore inviolably to preserve: and obliged themselves, at their admission into the order, to a strict observance of certain established rules.

They pretended to know all sciences, and chiefly medicine: whereof they published themselves the restorers. They pretended to be masters of abundance of important secrets, and, among others, that of the philosopher's stone: all which they affirmed to have received by tradition from the ancient Egyptians, Chaldeans, the Magi and Gymnosophists. They have been distinguished by several names, accommodated to the several branches of their doctrine.

Because they pretend to protect the period of human life, by means of certain nostrums, and even to restore youth, they were called Immortals; as they pretended to know all things, they have been called Illuminati; and because they have made no appearance for several years, unless the sect of illuminated which lately started up on the continent derives its origin from them, they have been called the Invisible Brothers. Their society is frequently signed by the letters F.R.C. which some among them interpret fratres roris cocti; it being pretended that the matter of the philosopher's stone is dew concocted, exalted, etc. Some, who are no friends to freemasonry, make the present flourish­ing society of freemasons a branch of Rosicrucians; or rather the Rosicrucians themselves, under a new name or relation, viz., as retainers to building.

And it is certain, there are some freemasons who have all the characters of Rosicrucians; but how the area and original of masonry, and that of Rosicrucianism here fixed from Nadaeus, who has written expressly on the subject, conflict, we leave others to judge...notwith­standing the pretended antiquity of the Rosicrucians, it is probable that the alchemists, Paracelsists (Followers of Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493‑1541)), or fire‑ philosophers, who spread themselves through almost all Europe about the close of the 16th century, assumed about this period the obscure and ambiguous title of Rosicrucian brethren, which commanded at first some degree of respect, as it seemed to be borrowed from the arms of Luther, which were a cross placed upon a rose.

But the denomination evidently appears to be derived from the science of chemistry. It is not compounded, says Motheim, as many imagine of the two words Rosa and crux, which signify rose and cross, but of the latter of these words, and the Latin ros, which signifies dew...At the head of these fanatics were Robert Fludd, an English physician, Jacob Behmen, and Michael Mayer; but if rumor may be credited, the present Illuminated have a head of higher rank. The common principles, which serve as a kind of center of union to the Rosicrucian society, are the following: They all maintain that the dissolution of bodies, by the power of fire, is the only way by which men can arrive at true wisdom, and come to discern the first principles of things. They all acknowledge a certain analogy and harmony between the powers of nature and the doctrines of religion; and believe that the Deity governs the kingdom of grace by the same laws with which he rules the kingdom of nature; and hence they are led to use chemical denominations to express the truth of religion. They all hold that there is a sort of divine energy, or soul, diffused through the frame of the universe, which some call the argheus, others the universal spirit, and which others mention under different appella­tions. They all talk in the most superstitious manner of what they call the signatures of things, of the power of the stars, over all corporeal beings, and their particular influence upon the human race, of the efficacy of magic, the various ranks and orders of demons: These demons they divide into two orders, sylphs and gnomes." [569]

This article having been written in 1747 only hinted at what the Rose Croix might have been. Subsequent research upon the organization of the Fraternity, its tenets and its achievements, shows it to have been a medium for the propagation of Gnosticism and a center for political activities. Before it conquered Freemasonry, which was officially instituted in 1717, many names were already associated intimately with this esoteric organization. Among others were Faustus Socinius, Cesare Cremonini, Michael Maier, Valentin Andrea, Thomas Vaughan (Philaletes), Charles Blount, Frederich Helvetius, Richard Simon, and Theophilus Desaguliers.

It is claimed that Faustus Socinius, named after Faustus, the Manichee, nephew of Lelius Socinius, whose teacher was Camillo Renato, was an intimate of Rosicrucianism and the founder of the Socinians. Catholics and Protestants alike opposed Faustus Socinius in his efforts to graft a secret cult on the existing orthodox religions, and in 1598, the people of Cracovia, revolted by his doctrines, pillaged his house, burned his books and manuscripts and almost massacred their author. He had sworn hatred to the church and busied himself in founding an association the aims of which were to be subversive to all its teachings, and two years before his death, he was obliged to take refuge from his enemies with one Abraham Blonski. The membership of the Rose Croix was composed of Alchemists, Astrologers and Spiritists whose quest was for the search for a process for transmuting base metals into gold and the secret of life. To most of these "generation was the root principle of Achemy." [570]

The order of the Rose Croix revealed itself in 1614 with the appearance of two books, Fama Fratern­italis and the Confessio attributed to Valentin Andrea giving the legend of the travels of Christian Rosenkreutz. According to Charles T. MacClenachan 33o, Historian, Grand Lodge State of New York, this same legend had appeared as the work of Raymond Lulli, who died in 1315. In this legend, translated into English in 1616 by Robert Fludd, a symbolic personage called Christian Rosenkreuz, destined to live 106 years on earth, traveled in the East where he studied the Cabala and, on his return to his native Germany, he revealed to three disciples the secret of secrets, the great secret of theosophy. (Fire, alias Kundalini, alias sex‑force). Finally, he retired to a cave to finish his days in solitude, dying in 1484 at the age of 106. His disciples came, enshrouded him and disappeared. His grave was to be unknown for six times twenty years at the end of which period it was to become the hearth of the light destined to illuminate the world at the time appointed by God.

In 1604, chance brought men to this cave. On entering, great was their surprise to find it resplendent with a bright light. It contained an altar bearing upon a copper plate the inscription "Living, I reserved this light for my grave." One mysterious figure was accompanied by this epigram "Never vacant." A second figure "The Yoke of the Law." A third figure "The Liberty of the Gospels."

A fourth "The Glory of the Whole God." The hall still contained lamps burning without fuel, mirrors of various shapes and books. Upon the wall was written "In six times twenty years I will be discovered." The prophecy was fulfilled, adds the fable, by way of conclusion. The movement was greatly furthered by the impulse given it when, after the appearance of the Fama Fraternitatis and Confessio, a German Alchemist, Michael Maier, an English Physician, Robert Fludd and a Pietist, Julius Sperber, wrote treatises in defense or explanation of the order of the Rose Croix. It has repeatedly been stated that Michael Maier, who frequently visited England, was a friend of Robert Fludd. He was the author of Themis Aurea and Silentium post Clamores, both Rosicrucian works. His political influence may be judged from his career.

Physician to Rudolf II, he was created by him Count of the Palatinate, and acted as adviser to his sovereign. In 1609, Rudolf II issued an Imperial Charter granting religious liberty to the Moravians.[571] Masonic authorities state that Maier, as a Rosicrucian, changed his official title to Summus Magister, Sovereign Master, which is that used by all his successors and borne by the principal Socinian Rose‑Croix documents, dating from the time of Faustus Socinius to that of Johann Wolff, which are preserved in the Sovereign Patriarchal Council of Hamburg.[572]

In his book "Themis Aurea," written in 1616 and 1617 and printed in 1618, Maier, the Grand master, refers to a resolution passed at a meeting in 1617 in which it was formally agreed that the Brotherhood of the Rose Croix must maintain the strictest secrecy for a hundred years. On October 31, 1617, the Convention of the Seven at Magdebourg had indeed agreed to qualify its members during the ensuing one hundred years of secrecy as "The Invisibles."

It had renewed its oath to destroy the church of Jesus Christ and had decreed that, in the year 1717, it would transform the fraternity into an association which could carry on a more or less open propaganda, while adopting such measures of prudence as might then be deemed expedient by the leaders of the sect. Finally, the Seven adopted definitely, as being sufficiently original to appeal to the popular imagination, Valentin Andrea's curious story of the Rose Croix which had been secretly printed in Venice towards 1613.

Robert Fludd was the author of "Tractatus Apologelicus" (1617) and Clavis Philosophiae et Alchymiae (1633). He was greatly helped in the foundation of the Rose Croix order in England by Francis Bacon, author of "Nova Atlantis Histoire des Rose Croix." [573] Valentin Andrea to whom, as we have seen, are ascribed the works Fama and Confessio, as well as Chemycal nuptials, had, in 1640, been appointed preacher to the Duke of Brunswick Wofenbuttel, who was soon to make him his champion.

To those who know the important part played by a Duke of Brunswick during the French Revolution, this entrance of the Brunswick family into the sect is very interesting. As a Rosicrucian, Andrea was the teacher of Commenius (Amos Kominsky), who frequently visited England during his mysterious political career. Bishop of a Moravian community, Comenius was the leader of the Moravian Brethren, a sect pledged to achieve the extermination of the Catholic church and which, being considered heretical, was also suspected of practicing secret Satanism.

The Moravians were imbued with Socinianism, that is the doctrine of Lelius Socinius which had been spread among them by his nephew Faustus Socinius who had found refuge in Moravia when persecuted by the Church. Their link with Rosicrucianism had already been established in the person of the pietist, Julius Sperber, who was also one of their leaders.

When Kominsky was persecuted, he first went to London in 1641 and, early the next year, went to Sweden where he was granted refuge and help by the powerful Swedish Minister, Count Axel Oxenstiern, himself a Rosicrucian adept and protector of another initiate, Ludwig van Geer from Holland.

The combination of the pursuit of alchemy and hermeticism with political aims was frequently evidenced even before the official appearance of Rosicrucianism. The influence of adepts on the destinies of nations was immense. To Queen Elizabeth, the advice of John Dee, her alchemist, was always considered in matters affecting national policy, and to Dee, his crystal gazer, Edward Kelly, was indispensable as a medium. [574]

Ludwig van Geer, (one of the Seven present at Magdebourg) had settled in Sweden and had won over the chancellor. Count Axel Oxenstiern, then the real regent, in view of the minority of Queen Christina. A great industrialist of Dutch birth, with a colossal fortune made in the manufacture of cannon, he had become a Baron, and as owner of 20 ships of the Swedish fleet, he was an indispensable man. Another striking Rosicrucian figure was Thomas Vaughan, (Eugenius Philaletes) not to be confused with his pupil, George Starkey, known as Irenius Philaletes. It is said that it was Thomas Vaughan who, inspired by the writings of Nick Stone, conceived the idea of subverting to the ambition of the sect to which he belonged, the guild of the Freemasons which, owing to its universal character, lent itself better than any other to the realization of his project.

Nick Stone was one of the Seven of the Convention of Magdebourg. As an architect, belonging to the guild of the Freemasons, he had helped Inigo Jones, the grand‑master of the English Lodges which, at this period, were non‑sectarian. On the other hand, as a Rosicrucian he had grasped, in the Luciferian sense, the idea given by Faustus Socinius, and he had composed, for the nine grades of the fraternity, rituals which the chiefs declared remarkable. His ritual of the eighth degree (Magister Templi) was really Satanic.

Thomas Vaughan, struck by these manuscripts wondered whether it would be possible to extend the teaching of the Rose Croix to all "accepted masons," who were then admitted to the lodges in an honorary capacity; the Freemasons received in their guild, under the name of "accepted masons," peers and men of letters or professional men, as well as rich bourgeois, who enhanced the brilliancy of their meetings and patronized their entertainments. These honorary members were their protectors and benefactors (This is still customary. Many of the English Guilds of today such as the Goldsmiths have honorary members who, for attending their dinners receive a box of chocolates and £3 in cash). Vaughan believed that this element, gifted with certain intellectual qualities, would lend itself better to the propagation of the principles of occult Socinianism than the workers of the Fellow Craft, and, having made up his mind that this was the solution of the problem, he hastened to put it into practice.

Max Heindel, a former disciple of Dr. Steiner, who disapproved of the demanded secrecy, broke away from Steiner and came to America, where in 1911, he, without permission, published Steiner's teachings in his book Rosicrucian Cosmo‑Conception.

Steiner soon after published his Occult Science. Max Heindel founded his Rosicrucian Fellowship in order to spread the teaching without the objectionable secrecy. Because of this betrayal of secret teaching the members of R.R. et A.C. were forbidden to work with this Fellowship! In his book, 1911, Max Heindel wrote concerning world changes:  "The caste system, which was the stronghold of England in India, is crumbling. Instead of being separated into small groups, the people are uniting in the demand that the oppressor shall depart and leave them to live in freedom under a government of, by, and for the people [Theosophical influence!] Russia, 1911, is torn by strife for freedom from a dictatorial autocratic government [exchanged for Bolshevik slavery!].

Turkey has awakened and taken a long stride toward liberty [first under the Young Turks of the Grand Orient!] [In America] we are not yet satisfied...we see that we have still industrial freedom to gain...Thus, all over the world the old systems of paternal government are changing.

Nations as such have had their day, and are unwittingly working toward Universal Brotherhood in accordance with the design of our invisible leaders, who are none the less potent in shaping events because they are not officially seated in the councils of nations."

As Rene Guenon says: "We do not believe, therefore, that Theosophists, any more than occultists or Spiritists, have the force to succeed entirely by themselves in such an undertaking; but is there not behind all these movements something much more formidable which even their chiefs perhaps do not know and of which they, in their turn, are merely instruments?"

To again quote G.G. in The Anatomy of Revolution: "Behind every revolutionary movement throughout the world there is always some secret organization. These revolutionary movements in all countries, whatever the bodies which actually organize them, have always three primary aims:

(a) The abolition of existing constitutions, whether Monarchist or Republican.

(b) The abolition of private ownership of property; and

(c) The abolition of established religion.

     Sometimes the chief aim is camouflaged under a pattern of nationalism or of internationalism; but the attack is always directed ultimately against these foundations of civilization...The same people often preach nationalism in Ireland, India, Egypt, or South Africa, when the effect is to disinte­grate the British Empire...Mr. George Lansbury, the most prominent figure connected with the Herald newspaper, and founder of the Herald League, is not only a member of the Theosophical Society, and, it is said, of the Co‑Masons also, but claims to be of the line of the prophets of revolt. In an article in the Daily Herald (November 24, 1921), on the death of Mr. Hyndman, he describes himself as a disciple of that gentleman, who in turn was the disciple of Mazzini. So that here, on his own admission, we can trace once more the political pedigree of a leading revolutionary to the Carbonari of the mid‑nineteenth century."

Dion Fortune, states Illuminism, Masonry and the Rosicrucian order are based on the Jewish Cabala. She wrote: "...is one of these Mystery Schools; it is contacted on to the Western Esoteric Tradition, and it works the Christian, the Hermetic, and the Keltic aspects of that Tradition (hence its pilgrimage center at Glastonbury)...The Fraternity is an independent and self‑contained organization, and is not affiliated to any other organization on the physical plane, but holds its contacts direct from the Great White Lodge...the Great White Brotherhood, the Masters, or Elder Brethren. It is with these that the initiate of the Mysteries comes in touch when his higher consciousness is sufficiently developed."

Dion Fortune explains her real attitudes towards Christianity in her book, The Esoteric Orders, when, speaking of Hermetic traditions, she wrote: "Its highest development was in the Egyptian and Cabalistic systems, and it was blended with Christian thought in the schools of the Neo‑Platonists and the Gnostics; but the persecuting energy of the Church, long since exteriorized, stamped it out as an organized system. Its studies were only kept alive during the Dark Ages among the Jews, who were the chief exponents of its Cabalistic aspect. Its Egyptian aspect was reintroduced into Europe by the Templars after the Crusades had put them in touch with the Holy Centers in the Near East. [As we have shown, the secret doctrine of the Templars was Manichean and Johannite, and they were allied to the Assassins!]. Stamped out again by the fear and jealousy of the Church, it reappeared once more in the long line of Alchemists who flourished after the power of Rome was broken by the Reformation; and it is still alive today. [For] During the last half‑­century innumerable attempts have been made to induce the soul of the Mysteries to reincar­nate, and these attempts have met with varying success. Out of many abortive efforts a tradition is gradually being reformed; the smoldering fire of occult knowledge has been fanned to a blaze, and the gods have again drawn near to man."

Further to Dion Fortune, Christ is "Lord of the Purple Ray," classed with Krishna and Osiris. He is the Cosmic Christ, a regenerative and reconciling world‑force which can be contacted by meditation and used for Cosmic purposes; he was never a personality nor of our humanity, but Cosmic Fire, having the Sun as his symbol. And, she says, "by inspiration we can open our consciousness to it, and align ourselves with its lines of power until consciousness is suffused by it and illumination occurs." And showing its pantheistic nature she continues:  "Union with the divine aspect of the self, the god within, must precede awareness of the god of the Whole of which it is but a part. The spiritual level of man's nature is but a circumscribed portion of the One Spirit, the All, the Noumenal aspect of manifestation."

We must therefore conclude that the first aim of the Fraternity, like all illuminized groups, is to unit the Creative Principle within to the Creative Principle without, attracting and drawing down the Cosmic Christ or Fire, the illuminizing force, thus forming the magnetic link with the dominating minds of their Masters, for as she again explains: "By thinking of the Masters we attract their attention, and it is unbelievably easy to establish a magnetic link with those who are always more ready to give than we are to receive."

As the Masters said to the writer, "We have need of thee and all they gifts!" Their plan is to rule over a universal World State, and for this purpose they have need of passive yet gifted instruments. As Dion Fortune, herself, writes: "The Masters receive souls as pupils, not for the benefit of the soul, but for the benefit of the Great Work; a man is not trained for the sake of curiosity or enthusiasm, but only in so far as he is of value as a servant."

Having duly become illuminized servants, the adepts must train and initiate other dupes for a similar service in one direction or another as required by these masters. Therefore: "An officer who rightly understood his function would dwell upon the force which should act through his office till his personality became so saturated with it that he radiated its influence upon the candidate he was helping to initiate. The united action of all the officers builds a group‑mind which is capable of transmitting and focussing potencies of a much more massive or cosmic type than could be transmitted through the channel of a single consciousness."

Color and sound play an important part in transmitting these forces. As Max Heindel said: "These invisible sound vibrations have great power over concrete matter. They can build and destroy. If a small quantity of very fine powder is placed upon a brass or glass plate, and a violin bow drawn across the edge, the vibrations will cause the powder to assume beautiful geometrical figures. The human voice is also capable of producing these figures; always the same figure for the same tone. If one note or cord after another be sounded upon... preferably a violin...a tone will be finally reached which will cause the hearer to feel a distinct vibration in the back of the lower part of the head. Each time that note is struck, the vibration will be felt. That note is the 'key‑note' of the person whom it so affects. If struck slowly and soothingly, it will build and rest the body, tone the nerves, and restore health. If, on the other hand, it be sounded in a dominant way, loud and long enough, it will kill as surely as a bullet from a pistol."

Dion Fortune sums up: "All these influences are employed to construct a great thought‑form in the group‑mind of the Lodge, and into this thought‑form are poured the potencies evoked by the names of Power used in the initiatory work, and these influences are focused upon the candidate while he is in a state of exalted consciousness. This is the rationale of initiation."

This takes us back to the Order of the Elus Coens of Martinez de Paschalis and the Jewish Magical Cabala with its "fluidic magic" and the power generated by pronouncing the so‑called divine names, so much used in all magical orders, Eastern as well as Western. As the ancient Chaldean Oracles said: "Change not barbarous names in evocation, for they are names Divine, having in the sacred rites a power ineffable."

And colors, we know are the signatures of forces, therefore their vibrations are similar to their corresponding forces. The usual excuse of all such Fraternities and Orders, for the oath of secrecy, Dion Fortuen explains: "The knowledge is reserved in order that humanity may be protected from its abuse in the hands of the unscrupulous...The mind has certain little‑known powers, which are so potent and so subtle that, used for crime, they could overturn the social system of a nation. The courts recognize that undue influence can be exercised by one person over another, but they have little realization of the kind of influence a trained mind can exert over an untrained one."

It is, therefore, reasonable to ask: Has Dion Fortune any real proof that these so‑called masters and Brethren of the so‑called Great White Lodge are not unscrupulous and ambitious occultists and magicians, using and abusing these subtle powers of the minds of men in order to bring about their own mad and fanatical world ambitions, overturning the social, religious, and political systems, not of one nation but of all? If not, is she willing to take the enormous responsibility and risk for herself and more especially her confiding candidates and dupes? She teaches that the Manus, by means of suggestion or thought, transference, planted ideas in human consciousness! Who are these supposed Manus? A name borrowed from the East and for what end! "It is for this reason [Illuminism] that the Masters found and support such organizations as the Theosophical Society, the Anthroposophical Society, the Rosicrucian Fellowship, and many others, less known but not less useful..."

Who, then, are these Masters? And what is their Great Work? Have things changed since de Luchet wrote in 1789: "There was formed in the heart of thickest darkness a society of new beings, who knew each other without being seen, who understood each other without explanation, who served one another without friendship. Their society aims at governing the world, appropriating the authority of sovereigns, usurping their thrones by leaving them the mere barren honor of wearing the Crown. It adopts the Jesuitic regime, blind obedience, and the regicide principles of the seventeenth century; from Freemasonry the tests and exterior ceremonies; from the Templars the subterranean evocations and incredible audacity. It uses the discover­ies of physics to impose upon the ignorant multitude."

The invisible manipulators of Illuminism may be few, but their methods have the secret subtlety of the serpent, and their dupes are many. It is by binding together half qualities in men and women into groups of three, five, seven, twelve, etc., that the power of magic lies; it is, as it were, the seven colors of the prism, united to form the "Divine White Light" of the Rosicrucians, each individual representing the characteristics of a color, therefore, of a force.

This applies to many other correspondences attached to each force, as shown by Crowley in "777," which when combined together add to the potency of that particular force. As Dion Fortuen expresses it:  "A system of Correspondences consists of a set of symbols which the concrete mind can apprehend and a knowledge of the association chains which connect them with each other; this knowledge is absolutely essential for occult development."

Or as the Emerald Tablet of Hermes expresses it: "What is below is like that which is above, and what is above is similar to that which is below to accomplish the wonders of one thing [manifestation]. Its father is the Sun; its mother is the Moon. It is the cause of all perfection throughout the whole earth [equilibrium]. The power is perfect if it is changed into earth [fixation of the astral light in a material basis]. Separate the earth from the fire, the subtle from the gross, acting prudently and with judgment. Ascend with the greatest sagacity from earth to heaven, and then descend again to earth and unite together the things inferior and superior; thus you will possess the light of the whole world, and all obscurity will fly away from you.[575] This thing has more fortitude than fortitude itself, because it will overcome every subtle thing and penetrate every solid thing. By it the world was formed."

A.E. Waite, in his Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, 1924, quoting from the Transactions and History of the "Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia," recapitulates much of the above information about "the Isis Urania Temple of the Hermetic students of the Golden Dawn," the Hebrew name being "Chabreth Zerech Aur Bokher." Waite concludes that these cypher MSS, were post 180 (but possibly they were part of the reorganization of Weishaupts's Illuminati in 1880). "The grades, besides a Neophyte, were four (the four elements or the Tetragrammaton) ‑‑ Zelator, Theoricus, Practicus, and Philosophus; also a sub‑grade, the Portal, leading from the Golden Dawn" to the Rose Rubece et Aurece Crucis, the Inner Order. Apart from the cypher MSS. and MSS. found in libraries by MacGregor Mathers, most, was received clairvoyantly by Mrs. Mathers, a sister of M. Henri Bergson, the Jewish‑French writer, from the 'Hidden and Secret Chiefs of the Third Order;"

Against her wishes she was induced to take an oath of secrecy before the teaching was given, and it was later said by these unknown Chiefs: "In the case of Mathers, the former Chief, there was a human adept (as intermediary or etheric link), and also communication was given to him by clairvoyance, clairaudience, and impressional teaching, whereby the true interpretation of existing MSS, was given to him." Mathers was, we also find, doing political work under these Secret Chiefs, and was mixed up with war and military matters.

In 1897 Dr. Wynn Westcott resigned from the Order, and from then ceased to take active or official part in the work. His own account of the reason was, that the Chairman of the Corners' Society in London heard that he was teaching magic and got him to resign from the Order. Rene Guenon, in Le Theosophisme, 1921, says: "The English secret society of 'The Order of the Golden Dawn in the Outer' is a society of occultists studying the highest practical magic, somewhat akin to Rosicrucianism. Men and women are admitted on equal terms. There are three principal officers, Imperator, Premon­strator, and Cancellarius."

He further says, MacGregor Mathers writes in a letter, Lucifer, July 1889: "This society studies Western traditions ...The Theosophical Society is in friendly relation with them."

The letter bears the following mottoes: "Sapiens dominabitur astris (the continental adept), Deo duce comite ferro (Mathers), Non omnis moriar (Wescott), Vincit omnia veritas (Woodman)." It ends with these words: "Published by order of the Superior, 'Sapere Aude' (Westcott), Cancellarius in London."

Rene Guenon further continues, that much stir was created in Paris in 1899 and 1903 over an attempt made by Mr. and Mrs. MacGregor (Mathers) to restore the cult of Isis. Mr. MacGregor Mathers represented the G.D. in Paris, and was a member of the Theosophical Society. An account of this attempt was given in the Chronicle, March 19, 1989, which stated: "M. Jules Bois, the litterateur...recently discovered here a High‑Priest and High Priestes of Isis...and introduced them to go through their 'devotions' in public, at the Bodiniere theater...This couple of devotees to ancient deities profess to have been converted to the strange and passionate mysticism of the worship of Isis during their travels in Egypt. They pretend that they constituted the rites and ceremonies of the religion, and for some time past they have been carrying on their devotions in an underground chapel which they established at their residence...After preliminary prayers, the High‑Priestess performed the ceremony of 'unveiling the gods,' and then she invoked Isis with such passion and force...that she quite saved the situation...which otherwise might have turned into the ridiculous...in conclusion...the men (in the audience) were supplied with a few grains of corn, which, deposited upon the 'altar,' would bring success in the enterprise they had in hand, even if of a political and worldly character."

A.E. Waite was an early member of the "Golden Dawn," but at a meeting held at Dr. Felkin's residence in 1903, according to Dr. Felkin's history, "a split occurred, as Waite and his followers denied the existence of the Third Order, refused to have examinations in the inner, objected to all occult work, and said they must work upon purely mystic lines."

A Concordat was drawn up between the two Temples, but in 1912 it came to an end, as it was proved unworkable by both sides. When Waite and those who seceded with him left, they took with them certain properties and retained the name "Golden Dawn," and Dr. Felkin and his supporters eventually became the politico‑pseudo‑­religious "Stella Matutina," a Temple of mediumship. Waite still used the same magical rituals, somewhat modified, to suit his mystical ideas.

He ceased to be Chief of the "Golden Dawn" about 1915, and soon afterwards it went into abeyance. He, however, formed a new Temple, calling it the "Rosy Cross," and still, we have reason to believe, using the old Cypher MSS. rituals, and thus retaining the link with these unknown continental Rosicrucians and Illuminati. Since early in the nineties the "Stella Matutina" (then known as the "Golden Dawn") has been directed and instructed by unknown chiefs, acting under various pseudonyms. Curiously enough, it was at one time suggested that Dr. Falk, the cabalistic Jew who came to London in 1742, was the author of the original cypher MSS., but that cannot be vouched for. In this order we first hear of them as "The Hidden and Secret Chiefs of the Third Order," under whom Mathers and his wife worked.

In 1900 the London Temple revolted against Mathers, who had "issued a manifesto to the T.A.M. (inner) members, demanding personal allegiance to him...and this manifesto was greatly resented by the senior members in London."

A meeting was held, and he was deposed. What then is the truth about this mysterious Third Order? There is ample evidence to show that the Stella Matutina and the R.R. et A.C. are, constitutionally, in no way akin to British Masonry, but are linked up with Continental Masons and Rosicrucians, subtly and secretly subversive and controlled by these "Unknown Chiefs." Dr. Felin's in his history stated: "...The methods which (S.D.A., %) Fraulein Anna Sprengel, sanctioned were totally against the methods which were and always had been in vogue in Germany, and it may be mentioned now that the first three grades were very much like the first three grades in ordinary Masonry (yet Steiner approved of them as useful!), and, as a matter of fact, up to a date which cannot be given accurately, Masonry and Rosicrucianism went hand in hand. It was about 1597 that the Masons separated themselves entirely from the Rosicrucians, and decided to modify their procedure, and they refused in the future to admit women to their ceremonies. This was partly due to political circumstances, as both masons and Rosicrucians tried to influence the political development of the nations amongst whom they lived and worked...Practically the Masonic Lodges became very active political agencies, whereas the Rosicrucian branches were more secret in their operations, and it was, and is, an absolute rule that no one should confess to being a Rosicrucian. So strict was this that Rosicrucians who even knew one another were not allowed to speak or discuss matters connected with their society within the confines of a city or town. There were definite rules as to when a member of the Fraternity went to a new place and met a Frater or Soror. They appointed a time to meet outside the town or city with reference to certain points of the compass. It is quite true that on several occasions leakages of MSS. did occur. One was due to the action of a certain number of Roman Catholic priests who belonged to the Order; and again in 1777 a leakage of rituals took place in Paris, and this made our Continental Fratres and Sorores still more strict in their methods...F.R. had received the promise that the Council would investigate the condition of the Branch of the Order in London with which he was connected, and would if possible enter into definite relations with him...A definite arrangement was then come to between E.O.L. on behalf of F.R. and the heads of the Rosicrucian Society in Germany, that he should bring over the necessary 'processes,' for psychic development to F.R. who is alone permitted to transmit them (to his members for the purpose of arousing the Kundalini and bringing about Illuminism)."

The following letter, written to a German member by the above adept E.O.L. who was for a time trained by the German connection, is interesting, in that it shows the proposed method for the penetration of England and British Freemasonry by Continental and Grand Orient Illuminism, in 1912 [this is also almost exactly the way the American Freemasonry was penetrated!]: "Dear Sir and Brother (Baron C.A.W.), I have heard from Dr. F (Felkin) of the proposed International Bund, which seems in many ways an excellent scheme to which I wish every success. As Dr. S's name is so potent on the Continent, it is bound to prosper there. In England he has a band of admirers, but his name is not so generally known. The conditions in England are also peculiar. Dr. S. himself said to me that he recognized the difference. Therefore, I write to you for we have a double tie, the Rosicrucian Fraternity both of the Continent and in England, we can speak freely. What I say now I wish to be laid before Dr. S. by you, and the risk is mine. For if I do not speak without fear or favor, no one else can.

Dr. S. is a statesman in his schemes (?). But a statesman, when inquiring into the conditions of a country unknown to him does not go only to the members of one party of it. For Austrian politics one would not consult only Magyars, nor for German, members only of the Catholic Block. In England the few members of the Continental Order are all Theosophists, i.e. members of the T.S. They are none of them members of the English Freemasons.

They see things from the T.S. point of view, and they have to use their spectacles. I am the only member of the Continental Order who is not and never has been a T.S. member; I owe no allegiance to Mrs. Besant. I am, as the Doctor knows, entirely with him in the policy of abandoning Oriental and Indian for European or Kabalistic training: I am also an English Freemason, so that I can give him the pint of view of the other parties. English occultism is roughly divided into (1) members of the T.S., i.e, Mrs. Besant's followers headed by the co‑masons in one sense; (2) members of the Hermetic Orders and Freemasons; (3) Independents, whether in small groups or individuals.

The first class is the only one really known to the Doctor. Of the second Dr. F. is very representative. Of the third, Mr. T.P....Now when the Doctor comes to establish his Bund, there are certain considerations of great importance. With regard to Group 1, the T.S. and its branches, I cannot pretend to say what will happen. Mr. S. and Mr. C. both know the T.S. people and its style of work, by lecture, etc. The risk, however, is with regard to Groups 2 and 3.

The Bund will, unless carefully managed, be regarded merely as a schism of the T.S. It will command as much attention as the Quest Society of G.R.S. Mead, and it may arouse great prejudice, for many will take it exactly in the spirit in which England took the German telegram to President Kruger. I am quite serious when I say that to many the Bund will be thus considered ‑‑ 'We don't care for Mrs. Besant any more than we cared for Jamieson and his raid, but after all, Mrs. Besant is English; who are these Germans to interfere?' It may sound ridiculous, but I know my country.

The next point, a very serious one indeed, is the attitude of the Freemasons. This must be taken into consideration. Here for a moment I must apparently digress. I wish to contrast the workings of Groups 1, 2, and 3. Group 1 works on the familiar lines of lectures, magazine publications, etc. Dr. S. does much the same. Group 1 attracts a large number of idle women who have the leisure to take a little occultism with their afternoon tea, practically all the members are people with time and money.

It attracts numbers, but each lecturer is apt to get a personal following, hence schisms, i.e., the Quest. Group 2 is small in numbers. It works by Lodges and circulates manuscripts. Its teaching is done by correspondence, by individual officers, etc. It seldom has lectures. It taps a wholly different class, gets at more varied social strata, has a far larger proportion of men. Being highly organized it has more coherence; at the same time each Temple is apt to be jealous of outside interferences. Most of its men are Freemasons. Some entire Temples are Freemasonic, e.g. the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. Now these people are busy, there are singularly few idle, moneyed or leisured women and men among them, they are very proud and independent.

In course of time, if they can get teaching in their own manner, by MSS. in circulation, by visits of members from Lodge to Lodge, by or through their own Chiefs, I am certain they will all, given time, join your Bund. But they will not accept any T.S. dictation, they will not tolerate Chiefs whom they do not know, they will not care for attending cycles or lectures for which they have no time or inclination. These bodies are older than the T.S. and they do not forget it. Humored they will help you. If they are not considered, they will neither oppose nor regard you.

They will simply leave the Bund alone exactly as they leave the T.S. alone, the co‑Masons alone, etc. They must be got at from within, not from without. The third group I can assist with in course of time. But how they will act now I do not pretend to know. Most of them will accept no authority over them. Now I come to the Freemasonic point. Here I tread on very delicate ground. But I feel that I must state the case, as I said, without fear or favor.

The Doctor is too great a man to be vexed with me. After all, all I wish to do is to secure that the best teaching reaches those most fit for it in the easiest way. At present to establish a definite branch of the Continental Order giving grades, etc., in England will be a very difficult matter. You are not yourself a Freemason.

We sometimes call our Order, the Continental Order, Esoteric Masonry. The grades are closely akin to Freemasonry. Dr. S. indeed has some link with certain English or Scotch Masons, he gave me the name from whom he derives a certain authority, a link in the physical (not etheric!).

Now English Freemasonry is not occult, though it has occult Lodges, and most English occultists not T.S. are Freemasons, if men. English Masonry boasts the Grand Lodge of 1, the Mother Lodge of the world. They are a proud, jealous, autocratic body. Co‑Masonry derives from the Grand Orient of France, an illegitimate body according to English ruling.

No English Mason can work with co‑Masons. Now the Masons who gave Dr. S. his link are regarded, you had better get Dr. F. to verify me here, as eccentrics who invent spurious grades. If the English Grand Lodge bears of anything called 'Esoteric Masonry,' derived from such sources, under Chiefs once T.S. members, under a head in Berlin, it will not inquire who Dr. S. is or what is the nature of his work; it will simply say 'no English Masons of the Free and Accepted Masons may join any society working pseudo‑Masonic Rites,' i.e. no one of ordinary accepted Freemasonry can attend any meetings or take any grades in this illegitimate body! Finis! Then we who are members of Dr. S.'s Lodge and who are Freemasons will be in a sad plight.

At present this would affect only myself, well, and Dr. F. too. But if esoteric masonry is breathed of in England, and the fiat goes against it, no English Mason will wish to join the Bund.[576] After all this cold water, you will ask what useful suggestion do I imagine I have to make. Well, perhaps nothing very useful. Still, this is my practical suggestion. Let the Bund be started. Let Messrs. S. and C. get all the MSS. they can, and let them establish relations with the bodies in Group 2. Either let them supply such written teaching as can be given to the heads of the Lodges that will come in, and seek no interference with the Lodges, or let them form a definite committee under Dr. S. with representative people in it. All this must be done slowly. The system of having people in the Lodges like Dr. F. to teach 'processes' within Group 2 is the most practical, and to have Bund officials like Messrs. S. and C., one of whom should join an English Lodge, to go between England and the Continent, and to get the written teaching will probably work well enough.

But if a Lodge of the Continental Order is to be established in England, Dr. S. will be faced with the Masonic difficulty. This is really serious, and no one of the T.S. will understand it, nor even any Continental Freemasons. Look at my position and again at Dr. F.'s ‑‑ if we were banned from all association with Freemasons, i.e. from practically all Lodges in Group 2, or else from association with the Bund. Either we must be cut off again, or our usefulness for general purposes is gone.

If Dr. S. Would summon one or two non‑Theosophical persons to discuss with him, he would see this at once. The practical solution will be found in a compromise. If he avoids the name 'Esoteric Masonry' and allows perhaps a ritual like those used in the Societas Rosicruciana or in the S.M. and has for officers in England a mixed group, including the Heads of the chief Hermetic Lodges, etc. as well as T.S. people, who will join anything of Dr. S.'s it will succeed. Otherwise, I fear much that only a few T.S. people and a few whom Dr. F. and myself...can influence directly, will be all that will join at the outset. As a Theosophist schism, and a foreign intrusive Masonic schism, the Bund will arouse every possible English prejudice against it. Devoted to the Doctor as we are, we should both regret it."

In 1916, before going to New Zealand, Dr. Felkin drew up a "New Constitution," duly and astrally approved of by the hidden chiefs, and under this Constitution attempted to establish three daughter temples in England, hoping in this way to link various outside esoteric Masonic groups under the shadow of the Stella Matutina, thus helping forward the "International Jewish Bund."

In this New Constitution Dr. Felkin said: "As you are aware, I can personally permit any branch of Rosicrucian Societies to be started. But as I am leaving England, I naturally feel that such branches should be in close relationship with the Stella Matutina and the R.R. et A.C. I propose, before leaving England, to form three such branches, and it will rest with you to make any arrangements which you may wish with regard to their utilizing your rooms, etc., or not...The two I propose to form in London could either pay you a yearly sum for the use of the Temple and Vault, on a definite day to be settled by you, or you might arrange for them to pay half their initiation fees to you, which should be, I think, the Mother Temple. With regard to a Branch in Bristol, which I am going to form, they can at present work their Outer entirely there, and make arrangements with you when they have any candidates for the Inner. The Conditions under which I should found these three branches are as follows:

1). Each Branch must be absolutely autonomous and ruled by three Chiefs who are at the present time full 5‑6 in the R.R. et A.C. and they must follow exactly the traditions of our Order.

2). The first three Chiefs I should appoint myself; if any one of them should relinquish office, the Ruling Chiefs and Three Adepti of the Mother Temple (Amoun) should confer with the remaining two Chiefs as to the appointment of a successor.

3). The Daughter Temples must finance their own Temples, and the Mother Temple is not responsible for their finance in any way, except in so far as above stated; they should pay dues in some form if they make use of the Mother Temple's rooms.

4). The Members of the Daughter Temples who are full 5‑6 will belong to the College of Adepti of the R.R. et A.C. in Anglia...

5). With regard to the Bristol Branch (Hermes), the first Three Chiefs will be: V.H. Sores Lux Orta est, Magna est Veritas, Benedicamus Deo, the latter only acting until a Frater in that district is qualified.

6). The first London Daughter Temple will be confined to members of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, who have taken at least Grade 4. I may mention here that the reason why I was obliged to form it is as follows: When E.O.L. and I made our arrangements for recognition by our Continental Fratres, they stipulated, and he agreed, that the Masonic Rosicrucians, of whom there are large numbers, should be given the opportunity of being linked up with us. The first three Chiefs of this Temple will be: V.H. Fratres Pro Rege et Patria, Fortes Fortuna Juvat, Faire sans dire. With regard to the third Daughter Temple (Merlin), there are some fifty or sixty members of the Temple (Golden Dawn) which used to be ruled by S.R. (Waite) and a number of the members of the Anthroposophical Society who are seeking admission. It has been pointed out to me, that as these people have worked on different lines from us, it would not be well to admit them to the S.M. as they would undoubtedly cause confusion in the S.M. Temple. I therefore propose that they should form a Temple of their own, and that the first Three Chiefs should be V.H. Fratres Cephas, Benedic Animo mea Domino, and Non Sine Numine. This Frater you do not know, but he has been a member of the Society for twenty‑five years, is full T.A.M. and was for many years one of S.R.'s three Ruling Chiefs.

7). The first three ruling chiefs of the Daughter Temples would become the first three adepti in their respective Vaults should they have them. I take full responsibility for the formation of these three Daughter Temples, and it rests with you to do all in your power to help them to be an added power to the Rosicrucian Movement. Our password for the present six months is ACHAD, signifying 'Unity,' [always a Jewish buzz‑word] and it is my greatest desire that all the scattered Rosicrucian Forces within our reach should be gathered together into a harmonious whole instead of drifting off into comparative uselessness, or into undesirable channels. (Signed) Fimem Respice Chief, June 18, 1916." The above is the same as much of Weishaupt's methods of camouflage! "...The greatest caution must be exercised not to reveal to the novice doctrines that might be likely to revolt him. For this purpose the initiators must acquire the habit of 'talking backwards and forwards' so as not to commit themselves. 'One must speak,' Weishaupt explained to the superiors of the Order, 'sometimes in one way, sometimes in another, so that our real purpose should remain impenetrable to our inferiors.'"

There are three forms of initiation, individual, group, or universal, all three leading to conscious or unconscious control by a central power, who in some mysterious way makes its influence felt; often clairvoyantly and clairaudiently seen and heard, but never physically present or visible. The system in all three is the same; Cabalistic. Secretly here and there individuals are prepared; these again form groups or centers from which influences spread until they form a veritable magnetic network covering the entire world. Like rays from a hidden sun these groups are apparently divergent and detached, but in reality all issue from the same central body. The body being the Learned Elders of Zion, three hundred Jewish Talmudic followers.

Studying all these different groups and movements the system is seen to be an insidious and secret dissemination of ideas, orienting and creating the required outlook on life, etc., eventually breaking down all barriers of family, religion, morality, nationality, and all self-initiative thought always under the cloak of a new and more modern religion, new thought new morality, a new heaven and a new earth [The so‑called New Age Movement would be just one example]; until it evolves a gigantic robot merely answering to the will and commands of a secret Master Mind. They dream they are free, original, self‑determining individuals; they are but the negative moon reflecting and reproducing the light from the same hidden Jewish Cabalistic Sun. It is called regeneration by the Illuminati; it is in truth individual death and disintegra­tion, followed by a resurrection as negative "light‑bearers" of this Jewish Cabalistic Sun.

In the July occult issue 1929 of the Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes, there is an interesting and rare design called, "The Dragon and the Woman," which depicts apparently the Pentagram of illuminized and revolutionary Masonry, a symbol of the magical and potent powers by which the mysterious center would hope to obtain empire over the universe and thus govern men. The lower part is the Dragon of the Apocalypse with the seven heads; written across its body is the word "Kabalah," as also in Hebrew, "Schem Hamphoras" and "Yod, He, Vau, He" ‑‑ the Tetragrammation.

The Schem Hamphoras, the cabalistic Keys of Solomon, the keys of universal science, by whose combinations all secrets of Nature are said to be revealed. The four letters, the material basis as it were, are the four beasts of Ezekiel's vision; they are the Sphinx with the head of a man, the body of a bull, the wings of an eagle, and the claws of a lion.

Also the four properties of the astral light or Serpent Fire, dissolving, coagulating, heating, and cooling, which, directed by the will, are said to modify all nature, producing life or death, health or disease, etc., in accordance with the given impulsion. Further, it is the cross of life or generation, the Kundalini.

Death and disintegration must precede so‑called regeneration; therefore the tail of the Dragon ends with the head of the vulture of Saturn, the destroyer, who holds in his beak the magical sword of the adept with the dual crescents of unity on the hilt; this is thrust into the body of the Dragon, for the blood must be poured out. Beneath the Dragon the fire burns, it must be immolated, as the Phoenix of old, so that from the ashes it may rise renewed and regenerated.

As rabbi Saint‑Etienne has said: "Everything, yes everything must be destroyed, since everything must be remade," it is revolution. The number of the beast is 666, which cabalistically is 9, the number of generation. The seven heads represent the seven planets or powers of the Sun or colors of the prism; cabalistically they are placed on the Interlaced Triangle, the dual creative forces, each angle having a planet with the Sun in their midst. Together they represent complete magical power; the Jewish Talisman, the Shield of David!

Above this basis rises the woman Babylon, the mother of all pantheistic and abominable cults. She stands in the hermetic attitude, "as above so below," her left hand raised above holds a lighted torch shaped as the Hebrew letter Shin; this letter, together with the Tetragrammaton below, for me the Pentagram ‑‑ the "Christ" or instrument of Illuminzed revolutionary Masonry. On the torch is this curious inscription, as deciphered by M. Henri Gillebert: "As for the children [Israelites ‑ the White Race ‑ the Anglo‑Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian and Celtic and kindred peoples of the world], kill them in great numbers. Holy, holy, holy is the act of immolating them, as also of exterminating them [the desire of the Jews, the children of Satan, since the dawn of time]. Is this not Saturn again, who ever devours his own children ‑‑ revolution and anarchy? Across her breast is written 'Democracy,' the negative and inspired instrument of all revolutions. The inspiration is shown by the letter 'M' over the pineal gland, where the head and tail of the serpent unite, producing illuminism. She is the intermediary, receiving and transmitting the influence from above. From a cup in her right hand she pours upon the fire below all abominations and impurities, thus inciting the holocaust, preparing for the domination of the unseen Powers. Old civilizations must be disintegrated and established systems destroyed.

     It is curious to note with all these illuminized instruments of the "Hidden Hand" how magnetic‑healing and magically inspired politics went hand in hand. One has only to consider the present Illuminati in England and America to see that this is the case. In the Stella Matutina, from the late Dr. Felkin, their former High Chief, to their St. Raphael Guild of Healing, run by a certain influential group of clerical members, you find magnetic‑healing joined to a subtle form of invoked political influence often ending in Communism, Socialism, and Pacifism, weakly inculcating the doctrine of peace and love your enemies at any price, all inspired by their 'hidden masters.'"

In all immuminized groups the ceremonies, exercises, teachings, and messages from the masters set in motion a magnetic current, and as the Jew Eliphas Levi explains: "The action of the current is to transport, and often exalt beyond measure, persons who are impressionable and weak, nervous organizations, temperaments inclined to hysteria and hallucination. Such people soon become powerful vehicles of magical force and project efficiently the astral light in the direction of the current itself."

As seen in the meteoric figures of all revolutions! To fight successfully against such a current steady concentrated will and initiative are required. Together these many groups form the magnetic chain transmitting the forces of the Cabalistic Jews into social, religious, political, economic, art, healing, and educational life. As the late Dr. Felkin wrote in 1917: "We are the little leaven that leaveneth the lump." According to Weishaupt, artists are among the most desirable instruments!

The power used in Illuminism is largely based on a deep understanding of the science of light, form (geometric symbols), movement (rhythm), numbers, sound, color (Minutum Mundum), scents, etc. All these, in the form of correspondences, are used in occult societies, to awaken forces, vibrations which act upon the mind and nervous systems of men and women. De Quincey has said: "This Temple (Solomon's) is to be built of men, of living stones, and the true method and art of building with men it is the province of (Rosicrucian) magic to teach."

It is interesting to find Dr. Felkin's teacher was also a builder using living stones, for he said:"The stones must all be there before the circle can be of use. Each stone must first be hewn into proper shape. Each must be able to stand upright hand in hand with the others. The Light within each must become strong so as to radiate far enough, and blending with the others a rainbow will be formed (uniting and forming the so‑called 'Divine White Light or Brilliance,' the Serpent Power). There must be harmony among the members and self‑reliance. Each stone will intuitively perceive within itself a symbol which will at once denote the function of the individual stone and its fitness to fulfil it..."

Some brothers of the Rose Croix were already mingling with the Freemasons. Among the members of the Warrington Lodge were Richard Penkett, James Collier, Richard Sankey, Henry Littler, John Ellam and Hugh Brewer and in London, the Whartons and their friends had slipped into a lodge as "accepted masons."

Thomas Vaughan encouraged them to spread the principles of Socinius. Finally, at a meeting on the 14th may 1643, he announced that their desultory efforts at restrained proselytizing should be supplanted by a definite programme of entering the guild lodges with the object of using them as instruments to an end. The account of this meeting of the 14th may 1643, is given in full in the Memoirs of Philaletes and the whole plan of the Freemasonry of today is therein revealed. So blended are truth and fiction in the active career of this adventurous adept that Vaughan must always remain one of the most mysterious characters of Rosicrucianism. "When the plague of 1665 drove the Court from London to Oxford, Thomas Vaughan went thither with his patron (the king) and, a little later, took up his residence with the Rector of Albury, the Rev. Sam. Kem, at whose house, on February 27th of that year, he was killed by an explosion in the course of chemical experiments." [577]

His work in masonry however has remained as his monument. Together with Elias Ashmole, pupil of Rabbi Solomon Frank and protégé of James Pagitt, Thomas Vaughan worked up the Masonic system of the first three degrees. These degrees, those of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason were devised for the temptation of the masses, while outside and above them continued the former secret system of the Rose Croix, four degrees of which belonging to the Gold Cross were known as: 1st, Zelator; 2nd, Theoricus; 3rd, Practicus; and 4th, Philosophus; teaching merely the principles of alchemy, while the degrees of the Rose Croix were: 5th, Adeptus Minor; 6th, Adeptus Major; 7th, Ademptus Exemptus, 8th, Magister Templi and 9th, Magus.

Contemporaneous with the evolution of free thought against revealed religion broke the revolution against civil authority plunging England into the throes of civil war, Oliver Cromwell was successful at the head of the Parliament troops while Charles I was everywhere betrayed by men on whom he relied. Henry Blount (Henry Blount, 1602‑1680, Father of Charles Blount, the Rosicrucian) was among the traitors accruing to Cromwell after the battle of Edgehill; at least the defeat of the king was his pretext, for treason was everywhere premeditated.

The word of order was given by the Rose Croix, which had spread rapidly among the Puritans. The year 1644 ended with the destruction of the Royal power, and February 9, 1649, the day on which the head of Charles I fell at Whitehall, consummated its ruin.

The Royal power had, in fact, been wrecked when the troops of Parliament were victorious, when the queen was obliged to take refuge in France, when the Prince Palatine, Robert, had been defeated, when York had been taken, and when the Commons had obtained against Laud, the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury, the bill of attainder which declared him guilty of the crime of treason.

 Laud had stood for resistance to the Puritans. The connection of the Cromwell family with that of the celebrated Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, whose political ideas, formed in Italy, under the guidance of Machiavelli, had so greatly affected the trend of English history, is here not devoid of interest.

In 1767, a document was discovered which revealed the existence of a society of Freemasons in Italy with about 64,000 members.[578] The document said: "At last the great mine of the Freemasons of Naples is discovered, of whom the name, but not the secret, was known. Two circumstances are alleged by which the discovery was brought about: a dying man revealed all to his confessor, that he should inform the king thereof; a knight, who had been kept in great state by the society, having had his pension withheld, betrayed the Grand Master of the order to the king. This Grand Master was the Duke of San Savero.

     The king secretly sent a confidential officer with three dragoons to the duke's mansion, with orders to seize him to the palace. The order was carried out; but a few minutes after, a fire broke out in the duke's mansion, destroying his library, the real object being, as is supposed, to burn all writings having reference to Freemasonry. The fire was extin­guished, and the house guarded by troops. The duke having been brought before the king, openly declared the objects, system, seals, government, and possessions of the order.

     He was sent back to his palace, and there guarded by troops, lest he should be killed by his former colleagues. Freemasons have also been discovered at Florence, and the Pope and the Emperor have sent thither twenty‑four theologians to put a stop to the disorder. The king acts with the greatest mercy towards all implicated, to avoid the great dangers that might ensue from a contrary course. He has also appointed four persons of great standing to use the best means to destroy so abominable a sect; and has given notice to all the other sovereigns of Europe of his discovery, and the abominable maxims of the sect, calling upon them to assist in its suppression, which it will be folly in them to refuse to do.  For the order does not count its members by thousands, but by millions, especially among Jews and Protestants. Their frightful maxims are only known to the members of the fifth, sixth, and seventh lodges, whilst those of the first three know nothing, and those of the fourth act without knowing what they do. They derive their origin from England, and the founder of the sect was that infamous Cromwell, first Bishop, and then lover of Anne Boleyn, and then beheaded for his crimes, called in his day 'the scourge of rulers.' He left the order an annual income of L10,000 sterling. It is divided into seven lodges: the members of the seventh are called Assessors; of the sixth, Grand Masters; of the fifth, Architects; of the fourth, Executors (here the secret ends); of the third, Ruricori (!); of the second and first, novices and Proselytes. Their infamous idea is based on the allegory of the temple of Solomon, considered in its first splendor, and then overthrown by the tyranny of the Assyrians, and finally restored ‑‑ thereby to signify the liberty of man after the creation of the world, the tyranny of the priesthood, kings and laws, and the re‑establishment of that liberty."

As for Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, there is no record of his having been an "accepted mason." He was however on the best of terms with Richard Penkett and is supposed by many to have been secretly affiliated to the Rose Croix but whether an adept or not he served the purpose of the sect, destruction of the Royal and Ecclesiastical Christian Power!

After the death of Charles I, Cromwell appointed an assembly of lawyers and divines to consider the petition of Manasseh ben Israel (1604‑1657) demanding the abolition of the legal exclusion of the Jews from England. In December 1655 the legal prohibition was removed. Eleven year after (1666) occurred the great fire of London.

Does the following letter help to solve the mystery of this historical disaster? It was one of many written by the Secretary‑ Interpreter of the Marquis de Louvois, an English spy, to his chief in England, published in London in 1697 by D. Jones. Gent. the firing of the City of London, in 1666: "My Lord, I am fully satisfied by what I have both seen and heard at Paris and elsewhere, that the Duke of York (Afterwards James II) was in the Year 1666 brought quite over to the French Interest; and I have heard strange Stories related concerning his conduct at the time of that dreadful conflagration of the City, looking upon it Janus‑like, with one face seeming concerned for the lamentable disaster, and with the other rejoicing to see that noble pile reduced to ashes, and its citizens ruined; who had at all times been the greatest propagators for liberty and property, and opposers of that religion which he now not only secretly profess, but was even ready publicly to own, and rewarding those incendiaries at St. James, who then were suspected generally to be Frenchmen, as your Lordship well may remember; but by our Minutes it does appear they were not such; but they were persons, at least many of them, set on work by French councils, and such as at that time were of all men least suspected; I mean Jews, of which they had then several in pay, not only in England, but all over Christendom; not only to give them Intelligence in which they are wondrous active, but likewise to promote and act the worse of mischiefs, as which they make no balk.

These fires have been kindled, not only in England, but in Germany, Poland Emissaries, though they were Jews hired with French money, the Turkish Policy not being so refined in mischief, these sorts of Jews put on the shape of what Christians they pleased, and of this sort employed by France, there were and are still several in England, the names of one or two of which I think I shall be able to give your Lordship in sometime, though they go by several, as time and occasion doth require, and so at present I remain. My Lord, Your Lordship's most Humble Servant, Paris, April 7, 1676. N. St."

More shadows of the past! More strange suggestions to shake the foundations of our belief in things as they seem! The last of the Grand Masters of the Rose Croix was Johann Christian Wolff  [579] the last master of Rose Croix died in 1750. His name was Brun). Masonry, which as a secret association had maintained its existence for years had uncovered itself and become an avowed organization with the proclamation of the Anderson Constitution (Grand Lodge of England).

Once in the open it was to be the universal screen behind which all secret societies, whether theurgic or political, would operate clandestinely. Masonry with its proclamation of three philanthropic and altruistic degrees, with no apparent real secret, declaring itself Christian and non‑political, would become the center in which ignorant men, recruited and duped, could act like puppets animated by unseen hands pulling unseen strings. Thus it came about that all blows dealt to Christianity and States were prepared by the Secret Societies acting behind the veil of Masonry. [580]

1773: During a meeting in the Rothschild's home in 1773, the following statement was reported in the French Newspaper at the time: "But is has paid us even though we have sacrificed many of our own people. Each victim on our side is worth a thousand Goyim."

1776: A powerful, ruthless, Satan‑directed, international conspiracy has captured our government and every segment of our entire economy and is right now in the process of enslaving or liquidating 97 percent of the population of the United States. This conspiracy, which originated in the heart of Satan and manifested itself many times both secular and Biblical history, began its deadly, final, desperate, blood‑stained march in 1776 almost simultaneously with the birth of our great nation. It was founded by Adam Weishaupt, known by his contemporaries as the "Human Devil."

Illuminati 1776‑1876

Out of Germany was hatched a Diabolical Plot that has deceived untold millions of people ‑ and which, even, now, threatens to destroy Western Civilization. In the years following the Reformation a new school of thought known as German Rationalism came to the forefront in circles of "higher learning." Rationalism developed first in Germany as that was the only country with relative freedom of religion and thought. In other countries, free thinking was verboten and church leaders persecuted or killed those who expressed their opinions.

Scholars were freed from the stifling restrictions placed on academic pursuits during the Dark Ages ‑ and the winds of investigation and intellectual curiosity began to rustle refreshing­ly through the "hallowed halls" of universities. Many were motivated to question the cherished beliefs which had come to be accepted at face value by society at large.

From the beginning Satan was frantically busy among the leadership of these "emancipators." Having failed to keep all humanity bound with his Simonian form of "baptized paganism," Satan {the Great Deceiver, [581]} tried another ruse. These "thinkers" could clearly see that corruption and depravity had decimated the strength of the church which had promulgated many of the ideas now proved to be totally fallacious. They saw that the church ‑ commonly believed to be the body of Christ ‑ held its adherents in subjection by means of fear and superstitious ritual.

They falsely assumed that the myths and superstitions of the Dark Ages were based on the Bible. When they proved that these superstitions were false, they assumed ‑ without any real proof ‑ that they had proved the Bible to be false. The teachings of that church were based on the Satan‑inspired Mystery Babylonian Religion; not on the Bible. The German Rationalists openly attacked all of the established beliefs with the deep seated conviction that all religion was false, foolish and weird. [582] One of their leaders arrogantly announced that; "The turning point in History will be the moment man becomes aware that the only god of man is man himself." [583]

Another authority defined Rationalism as, "...that manner of thought by which the human reason is considered to be the only source and the only judge of all kinds of knowledge." [584] Under an unending barrage of such "enlightened" scholarship the "intelligentsia" of Europe were prepared by the second half of the eighteenth century for the advent of Illuminism; The Secret Society called the Illuminati.

Illuminati: What does that name mean to you? Most people answer that question with a blank stare, a total lack of comprehension. Regardless of how various people may respond to that question, there is one fact of which we may be assured: The Order of the Illuminati was founded on May 1st, 1776, by Dr. Adam Weishaupt, Professor of Canon Law at the University of Ingolstadt, Bavaria. Weishaupt {born a Jew and a convert to Roman Catholicism} was a former Jesuit priest who broke with that Order to form his own organization.

He was a man of unusual talent and ability. After giving up the priesthood for which he had prepared, he studied law and became a Professor of Law in one of Germany's leading universities. He began dabbling in occultism and Satanism and finally turned against the Bible, became a bitter enemy of Christianity and dedicated himself completely and unreservedly to the Devil, who gave him great illumination and supernatural evil powers. This evil supernatural power and illumination has been passed with unbroken continuity down through succeeding generations and organizations to the conspiratorial elitists who have captured our government, our people, our country, and everything in it.

"Our Motto is power and hypocrisy. Violence must be the principle, hypocrisy and cunning the rule. We must not hesitate at bribery, fraud, and treason when these can help us to reach our objective. By the severity of our doctrines, we shall triumph and shall enslave all governments under our super government. To control public opinion it is necessary to perplex people by the expression of numerous contradictory opinions until they get lost in the labyrinth, and come to understand that it is best to have no opinions on political questions. Land or Property owners are harmful to us because they can be independent in their resources of life. For this reason, we must deprive them of their land at all cost.

We have misled, corrupted, fooled, and demoralized the youth by education along principles and theories known by us to be false but which we ourselves have inspired. In countries so‑called advance, we have created insane, dirty and disgusting literature. We must extract the very conception of God from the minds of the Christians. We must destroy all professions of faith. We will destroy family life. We will also distract them by various kinds of amusements, games, pastimes, passions, public houses." [585]

All members took an oath to bind themselves to perpetual silence and unshaken loyalty and submission to the order. In this oath they completely surrendered their individual, private judgment, will, and personal talents, powers, influence, and ability to the control and common good of the organization and to the attainment of its objectives. Any disobedience or exercise of personal freedom to act or think or speak independent of the mind or will of the group inevitably meant the sudden death or mysterious disappearance of that unfortunate member.

Only the bold, daring, ruthless members who were willing to sacrifice personal religious and political convictions, all individualism and patriotism, and every traditional concept of right and wrong, and give themselves fully and completely to the superior, intellectual illumination of Lucifer, ever rose to the highest offices.

The Illuminati always has, through infiltration, subversion, strategy, and deliberate falsehood, monopolized and controlled the writing, publication reviewing, and distribution of literature, including textbooks in schools, colleges, and universities. They also control the news media and practically every part of the entertainment world. These evil conspirators from the very beginning have said, "Land and Property owners are very harmful to our program because they are independent and hard to conquer. We must, therefore, work unceasingly to deprive people of their homes and land at all costs."

This explains the numerous deceptive, treasonable land use bills. In 10 years, the evil conspiracy infiltrated and threatened the entire Germany economy. The brave, heroic, Christian patriots discovered, unmasked and forced the conspirators to flee the country. Some went underground and many fled to France where they subtly and treasonably infiltrated the entire economy of France, used every diabolical means to destroy Christianity, marriage, family, home, and everything pure and good. They took pornography and immorality and atheism, one‑worldism, and sexual filth into the schools just as they are doing in the United States now. On every hand, there was rape, murder, pillage, devastation, brutality, and terrorism just like they are currently bringing to America.

They planned, caused and financed the French Revolution. blood ran in the streets as 1,500,000 of the best and noblest citizens of France were beheaded. Remember, these evil Satan‑directed conspirators did identically the same in Russia, China, Cuba, Cambodia, and in 45 other countries and that the United States has been taken over, concentration camps, torture cells, and gas chambers built, and nearly 100,000,000 names fed into the computers; and that it is time to pray and work.

Many otherwise educated people have assumed that just because the Illuminati is no longer an openly acknowledged organization called, say, "The Council on Illuminati Affairs" or "Illuminist International" that it, or more correctly the Satanically‑inspired philosophy behind it, is no longer a threat to Western Civilization. Such an assumption would be naive in the extreme.

It would be equally naive and foolish to assume that the great apostate religious movement started under Satan's direction by Simon Mangus in 33 A.D. has somehow "folded up its tent and crept away into the night." No way. On the contrary, we should expect to find Simon's operation very much to the fore in our society of today which is so obviously deceived ‑ and so clearly under the direction of Satan.[586] It should go without saying that the latter‑day manifestation of Satan's Simonian church wouldn't peddle its deceitful wares under the banner of, say, "Simon's Spiritual Seduction Society," "The Foursquare Church of the Babylonian Mysteries" or "Satan's Church of Baptized Paganism." Such names wouldn't lead too many people to believe that such groups were truly Christian in origin.

As many Bible students have recognized for hundreds of years, this church is unmistakably identified in the 17th chapter of Revelation as the great church {the Bible calls it the Great Whore} which has spawned numerous "daughters" {offspring} and which has; "...the inhabitants of the earth {spiritually} drunk with the wine of her {spiritual} fornication." Notice that this powerful, world‑wide organization has deceived and corrupted all nations. A deceived person doesn't know that he is deceived: if he was aware of the true facts he wouldn't be deceived. A Deceived person is totally sincere, but Sincerely Wrong.

There is evidence now extant that proves that the Simonian forces have joined the Illuminist {at the highest level} in an unholy alliance to achieve their mutual goal ‑ total world conquest. [587] It is important that we clarify the real meaning to the name of Weishaupt's Secret Society ‑ The Illuminati. This is very significant. The name implies that those individuals who are members of the Illuminati are the only members of the human race who are truly enlightened and know "what it's all about."

Weishaupt and his followers considered themselves to be the cream of the intelligentsia ‑ the only people with the mental capacity, the knowledge, the insight and understanding necessary to govern the world and bring it peace. Their avowed purpose and goal was the establishment of a "Novus Ordo Seclorum" ‑ a New World Order, or One World Government. The name Illuminati is derived from the word Lucifer, which means Bearer of the Light or a being of extraordinary brilliance.[588] Note the direct parallel between the presumptuous, totally vain and egotistical attitude of Weishaupt and his followers and the attitude displayed by Satan when he, and the angels under his control, tried to take over the universe from their Creator ‑ Almighty God and the Lord Jesus Christ. Illuminism is clearly Satanism in one of its latter‑day manifestations: their goals are virtually identical. In fact, Satan was the first Illuminist. Public attention was first drawn to the existence of the Illuminati and their diabolical plan for world conquest as the result of a bizarre accident in 1785. History records that a courier for the Illuminati, named Lanze, was racing on horseback from Frankfurt to Paris carrying documents relating to Illuminati activities in general, and specific instructions for the planned French Revolution in particular.

The documents originated with Jewish members of the Illuminati in Germany and were addressed to the Grand Master of the Grand Orient Masons in Paris. As the courier galloped through Ratisbon {Regensberg} he was struck by lightning and killed. All of the papers he was carrying fell into the hands of the local police who turned them over to the Bavarian Government.

The authorities ordered the police to raid the headquarters of the Illuminati and this resulted in additional documents being captured: these revealed that the Conspirators had world‑wide aims. All of the carefully documented evidence was brought to the attention of the governments of Britain, Germany, Austria, France, Poland and Russia. But for one reason or another, possibly inside Illuminati influence, they chose to turn a deaf ear to the warnings contained in these dreadful documents. Four years later the French Revolution exploded on the European scene in all of its hideous fury.

Sir Walter Scott, in the second volume of his "The Life of Napoleon," points out that the events leading up to the French Revolution were all created by the Money Barons ‑ the Illuminati ‑ whose agents then led the mob in creating the famous Reign of Terror. For more detailed information on the causes behind the French Revolution, one should consult the book of that name by Nesta Webster. Commander William Guy Carr's book, "Pawns in the Game," gives the facts regarding this important period of history in digest form.

The first real "break," as far as inside information on the Illuminati is concerned, came when these "great intellectuals" were foolish enough to invite Professor John Robison to join their ranks. Robison, Professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh University, was Secretary General of the prestigious Royal Society in that Scottish city: he was recognized by his contemporaries {and especially by Adam Weishaupt} as one of the truly great intellectuals of his day. In inviting Robison to join his conspirators, Weishaupt probably felt that the British professor would prove to be his "ace in the hole" in expanding his organization in the British Isles.

Weishaupt completely misjudged Robison's character. Instead of finding a person with billowing vanity, tremendous esteem and an insatiable lust for power, he discovered a man of great integrity ‑ a man deeply concerned for the welfare of his fellow human beings and for his own country in particular. Robison was a man who couldn't be "bought." Robison didn't fall for the lie that the goals of the Illuminati were pure and honorable. He kept his reactions to himself, however, and played along with the conspirators. Subsequently he was entrusted with top secret Illuminati documents and was able to scrutinize the inner workings of the Secret Society at close range. As a result Professor Robison wrote a startling book entitled, "Proofs of a Conspiracy," which was published in 1797.

All of what is currently known about the early Illuminati comes from Robison's book and one written by the Abbe Barruel in 1798 entitled "Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism." Both books, although the authors were unknown to each other, give us a very clear‑cut picture of the organiza­tion. Both books quote extensively from The Original Writings of the Order and Sect of the Illuminati, an official report of the Bavarian government issued in 1786 following a lengthy investigation.

The following facts emerge: "Adam Weishaupt was born on the 6th of February, 1748. His early training by the Jesuits had inspired him with an intense dislike of that Order. When he broke with the Jesuits he immersed himself in the subversive and anti‑Christian teachings of the French philosophers and other writers who appealed to his innate sense of superiority.

The next five years were devoted to meditation, during which time he devised a plan to overthrow civilization and establish what he termed, a 'Novus Ordo Seclorum' ‑ a New World Order. He constructed the actual machinery for revolution itself. On the first of May, 1776, Weishaupt founded the secret society of the Illuminati, the instrument by which he planned to accomplish his goal. All of the members were required to adopt classical names. Weishaupt took the name Spartacus, the leader of an insurrection of slaves in ancient Rome; his chief assistant, Herr von Zwack, counselor to the Prince von Salm, became Cato; Baron Mengenhoffen, Sylla, etc.

The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, 1910, tells us that the Order was divided into three main classes: the first included 'novices,' 'minervals' and 'lesser Illuminati;' the second consisting of Freemasons, 'ordinary' and 'Scottish Knights;' 'the third of 'mystery' class comprised of two grades of 'priest' and 'regent' and of 'magus' and 'king.' The 'king,' of course, was Weishaupt himself. The initiates who made up the outer rings were told that the great purpose of the Illuminati was 'to make of the human race, without any distinction of nation, condition, or profession, one good and happy family.'"

All initiates were required to take an oath to bind themselves; "...to perpetual silence and unshakable loyalty and submission to the Order, in the persons of my superiors: here making a faithful and complete surrender of my private judgment, my own will, and every narrow‑minded employment of my own power and influence. I pledge myself to account the good of the Order as my own and am ready to serve it with my fortune, my honor, and my blood...The friends and enemies of the Order shall be my friends and enemies; and with respect to both I will conduct myself as directed by the Order...{and} devote myself to its increase and promotion, and therein to employ all my ability...without secret reservation." [589]

By way of warning as to the consequences of betraying the Order, the initiate took part in a ceremony during which he was warned; "If you are only a traitor and perjurer learn that all our brothers are called upon to arm themselves against you. Do not hope to escape or to find a place of safety. Wherever you are, shame, remorse, and the rage of our brothers will pursue you and torment you to the innermost recesses of your entrails." [590]

By the time the member had reached the "inner circle" his oath of absolute secrecy and unquestioning obedience had become deadly serious. Only at this stage was he allowed to finally see the ultimate aims of the Order:

1). Banish God from the heavens and Christianity from the earth.

2). Allow no private ownership of property or business.

3). Abolish marriage, family and home. Encourage sexual promiscuity, homosexuality, adultery, and fornication.

4). Completely destroy the sovereignty of all nations and every feeling or expression of patriotism.

5). Establish a one‑world government through which the Luciferian Illuminati elite can rule the world. All other objectives are secondary to this one supreme purpose.

6). Take the education of children completely away from the parents. Cunningly and subtly lead the people into thinking that compulsory school attendance laws are absolutely necessary to prevent illiteracy and to prepare children for better positions and life's responsibilities. Then after the children are forced to attend the schools get control of normal schools and teacher's colleges and also the writing and selection of all text books. Take all prayer and Bible instruction out of the schools and introduce pornography, vulgarity, and courses in sex. If we can make one generation of any nation immoral and sexy, we can take that nation.

7). Completely destroy every thought of patriotism, national sovereignty, individualism, and a private competitive enterprise system.

8). Teach that all Christianity is an evidence of insanity and have Christians either liquidated or committed to mental institutions.

9). Circulate vulgar, pornographic literature and pictures and encourage the unrestricted sale and general use of alcoholic beverage, and drugs to weaken and corrupt the youth.

10). Foment, precipitate and finance large scale wars to emasculate and bankrupt the nations and thereby force them into a one‑world government.

11). Secretly infiltrate and control colleges, universities, labor unions, political parties, churches, patriotic organizations, and governments. These are direct quotes from their own writings. [591]

12). The creation of a World Government.

Naturally, most members were never allowed to see the real goals of the Order. They were assured that the sole purpose for the society was to assure "the happiness of the human race." Weishaupt had a subtle but clear‑cut plan to destroy religion: "I have contrived an explanation which has every advantage; is inviting to Christians of every communion; gradually frees them from all religious prejudices; cultivates the social virtues; and animates them by a great, a feasible, a speedy prospect of universal happiness, in a state of liberty and moral equality, freed from the obstacles which subordination, rank, and riches continually throw in our way. My explanation is accurate, and complete, my means are effectual and irresistible. Our secret association works in a way that nothing can withstand, and man shall soon be free and happy." [592]

This plan proved extremely successful not only with the novices, but with men of all ranks and ages: "The most admirable thing of all," wrote Weishaupt to Cato, "is that great Protestant and reformed theologians {Lutherans and Calvinists} who belong to our Order really believe they see in it the true and genuine mind of the Christian religion. Oh man, what can not you be brought to believe?" [593]

Weishaupt was a master criminal of the type that appears at rare intervals in world history, who alone can aspire to attaining mastery over the world by utter ruthlessness. He undertook to be all things to all men, and women, and promised everyone fulfillment of his or her hopes and desires, no matter how contradictory. Weishaupt was the prince of confidence men.

He demanded blind obedience to the "party line" as dictated by himself. Lies, contradictions and deceit were the order of the day. He had no scruples about saying that he sought to lure dupes into his organiza­tion. He wrote: "These people swell our numbers and fill our treasury; get busy and make these people nibble at our bait...but do not tell them our secrets {they were not to be admitted to the 'secret degrees' and knowledge of the conspiracy to enslave them, the true purpose of the Order}. They must be made to believe that the low degree that they have reached is the highest."

The Protestant princes and rulers of Germany and Europe were pleased with Weishaupt's plan to destroy the Catholic Church, and they sought to join the Order. These men brought with them control of the Masonic Order, into which they initiated Weishaupt and his co‑conspirators in 1777. To prevent the rulers from realizing the true purpose of the Illuminati, Weishaupt limited them to the lower degrees.

On the 16th of July, 1782, at the Congress of Wilhelmsbad, an alliance between Illuminism and Freemasonry was finally sealed. This pact joined together all the leading secret societies of the day and united "not less than three million members all over the world."

The actual affect of this merger on the subsequent history of the world has never been appreciated by historians. "What passed at this terrible Congress will never be known to the outside world, for even those men who had been drawn unwittingly into the movement, and now heard for the first time the real designs of the leaders, were under oath to reveal nothing. One honest Freemason, the Comte de Virieu,...when questioned on the 'tragic secrets' he had brought back with him, replied: 'I will not confide them to you. I can only tell you that all this is very much more serious than you think. The conspiracy which has been woven is so well thought out that it will be, so to speak, impossible for the Monarchy and the Church to escape from it.' From that time on, says his biographer, M. Costa de Beauregard, 'the Comte de Virieu could only speak of Freemasonry with horror.'" [594]

During the next few years there was a strong movement which brought about the emancipation of the Jews in Europe. Prior to that time Jews had been barred from joining the Masonic Order: that ban was lifted. It was decided to move the headquarters of the illuminized Freemasonry to Frankfurt, which was the stronghold of Jewish finance.

The Order expanded rapidly but was soon troubled by dissension. One of Weishaupt's henchmen, Krigge, who held the post of director of the provinces, attempted to usurp some of his boss' "glory" and was relieved of his position. Consequently, he left the Order. People became intensely interested in the activities of the Illuminati as a result of information leaking out regarding their diabolical plans.

In 1785, four more leading members of the Illuminati left the Society and testified before a Court of Inquiry called by the Elector of Bavaria. Their startling evidence removed all doubt regarding the Satanic nature of Illuminism. On the 11th of October, 1785, the Bavarian authorities raided Zwack's house and discovered a mountainous array of Illuminati documents which showed quite clearly that they planned to bring about a; "...universal revolution that should deal the death‑blow to society...this revolution will be the work of the secret societies, and that is one of our great mysteries."

The dreadful danger posed by the Illuminati became clear to the Bavarian Government. They decided to let the documents speak for themselves by having them published and circulated as widely as possible. This official document was entitled Original Writings of the Order and Sect of the Illuminati. The governments of Europe ignored the warning contained in it. Shortly afterwards, Zwack left the country and Weishaupt, with a price on his head, took refuge with one of his royal adepts, the Duke of Saxe‑Gotha. This apparent breakup of the Order served well the cause of the conspirators, who now got busy circulating the news that Illuminism was a thing of the past. This lie has been perpetuated ever since by "historians" anxious to cover the truth about the Illuminati's subsequent activities. It now became more important than ever that the names "Illuminati" or "Illuminism" be removed from public use. As the instructions for the degree of Regent put it:  "The great strength of our Order lies in its concealment: never let it appear in any place in its own name, but always covered by another name, and another occupation." [595]

We will now see how exact­ly these in­struc­tions have been carried out. The Order of the Illuminati started when the American Revolu­tion was already under way, and ther­efore played no significant part in it. However, before the Colonies were united, the Constitution adopted, and our Republic established, fifteen lodges of the Order of the Illuminati were formed in the thirteen Colonies.

The Columbian Lodge of the Order of the Illuminati was established in New York City in 1785: members included Governor DeWitt Clinton, and later Clinton Roosevelt, Charles Dana and Horace Greeley. The following year a lodge was established in Virginia. Many strong warnings were issued about the activities of the Illuminati in America. On July 19th, 1798, David Pappen, President of Harvard University, issued a strong warning to the graduating class and lectured them on the influence Illuminism was having on the American scene.

President Timothy Dwight of Yale University issued a similar warning. Also, in 1798, George Washington sent a letter to a G.W. Snyder in which he stated: "It is not my intention to doubt that the doctrine of the Illuminati and the principles of Jacobinism, had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more satisfied of this fact that I am. The idea I meant to convey was that I did not believe the Lodges of Freemasons in this country had, as societies, endeavored to propagate the diabolical tenets. That individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder or instruments employed to found the democratic societies in the United States may have had this object, and actually had a separation of the people from their government in view, is too evident to be ques­tioned." [596]

The fact that George Washington was gravely concerned about the threat posed to the United States by the Illuminati is amply demonstrated in his famous Farewell Address, delivered September 17, 1796. This document ranks second only to the Constitution in national importance. He expressed his heartfelt wish that; "...heaven may continue to give you the choicest tokens of its beneficence" and..."that the free constitution which is the work of your hands may be sacredly maintained: That its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue." He then declared "the apprehension of danger" that prompted him to "offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all‑important to the permanency of your felicity as a people...But as it is easy to foresee that from different causes, and from different quarters, much pain will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth: as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively {through often covertly and insidiously} directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness...

All obstructions to the executions of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency.' Such 'combinations and associa­tions...are likely in the course of time and things, to become potent engines by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government: destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion...One method of assault may be to effect in the forms of the constitution alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown...The jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of Republican government.

The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled, with perfect good faith. Here let us stop...Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliance with any portion of the foreign world...'

For one hundred and twenty years this document formed the basis of our foreign policy; as a result we prospered as no other nation in history. One year later, Professor John Robison published his famous 'Proofs of a conspiracy' in which he warned the world of Illuminati infiltration of Masonic Lodges.

In 1796, John Adams, who had been instrumental in organizing Masonic Lodges in New England decided to oppose Thomas Jefferson in his bid for the presidency. He made a major issue of the fact that Jefferson ‑‑ who had been minister to France, 1785‑1789, and was frankly sympathetic to the Illuminist‑ fomented Reign of Terror ‑ was using Masonic Lodges for subversive purposes. John Quincy Adams wrote three letter to Colonel William L. Stone giving details of the charges. The information contained in these letters is credited with winning John Adams {his father} the presidency. The existence of these letters was first brought to the public's attention by Commander William Guy Carr in his book 'Pawns in the Game.' Until recently they were in the Rittenburg Square Library in Philadelphia. They have now mysteriously vanished.

In 1826, William Morgan decided it was his duty to inform his fellow Masons and the American public regarding the Illuminati and their secret plans. Morgan, 'who had passed through all the degrees of Masonry and held a very high position in the Order,' began to write a book on the subject. He arranged with a printer in Batavia to have it published. He 'was engaged in completing it when he was arrested on a false charge of larceny...His house was searched, and his manuscripts were seized and destroyed.' A couple of days later he was released from jail 'by the interference of some of the conspirators' and kidnaped while on his way home. At a meeting a few days later Morgan was sentenced to die as a traitor. Five men were selected to carry out the sentence. They were, according to one eye witness, 'all men of correct habits and good character, and all, I doubt not, were moved by an enthusiastic but most misguided sense of duty.' They loaded Morgan into a boat and when they had rowed out into Lake Ontario they 'wound a rope around him, attaching to each end of it a heavy weight, and threw him overboard...' The body of Morgan was found a year afterwards...None of the murderers were ever brought to justice." [597]

As a result of the public scandal that followed the murder of William Morgan, the Masonic movement in the United States suffered a server setback. Nearly 40 percent of the members belonging to the Northern Jurisdiction seceded. It is interesting to note in passing that mention of this very important historical event has been deleted from the "history" books.

As we shall see, such deletions are not "accidental." It is difficult, if not impossible, to uncover a clear picture of Illuminati activities in the early part of the last century. To trace their activities further, it becomes essential that we look for prominent individuals and groups who adhere to the Satanic tenets of Illuminism. It is "by their fruits" that we will know them. They will all be working towards the attainment of the goal of the Illuminati, the destruction of national sovereignty and the establishment of a One‑World Government, a "Novus Ordo Seclorum."

In 1829, American Illuminsts sponsored a series of lectures in New York by English Illuminist Frances "Fanny" Wright. She advocated the entire Weishauptian program of her auxiliary of the Order of the Illuminati including Communism made more palatable by the label of "equal opportunity and equal rights," atheism, emancipation of women and free love.

Those present were informed that the Illuminati intended to unite the Nihilist and Atheist groups with all other subversive organizations into an international organization to be known as Communism. This new destructive force was to be used by the Illuminati to foment future wars and revolutions.

Clinton Roosevelt

Clinton Roosevelt {a direct ancestor of FDR}, Charles Dana and Horace Greeley were appointed a committee to raise funds for this new undertaking. Roosevelt and his group posed as the champions of the working class. They advocated "noble and worthy" causes and, at least in their early writings, pretended that they were seeking to uphold the U.S. Constitution. They declared their intention to "kick the moneylenders out of the temple" and their opposition to monopolies. All of these declared aims appealed to the moronic mentality of the "peasants."

Clinton Roosevelt was so taken by his own "importance" that, in 1841, he published a book entitled "The Science of Government Founded on Natural Law." In the preface to his small book, Roosevelt leaves no doubt in the reader's mind and with regard to his superior wisdom and infallibility. He states, "A larger work would have been more imposing in appearance, but the truth is, large works and long speeches are rarely made by men of powerful thought. The giant draws up by the roots the tree, which the pigmy hacks upon the livelong day...The giant says the work is done and points him to his prostrate enemy."

He was truly an "Illuminated" one. Roosevelt's book is clearly in line with Weishaupt's instructions; "Superiors of the Order {of Illuminati} are to be regarded as the most perfect and enlightened of men; they must not even permit any doubts of their infallibility."

The title of the book is interesting also, for it adheres to Weishaupt's teachings. Weishaupt decreed that all arts, sciences and religions must be abolished and replaced by the "social(ist) science of government" as taught by himself and pronounced by him to be the only true science. Weishaupt further stated that it must be founded on "natural law."

In the Science of Government Roosevelt outlines the plans of the Illuminati for the regimentation of mankind, under the control of those who, like himself, are the "enlightened" ones. He reveals their plans to emasculate and then destroy the Constitution which he likens to a "leaky vessel" which was, "...hastily put together when we left the British flag." He declares his contempt for his Creator with the declaration; "...there is no God of justice to order things aright on earth; if there be a God, he is a malicious and revengeful being, who created us for misery."

Just how well aware the latter day Roosevelts were of plans to create such a "New World Order" is evidenced by the following passage from Roosevelt.[598] It is an account of a conversation that took place in the late 1890's: "How long do you give the government at Washington to last?' I asked (Teddy) Roosevelt and (Cabot) Lodge as we sat lunching. Those two students and writers,  and makers, of history, well versed in the causes which have led to the downfall of empires, kingdoms and Republics that have had their day and gone into the night, were both silent for a moment; then one of them said: 'About fifty years.' Which of the two set this limit, I do not recall; I remember only that the other did not contradict him."

In 1830, Adam Weishaupt died at the age of 82. In an effort to convince the world that Illuminism was dead and so no longer a threat, he staged an impressive death‑bed "repentance" and rejoined the Catholic Church.

Illuminati ‑ Goals

As the United States grew in wealth and numbers, we began to turn against God the Father and His Son Jesus Christ. God has built into our system on planet Earth what is termed "cause and effect." Leviticus 26 and Deuteronomy 28 relates the principle that Obedience to God's Law produces good. Disobedience to God's Law produces the opposite effect ‑ evil. [599]: "See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil; In that I command thee this day to love the Lord thy God; to walk in his ways, and to keep His Commandments and His Statutes and His Judgements, that thou mayest live...and the Lord thy God shall bless thee...But if thine heart turn away...I denounce unto you this day, that ye shall surely perish...I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I (Jesus Christ ‑ [600]) have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live..."

Hosea prophesied concerning our day ‑ the Twentieth Century. Notice this horrifying prediction and WHY it was spoken! [601] "My people {Israel} are destroyed {cut off} for the lack of knowledge: Because thou has rejected knowledge, I will also Reject Thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the Law of thy God, I will also Forget Thy Children. As they were increased, so they sinned against me: therefore will I change their glory into shame."

The ultimate aims of the Order of the Illuminati were/are:

   1). Abolition of all ordered government;

   2). Abolition of private property;

   3). Abolition of inheritance;

   4). Abolition of patriotism;

   5). Abolition of all Religion;

   6). Abolition of the family {marriage morality and the proper education of children};

   7). The creation of World Government.

The leaders of the Illuminati realized from the beginning that if they were to succeed in their plan to conquer and rule the world, they had to gain control of the schools, colleges and universities. They also recognized the need to infiltrate and strongly influence newspapers, magazines and publishing houses. The United States, Britain {which has been under their control for many years} and other nations with a tradition of liberty and freedom were zeroed in on for special "treatment" in this regard!

As Lady Queenborough wrote in 1921: "A mind that is positive cannot be controlled. For the purpose of occult dominion, minds must therefore be rendered passive and negative in order that control may be achieved. Minds consciously working to a definite end are a power for good or for evil." [602]

Some years ago the President of a small independent college stated that at the turn of the century the "educational system jumped the tracks of sanity and went careening off into the wilderness...{and since then the educators have been funneling poison} into the plastic, unsuspecting minds" of those entrusted to their care. Those statements are absolutely right except for one vitally important point: Education didn't "jump the tracks"; it was deliberately derailed.

The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace Scenario

"Norman Dodd was Director of Research for the Reece Committee's investigation into tax exempt foundations of which the Carnegie Endowment is one. Parts of a speech given by Dodd in Washington, D.C., October 14, 1976, are reproduced in The Freeman Digest of May 1978, p. 9‑11. As part of his investigation, Dodd had received access to the minute books of the Carnegie Endowment. Those books revealed that from 1908 until 1909 the trustees of the corporation debated what would be the most effective way of changing the lifestyle of the entire nation. Their conclusion was that war would be the most effective.

Their next question was how to involve the United States in a war so their process of change could begin. Their answer was, 'We must control the diplomatic machinery of the United States.' Their next question was how to accomplish this. Their answer was, 'We must control the State Department.' That was in 1909.

With the entrance of the United States into World War I, the trustees {of the Carnegie Endowment Foundation} sent a telegram to President Wilson urging him not to end the war too quickly. They could see the alteration to our national life being magnified by our participa­tion in the conflict. When the war was over, the trustees {of the Carnegie Endowment Foundation} confronted a new problem: how to prevent life in the United States from reverting back to what it was prior to 1914. Their conclusion was that they 'must control education in the United States.' According to the Carnegie minute books as quoted by Dodd, the trustees divided the task between themselves and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation would alter education pertaining to domestic subjects and the Carnegie Endowment would alter education bearing on International Relations.Together they decided that the teaching of American history must be revised. To do this, young aspirants were taken to London at the expense of the Guggenheim Foundation, which specialized in awarding fellowships, and there they were groomed in what was expected of them.

When they returned, they became the New Force in the American Historical Society. 'This coincides with the appearance {which perhaps you will remember} of book after book, the contents of which cast aspersion on the Founders of this country, cast aspersion on the ideas which prompted the founding of this country and relegates them to the realm of myth.' [603] As America entered the decade of the '30's the Commission of Social Studies of the American Historical Society issued the Conclusions and Recommendations {1934} report, funded by the Carnegie Corporation. Excerpts of this report can be found in Rene' A. Wormser's Foundations, p. 146‑148. The report states {even though it was NOT true} that 'the age of individualism and Laissez Faire in economy and governments is closing and that a new age of collectivism is emerging.' It goes on to say that this collectivism is one of 'integration and interdepen­dence...in which individual economic actions and individual property rights will be altered and abridged.' In their recommendations they call on teachers to free themselves from traditional academic pursuits and convert schools into agencies to create a New Society. The school boards were 'to support a school program...marked by transition to some form of socialized economy." [604]

Professor Harold J. Laski, philosopher of British Socialism, in his testimony to the Reece Committee, said of the Commission's report:  "At bottom, and stripped of its carefully neutral phrases, the report is an educational program for a Socialist America." [605]

On April 24, 1920, the joint Legislative Committee Investigating Seditious Activities filed in the Senate of the State of New York a four‑volume report known as the "Lusk Report." The general introduction of Volume I states: "...Those representing the Socialist point of view are the Socialist Party of America, the Communist Party of America, the Communist Labor Party, and the Socialist Labor Party...A study of their platforms and official pronouncements show they do not differ fundamentally in their objectives. These objectives are: the establishment of a co‑operative common wealth in place of the present {Republican} form of government in the United States; the overthrow of what they are pleased to call the Capitalist system, namely, the present system under which we live, and the substitution in its place of collective ownership, and the management of the means of production and distribution by the working class.'"

Socialism via Legislation

Centralization of power in Washington is a prime Communist/Socialist objective. If the Socialist/Communists can destroy the States {States rights completely} as effective units of government and centralize all power in Washington, they have only one battle to win. Let's examine the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

It states; "...the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution...are reserved to the States respectively or to the people."  Nowhere in the Constitution does it give the Federal Government any power or control over education, health, welfare, labor, dams and public power projects, agriculture, unemployment or housing.

According to the Constitution, the regulation of all these areas is to remain within the jurisdiction of the states or the people. Remember the predictions of both Socialists and Communists that they would pass legislation to Socialize America Without us Knowing how it happened? When Federal funds are used to support education, health, welfare, labor, dams, public power projects, agriculture, unemployment and housing, etc., the Federal Government uses control over these areas to varying degrees.

Notice why the Liberals-Socialists-Communist-Jewish Zionists-Illuminati want the Federal Government to subsidize every area of government; the U.S. Supreme Court, in the case of Wickard vs. Filburn, 1942, included the following statement as part of its decision: "It is hardly a lack of due process for Government to regulate that which it subsidizes."

Each new Federal Law passed by Congress which invades the rights of the individual States further strengthens the control the government exercises over its citizens. To control education, there must be trained personnel to administer the program.

What is A Change Agent?

A change agent is a person, organization, or institution that changes or helps to change the beliefs, values, attitudes or behavior of people without their knowledge or consent. The purpose of most of the activity that takes place in public, and often in private and church schools, is not to change the child by developing his intellect, teaching him skills and a traditional body of knowledge. Rather, the purpose is to eliminate existing traditional beliefs, values, attitudes and behavior and to replace them with new beliefs and behavior that will render the child susceptible to manipulation, coercion, control and corruption for the rest of his life. It should also be kept in mind that the term "change agent" is the creation of the government and education establishment.

Humanism: depth of the Problem

Public schools? They don't exist. "Public" implies belonging to or controlled by the people. Schools are thought to be places where children study and learn "the wisdom of the ages" and are exposed to civilizing influences. Public Schools don't fit that description! If "public schools" are not controlled by the people in a community, and if "public schools" are not primarily places of academic education, then what are they and who controls them?

Who controls them? The Government, directly or indirectly, at the state and/or federal level controls the direction and content of local "public schools" through control and disbursement of funds given out for curriculum development, teacher training, materials, research, etc.

Because of the Wickard vs. Filburn, 1942, Supreme Court decision, local school systems are mere administrative agencies of state and/or federal governments, and local boards of education are merely window dressing. Therefore, it would be more accurate to call such places "Government Schools;" or to be even more accurate, they would be better called "Government centers of indoctrination." And what are they, if they are not places of academic learning? They are places where: "...the concept of learning a particular amount of content as a preparation for life is obsolete, and must be abandoned." [606]

If, "...learning a particular amount of content as a preparation for life is obsolete..." then what are schools doing with children between 9:OO A.M. and 3:00 P.M., 5 days a week, for the better part of the year? Here is the answer: "...The goal of education is the facilitation of change..." [607] So, what are government schools? They are administrative government agencies that exist to promote change. What kinds of change? Social Change, Political Change, Economic Change, Cultural Change, Religious Change, Change in our form of government.

Total Change. But specifically, change from what to what? Change from a Christian, sovereign nation to a Humanist Socialist/Jewish Interdependent Nation-State in a Dictatorship Euphemistically called a "Global Community," with "World Citizens" content with enslavement. In particular, government schools are striving to destroy the status, structure and stability of the family, just like Adam Weishaupt laid down in 1776 for the Illuminati. Strong families make a strong nation and they must be eliminated if the proposed dictatorship is to be established and maintained. Look at your family and the families you know. How stable are they? The breakdown you see is not "just happening;" the chaos is planned. Public schools? They don't exist. But there are government schools. The incredible hoax and ultimate tragedy ‑‑ government schools that serve as change agents for the destruction of Christian Western civilization and to establish instead, a Humanist­-Communistic-Socialist-Jewish "New World Order."

Socialism and Humanism

Let's make sure we understand what is meant by Socialism and Humanism. Under political Socialism, there is collective or government ownership and control of all production and distribution of goods and property. There is also corporate Socialism, which to a great degree, exists in the United States. Humanism is more difficult to define, primarily because the word has been so misused. Basically, there are two types: humanism with a small "h" and Humanism with a capital "H." Humanism with a small "h" is manifested in "humane" behavior toward animals and in common everyday behavior between people. This "humane humanism" is a civilizing quality that stabilizes society and could just as easily be called "the golden rule." Then there is Humanism with a capital "H," and it is this Humanism that is promoted in the government schools {and all too often in private and church schools} and to which our country has already been converted to a great degree. This Humanism is a religious philosophy with "articles of faith" expressed in the Humanist Manifesto. [608]

Humanism as a Religion

That Humanism is a religion has been recognized in the courts as well as by Humanists. The reference often cited is found in the courts and Humanists. The reference often cited is found in the case of Torcaso v. Watkins 367 U.S. Reports, p. 495 footnote 11: "Among religions in this country which do not teach what would generally be considered a belief in the existence of God are Buddhism, Taoism, Ethical Culture, Secular Humanism and others." [609]

In the Washington Ethical Society case, the Society wanted the building in which it held meetings, to qualify for tax exemption, and contended that a belief in a Supreme Being is not essential to qualify for tax exemption given to a church or religious corporation or religious society. The court held that the petitioner qualified as a religious corporation or society.

In the March, 1978, Education Leadership, James K. Uphoff cited a "narrow" definition of religion which centers around belief in and worship of a deity. He also gave a "broad" definition of religion which: "...envisions religion as any faith or set of values to which an individual or group gives ultimate loyalty... Ethical Culture, secularism, humanism, scientism...illustrate this concept of religion." [610] The author went on to admit that the broad definition: "...applies to all of us...we educators have placed our faith in the critical thinking process as a means of improving our world, {and} we may have adopted it as a religious value..."  He continued: "My own faith in the value of and need for rationality makes me become a missionary and undertake the task with great zeal."

Humanists in the schools are a dedicated lot who do indeed display as much, if not more zeal in the promotion of Humanism than do Christian missionaries in promoting Christianity. Educator Harold C. Lyon described a course he gave in "effective education" which he claimed resulted in his students functioning as missionaries. He said: "The intangible product of the course is fifteen humanistically enlightened individuals who are now either teaching their own humanistically oriented classes or working as missionaries to influence others to deal with feelings in the classroom and in curriculum development." [611]

Humanists are just as protective of their religion as are Christians, if not more so. In the Winter, 1970, issue of Religious Humanism, the author of an article in another magazine was chastised for calling Humanism a "false religion." Exception was taken to the charge with the exhortation, "Faithful humanists are challenged by these assaults to speak and write in defense of the Humanist Faith." [612]

Humanistic Education

Schools are said to be promoting "humanistic education" or to be developing "humane" qualities, or other benevolent sounding conditions that bear the prefix "human." To most people, "humanistic education" means schools are exerting a civilizing influence on children. Schools may very well be promoting "humane" qualities {in the traditional meaning of the word "humane"} and concern for others, but we should be aware that "humanistic education" is not what it appears. There are those who would argue that "H(h)umanistic education" means nothing more than the study of the great classics. But such is NOT the case, according to William Russell, Program Officer for the federally funded National Endowment for the Humanities.

In August, 1975, he clarified the matter: "An initial clarification to make is that the term 'humanistic' is not the objective form of the noun 'humanities': Humanistic education does not mean education in the humanities disciplines." [613] Another admission that Humanistic education is not "education in the humanities disciplines" appeared in To Nurture Humaneness: "...it is not enough that we simply teach the humanities. Instruction in English, social studies, art, music, and drama is not enough. Humanism and the humanities are by NO means synonymous." [614]

If we know what Humanistic education Is Not, then what is it? A good explanation was unintentionally provided by California  Assemblyman John Vasconcellos. In March, 1974, he wrote: "...humanizing education isn't easy. It's at least controversial, and at most subversive. It's subversive because attempts at truly humanizing the public schools must run smack up against the fundamental social realities...It's controversial because it necessarily raise, even challenges, the very deepest held values and assumptions about human beings...It includes the effective and the cognitive domains. It recognizes a child has a mind of his own...has feeling...has a body, physical and sexual...needing to touch and be touched..." [615]

He elaborated on self‑determination and autonomy; the need for children to look inward instead f outward and upward to God or to parents for guidance. He lauded evolution over creation. In essence them, Vasconcellos promoted the major tenets or "articles of faith" as expressed in the Humanist Manifesto as his idea of Humanistic education. What is supposed to be the benefit of such Humanistic education? According to educator Morrel J. Clute, "Humanistic schools work to free people..." [616] The obvious question is, free people from what? Educator William D. Hedges answered the question by giving a "common core of values" that society must adhere to if it is to survive. This "common core of values" projects Not Christian values, but humanist values. He explained: "...this view of humankind requires the educative process to free people to be themselves. It values autonomy and...inter­dependence. It decries...the imposition of constraints and conventions...which can retard the individual's growth." [617]

So finally, the answer to the question, "from what do Humanist schools free people?" must be, From Christian Values, From Christian Behavior and From Christian Constraints and Conventions. In a single word, then Humanist schools Free Children from Christianity! Indeed, Humanistic education is not "value‑free," and this was readily admitted by educator Harold C. Lyon: "Humanistic education is not 'value‑free.' If it is to be in any way a personal, humanizing experience, one accepts the fact that both students and teachers have a World View or Value set through which each interprets facts..." [618]

A "world view" is very much a part of Humanist belief. But additionally, the Humanist interprets facts ‑‑ he does not accept facts because for Humanists, facts can change. There are no absolutes. Truth is relative. Truth can mean anything one wants it to mean to suit immediate needs and the situation at hand ‑‑ "situation ethics." As we move along it will become clear in many ways that Humanistic education is not "value‑free."

It can't be "value‑free" because it is not intended to develop the "cognitive" ‑‑ the learning of academic skills and information nor to develop the "affective" ‑‑ values, attitudes and behaviors.

The "Humanist Movement"

"Humanistic Education is a movement, rather than a discipline. It lacks a sound theoretical base, and there is little research to prove, disprove, or improve the efficacy of its techniques. Those of us who are presently working in the field are anxious to see it legitimized." [619]

Humanism in the schools did not "just happen." It is the result of a movement, led and promoted by John Dewey. Humanistic education did not start with John Dewey, of course, but it was he, more than anyone else who has influenced and determined the status of present day education. A more contemporary missionary of Humanism in the schools is the well known and influential educator, Arthur W. Coombs, who in 1966, defined the "Humanist movement" with a small "h": "The humanist movement finds expression in many places. Internationally it appears in the rise and independence of the underdeveloped nations, in the United Nations, the World Court, or the freedom of women..." [620]

Bear in mind the above appeared in 1966. In 1978, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development published a report, credit for which was given to several authors, with Arthur W. Coombs named as chairperson.

The introduction to the report, obviously written by Coombs, defined the Humanist {with a capital "H"} Movement in a way that was amazingly like his 1966 definition: "The Humanist Movement came into being very largely in response to this fundamental change in human problems, such as ecology, starvation, conservation, atom bombs ...One sees the fruits of this movement in such world‑wide developments such as the decline of colonialism, the rise of the have‑not nations...the world court, the United Nations, UNESCO ...public education...equal rights legislation...women's liberation." [621]

So you can see we had small "h" humanism in 1966, and capital "H" Humanism in 1978. Is it significant or a printer's error? More than likely, it is significant. The Humanists are bolder now in all that they do. They no longer feel the great need to mislead. The time is right for them to be out in the open about what they are and what they are doing. It is of interest that the concerns of the Humanist Movement expressed by Coombs are also the concerns expressed in the Humanist Manifesto. The Humanists are fiercely determined to achieve the aims of their Movement. So determined, in fact, that Arthur Coombs was moved to declare: "...the tide of human affairs is running with us. The humanist movement is inexorable. It will not be stopped. Though habit and tradition may kick up waves of opposition from time to time, these are but surface manifestations...those great tides in human affairs...are disastrous to oppose. I believe the Humanist Movement is one of those tides and it is coming in." [622]

That was Arthur Coombs speaking in 1966. In 1978, his missionary zeal had not cooled a bit: "The Humanist Movement is not fad or frill. It is an absolute necessity for our times. If it did not exist, we would have to invent it." [623]

Clearly the Humanists are determined not to be stopped. There is a viable Humanist Movement and the schools are the primary areas for it to take hold, and in true missionary fashion, for it to flower and grow. Imagine what would happen if Christians were as determined to propagate Christianity in the schools!

But the Humanist Movement is not carried on only by Humanist Educators. Humanists are in positions of power and great influence in entertainment, the mass media, and particularly, in our legislatures. We have already seen one example; California Assemblyman, John Vasconcellos, an ardent champion of Humanism in education.

Higher up yet, we have California Congressman, Don Edwards, who on October 23, 1973, gave a talk in which he said in part: "...I wish I was able to...tell you that the Humanist Manifesto II has been read by 535 members of Congress, by the Supreme Court, by the CIA, by the Pentagon and by all those various people at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue and that further they have declared unanimously that henceforth it would be the cornerstone of American foreign and domestic policy. I wish I could say that, but I can't (sic) does not mean that this very important document is not on Capitol Hill, that it is not going to have a great deal of influence in the dialogue that will go on for many years." [624]

Perhaps the Supreme Court already considers the Humanist Manifesto the "cornerstone of American­...domestic policy," for hasn't that same Court decreed there shall be no prayer or Bible reading in the government schools? And what of the abortion decision? In fact, hasn't the Supreme Court made many decisions that are supportive of Humanist beliefs? The Humanists have been very effective with their Movement to "humanize" education. At a convention of atheists in San Francisco, Madalyn Murray O'Hare claimed the climate for atheism has changed since she won her Supreme Court decision. She exulted: "Let's face it, there is no way we could have had an atheist convention 10 years ago. Everything today is much better. Part of the reason is public education." [625]

At the same convention Mrs. O'Hare was quoted as describing Vice President Mondale as "an undercover atheist." Does she know something the public doesn't know? In any case, she's right about the improved climate for atheists, and part of the reason for the improved climate is public education and a lot of help from more than a few important people in important places.

Humanist "Articles of Faith"

Just as Christians accept the teaching of Jesus Christ and the Bible, so the Humanists have their "bible" in the Humanist Manifesto II. The first Manifesto was published in 1933 and was brought up to date in 1973, as the present Humanist Manifesto II. It's a very short document which can be understood by anyone of average intelligence. upon reading it for the first time, anyone who has kept up with current events will immediately see the Manifesto as a "blueprint." To a great degree, the "articles of faith" expressed in the Manifesto have been worked into every facet of our lives: religion, politics, social and personal mores, and above all, What is taught or promoted in the government schools. Let's take a look at the situation as it relates to the tenets of the Humanist Manifesto.

Religion

Humanist Manifesto: "We believe...that traditional dogmatic or authoritarian religions that place revelation, God, ritual or creed above human needs and experience do a disservice to the human species...As non‑theists, we begin with humans, not God..."

How many Protestant denominations or Catholic churches have become totally man‑centered, with Jesus Christ accorded no more veneration than would be due just another human brother? In how many ways has your church put "human needs" ahead of worship of God? And in schools, children are no longer permitted to recite the Lord's Prayer or read the Bible. The schools DO "begin with humans not God."

Humanist Manifesto: "Promises of immortal salvation or fear of damnation are both illusory and harm­ful ...There is no credible evidence that life survives the death of the body." How many Christians no longer believe sin is possible? How many Christians now believe that regardless of how they live in this life all will be forgiven at the end? As we shall see, Humanistic death education in schools and churches is helping people to accept death as a finality ‑‑ helping them believe that this life is all there is and there is nothing to be hoped for or feared at death.

Morality

Humanist Manifesto: "...Ethics is autonomous and situational, needing no theological or ideological sanction...We strive for the good life, here and now." Because government schools cannot teach or promote Christian morality, Humanist situation ethics is promoted. Many clergymen of all faiths no longer believe it is possible to commit a sin, and they too preach and teach the use of situation ethics. Because sin is no longer recognized and because people now live by a personal code of morality, based on situation ethics, our society is in a state of moral anarchy and decline.

Many people can no longer recognize right from wrong or good from bad, and their confusion is reflected in their behavior and their toleration of uncivilized behavior. Young people taught to live by situation ethics are in a state of despair and alienation because they have no structure or standards to guide them. This is obviously a contributing cause of youthful suicides, but there is an unwillingness to admit it because the right to suicide is a Humanist belief that is accepted and promoted.

Individual Behavior

Humanist Manifesto: "...We believe in maximum individual autonomy..."

This Humanist belief is actively promoted in government schools and is responsible for the terrifying amount of youthful rebellion, alienation and violence. A child who is encouraged to exercise "maximum individual autonomy" uses situation ethics, and he decides what is right or wrong behavior. Parents and other authority figures cannot influence a child who has been led to believe he has been liberated from laws, rules and regulations established by any authority higher than himself, including God.

Humanist Manifesto: "The right to birth control, abortion and divorce should be recognized...neither do we wish to prohibit by law or social sanction, sexual behavior between consenting adults...individuals should be permitted to express their sexual proclivities and pursue their life‑styles as they desire."

Most parents know that sex education in the schools often extends from kindergarten through grade 12 and that it has caused a furor in many communities. Why do parents object to sex education? No because it teaches the "facts of life," but because it inculcates Humanist attitudes about sex and sexual activity, which is contrary to traditional morality.

In most states, Minors can obtain contraceptives, treatment for Venereal Disease and have Abortions; all without parental consent or Knowledge. Children can be directed to such services by a school counselor or by anyone in the school who by law is allowed "privileged communication" with students.

 It's a full circle. Schools teach children they have a right to express their sexual proclivities ‑‑ be they homosexual or heterosexual. If as a result of pursuing their "rights" they become infected with VD {many forms of which are becoming increasingly difficult to cure} or if contraception fails or is not used, then such "minor" problems can be fixed with "Back-up" Services and parents will never know. If this isn't destructive to family relationships, then what is?

Humanist Manifesto: "...the individual must experience a full range of civil liberties...This includes...a recognition of an individual's right to die with dignity, euthanasia, and the right to suicide."

Ever wonder why so much legislation has been introduced into state legislatures to legalize "death with dignity," and why there is so much discussion of the merits of positive euthanasia or "mercy killing?" Or why the right to suicide is more openly discussed as a viable option for those who no longer want to live?

The reasons are to be found in the beliefs stated in the Humanist Manifesto and promoted in the schools and in society at large. In the schools, these "Civil Liberties" are made acceptable in death education and through other anti-life indoctrination.

Humanist Manifesto: "All persons should have a voice in developing the values and goals that determine their lives... Alienating forces should be modified or eradicated...People are more important than decalogues..." This particular "article of faith" is more devastating than realized at first glance. Schools across the country, be they government, church or private; are providing "values education," "values clarification," "moral development" and an assortment of other values‑changing techniques.

The purpose is to help children find their "own" values. In reality, these programs are designed to implement the Humanist belief that, "all persons should have a voice in developing the values and goals that determine their lives." In essence, values education declares that parents are no longer permitted to instill their values in their children. If they attempt to do so, the school negates their efforts by teaching their children a process for deciding how they should behave and what they should believe.

Values education and moral development programs respond to the Humanist belief that "alienating forces" {the home and church} "should be modified or eradicated." Remember also, according to Humanist belief, "people are more important than decalogues." And what are those decalogues? Why, The Ten Commandments, of Course!

Education

Humanist Manifesto: "We believe in the right to universal education...The schools should foster satisfying and productive living. They should be open at all levels to any and all; the achievement of excellence should be encouraged. Innovative and experimental forms of education are to be welcomed."

The educators make much of fostering "satisfying and productive living." But what does it mean? It means that schools, in keeping with Humanist belief, provide students with the bare minimum of "survival skills" that will enable them to merely 'get by' in adult life ‑‑ to be satisfied with a government definition of what is considered "enough" and to accept dead‑end jobs that provide just enough income to pay for "satisfying living," enough food, amusements, sex and shelter. "Achievement of excellence" can mean anything and has no relation to academic excellence. A child can "achieve excellence" in getting along with his peers or in any other non‑academic effort. As for the "innovative and experimental forms of education" ‑‑ this is about all that exists in government schools, and failing SAT scores prove it.

National Sovereignty

Humanist Manifesto: "...the best option is to transcend the limits of national sovereignty...we look to the development of...world law...We believe in...international courts...the arts of negotiation and compromise...It is a planetary imperative to reduce the level of military expenditures...Commitment to all human kind is the highest church, state, party, class or race...What more daring goal for humankind than for each person to become...a citizen of a world community..."

With the help of federal funds and in accord with government policy, schools are indoctrinating children with "peace studies," "global perspective" and similar sounding programs ‑‑ all with the same intent ‑‑ to promote acceptance of "the limits of national sovereignty." Learning "the arts of negotiation and compromise" are considered "new" basic skills. Expenditures for defense are down to an alarmingly low level. In other words, the U.S. is well into accepting and promoting the Humanist demand for a "world community."

Humanist Manifesto: "We must expand communication and transportation across frontiers. Travel restrictions must cease." To reach this goal, former President Carter had announced the intention of his administration to deregulate international air fares. Is it just a coincidence that his intention satisfies the demand of the Humanist Manifesto?

The Environment

Humanist Manifesto: "The world community must engage in co‑operative planning concerning the use of rapidly depleting re­sources. The planet earth must be considered a single ecosystem...excessive population growth must be checked...Exploitation of natural resources...must end."

Do you now understand why there is an "energy crisis?" The crisis isn't that there aren't enough natural resources ‑‑ the "crisis" had to be created to satisfy the Humanist demand for "co‑operative planning" to save "depleting resources." Actually, it has been determined by reputable scientists that natural resources are not being depleted. Even if a shortage of energy sources existed, the problem could be remedied by a free, productive nation, such as the United States used to be.

The next time you hear a complaint about the "planet earth" and the terrible fate that is about to befall our "single ecosystem" because of "excessive population growth" and "exploitation of natural resources" ‑‑ remember it is propaganda to further the Humanist-Communist-Jewish Zionist/Socialist Goal of a World Dictatorship.

Change Agents and Change Techniques

Educators do not deny that the purpose or goal of "education" is to bring about change. Of course, they do not admit it for general public knowledge, but they do admit it in their journals and books. The problem, however, is that parents generally do not have the time nor inclination to read such publications. If they did, here is an example of what they might find: "The basic goal of education is change ‑‑ human change in desirable directions...This issue...focuses attention upon the school as a change agent ‑‑ and the specific focus is on changing people." [626]

If uninformed parents were to read such an incredible definition of the goal of "education," surely they would have many questions. What kind of change are they talking about? What do they mean by "human change in desirable directions?" What do they mean when they call the school a "change agent?" One of the most influential change agents in education is Carl Rogers. Here is his view of the goal of education:  "...the goal of education must be to develop individuals who are open to change...The goal of education must be to develop a society in which people can live more comfortably with change than with rigidity. In the coming world the capacity to face the new appropriately is more important than the ability to know and repeat the old." [627] Again, a puzzled parent might ask, Change from what to what? Why must schools develop people who are "open to change?" For what purpose? Should the goal of education be to develop society or to educate individuals? Why must people feel more comfortable with change than with rigidity?

What is meant by "rigidity?" How can educators claim to know what kind of people the future world will require? A common theme expressed in the writing of educators is the need to wipe out tradition, to eliminate the past or to minimize its importance: "We need to de‑emphasize tradition and the past... Educators can no longer afford to deplore and resist change. Too many teachers are still insisting that things must be done the 'right way'...Messiness, noise, confusion and mistakes, out of which may come originality, creativity and genius, are suppressed in favor of neatness, quiet, order and 'being right,' out of which can come conservatism...rigidity..." [628]

Again a parent might ask, Why must tradition be de‑emphasized, which is to deny our culture, our heritage and our roots? The answer is that knowledge of our history and emotional ties to the past deters the establishment of the new world order. Furthermore, the educators would have us flounder in noise, confusion, disorder, messiness and mistakes because they know full well it is only under such stress and chaos that the changes the one‑worlders seek is possible.

The above excerpt also tells us that teachers must be changed; that we must now have a new kind of teacher, and indeed, as we shall see, the desired "new breed" is being turned out of the universities. To add to the confusion, they are still called "teachers," but in fact they are considered "facilitators," "managers of the learning environment" and just plain "change agents."

The NEA and Change

The most powerful lobby forcing change in the schools is the National Education Association {NEA}. The goal of the NEA is not to improve the quality of academic education, but to bring about social and political change and financial security for its members.

If parents were to read even a few of the publications churned out by the NEA, they would have no difficulty understanding the role that has been and continues to be played by this change agent operation. Over the years, the NEA journal, Today's Education has provided an inside track on revolutionary events to come in the schools. The reading of the NEA book, Schools For The 70' And Beyond would convince any doubting parent that promotion of traditional academic education is about the last goal of the NEA. But the NEA doesn't just write books. It is also actively involved in teachers training and revision and in particular, in curriculum development. For instance, in celebration of the U.S. Bicentennial, the NEA made available to schools a one‑world propaganda program titled A Declaration of Interdependence: Education for a Global Community. The NEA did not wait for schools to ask for the program ‑‑ 17 different projects were launched to implement it, according to NEA advertising. In spite of the educators' insistence that every facet of education must be non‑Political, the NEA is very much involved in politics.

In 1974, it was reported that the {then} 1.5 million member outfit expected to spend about $4 million through its local, state and national affiliates to elect candidates who would support NEA programs. [629] In 1976, the NEA admitted it had 169 members serving as full delegates to the Democratic National Convention and 89 serving as alternates. [630] The NEA has a predictable liberal bias on every controversial issue that comes along. In 1975 the NEA's 127‑ member Resolutions Committee met in Washington, D.C., to forge the future orientation of the organiza­tion. The proposed radical resolutions drafted by the committee included approval of homosexual teachers and it was resolved that no person should be "dismissed or demoted because of...sexual orientation." [631]

The resolution in favor of keeping homosexual teachers on the payroll is an indication of the hostility the NEA bears toward parents who oppose sex education, which, as we shall see, includes favorable treatment of the "alternate lifestyle" of homosexuality. The NEA publication, Working With Parents, [632] a guide for teachers and other educators, advised teachers that using a citizen advisory committee at every stage of planning a sex education program..."can be a strong force in quieting parent protests."

But the publication also cautioned that in spite of very careful preparation, some parents and citizens "...whose personal attitudes are warped, may complain or may try to sabotage the program." This is a typical NEA defensive posture. Any intelligent protest or questioning of any program is immediately construed as the result of "warped" attitudes. Unfortunately, such subtle questioning of the sanity of parents is usually sufficient to cause the more faint‑hearted types to back down. The NEA has another "dirty trick" that often works very effectively to silence opposition. Recognizing that many people crumble and give up when subjected to a name‑calling attack, parents are often labeled "extremists" or "right‑wingers."

In the February, 1970, NEA publication The National Elementary Principal, [633] principals were urged "...to resist the biased and unreasonable attacks of extremist groups." This tactic is particularly effective with parents who have no particular orientation ‑‑ who in fact pride themselves on being "middle of the road" and who cherish an unblemished social reputation. They fold up the fastest, and the educators know it. The true aims and goals of the NEA could not have been more clearly articulated than they were by former California Governor and President Ronald Reagan.[634] Speaking before a Florida rally, he charged the NEA really wants "a federal educational system, a national school system, so that little Willie's mother would not be able to go down and see the principal or even the school board. She'd actually have to take her case up to Congress in Washington. I believe this is the road to disaster and the end of academic freedom."

He continued his charge, comparing the NEA goals to the system that existed in Nazi Germany. In Hitler's Germany, he explained, "where they had a nationalized school system...when he {Hitler} said 'Burn the books' they burned the books." (But no one goes to the trouble to point out the books he ordered burned were Communist propaganda). The fact is, U.S. education has already become so nationalized that "little Willie's mother" and many other mothers have found it necessary to go to Congress to protest funding of programs that in effect are "nationalized programs" as a result of federal funding they are disseminated to schools across the country with little differences among them. And heaven help "little Willie's mother" and all the other mothers who protest. They may well end up on a blacklist of those who criticize NEA‑style education. As with any other organization with revolutionary goals, the NEA is sensitive to criticism, to put it mildly. The NEA brochure titled Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities,[635] lists among the purposes of the Commission, the intent to "Gather information about the various individuals and groups who criticize or oppose education, and made resumes of their activities." Now remember, this is not the CIA, but the National Education Association that will not hear or tolerate any criticism of "education."

The "storm trooper mentality" of the NEA is made chillingly clear in an Inquiry Report (Inquiry Report, Kanawha County, West Virginia, A Textbook Study On Cultural Conflict, National Education Association, Washington, D.C.) prepared as a result of the revolt that took place in West Virginia after parents realized what was going on in the schools. Parents should read this document to get a good idea of the viciousness that can be employed by the NEA when its kind of "education" is questioned. The NEA is determined to protect its "turf." Proposed 1977 NEA resolutions included the following warning to dissidents: "The public school system is not expendable. Any movement that would diminish this vital asset will be opposed by the Association." Very ominous, indeed.

Change Agents: Their Preparation, Purpose and Duties

If the purpose of "education" is to change people and society, then teachers must be change agents. The kind of teacher parents remember is no longer wanted or needed in Government Schools. The older teacher who wants to teach is an undesirable anachronism. This was made clear in the NEA book, Schools for the 70's And Beyond: [636] "...teachers who conform to the traditional institutional mode are out of place. They might find fulfillment as tap‑dance instructors, or guards in maximum security prisons or proprietors of reducing salons, or agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ‑‑ but they damage teaching, children, and themselves by staying in the classroom."

The above statement is an accurate description of the situation that exists. Teachers who want to teach in the "traditional mode" are definitely undesirable. They are replaced as quickly as possible by "clinicians" as described in the Feasibility Study: Behavioral Science Teacher Education Program, [637] commonly known as the B STEP program. This study was published with federal funds by Michigan State University in January, 1970. The program has three major goals and the first is as follows: "Development of a new kind of elementary school teacher who...engages in teaching as clinical practice...and functions as a responsible agent of social change."

Note the reference to "clinical practice." Such medical terminology is rampant in the writings of educators. In the January, 1969 NEA publication, Today's Education, [638] educators June and Harold Shane echoed the idea that in schools in the 70's, teachers would function as "learning clinicians" and that schools would become "clinics" to provide psycho‑social 'treatment' for the student. The mental health approach of the change agents goes back a long way. In 1946, G.B. Chisholm wrote the following: [639] "The re‑interpretation and eventually eradication of the concept of right and wrong, which has been the basis of child training, the substitution of intelligent and rational thinking for faith in the certainties of the old people, these are the belated objectives of all effective psychotherapy. Would they not be legitimate objectives of original education?..."

Chisholm also stated: "Can such a program of re‑education or a new kind of education be charted?...the sciences of living should be...taught to all children...while the study of such things as trigonometry, Latin ...should be left to the universities. Only so...can we help our children to carry their responsibilities as world citizens..."

Only now is it becoming clear to many parents that universities do not train traditional teachers to teach basic skills and to impart academic information. It has become common knowledge that many young "certified" teachers cannot adequately read or write nor are they competent in their chosen fields. Then how, it might be asked, can they become certified? The simple answer is that "certification" has little to do with accumulation of knowledge or teaching ability.

Teachers who have become certified to teach are those who have received the required change agent training. And only those who continue to be processed through "in service training" retain their certification. What are some of the duties that go with the job? According to Social Studies for the Seventies [640] which is a, "...volume...intended primarily for the pre‑service through grade eight,' the change agent teacher must serve as a diagnostician, goal‑setter and developer. The would‑be teacher learns that 'If children are to change and grow and become, then someone must know about them as they can become." [641]

What that really means is that the teacher must learn "where they are" in their attitude and value formation so they can be manipulated to "where they ought to be." The teacher is given 31 ways of..."discovering a great deal about the children we teach" and includes such manipulative and prying techniques as the following:

   * Encourage role playing "and seeing children's reactions."

   * Read stories without any ending and have children complete the stories.

   * Visit the homes of children.

   * Keep diaries.

After the teacher has diagnosed and discovered all that she can about a child, and has set the desired goals, then she must put on another hat ‑‑ that of developer: "In a sense teachers are social engineers...but it cannot be done without the previous steps of discovery and diagnosis as well as of goal‑setting." [642] The social engineering begins the day the child enters school for the first time. It must begin at once because: "...the basic personality patterns may have been formed before children ever enter school. They can be changed but the later that is postponed the more difficult is the process." [643]

Of course "basic personality patterns" are formed before children enter school, and obviously, these "basic personality patterns" are a reflection of the personality patterns of parents. Therefore, it is the parental influence ‑‑ the arrogant, elitist, change agents want to eradicate.

To be more explicit, those "basic personality patterns" that must be changed are seen in: "The child of suburbia {who} is likely to be a materialist and somewhat of a hypocrite. He tends to be a striver in school, a conformist, and above all a believer in being 'nice,' polite, clean and tidy...He is often conspicuously self‑centered. In all these respects, the suburban child patters his attitudes after those of his parents." [644]

We are also told; "If we do not alter this pattern...our society may decay." If teachers are to keep track of the progress of their social engineering, then they must keep files. In Social Studies for the Seventies [645] teachers are cautioned: "One last word of warning...all records which teachers have of children should be kept confidential and placed in a safe place where no one can find them...Attention to this...can save teachers many a bad moment and in some cases their jobs."

When teachers function as "social engineers;" when they must hide confidential records: all of this must go on behind closed doors, and that's what we'll look at next.

                                                                                      Change Agents Behind: Closed Doors

"When a teacher closes the classroom door in the morning and is alone with the students, the real curriculum begins...eventually the time of reckoning may come with cries and community furor." [646]

Chances are that most parents will go on believing that "teachers" "teach" and that all schools provide an "education." Belief in this fantasy will continue because the change agents have become so skillful with deceptive "educationese" and adept at the art of using the "closed classroom door."

Recognizing the existence of resistance to change, guidelines were drawn to help the teacher function as an effective change agent without parents or even other teachers knowing about what was going on. In an article, How Teachers Can Innovate and Still Keep Their Jobs,[647] ten guidelines were proposed including the following:

* "Keep the Door Closed...The successful teacher...innovates quietly and without fanfare."

* "Use a Special Vocabulary...Avoid 'change,' 'fun,'...'new,'...'sensitivity,' 'students rights,' 'students choice,'... Publicly stress instead 'mastering basics,' 'students responsibility,' 'hard work,' respect,' 'traditional values,' 'proven,' 'discipline,' and 'results.'" Can there be any doubt they know what parents expect of them?

* "Enlist the Students in your game plan. Make a rule and gain students' agreement that they will not ask other teachers why they do what you are doing..."

* "Carry a book around...potential blockers will give you more latitude to operate if you appear to know what you are doing..."

* "Name your program as early as you feel you can...Use titles which will not alienate the general public."

In the final paragraph, teachers were given this hucksterish challenge: "You too can become a change agent."

Hopefully, all parents can understand the significance of the above guidelines. What they advise "educators" to do, in a word, is Lie about what they are doing. This is the payment parents and the public receive for the trust that is obviously misplaced.  Any lingering doubt that educators do indeed consider themselves "undercover" change agents was dispelled by the March 22, 1974 Newsletter of the Prince George's County Educators' Association Inc. {Maryland}.

In that issue teachers were warned to oppose pending legislation that would have given parents access to their children's textbooks. Teachers were ordered, "Oppose SB 196 The Parental Rights For Public School Children. Tell legislators that this legislation is not needed. May render schools ineffective as change agents since it would place all curriculum in the hands of parents." And wouldn't that be just too bad? The change agents and their cohorts are determined to eliminate any parental participation that is seen as a deterrent to efforts to change children.

In 1976, legislation to establish parental rights to review educational materials again surfaced in the Maryland legislature. As would be expected, the education establishment was in opposition, and they had quite a bit of support. On March 3, 1976, the Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Maryland sent a letter to the Maryland Congress of Parents and Teachers in which he stated: "We applaud the Maryland Congress of Parents and Teachers position in opposition to SB 165 and HB 470, pertaining to public access to educational materials...we believe that the provisions for public hearings present a serious threat to freedom of inquiry and expression. The primary problem with regard to textbooks is not denial of parental access but dullness, lack of variety and avoidance of controversy. We hope that we may be able to work with you in the future against other threats to academic freedom."

Can you see the significance of all this? What parents want for their children is of absolutely no importance. The only concern of the  educators is that they have "academic freedom" to function as change agents. Obviously, they cannot do "their thing" out in the open, so they rely on the protection of the closed classroom door, the elimination of any legislation that would hamper their efforts, and upon more than a little help from their friends. Every "good" change agent recognizes the value of the closed classroom door. Values educator Sidney Simon has declared that teachers have had "major success by closing their doors and doing things they believe in." [648] Simon also recalled that when he was teaching at Temple University: "I always bootlegged the values stuff under other titles. I was assigned to teach Social Studies in the Elementary School and I taught values clarification. I was assigned Current Trends in American Education and I taught my trend."

More "behind closed doors" guidelines were published in 1977 in Social Change (Pacesetters In Innovation, OE‑20103‑69, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.) a newsletter from the NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science. Here are just a few of them:

* "The more visible change is, the more threatening it becomes, and the more it will be resented."

* "Couch the language of change in the language of the status quo."

* "Emphasize the new program's similarity to familiar programs."

* "Use the stated objectives of the status quo. They are almost broad enough to encompass innovation."

* "Unobtrusively change one unit; the innovation, if successful, will spread."

Parents should not underestimate the value educators place on being able to function autonomously after the classroom door is closed. In spite of all the educators' rhetoric about wanting parental involvement, it should be understood that the only kind of involvement educators want is on their terms and only when they want it. Parents should not automatically assume they are welcome or that they have an absolute right to visit their child's classroom.

For instance, parents are not welcome in classrooms in at least one school district {Renton} in the state of Washington. Parents there can ask to be admitted to a classroom to observe three times a month, but the request does not have to be granted. Before a parent, Mrs. Anita Smith, went to court over the matter, a teacher didn't have to admit a parent at all.

The right to visit became an issue a couple of years ago when Mrs. Smith asked to sit in on a class. Her child had been out sick and upon returning, had difficulty understanding a week‑long game the class was playing.

Thinking she could help her child if she watched the classroom activity, Mrs. Smith asked for and was denied permission to observe. When she asked why her request was denied, she was told her presence "would be disruptive." Mrs. Smith asked to be told why it was assumed her presence would be disruptive, but the teacher would not explain. She wrote letters to the principal, superintendent and the school board, asking the same question. Her letters went unanswered.

Was Mrs. Smith a chronic complainer, a "troublemaker?" Hardly. She had visited a classroom only once in three years. She had served as president of the PTA and had been given an award by the PTSA for service to youth and the community. She is one of those people who likes to work within the system and observe rules and procedures. But regardless of her record of co‑operation and service, she nevertheless found it necessary to go to court. She lost her case; the court ruled it was a matter to be decided by the legislature. Legislation was subsequently introduced that would have established the right of all parents to visit their child's classroom, but predictably, the Washington Education Association lobbied against the bill and it died in committee.

In the meantime, the local education association took the school board before the Public Employees Commission for an assortment of unfair practices charges. One of those charges was that in response to the court suit, the board of education had established "three times a month" {but with strings attached} visitation privileges. The education association protested the policy on visits was established without negotiation! The education association took the position that visits negatively affected working conditions. Mrs. Smith countered that they weren't dealing with the manufacture of cars or washing machines, but with children, who do not belong to the state. Backed up to the wall, the educators flatly stated parents did not have a right to visit classrooms. It was a privilege that could be withheld or granted.

At the time this is written, that's where the matter stands. After the expenditure of several thousand dollars and a lot of aggravation, parents still do not have the right to visit classrooms. If educators were teaching children what parents want taught, and which taxpayers pay for, there would be no reason to object to parental visits.

Clearly, in light of all the evidence that exists, it is understand­able why the change agents want to keep their activities hidden behind closed doors and the classroom off limits to those who might be "disruptive."

                                                                                                         Change Agents:

                                                                                              The Washington Connection

Much is made of education being controlled by local school boards that reflect the wishes of the local community. Local control may have existed at one time, but today it is a fantasy. Just about local education is controlled by the federal government through money funneled to government agencies such as the National Science Foundation {NSF} and the National Endowment for the Humanities {NEH}.  In turn, the NSF, NEH and other government agencies contract with change agent curriculum developers who produce curricula that win the approval of federal bureaucrats who control the purse strings.

For instance, it was through a NSF contract with the Education Development Center that we now have the infamous Man: A Course of Study {MACOS} curriculum. A grant from NEH assisted development of the values‑changing curriculum Ethical Quest in a Democratic Society currently being piloted in Washington state schools and slated for use nationwide. Another NEH funded curriculum, developed by the Center for Global Perspectives is called Global Perspectives: A Humanistic Influence on the Curriculum. It is being piloted in several areas around the country preparatory to being used in schools nationwide. This program and others very much like it satisfy the Humanist Manifesto calls for, "...each person to become, in ideal as well as in practice, a citizen of a world community."

Federally funded change agent programs and curricula were ushered in soon after passage of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act {ESEA} in 1965. By 1969 the federal government had published [649] a nearly two‑inch thick volume of all innovative projects in operation in schools as of February, 1969. Here are a few examples of projects listed in Pacesetters In Innovation that deal with changing teachers and children:

1). Project ES 001 996: Describes how "experienced teachers from the model school will serve as change agents" through staff rotation.

2). Project ES 001 783: Describes teachers as "in‑house change agents" who participate in "a 5‑day resident laboratory in human relations-sensitivity training..."

3). Project ES 002 010: Explains how emphasis will be placed on creating behavioral change in students through a combination of guidance counseling and occupational training.

4). Project ES 001 230: Explains how emphasis will be placed on creating behavioral change in students through a combination of guidance counseling and occupational training.

It is interesting that resistance to change was anticipated, and that it would not be tolerated:

5). Project ES 002 230: "Forces which block the adoption of new ideas will be identified and ways to overcome these forces will be explored."

Other evidence of the schools functioning as change agents with the help of the federal government can be found in information offered by the Educational Resources Information Center {ERIC}. This federally funded operation of the U.S. Office of Education provides materials to help educators function as change agents. For instance, it sells such documents as ED 056 345: Humanism: The Counselor's Role as a Change Agent; ED 058 664: Change Agent Teams Changing Schools: Case Studies; ED 054 513: Emotional Arousal and Attitude Change During Simulation Games.

In a document titled Report To The President's Commission on School Finance,[650] the concern was expressed that the majority of our youth hold the same values as their parents and that this pattern must be altered.

The report also stated that the use of "conventional wisdom as a basis for decision‑making is a major impediment to educational improvement." For educational improvement, the report recommended;  "...that the change agent is the decision‑maker about the innovation. That is, it is assumed that he decides what the adopter will change to." But there is concern expressed about willingness of people to change: "...people cannot be forced to change until they are psychologically ready."

To help make people psychologically ready for the change, U.S. government grants have been given to universities for the training of change agents. In August, 1973, the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare {HEW} awarded $5.9 million to 21 institutions to train 500 educational personnel to become leaders of educational change. [651]

It should be clearly understood that such "leaders of educational change" do not engage in value‑free activity, [652] challenged the "value‑free" position as a myth. They said: "The issue becomes what values and therefore whose values are to be served by change. There is a natural tendency for the change agent to promulgate his values, and in such circumstances we must ask whether these values are representative of those possessed by the target system."

Zaltman and Duncan then asked the question parents should ask of every change agent educator: "Is the change agent really concerned about the welfare of the target system, or does the change activity satisfy his or her needs for power and control? If the latter motives are operating, this might cause the change agent to be more manipulative in dealing with the target system."

If you look at the scope of the change process in the schools, it is evident that the change agent is not "really concerned about the welfare of the target system." "The target system" is the children. Children are to be changed for a particular purpose with a particular goal in mind. When the federal government spends millions of dollars to train "leaders of educational change" it is obvious the purpose is not to perpetuate the status quo.

The purpose is to satisfy the desire of the Government to amass power and control in order to facilitate the Humanist New World Order. And how could any of it be done without the government school curriculum? Indeed, the curriculum, be it math or home economics, vocational training or guidance counseling; must be a tool for change.

Therefore, curricula cannot be designed or developed by those who think in the "traditional mode" or who use "conventional wisdom." Funding goes only to those curriculum developers who do not block the adoption of new ideas, but in fact, facilitate change.  "...A curriculum...whether it is a textbook, a complete set of materials and activities, or a whole school program must have some ends in view. It must be constructed in relation to some purposes. Ideally, these should be formulated in terms of the change in students the curriculum is intended to bring about."

Why aren't more parents aware of the "change in students the curriculum is intended to bring about?" Because they are not aware of the mechanics and facets of the change process ‑‑ the use of misleading "educationese;" the federally funded curricula; the federally funded programs that transform teachers into zealous missionary change agents.

Most of all, parents are not aware of the "change in students the curriculum is intended to bring about" because they don't want to know what is happening behind those impenetrable closed classroom doors. "A wonderful and horrible thing is committed in the land; The prophets {teachers} prophesy falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means; and my people love to have it so: and what will ye do in the end thereof?"  [653]; "Then the Lord said unto me, The prophets prophesy lies in my name: I sent them not neither have I commanded them, neither spake unto them: they prophesy unto you a false vision and divination, and a thing of nought, and the deceit of their heart. Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the prophets that prophesy in my name, and I sent them not, yet they say, Sword and famine shall not be in this land; By sword and famine shall those prophets {teachers} be consumed." [654]

If they "invaded" the alien territory of the classroom where they are not wanted, they might be forced by conscience to act upon what they see and hear. Sadly, many parents would rather not fight, not even for the welfare of their own children. "For that they hated knowledge, and did not choose the fear of the Lord: They would none of my counsel: they despised all my reproof. Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices. For the turning away of the simple shall slay them, and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them." [655]

Increasingly, the degree and scope of change agent activity that goes on behind closed classroom doors will be decided in Washington, D.C., by a carefully chosen panel of 22 elite change agents. Our society has been built on the Christian ethic. Our laws have reflected the admonitions of the Ten Commandments and are the God‑given rights and guarantees enumerated in the federal and state constitutions. Gradually, as social standards and religious beliefs were allowed to be cast aside to satisfy the demands of "pluralism," non‑theists made great strides. We are not in open conflict.

We now have nothing less than a revolution taking place. Schools have become open agents of social change, working steadily to enthrone the "articles of faith" of the religion of Humanism. At the same time, parents, who for the most part are remnant of Christianity, are fighting to return the schools to institutions of academic learning. What success they achieve is always short‑lived. Attitudes, values and behaviors must be changed for the coming new world order that will involve at the same time, the worship of man and the enslavement of mankind.

Paul foretold of a human being, "...who opposite and exaltata himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God." [656]

The prophet Daniel foretold of the same man <‑Humanist‑> who will Exalt man as God: "And the King shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: For that that is determined shall be done." [657]

Thus, by the above we can see clearly that our society is gripped by the humanism of eighteenth‑­century French philosophers like Voltaire and Roussouw: That man is basically good; that human nature is improving and perfectible. For this reason thieves, rapists and murderers are treated as "victims of society," needing treatment and rehabilitation, instead of villains needing retribution and punishment.

That the present world climate is one of "negotiation" {meaning compromise}, "unity" {meaning: conformity}, "love" {meaning: passive acceptance of evil}, and "peace" {meaning: non‑resistance to terrorism}. The scandal is that under these delusions, terrorists can be freed even while patriots are jailed. Murderers can be granted indemnity even while soldiers are prosecuted. Clergymen and politicians can campaign to save murderers by ending the death penalty, while condemning babies by promoting abortion {which is nothing but murder!}.

In this age of appeasement, personal and public policy does is not to be decided by "what is right?" but by "what is popular?" Our society no longer is faithfully building every area of life in obedience to the Word of God. The "new America" is abandoning Biblical principles and embracing humanism at a breathtak­ing pace. Francis Schaeffer defines humanism as: "...the placing of man at the center of all things and making him the measure of all things."

Alexander Solzhenitzyn described it as: "...the proclaimed and practiced autonomy of man from any higher force above him."

According to humanist thought, there is no clear‑cut standard of right and wrong. So the inevitable results of humanism are seen in the totalitarianism and massacres of the communist East and in the permissiveness and decadence of the so‑called democratic West.

Humanists have to take responsibility for the abortion holocaust, the pornography plague, the drug epidemic, the crime wave, and the proliferation of perversion. These disasters are the logical result of rejecting God's Law and promoting situation ethics, evolution, permissiveness and "alternative lifestyles."

The Biblical doctrine of the total depravity of human nature ‑‑ that man is by nature sinful and unable to please God ‑‑ led the Reformers to hold an opposite position to the humanists. The Reformers believed that human nature is basically evil and selfish. Therefore they favored a form of government with strict laws and strict punishments for criminal behavior. They recognized that the government needed to be powerful enough to restrain the evil impulses of sinful people.

However, believing that "power corrupts; and absolute power corrupts absolutely," they knew that rulers could not be trusted with absolute power either. Their solution was not the pagan Greek utopia of democracy, where man rules, but a constitutional republic, where law rules. Therefore the reformers strove to build their republic upon the unchangeable law of God's Word. Instead of rulers, they elected servants; civil servants bound down with the chains of the constitution. And they erected a system of checks and balances to divide the power and responsibility into Trinitarian model of Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of civil government. Being cautious of the human nature of foreign powers, they also favored a strong military defense to be a deterrent against attacks and to preserve liberty and security for their inhabitants.

Reformed Christians believe that God's Law, as revealed in His Word, the Bible, contains the absolute and unchanging principles by which all areas of life must be governed. The Laws of God reflect the eternal and unchanging character and Will of God and therefore can not be ignored. Our concern to apply God's revealed law to everyday life flows from the Biblical doctrines of the Sovereignty of God and the sinfulness of man.

                                                                                                     The Need For Revival

We in America have been warned by great Christian writers like Alexander Solzhenitzyn, Richard Wumbrand and Francis Schaeffer. Our people are morally corrupt and in rebellion to God's Word. We are in danger of incurring the wrath of God in judgment upon our sin saturated country. The murdering of the unborn through abortion, the glamorizing of adultery by Hollywood, the proliferation of drug addiction, the promotion of perversion, the increase in theft, murder, rape and terrorism, child abuse and Satanism.

Queers run through our streets demanding preferential treatment because they have an alternate life style, such as running their fist up each others rectum or inserting various species of small rodents {Hamsters} in their anas. How can we avoid the just condemnation of our Holy Creator? "Does the church have a future in our generation?...I believe the church is in real danger. It is in for a rough day. We are facing present pressures and a present and future manipulation which will be so overwhelming in the day to come that they will make the battles of the last forty years look like child's play." [658]

                                                                                            More History of The Illuminati

In 1834, Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian revolutionary leader, was appointed by the Illuminati as director of their revolutionary program around the world. He held this position until he died in 1872. At about this time an obscure intellectual by the name of Moses Mordecai Marx Levy, alias Karl Marx, joined one of the branch organizations of the Illuminati Conspiracy known as the League of the Just. In 1847, he was hired to write what later became known as the Communist Manifesto. It was basically, a policy statement of their overall plans for the future. Marx was of such little importance that for the first twenty years after the publication of the Manifesto his name didn't even appear on it. He was just a pawn in the "game" being played by the real powers behind the scenes. Unbiased historians have long since recognized that there was nothing "new" or "original" in the Communist Manifest: it is plainly a plagiarized rehash of the writings of Adam Weishaupt and his disciple Clinton Roosevelt.

The next important personality to emerge on the American scene as a leader in the Satanic Conspiracy was Albert Pike. He was selected by Mazzini to head their operations in the United States. Pike was born in Boston on December 29, 1809. His parents, though of moderate circumstances, succeeded in sending him to Harvard. He later went to join his family at Newbury port. While there he taught in a primary school.

During the Civil War, Albert Pike served as a brigadier‑general in the Confederate Army. The Confederate Government appointed him Indian Commissioner charged with conducting negotiations with the most savage tribes to raise an army of their warriors. To help him in the creation of this new army he was made governor of Indian Territory. When the army, composed of Chickasawa, Comanches, Creeks, Cherokees, Miamis, Osages, Kansas and Choctaws came into being, it was placed under his command. Among all of these tribes he was known as; "...the faithful pale‑face friend and protector."

Pike and his army of savages participated in an orgy of atrocities under the cloak of legitimate warfare. Their barbarism was so terrible that the foreign powers intervened. Representations made by England, threatening intervention in the name of humanity, finally compelled Jefferson Davis to disband his auxiliary Indian troops.

Albert Pike was an evil genius of the first magnitude. He was a man of many talents who invariably used his abilities to destructive ends. He was very literate, being able to both read and write in 16 ancient languages. He was a Worshiper of Satan by name; practiced necromancy, all forms of sorcery! As top Illuminists, Pike and Mazzini worked in unison. Pike took control of the theosophical side of their operations, while Mazzini was in charge of the political.

When the Grand Orient Lodges of Masonry became suspect as a result of Mazzini's revolutionary activities in Europe, Mazzini presented a Master Plan to Pike who was by then the head of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Mazzini's plan was simple. Being a practical man, he understood that it was inadvisable to favor one rite to the exclusion of all the others. In a letter to Pike, dated January 22, 1870, he wrote: "We must allow all of the federations to continue just as they are, with their systems, their central authorities and their diverse modes of correspondence between high grades of the same rite, organized as they are at present, but we must create a super rite, which will remain unknown, to which we will call those Masons of high degree whom we shall select. With regard to our brothers in Masonry, these men must be pledges to the strictest secrecy. Through this Supreme Rite, we will govern all Freemasonry which will become the one international center, the more powerful because its direction will be unknown." [659]

Historian Dominico Margiotta tells us that: "It was agreed that the existence of this rite would be kept strictly secret and that no mention of it would ever be made in the assemblies of the Lodges and Inner Shrines of other rites, even when by accident, the meeting might happen to be composed exclusively of brothers having the perfect initiation, for the secret of the new institution was only to be divulged with the greatest caution to a chosen few belonging to the ordinary high grades." [660]

Pike organized this ultra‑secret organization under the name of The New and Reformed Palladian Rite {Worship of the goddess Pallas}. He established three supreme councils; one in Charleston, S.C., another in Rome, Italy and the third in Berlin, Germany. Historian Dr. Bataille wrote; "...this super rite, which is Masonic Luciferian Spiritism, must not be confused with the machinery of high Masonry. Palladism is the Cult of Satan in the inner shrines of a rite superimposed on all the rites. It is a cult, a religion." [661]

                                                                                                          Arcula Mystica

Evidence gathered from a number of sources strongly indicates that scientists working with the Illuminati had discovered the secrets of wireless telephony decades before Marconi invented the radio. Bataille, for example, wrote in 1894 that Gallatin Mackey {a top Illuminst} once;  "...showed me that Arcula Mystica {the Magic Box}, of which there are only seven examples in existence, at Charleston, Rome, Berlin, Washington, Monte Video, Naples and Calcutta. When the Supreme Dogmatical chief wishes to communicate, for example, with the head of political action, he presses his finger on the Statuette Ignis and on the Statuette Ration: these sink into their sockets and at the same instant, a strong whistling is heard in Rome, in the office where Lemmi keeps his Arcula Mystica; Lemmi opens his box and sees the statuette Ignis sunk, while tiny, harmless flames issue from the throat of the silver toad. Then he knows that the Sovereign Pontiff of Charleston wishes to speak to him. He presses down the statuette of Ratio in his box and from then on, the conversation between the two chiefs proceeds, each one speaking directly into the mouthpiece, while at the same time holding to his ear the small silver ball. At the end of the conversation, each chief replaces the golden statuettes by pulling them up by the head. Each Sovereign Grand Master of a Directory travels with his Arcula Mystica. The box is personally confided to him." [662] It was the discovery of this secret that enabled intelligence officers to understand how seemingly unrelated "incidents" took place simultaneously around the world which aggravated a situation and developed into a war or revolution.

One of Albert Pike's most famous works is the 861‑page Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, published in 1871. Following the example of Clinton Roosevelt, the "Supreme Pontiff" of Universal Freemasonry "lets it all hang out" at the beginning of the book.

He leaves no doubt as to what he has in mind:  "Force, unregulated or irregulated, is not only wasted in the void like that of gunpowder burned in the open air, and steam unconfined by science; but striking in the dark, and its blows meeting only the air, they recoil and bruise itself. It is destruction and ruin...not growth and progress...The blind Force of the people is a Force that must be economized, and also managed...it must be regulated by intellect.

To attack the citadels built up on all sides against the human race by superstitions, despotisms, and prejudices, the force must have a brain and a law. Then its deeds of daring produce permanent results, and there is real progress. Then there are sublime conquests­...When all Forces are combined, and guided by the Intellect {Illuminati}, and regulated by the Rule of Right, and Justice, and of combined and systematic movement and effort, The Great Revolution prepared for by the Ages will begin to march...It is because Force is ill regulated, that revolutions prove failures." [663]

The theological dogma of Albert Pike is laid out in the "Instructions" issued by him on July 14, 1889, to the 23 Supreme Councils of the world: "That which we must say to the crowd is: 'We worship a God, but it is the God one adores without superstition.' To you, Sovereign Grand Instructors General, we say this, that you may repeat it to the Brethren of the 32nd, 31st and 30th degrees: 'The Masonic Religion should be, by all of us initiates of the high degrees, maintained in the purity of the Luciferian Doctrine. If Lucifer were not God, would Adenine {The Christian God} whose deeds prove his cruelty, perfidy, and hatred of man, barbarism and repulsion for science, would Adonay {Jewish god} and his priests, calumniate him? Yes, Lucifer is God, and unfortunately Adonay is also God. For the eternal law is that there is no light without shade, no beauty without ugliness, no white without black, for the absolute can only exist as two Gods: darkness being necessary to light to serve as its foil as the pedestal is necessary to the statue, and the brake to the locomotive...The doctrine of Satanism is a heresy; and the true and pure philosophic religion is the Belief in Lucifer, the equal of Adonay; but Lucifer, God of Light and God of Good, is struggling for humanity against Adonay, the God of darkness and evil." [664]

In his book, Morals and Dogma, Pike states it this way:  "The true name of Satan, the Kabalists {Jews} say, is that of Yahveh reversed; for Satan is not a black god, but the negation of God. The Devil is the personification of Atheism or Idolatry. For the Initiates, this is not a Person, but a Force, Created for Good {He is saying Satan was created for good}, but which may serve for evil. It {Satan ‑ not God} is the instrument of Liberty or Free Will. They represent this Force, which presides over the physical generation, under the mythologic and horned form of the God Pan; thence came the he‑goat of the Sabbat, brother of the Ancient Serpent, and the Light-Bearer or Phisphor, of which the poets have made the false Lucifer of the legend. Gold, to the eyes of the Initiates, is Light condensed. They style the sacred numbers of the Kabalah 'golden numbers,' and the moral teachings of Pythagoras his 'golden verses.' For the same reason, a mysterious book of Apuleius, in which an ass figures largely, was called 'The Golden Ass.'

The Pagans accused the Christians of worshiping an ass, and they did not invent this reproach, but it came from the Samaritan Jews, who, figuring the data of the Kabalah in regard to the Divinity by Egyptian symbols, also represented the Intelligence by the figure of the Magical Star adored under the name of Remphan, Science under the emblem of Anubis, whose name they changed to Nibbas, and the vulgar faith or credulity under the figure of Thartac, a god represented with a book, a cloak, and the head of an ass. According to the Samaritan Doctors, Christianity was the reign of Thartac, blind Faith and vulgar credulity erected into a universal oracle, and preferred to Intelligence and Science.

Synesius, Bishop of Ptolemais, a great Kabalist {Jew}, but of doubtful orthodoxy, wrote: 'The people will always mock at things easy to be misunderstood; it must needs have impostures.' 'A Spirit {God},' he said, 'that loves wisdom and contemplates the Truth close at hand, is forced to disguise it, to induce the multitudes to accept it...Fictions are necessary to the people, and the Truth becomes deadly to those who are not strong enough to contemplate it in all its brilliance. If the sacerdotal laws allowed the reservation of judgments and the allegory of words, I would accept the proposed dignity on condition that I might be a philosopher at home, and abroad a narrator of apologies and parables...In fact, what can there be in common between the vile multitude and sublime wisdom? The truth must be kept secret, and the masses need a teaching proportioned to their imperfect reason.' Moral disorders produce physical ugliness, and in some sort realize those frightful faces which tradition assigns to the demons.

The first Druids were the true children of the Magi {Israelites}, and their initiation came from Egypt and Chaldea, that is to say, from the pure sources of the primitive Kabalah {This is not true, as the Jews are the sources of the Kabalah}. They adored the Trinity under the names of Isis or Hesus, the Supreme Harmony; of Belen or Bel, which in Assyrian means Lord, a name corresponding to that of Adonai; and of Camul or Camael, a name that in the Kabalah personifies the Divine Justice. Below this triangle of Light they supposed a divine reflection, also composed of three personified rays: first, Teutates or Teuth, the same as the Thoth of the Egyptians, the Word, or the Intelligence formulated; then Force and Beauty, whose names varied like their emblems. Finally, they completed the sacred Septenary by a mysterious image that represented the progress of the dogma and its future realizations. This was a young girl veiled, holding a child in her arms; and they dedicated this image to 'The Virgin who will become a mother; ‑‑ Virgini Pariture.'"

Here Pike is relating that the Druids, who were actually Israelites, which had lost their identity as God said they would; were looking forward to the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ! Just as the ancient prophets had prophesied!

Continuing with his blasphemous writings about Almighty God, the Lord Jesus Christ and Christiani­ty:  "Hertha or Wertha, the young Isis of Gaul, Queen of Heaven, the Virgin who was to bear a child, held the spindle of the Fates, filled with wool half white and half black; because she presides over all forms and all symbols, and weaves the garment of the Ideas.

     One of the most mysterious pentacles of the Kabalah, contained in the Enchiridion of Leo III., represents an equilateral triangle reversed, inscribed in a double circle. On the triangle are written, in such manner as to form the prophetic Tau, the two Hebrew words so often found appended to the Ineffable Name... Alohayim, or the Powers, and Tsabaoth, or the starry Armies and their guiding spirits; words also which symbolize the Equilibrium of the Forces of Nature and the Harmony of Numbers. To the three sides of the triangle belong the three great Names...Iahaveh, Adonai, and Agla. Above the first is written in Latin, Formatio, above the second Reformatio, and above the third, Transformatio. So Creation is ascribed to the Father, Redemption or Reformation to the Son, and Sanctification or Transformation to the Holy Spirite, answering unto the mathematical laws of Action, Reaction, and Equilibrium.

Iahaveh is also, in effect, the Genesis or Formation of dogma, by the elementary signification of the four letters of the Sacred Tetragram; Adonai is the realization of this dogma in the Human Form, in the Visible Lord, who is the Son of God or the perfect Man; and Agla {formed of the initials of the four words Ath Gebur Laulaim Adonai} expresses the synthesis of the whole dogma and the totality of the Kabalistic science, clearly indicating by the hieroglyphics of which this admirable name is formed the Triple Secret of the Great Work. Masonry, like all the Religions, all the Mysteries, Hermeticism and Alchemy, conceals its secrets from all except the adepts and sages, or the elect, and used false explanations and misinterpretations of its symbols to mislead those who deserve only to be misled; to conceal the truth, which it calls light, and from them, and to draw them away from it {Can you not see, Masonry is not to draw one to light but to draw them {Away} from it!}.

Truth is not for those who are unworthy or unable to receive it, or would pervert it. So God Himself incapacities many men, by color blindness, to distinguish colors, and leads the masses away from the highest Truth {Can you believe this; Albert Pike says that Masonry believes God draws men {Away} from the Truth. What blasphemy. What an abominable liar he was!}, giving them the power to attain only so much of it as is profitable to them to know. Every age has had a religion suited to its capacity. The Teachers, even of Christianity, are, in general, the most ignorant of the true meaning of that which they teach. There is no book of which so little is known as the Bible. To most who read it, it is as incomprehensible as the Sohar {A sickening Jewish Talmud Book}.

So Masonry jealously conceals its secrets, and intentionally leads conceited interpreters astray. There is no sight under the sun more pitiful and ludicrous at once, than the spectacle of the Prestons and the Webbs, not to mention the later incarnations of Dullness and Commonplace, undertaking to 'explain' the old symbols of Masonry, and adding to and 'improving' them, or inventing new ones. To the Circle inclosing the central point, and itself traced between two parallel lines, a figure purely Kabalistic {Jewish}, these persons have added the superimposed Bible, and even reared on that the ladder with three or nine rounds, and then given a vapid interpretation of the whole, so profoundly absurd as actually to excite admiration." [665]

                                                                                                              The Druids

We heard, in 1928 of a “Druid” celebration at Stonehenge. Shortly afterwards we read of another, an initiation ceremony, at Penzance where “12 bards of Britain, including Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, the author, were initiated by the Archdruid of Wales into a sect revived after a lapse of 2000 year.” [666]

Some of us might prefer the lapse to have continued and as the subject of the Druid Mysteries is here relevant we quote verbatim the chapter entitled “The Druids’ from Mr. Charles William Heckethorn’s interesting book “Secret Societtes of All Ages and Countries”: “The secret doctrines of the Druids were much the same as those of the Gymnosophists and Brahmins of India, the Magi of Persia, the priests of Egypt, and of all other priests of antiquity. Like them, they had two sects of religious doctrines, exoteric and esoteric. Their rites were practiced in Britain and Gaul, though they were brought to a much greater perfection in the former country, where the Isle of Anglesey was considered their chief seat. The word Druid is generally supposed to be derived from _ρ_ς “an oak,” which tree was particularly sacred among them, though its etymology may also be found in the Gaelic word Druidh, ‘a wise man’ or ‘magician.’

Their temples, wherein the sacred fire was preserved, were generally situate on eminences and in dense groves of oaks, and assumed various forms.

The adytum of or ark of the mysteries was called a cromlech, and was used as the sacred pastos (Pastos: The altar upon which the ritual desecration of virginity obligatory for initiation into the phallic cult took place), or place or regeneration. It consisted of three upright stones, as supporters of a broad, flat stone laid across them on the top, so as to form a small cell. Kit Cotey’s House, in Kent, was such a pastos. Considerable space, however, was necessary for the machinery of initiation in its largest and most comprehensive scale. Therefore, the Coer Sidi, where the mysteries of Druidism were performed, consisted of a range of buildings, adjoining the temple, containing apartments of all sizes, cells, vaults, baths, and long and artfully-contrived passages, with all the apparatus of terror used on these occasions. Most frequently these places were subterranean.

The system of Druidism embraced every religious and philosophical pursuit then known in these islands. The rites bore an undoubted reference to astronomical facts. Their chief deities are reducible to two, a male and a female, the great father and mother, Hu and Ceridwen, distinguished by the same characteristics as belonged to Osiris and Isis, Bacchus and Ceres, or any other supreme god and goddess representing the two principles of all being. The grand periods of initiation were quarterly, and determined by the course of the sun, and his arrival at the equinoctial and solstitial points. But the time of annual celebration was May-eve when fires were kindled on all the cairns and cromlechs throughout the island, which burned all night to introduce the sports of May-day, whence all the national sports formerly or still practiced, date their origin. Round these fires choral dances were performed in honor of the sun, who, at this season, was figuratively said to rise from his tomb. The festival was licentious, and continued till the luminary had attained his meridian height, when priests and attendants retired to the woods, where the most disgraceful orgies were perpetrated. But the solemn initiations were performed at midnight, and contained three degrees, the first or lowest being the Eubates, the second the Bards, and the third the Druids. The candidate was first placed in the pasto bed, or coffin, where his symbolical death represented the death of Hu, or the sun; and his restoration in the third degree symbolized the resurrection of the sun. He had to undergo trials and tests of courage similar to those practiced in the mysteries of other countries, and which therefore need not be detailed here.

The Druids taught the doctrine of one supreme being, a future state of rewards and punishments, the immortality of the soul and a metempsychosis...Their doctrines were chiefly those of Pythagoras.

Their authority in many cases exceeded that of the monarch. They were, of course, the sole interpreters of religion, and consequently superintended all sacrifices: for no private person was allowed to offer a sacrifice without their sanction. They possessed the power of excommunication, which was the most horrible punishment that could be inflicted next to that of death, and from the effects of which the highest magistrate was not exempt. The great council of the realm was not competent to declare war or conclude peace without their concurrence. They determined all disputes by a final and unalterable decision, and had the power of inflicting the punishment of death.

And, indeed, their altars streamed with the blood of human victims. Holocausts of men, women, and children, enclosed in large towers of wicker-work, were sometimes sacrificed as a burnt-offering to their superstitions, which were, at the same time, intended to enhance the consideration of the priests, who were an ambitious race delighting in blood. The Druids, it is said, preferred such as had been guilty of theft, robbery, or other crimes, as most acceptable tot heir gods; but when there was a scarcity of criminals, they made no scruple to supply their place with innocent persons. These dreadful sacrifices were offered by the Druids, for the public, on the eve of a dangerous war, or in the time of any national calamity; and also for particular persons of high rank, when they were afflicted with any dangerous disease.

The priestesses, clothed in white, and wearing a metal girdle, foretold the future from the observation of natural phenomena, but more especially from human sacrifices. For them was reserved the frightful task of putting to death the prisoners taken in war, and individuals condemned by the Druids; and their auguries were drawn from the manner in which the blood issued form the many wounds inflicted, and also from the smoking entrails. Many of these priestesses maintained a perpetual virginity, others gave themselves up to the most luxurious excesses.

As the Romans gained ground in these islands the power of the Druids gradually declined; and they were finally assailed by Suetonius Paulinus, governor of Britain under Nero, A.D. 61, in their stronghold, the Isle of Anglesey, and entirely defeated, the conqueror consuming many of them in the fires which they had kindled for burning the roman prisoners they had expected to make; a very just retaliation upon these sanguinary priests. But though their dominion was thus destroyed, many of their religious practices continued much longer; and so late as the eleventh century, in the reign of Canute, it was necessary to forbid the people to worship the sun, moon, fires, etc. Certainly many of the practices of the Druids are still adhered to in Freemasonry; and some writers on this order endeavor to show that it was established soon after the edict of Canute, and that as thereby the Drudical worship was prohibited in toto, the strongest oaths were required to bind the initiated to secrecy.

There is no mystery as to the existence in Berlin of the”Druidenordes” today. It is a branch of Freemasonry and its Sovereign Grand Master, until late, was Dr. Hebbe-Schleiden. (Occult Theocrasy, pp. 100-104).

Pike also relates: "The Apocalypse, that sublime Kabalistic {Jewish} and prophetic Summary of all the occult figures, divides its images into three Septenaries, after each of which there is silence in Heaven. There are Seven Seals to be opened, that is to say, Seven mysteries to know, and Seven difficulties to overcome, Seven trumpets to sound, and Seven cups to empty. The Apocalypse is, to those who receive the nineteenth Degree, the Apotheosis of that Sublime Faith which aspires to God alone, and despises all the pomps and works of Lucifer. Lucifer, the light bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he {Lucifer} who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolera­ble blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish Souls? Doubt it not!..." [667]

Illuminist propaganda would have us beli