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The Talmud and Bible Believers

The supreme hatred of Talmudic Judaism is reserved for and directed against the hated "adherers to the text" of Scripture who are, thus, accused of spurning the words of the Pharisee "Sages," as enshrined in the Babylonian Talmud.

These "adherers" to the Bible are classified as the primary enemies of Judaism. They are all "idolators," "heathen," "goy." They rank not only as animals ‑ like the rest of the non‑Jewish human race, but as the lowest and most despised form of life. The Talmud frequently refers to Bible adherents scathingly as "Samaritans" and "Cutheans," phraseology similarly used to excoriate Christians.

The Sadducees were the first of these enemies. They were the constant opponents of the Pharisees and their imported Babylonian paganism, misrepresented by the Pharisees as the Tradition of the Elders, the "Oral Law" ostensibly transmitted privately to Moses and on down, superseding anything written in the Bible.

In the six years of civil war between the Pharisees and Alexander Jannaeus, King and High Priest of Jerusalem, 50,000 were killed on both sides before this Sadducean ruler succumbed, and his widow Salome turned affairs over to the Pharisees in 79 B.C. Her brother, Simon ben Shetah, had been waiting for such an opportunity. The continued civil war resulted in the sons of Alexander Jannaeus, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, in 63 B.C., going hat in hand to Pompey, Caesar's Roman General in Syria, asking him to invade Palestine and slaughter their respective opponents. This is how Rome happened to be in power when Christ was born. It was only after Christ's Ascension did the Pharisees triumph.

Other enemies have been the Samaritans, whom Our Lord seemed to favor. Some of whom had been brought in from Cutha and other far places in the World Assyrian Empire, to take the place of the ten Israel tribes deported in 721 B.C. They had opposed the return from Babylon in 536 B.C. of the Pharisee‑run Jews.

Each year a handful of Samaritans, a remnant of the Israelites, celebrate Passover on the site of their former temple at Mt. Gerizim, an event contemptuously referred to by American Jewish writers.

The Karaites arose in the 8th century in Babylonia under Anan to plague the Pharisee top element by scorning the Talmud and holding up the Bible as the supreme authority. A molten stream of hatred, therefore, was turned on them. With true Talmudic "Brotherhood" and "tolerance," Anan was expelled from Babylonia, and founded the Karaite sect in Jerusalem. Later, when the few remaining thousands of Karaites were favored by the Czar of Russia, although classed as "untouchables" by Talmudists, the latter offered to join the Karaites to get immunity from Czarist displeasure ‑ but the Karaites burned them down as hypocrites.

The supreme curses the Karaites have shared with Christians are due to the adherence of the Karaites to the Bible, instead of the "sages," or the Jewish Talmud. They are likened to the Sadducees and Samaritain Israelites in this.

The Opposition of The Karaites

"The Pharisees had been victorious over the Sadducees and the other sects opposed to the Oral Law, but had not annihilated them entirely; since only because these latter could not withstand them, they kept silence and were discontented in their hearts. As the Talmud gained strength and became more sever in its decrees against the Sadducees and Samaritans, so that in the end the Kuthim [Samaritans] were declared as idolaters in all respects, then their indignation burned and awaited a favorable time for revenge.

In the time of the dominance of the Gaonim, who carried out the Talmud in practice, the measure became full, and Anan, the nephew of the Gaon at Sura, when he was not elected as Gaon, for the reason of his liberal ideas and his opposition to the Talmud, established the Karaite sect.

Those who hold that the Karaites were a new sect founded by Anan (760 C.E.), are mistaken, for a small sect under the name of Karaites, or adherents of the Text, had existed already in the days of the Talmud, where they are mentioned in many places, as 'adherents of the Text,' or once 'the Karaites add' (Pesachim, 117a in text; in our edition, Vol. V., p. 145)

Doubtless the remainder of the Sadducees assumed this name, having lost political influence since they had been vanquished, and the word 'Sadducees' being hated by the people.' (Hormisdas Chapter VII) Now we will stop for a moment to see who the Karaite sect was. There is no doubt that there existed a sect by this name in the days of the Talmudists, for they are mentioned several times in the Talmud under the name 'Adherers to the Scripture,' and in one place it is plainly stated 'the Karaites added' (Pesachim, p. 117; our edition, p. 246, see footnote 3)

Neither is there any doubt that they were not favored by the Talmudists, as we find in many places in the Talmud remarks reflecting on them, as 'They who occupy themselves with the study of Scripture are not to be blamed, but, on the other hand, not to be praised,' (Baba Metzia, 79) and in Hagiga, it states plainly; Rabb said: 'If a man goes out from the study of the Mishna to read the verses of the Bible, this man can have no more peace.'

And there is no doubt that many similar remarks found in the Talmud have reference to this sect. But we can not, with exactness, fix the time when and to what extent this sect openly declared against the teachings of the Talmudists. However, we do not hesitate for one moment to state that during all that time this sect has brooded an intense hatred to every Jew who has not followed them, although at times they were compelled to conceal their hatred.

One penetrating glance into the history of the Samaritans and into that of the Karaites, one penetrating glance into the literature of the former and into that of the latter, the curses pronounced by both of those sects against the followers of the Rabbanism; the beliefs and principles common to the religion of both (although differing slightly ceremonially), will suffice to induce one to agree with us that the Karaites, whose sect was established in the days of Anan, and a few of whom are living in our own time, have not only borrowed from the Samaritans [Israelites] and that even up to date they have changed slightly only in their outward appearance and in name, but not intrinsically." (History of the Talmud, Appendix B))

Talmudic Anti-Christianity

The ultimate object of hatred in Talmudic Judaism is Christ, and the targets of Talmudic hatred are not just

non‑Jews,

"the people who are like an ass ‑ slaves who are considered the property of the master.' (Talmud, Kethuboth 111a) Of these non‑Jews, the Christians are most insanely hated and loathed because their doctrines are the opposite of every Talmudic doctrine. They rank not just as animals, like the rest of non‑Talmudic humanity, but almost as vermin, to be eradicated. Language in the Talmud is virtually exhausted to find foul and hated names for Christians.

Min (plural Minim) is used throughout the Talmud as a term to designate Christians. In the 'Shemoneh Esreh,' or 18 Benedictions, the word has been changed from time to time as wary non‑Jews become aware of its meaning.

The history of the petition against enemies may serve to illustrate the development of the several component parts of the 'Tefillah' in keeping with provocations and changed conditions. The verses of Ecclesiasticus make it certain that the Syrian oppressors were the first against whom this outcry of the poor, oppressed victims of tyranny was directed. As the Syrians were aided by the apostates, the 'zedim,' these were also embraced in the imprecatory appeal. The prayer was in fact designated even in later days as a petition to humiliate the arrogant. A century later the Sadducees furnished the type, hence it came to be designated as the 'birkat ha‑Zeddukim' (but 'Zaddukim' may in this connection be merely a euphemism for 'minim;' (Yer. Ber. iv. 3; Ber. 28b)

Under Gamaliel II, it was invoked against heretics, traitors, and traducers: the 'minim' and the 'posh'im,' or, as Maimonides reads, the Apikoresim. (see also his commentary on Sanh. x. 1, and 'Yad,' Teshubah, iii. 6‑8) The later were the freethinkers: the former, the Christians. These had brought much trouble into the camp of faithful Jews; they disputed with the Rabbis; even r. Gamaliel had often to controvert them; they involved the Jews in difficulties with the Roman government; they denounced the Jews to the authorities...the original composition of the prayer was die to Gamaliel), his purpose being to test those suspected of being minim...The above account seems to suggest that this admitted at once and without some opposition. The prayer has undergone since the days of Gamaliel many textual changes, as the variety of versions extant evidences. 'Kol Bo' give the number of the words contained therein as thirty‑two, which agrees with none of the extant recenducers of Judaism and the Jews a ready weapon of attack...

The prayer is not inspired, however, by hatred toward non‑Jews; nevertheless, in order to obviate hostile misconstructions, that text was modified. Originally the opening words were 'Lazedim ula‑minim,' and the conclusion had 'maknia' zedim. The changes of the beginning into 'La‑meshummadim' is old. Another emendation was 'We‑la‑posh'im, which readily gave way to the colorless 'We‑la‑malshinim' (in the German ritual among others). For 'minim' was substituted the expression 'all doers of iniquity;' but the Sephardim retained 'minim,' while Maimonides has 'Epicureans.' In the older versions the continuation is: 'and all the enemies of Thy people,' or, in Amram Gaon's 'Siddur,' 'all our enemies;' but this is modified in the German and Roman into 'and they all,' while Maimonides omits the clause altogether.'...' Note that 'Zaddukim' was substituted. 'Epicureans' was substituted by Maimonides (a Talmudic pillar)."

Reference was also made to uncensored Talmud editions of Berechoth 28b, Sanhedrin 27a; Horayoth 11a and Gittin 45a. The Berechoth statement reads: "The benediction relating to the minim was instituted in Jabneh [Palestine] against anyone leaving out the benediction against the minim, "because we suspect him of being min." The Talmud Gittin 45b reference states that "a scroll of the Law which has been written by a min should be burnt." Distilled hate is the theme.

The Horayoth 11a citation from the Talmud (page 79 of the Soncino edition) is another tirade against those who rank below "common people" ‑ the minim [Christian]. It cites those who drink wine dedicated to an idol, referring to the Holy Communion. Christ is always the "idol" denounced by the Talmud, while real idolatry in regard to spirits, planets, child burning to Molech, Baal filth, are permitted in Judaism.

Present day Jews keep up a continual propaganda that burning anti‑Christian, immoral or subversive books is the depth of bigotry, bias and intolerance. But the teaching in Sabbath 111a of the Talmud is even cited in the Jewish Encyclopedia (under Gentiles), which holds that Christian books should be burned "without regard to the name of God appearing therein."

Characteristic of charging as a crime against others what Talmudists themselves are doing, a Sanhedrin passage denounces Christ as a sorcerer. It was to refute this Talmudic teaching of hate against Christ, that Martin Luther wrote his "Shemhamphoras" on the charge that Christ did His miracles by sorcery, using the Tetragrammaton, which, in some Talmud passages. He is said to have stolen and hidden in His flesh! Christ was amazingly correct in designating the Talmudic Pharisees as children of the Father of Lies. (John 8:44).

Christianity Calls From Hell

Christianity is likened in the Talmud to one of two daughters of a horse‑leech calling from hell, "Bring, bring!" One is the government; "Which constantly imposes fresh taxes and duties" and the other "minuth" [Christianity] "Which continually lures the unwary to its erroneous teaching," a Biblical verse is then misused as a curse "applied to those converted to idolatry" (Christianity). Then another says the voice of hell is calling to bring these two "daughters," "who cry and call in this world," back to hell.

Incest Preferable to Christianity

The Talmud speaks of a woman who confessed that her younger son was the offspring of her older son and that incest was her lightest sin, and wanted to die in peace but could not, for if incest was her lightest sin "it may be assumed that she had also adopted minuth [Christianity]...that is why she did not die...Since she said of her guilt that it is one of the lightest, it may be assumed that she was guilty of idolatry [Christianity] also." A tale follows about a Rabbi who visited every harlot in the world, crossing seven rivers to get at the last one. He is allowed to die in peace because he had not committed the unforgivable minuth (Christianity). (Talmud, Abodah Zarah 17a)

Death From Snakebite Preferable

The Talmud says that Rabbi Ishmael (sage) has a nephew who is bitten by a snake and wants to let Jacob, a Disciple of Jesus, heal him, but dies in the middle of the sentence. The Rabbi thereupon exclaims: "Happy art thou Ben Dama for thou wert pure in body and thy soul likewise left thee in purity..." His joy was because, of course, it was preferable to die of snakebite than to be healed by a Christian. (Talmud, Abodah Zarah 27b)

Jesus and The High Priest's Privy

The Talmud tale is told that, because of talking to a Christian Disciple of Jesus, a Rabbi is suspected of being pro‑Christian, which makes him deeply ashamed. He tells the lie that Jesus taught that the hire of a harlot may be used to build a privy for the high priest. (Abodah Zarah 16b‑17a) This last pleased the Rabbi very much, he says.

This filthy and false story to defame Christ is used in a typical Jewish lie by Rabbi Louis Finklestein in his publication "The Pharisees" (see pages xv‑xvi of the Foreword). Any epithets directed at Pharisaism by Christians in the early centuries Finklestein ascribes to conflict between Christians and "their former comrades, who continued loyal to unaltered Pharisaism.

Nevertheless, the Pharisee and the Christian remained sufficiently close to regard one another with respect." Then the above Rabbi Eliezer lie is used as a compliment!: "Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, one of the most orthodox of the sages, offered high praise to an interpretation of Scripture given by an early Christian." (Aboda Zara 17a) This is the self‑same libel on Christ!

More Lies to Fool Christians

At the time the Jewish Encyclopedia was published in 1905 there was no English translation of the Talmud with identifying folio numbers. The first, by Rodkinson in 1903, was not only abridged, but also without folio numbers. Only with the relatively recent Soncino English translation of the Talmud do we have folio numbers and overt, unmistakable references which require no argument or interpretation for non‑Jews. However, in 1905, lies concerning the Talmud were quite safe from prying non‑Jewish eyes. The 1905 Jewish Encyclopedia states: "During the first century of Christianity the Rabbis lived on friendly terms with the minim" (Christians). Anyone familiar with the liquid fire turned on Pharisaism by Christ in the New Testament is not fooled by this. However, to buttress this lie, the above false privy tale attributed to Jesus is told as though it indicated friendliness. (Abodah Zarah 16b‑17a)

Concerning the above anti‑Christian "snakebite" story from the Talmud, the Encyclopedia then states: "Ben Dama, a nephew of Rabbi Ishmael, having been bitten by a snake, allowed himself to be cured by means of an exorcism utter by the min Jacob, a Christian." Does not this one series of circumstances once again illustrate how amazingly correct Christ was in designating the Pharisees as children of the Father of Lies?

Jesus Knew The Oral Tradition (Talmud)

Rodkinson (M. Levi Frumkin), who compiled the first English translation of the Babylonian Talmud, asks, in the section on the History of the Talmud: "Is the literature that Jesus was familiar with in His early years yet in existence in the world? Is it possible for us to get at it?...To such inquiries the learned class of Jewish rabbis answer by holding up the Talmud...The Talmud then, is the written form of that which, in the time of Jesus, was called the Traditions of the Elders, and to which He makes frequent allusions."

The Talmud and Mary, Mother of Jesus

She is called "Miriam, a dresser of women's hair." She "committed adultery." (Sanhedrin 67a) "She played the harlot with carpenters." (Sanhedrin 106a‑106b) All rabbinical sources ascribe to Jesus, "illegitimate birth...the seducer was a soldier by the name of Panthera [also called Pandira, and Stada]." "Pappus [husband of Mary] has nothing to do with the story of Jesus, and was only connected with it because his wife happened to be called "Miriam" [Mary] and was known to be an adulteress." All the Life of Jesus (Toledot Yeshu) "editions contain a similar story of a dispute which Jesus carried on with the scribes who on the ground of that dispute declared him to be a bastard. (Jewish Encyclopedia, under "Jesus").

Christ As "Balaam"

Under the name of "Balaam" the most lewid Talmud passages concerning Jesus appear. Proof that Jesus is called "Balaam" is found in the Jewish Encyclopedia (under "Balaam") which, after enumerating His alleged loathsome qualities, states: "Hence...the pseudonym 'Balaam' given to Jesus in Sanhedrin 106b and Gittin 57a." In the same article, we are told that the Talmud likens the Gospel Christians and Christ to Baal sex‑worshippers because of whose abominations 24,000 Israelites died of plague at the time of Balaam. (Numbers 25:1‑9)

Because Balaam had been asked to curse the Israelites but instead did not and foretold the coming Messiah, (Numbers 24:17) the flimsy pretext is made that Jesus was a curse like Balaam. "He is pictured as blind of one eye and lame in one foot and his disciples distinguished by three morally corrupt qualities..." He is called "one that ruined a people," and His churches are likened to nudist Baal worship. And, "this hostility against his memory finds its climax in the dictum that whenever one discovers a feature of wickedness or disgrace in his life, one should preach about it." (Sanhedrin 106b)

Turning to Sanhedrin 106a‑106b of the Talmud, mentioned above, we see the likening of Jesus to the supposed act of Balaam in causing 24,000 Israelites to go whoring and die of plague (some 1450 years before Christ was born). He is due for his "reward" for this infamy. His mother, Mary, is "She who...played the harlot with carpenters...They subjected him to four deaths, stoning, burning, decapitation and strangulation...he was thirty‑three or thirty‑four years old." Another says: "I...have seen Balaam's Chronicle in which it stated, 'Balaam the lame was thirty years old when Phinehas the Robber killed him." The footnote explains: "Balaam is frequently used in the Talmud as a type for Jesus." The mother of Jesus is identified, the four deaths enumerated, "and...all the Balaam passages are anti‑Christian in tendency, Balaam being used as an alias for Jesus. Phinehas the Robber is thus taken to represent Pontius Pilate, and the Chronicle of Balaam probably to denote a Gospel."

Verifying the Jewish Encyclopedia account above on Balaam being Jesus in the Talmud we see: "in the case of the wicked Balaam: whatever you find written about him, lecture upon it to his disadvantage."

Christian churches are likened to tents for Baal prostitution, with old women outside, young ones inside to get customers drunk and disrobe and worship the "idol," Jesus, in Baal manner, by prostitution. (Sanhedrin 106a) Hanging a calumny on the brief mention in the Bible that Balaam was slain, (Numbers 32:8) the above passage in Sanhedrin is cited by the Jewish Encyclopedia thus: "In the process of killing Balaam, (Numbers 31:8) all four legal methods of execution ‑ stoning, burning, decapitating, and strangling ‑ were employed." (Sanhadrin 1c) "He met his death at the age of thirty‑three (Sanhadrin 1c) and it is stated that he had no portion in the world to come." (Sanhadrin x. 2:90a)

Sanhedrin 90a of the Talmud, denying "Balaam" a place in the world to come. There it is stated that the resurrection being denied by Sadducees and Samaritans, "It was to oppose these that the doctrine was emphatically asserted in the second of the Eighteen Benedictions." The "sin" of pronouncing the Tetragrammation is cited against Christ and Christians.

The curse of Christians, as those who pronounce the "Name" as "spelt" (Tetragrammaton) and read "uncanonical books," begins with a Mishnah. Vague meanderings to throw off a possible Christian reader appear in the footnotes with a hint that the "uncanonical books" may mean this or that, but: "There are indications, however, that something more is meant."

But the footnote to "uncanonical books," still being discussed 68 pages later (Sanhedrin 100a‑100b) overtly reveals that the reference is to the New Testament, and that the word "Sadducees" is used to indicate "Gentiles [non‑Jews]."

The 18 Benedictions

The "religious" Orthodox Jew recited the "Eighteen Benedictions," or "Shemoneh Esreh," three times, week days, four times on holidays and Sabbaths, the 7th and 12th of which curse the Christians and non‑Jews to hell and perdition. Thus, the "good Orthodox Jew" gives us Christians 6 cursings on ordinary days, 8 on "specials." Note all the varieties of double talk which have been utilized down the centuries to keep the truth about the "Shemoneh Esreh" from the non‑Jews, who might not be friendly to those who recite this "Brotherhood" litany religiously 6 to 8 times daily! Note: "In order to obviate hostile misconstructions, the text was modified..." and one change after another to fool the non‑Jew is enumerated. (Jewish Encyclopedia, under Shemoneh 'Esreh)

The 12th benediction, the "Birkat ha‑Minim" (curse against Christians, etc.) "furnished the traducers of Judaism and the Jews a ready weapon of attack." This "Petition Against Enemies" (non‑Jews) is called an "imprecatory appeal." "Imprecatory" means, of course, "invoking evil, a curse" (Webster). It is further stated by the cautious Jewish Encyclopedia, "The seventh benediction...looks like a duplication and is superfluous." The Jewish Encyclopedia also cites a recommendation by the "sages" for daily recitation of the "benediction:" "Blessed be thou who hast not made me a goy." (Jewish Encyclopedia, under Gentiles, p. 617)

In the Talmud, the Christian is also planted in Hell for eternity under a deluge of "boiling excrement" if opposing "Judaism:" "Whoever mocks the words of the Sages is punished with boiling hot excrement." (Talmud, Gittin 57a) On this same page, where the ordinary Christian gets this eternal fate, Christ is similarly punished forever in hell with "boiling semen."

The Talmud - Five Deaths To Jesus

Jesus, as stated in both the Talmud and Jewish Encyclopedia, gets "four legal methods of execution" and is Crucified as well, as a blasphemer of Pharisee Judaism. Jesus stoned, then "hanged" or crucified, (Sanhedrin 43a‑45b; Sanhedrin 67a) where under another pony name (Ben Stada) Jesus is identified as "Jesus of Nazareth." As to Judas, we are told (Under the Trial and death of Jesus) that: "when Judas found he could not touch Jesus in any way, in aerial battle, he defiled him" (the "privy concept," once again, which runs through the Talmud). Jesus' apostles all killed. (Sanhedrin 43a-b) Their names are decoded by the Jewish Encyclopedia. Jesus crucified as a "blasphemer," (Sanhedrin 46a) Jewish Encyclopedia. Jesus burned (Sanhedrin 52a); manner of burning, (Yebamoth 6b) verified by Jewish Encyclopedia under "Balaam."

Christ is "lowered into dung up to his armpits then a hard cloth was placed within a soft one, wound round his neck and the two loose ends pulled in opposite directions forcing him to open his mouth. A wick was then lit, and thrown into his mouth so that it descended into his body and burnt his bowels...his mouth was forced open with pinchers against his wishes. (Sanhedrin 52a) And: "The death penalty of 'burning' was executed by pouring molten lead through the condemned man's mouth into his body, burning his internal organs." (Hebamoth 12b)

Jesus strangled: "He was lowered into dung up to his armpits then a hard cloth was placed within a soft one, wound round his neck, and the two ends pulled in opposite directions until he was dead." (Talmud, Sanhedrin 52a) This is repeated (Sanhedrin 106b) and verified by the Jewish Encyclopedia page 467. Jesus in hell where His punishment is "boiling in hot semen." (Talmud, Gittin 57a) The subject is identified as Jesus in a footnote, also in the Jewish Encyclopedia under "Balaam."

Christians in hell (in the above passage) are punished by "boiling hot excrement" which is the punishment for all who mock "at the words of the sages" (i.e. the Talmud). Jesus "committed bestiality," "corrupted the people," is "turned into hell." (Talmud, Sanhedrin 105a) Jesus "limped on one foot" and "was blind in one eye," "He practiced enchantment by means of his membrum," "He committed bestiality with his ass," he was a fool who "did not even know his beast's mind." (Talmud, Sanhedrin 105a‑105b)

The ridiculous and foul misuse of Judges 5:27 about Sisera's dying convulsions meaning sexual intercourse is here applied to Jesus, with a footnote "explanation" of Judges 5:27: "This is taken to mean sexual intercourse..." Jesus attempts to seduce women, is excommunicated by a rabbi and then worships a brick, was a seducer of Israel, and practiced magic, (Talmud, Sanhedrin 107b) also the Jewish Encyclopedia. Jesus is cited in the index of the Sanhedrin portion of the Talmud, "chief repository of the criminal law of the Talmud," which shows the page numbers where He is denounced. Jesus' resurrection is cursed: "Woe unto him who maketh himself alive by the name of God." (Talmud, Sanhedrin 106a) The trial of Jesus: "It was by the action of the priests that Jesus was sent before Pontius Pilate."

The Sanhedrin priests "had most reason to be offended with Jesus' action in cleansing the Temple," the probable place of His trial, according to the Talmud. His cry: "My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?...was in all its implications itselfa disproof of the exaggerated claims made for him. The very form of his punishment would disprove these claims in Jewish eyes. No Messiah that Jews could recognize could suffer such a death; for 'He that is hanged is accursed of God.' (Deuteronomy 21:23) This refers to an 'evil son' and Talmudist Rashi adds 'an insult to God.' "The foregoing is from the Jewish Encyclopedia under "Jesus." Other foul charges against Jesus and His mother, His being a "bastard," and the like, follow. (Jewish Encyclopedia, under Jesus)

Judaism And Paganism

The commonest statements of all Jewish authorities attribute many customs and doctrines of "Judaism" to Persian, Babylonian, Assyrian sources. The leading paganisms of all the centuries have been gathered up and treasured by Pharisaic Talmudism. The long stay of Pythagoras in Babylon, his number and letter magic; the transmigration of souls out and back into the "En Sof;" procreation being the hub and center of the universe, a man's first duty being to get souls out of "guf" and if this is impossible to keep on copulating in honor of the procreative powers; the selflessness of the universe; the multitude of spirits in charge of all functions; Sun‑worship; veneration of the Moon; man as a spark of the divine capable of pushing the universe with his own illuminated inflated "knowing" self (Lucifer means "light‑bearer"), all forms of the old Nature religions of paganism, seeking power through abracadabra, invocations, fasting and ecstasies to attract the spirits of the unseen world. It is all as old as the Old Testament, and as current.

So‑called "Judaism" is nothing but Babylonian Talmudic Pharisaism, which at base is crass paganism, pantheistic atheism, a conglomeration of all the forms of paganism concocted through the centuries. New descriptions concocted for this very old satanism, such as "immanence" (Spinoza); "emanation" (Talmudic Cabala); "dialectical materialism" merely dress up old pagan concepts.

Babylon

What the Cross means to Christianity, "Babylon the Great" means to the cult of Judaistic Pharasiasm. Babylon was the "Vatican," center, and spiritual homeland of Pharasaic Babylonian Talmudism, as Chief Rabbi Hertz has put it, from 586 B.C. to 1040 A.D., when the last of the Talmud "academies" moved out into Europe, Asia and Africa from Babylonia Foreword, by Chief Rabbi Dr. J.H. Hertz. The "glory" of Babylon is referred in the Talmud, Rodkinson Introduction.

And from Babylon, to Africa, Europe and all over the world, Pharisaism and its Traditions (Talmud) went, so that the Jew today repeats Pharisaic arguments when he studies Talmud, says Rabbi Louis Finklestein, formerly of the Jewish Theological Seminary, and was one of Jewry's world top Jews. (The Pharisees, The Jewish Publication Society of America)

From Talmud "academies" in Babylon, at Sura, Hehardea, Nisibis, Pumbeditha, Talmudic ideas and decisions went out and were accepted by the "Jews" of the world. The Jewish Encyclopedia, considering "the general influence of Babylonia upon European Judaism," states: "The West received both the written and the oral Law from Babylonia," and even after the close of the Talmudic "glories" in Babylon (1040 A.D.):

"Babylonia, however, still continued to be regarded with reverence by the Jews in all parts...in the Ninth Century...Jews of Abyssinia placed 'the sages of Babylon 'first in their prayers...a similar prayer, although it has lost its application, is extant today in many congregations. Rabbi Paltiel of Cairo contributed one thousand gold pieces to the schools of Babylonia...in accordance...with a custom prevalent in all places where Jews dwelt...Toward the end of the Twelfth Century...Benjamin of Tudela...relates that the 'nasi' of Damascus received his ordination from the academic head of Babylonia so that this country was still predominant in the minds of the Jews of the Moslem world." (Jewish Encyclopedia, under - Babylonia)

Nasi (prince), is a head of the Sanhedrin, or ruler of temporal affairs of Jewry; the Ab Beth Din is the religious head and joint ruler with the Nasi in Pharisaism. There were five of these "pairs" before 70 A.D. A Babylonian Talmud passage on Babylon, exalts it as the "centre of religion and learning." (Kethuboth 111a) The complete devotion to Babylon of the Pharisee Jewish religion may be seen by reading the Jewish Encyclopedia.

Babylonian Influence On Judaism

"Punctuation and accentuation were begun in Babylonia; so also the piyyut, rime, and meter. Even philosophy had its origin here; for the frequently mentioned but little‑known David ha‑Babli or Al‑Mukammez, who lived before Saadia, is the oldest known Jewish philosopher. The greatest if not also the earliest payyetan, Eleazar Kalir, of the eighty century, was apparently a Babylonian. It is true indeed, adds Luzzatto, that heresy is also a Babylonian product; for, in addition to the Karaites, Hiwi al‑Balki, Saadia's opponent was a Persian‑in a broader sense a Babylonian. [Talmudic usage survived for a long time of calling all Western Jews ('ma'arbaye') 'Palestinians' and all Eastern Jews ('Madinbaye') 'Babylonians.'] One peculiarity of the Babylonians, however, made no headway among the Jews of other lands: this was the system of supralincal punctuation (see Pinsker, 'Einleitung in das Babylonisch‑Hebraische Punctuationssystem'), called the Babylonian or Assyrian, and said to have been invented by the Karaite, R. Aha of Irak (See Margoliouth, in 'Proc. Soc. Bibl. Archaeology,' 1898, p. 190.

To Babylonian literary activity, in addition to the Babylonian Talmud, must be ascribed possibly the Targum Onkelos, together with some Midrashic works ('Rabbot'). 'Halakot Gedolot,' and the well‑known works bearing the names of the geonim Aha of Shabba, Amram, Saadia, Sherira, Hal, Hophni, and others. Babylonian learning, always great from Rab's time, expressed itself in independent works only toward the close of the period, and then disappeared altogether.

Babylonia, however, still continued to be regarded with reverence by the Jews in all parts. Eldad, who in the ninth century traveled extensively from Africa, notes that the Jews of Abyssinia placed 'the sages of Babylon' first in their prayers for their brethren of the diaspora (Zemah Gson, in Epstein, 'Eldad ha‑Dani,' p. 8); and a similar prayer, although it has quite lost its application, is extant today in many congregations. R. Paltiel of Cairo contributed one thousand gold pieces to the schools of Babylonia ('Medieval Jewish Chron.' ii. 128), in accordance, no doubt, with a custom prevalent in all places where Jews dwelt. In 1139 Abraham ibn Ezra was in Bagdad, and the exhilarate had possibly been restored at that time. (see his commentary on Zechariah 12:7)

Toward the end of the twelfth century, both Benjamin of Tudeia and Pethahiah of Regensburg gave a description of Babylon; Judah al‑Harizi's journey was somewhat later. Benjamin found seven thousand Jews in Mosui on the Tigris opposite ancient Nineveh, and at their head was R. Zakkai, of Davidic descent; he found also R. Joseph Burj al‑Fulk, court astronomer of the Seijunk sultarn Saifeddin. Pethahiah ('Travels,' London, 1856) found there two 'nesi'im' (princes) of the house of David. Other inhabitants paid a gold dinar to the government, but the Jews paid on‑half to the government and the other to the two princes. In another passage Pethahiah says that every Jew in Babylonia lived in peace. Passing through many places which counted two thousand, ten thousand and even fifteen thousand Jewish inhabitants, Benjamin reached Bagdad, the residence of the calif. At this time the calif (Emir al‑Mumermin) was considered only as the spiritual head of the state; the functions of government proper were exercised by the Seljunk princes. 'The calif,' says Benjamin, 'is kindly disposed toward Israel, and reads and speaks our holy tongue.' In Bagdad there resided about a thousand Jews, and there were ten colleges, which he enumerates, all under a president of their own."

Contrast the so‑called Palestinian Talmud, which, says Chief Rabbi J.H. Hertz, one of "Jewry's 120 world leading Jews," was for many centuries almost forgotten by Jewry. Its legal decisions were at no time deemed to possess validity, if opposed by the Babylonian Talmud.

Babylon The Symbol

Babylon is the very symbol of moral filth in the whole Old Testament. but those who call themselves "People of the Book" exalt it in every way. Pharisaism today lives by the Babylonian calendar, keeps the Babylonian festivals and Fast of Tammuz, and enshrines its anti‑Biblical immorality, including sodomy and burning children to Molech, necromancy, and other execrable practices.

The Talmud cites as the word of "the Masters" that, "All

countries are like dough [inferior] toward the Land of Israel, and the Land of Israel is like dough toward Babylon." (Kethuboth 111a) Continuing: "We have a tradition that Babel [Babylon] will not witness the suffering that will precede the coming of the Messiah." A footnote states that a more correct reading of this is that the "suffering" frequent in modern Christian books is fictitious. "These are the throes of mother Zion which is in labor to bring forth the Messiah‑without metaphor the Jewish people." (Kethuboth 111a)

Talmudic Jewish Months Are Babylonian

The lunar Babylonian calendar was adopted by the Judaites from the time of the deportation to Babylon of the Judah Kingdom (586 B.C.). Pharisaic Talmudists to this day have adopted the Babylonian calendar and the pagan names of the months, with rites to match. These month names coincide roughly with the signs of the Zodiac as follows: Nisan (Babylonian month) corresponds with Aries; Iyyar with Taurus; Siwan with Gemini; Tammuz with Cancer; Ab with Leo; Elul with Virgo; Tishri with Libra; Heshwan with Scorpio; Kislev with Sagitarius; Tebet with Capricorn; Shebat with Aquarius; Adar with Pisces.

Judaism ‑ Tree Worship

Tree worship, one of the oldest forms of paganism, is based on the belief that trees are inhabited by spirits of fecundity. And is another of the regular Babylonian Talmudic synagogue festivals, known today, as "New Year for Trees." Its Talmudic name is "Hamishshah‑'asar bi‑shevat," under which title it is listed in the Babylonian, or synagogue calendar, given in the American Jewish Year Books. It fell, for example, on the 15th of Shevat, 1964, which in our calendar was January 29th.

In his work, The Golden Bough ‑ A Study in Magic and Religion, Sir James George Frazer devotes much space, even in the abridged edition (MacMillan, 1951), to "Tree Worship," which he traces through different countries as a pagan observance. He says of Buddhist monks who, believing that trees have souls,

"will not break a branch of a tree 'as they will not break the arm of an innocent person.' These monks are Buddhists. But Buddhist animism is not a philosophical theory. It is simply a common savage dogma incorporated in the system of an historical religion. To suppose, with Benfrey and others, that the theories of animism and transmigration current among the rude peoples of Asia are derived from Buddhism, is to reverse the facts."

What Frazer writes about the animistic, transmigration doctrines of Buddhism applies with equal force to so‑called "Judaism," which is poles apart from basic Bible beliefs.

Looking upon the individual tree as a soul, or merely the abode of a soul, says Frazer, marks the line between animism, the simplest nature‑worship, and Polytheism, or tribute to many gods. He says:

"When a tree comes to be viewed, no longer as the body of the Tree‑Spirit, but simply as its abode which it can quit at pleasure, an important advance has been made in religious thought. Animism is passing into Polytheism. In other words, instead of regarding each tree as a living and conscious being, man now sees in it merely a lifeless, inert mass, tenanted for a longer or shorter time by a supernatural being...[who] enjoys a certain right of possession or lordship over the trees, and, ceasing to be a tree‑soul, becomes a forest 'god.'" (The Golden Bough ‑ A Study in Magic and Religion, Sir James George Frazer, pp. 129, 135)

The Christian is usually perplexed at Biblical excoriations against trees. The fact was that owing to the fertility myth, individual and mass harlotry was carried on under trees, and these were planted for that purpose in groves. Two kings of Judah, Hezekiah and Josiah, were commended because they "cut down the groves." (2 Kings 18:4; 23:14)

God promised Moses He would bless the people he was leading into Palestine providing they drove out the pagan abominators, the Canaanites, saying: "Take heed lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare...But ye shall destroy their altars...and cut down their groves. (Exodus 34:12‑13) Ye shall utterly destroy all the places, wherein the nations which ye shall possess served their gods...under every green tree. And ye shall...burn their groves with fire." (Deuteronomy 12:2‑3; 7:5)

Read the varying, equivocating, hedging variety of reasons given by the Jewish authorities as to why some of their holidays are celebrated. "What goes on here?" is the natural reaction to all this evasiveness, or to direct contradictions by top sources.

Under "New Year for Trees" in the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943) we are told that Shammai set this holiday for the 1st of Shebat (around February) and Hillel, the most popular of these two 1st Century Pharisees set it for the 15th of Shebat ‑ and, of course, Hillel won. The "eating of many species of fruits" is cited for this occasion and: "No special liturgy...is prescribed for the day." Under "New Year for Trees" in the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, however, we read that "it is celebrated by eating various kinds of fruits and by a special liturgy arranged for the Day."

Take your choice. Then this older source sites that "the custom was to plant a cedar‑tree for every new‑born male and a cypress‑tree for every female. When a marriage was about to take place the trees were cut down and used as posts for the nuptial canopy." (Gittin 57b) The Gittin 57b passage of the Jewish Talmud referred to as the source of trees in connection with weddings, follows the Talmud 57a passage about Christians being in hell under boiling "excrement," and every foul blasphemy of Christ. This followed by a "dainty" tale about David: "He went into a privy and a snake came, and he dropped his gut from fright and died." (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943), p. 252 Soncino edition) Then, Gittin 57b: "It was the custom when a boy was born to plant a cedar tree and when a girl was born to plant a pine tree, and when they married, the tree was cut down and a canopy made of the branches."

The article in the Jewish Encyclopedia tells how the cabalists, when they settled in Palestine in the 16th Century, instituted the custom of eating fruits on that day, instead of planting trees. Zohar and Talmud readings about fruits are also mentioned, and customs in various countries such as Russia described. There "the children are granted absence from school and join in eating the fruits."

That the trees around the Canaanite altars to the procreative powers and gods were not only symbols of fertility but were used as whoring places in their honor, is cited throughout the Old Testament. Each reform King cut down the "groves" which greatly denounced as a heathen abomination. Deuteronomy 12:2‑3; 16:21; 2 Kings 18:4; 23:6, 15, are typical. Jeremiah, thundering at the Judaites, accuses them thus: under every green tree thou wanderest, playing the harlot. (Jeremiah 2:20)

Ezekiel railed against the Jews:

"Again the word of the Lord came unto me saying, Son of man, cause Jerusalem [the home of the Jews in Christ's time] to know her abominations, and say, Thus saith the Lord God unto Jerusalem; Thy birth and thy nativity is of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother an Hittite. And as for thy nativity, in the day thou wast born thy navel was not cut, neither wast thou washed in water to supple thee; thou wast not salted at all, nor swaddled at all. None eye pitied thee, to do any of these unto thee, to have compassion upon thee; but thou wast cast out in the open field, to the loathing of thy person, in the day that thou [Jerusalem and the Jews] wast born. And when I passed by thee, and saw thee polluted in thine own blood, I said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, Live; yea, I said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, Live. I have caused thee to multiply as the bud of the field, and thou hast increased and waxen great, and thou art come to excellent ornaments: thy breasts are fashioned, and thine hair is grown, whereas thou wast naked and bare. Now when I passed by thee, and looked upon thee, behold, thy time was the time of love; and I spread my skirt over thee, and covered thy nakedness: yea, I sware unto thee, and entered into a covenant with thee, saith the Lord God, and thou becamest mine. Then washed I thee with water; yea, I thoroughly washed away thy blood from thee, and I anointed thee with oil. I clothed thee also with broidered work, and shod thee with badgers' skin, and I girded thee about with fine linen, and I covered thee with silk. I decked thee also with ornaments, and I put bracelets upon thy hands, and a chain on thy neck. And I put a jewel on thy forehead, and earrings in thine ears, and a beautiful crown upon thine head. Thus wast thou decked with gold and silver; and thy raiment was of fine linen, and silk, and broidered work; thou didst eat fine flour, and honey, and oil: and thou was exceeding beautiful, and thou didst prosper into a kingdom. And thy renown went forth among the heathen for thy beauty: for it was perfect through my comeliness, which I had put upon thee, saith the Lord God. But thou didst trust in thine own beauty, and playedst the harlot because of thy renown, and pouredst out thy fornications on every one that passed by; his it was. And of thy garments thou didst take, and deckedst thy high places with divers colours, and playedst the harlot thereupon: the like things shall not come, neither shall it be so. Thou hast also taken thy fair jewels of my gold and of my silver, which I had given thee, and madest to thyself images of men, and didst commit whoredom with them, And tookest thy broidered garments, and coveredst them: and thou hast set mine oil and mine incense before them. My meat also which I gave thee, fine flour, and oil, and honey, wherewith I fed thee, thou has even set it before them for a sweet savour: and thus it was, saith the Lord God. Moreover thou hast taken thy sons and they daughters, whom thou hast borne unto me and these hast thou sacrificed unto them to be devoured. Is this of thy whoredoms a small matter, That THOU HAS TSLAIN MY CHILDREN [Israelites], AND DELIVERED THEM TO CAUSE THEM TO PASS THROUGH THE FIRE FOR THEM?...[see the rest of Chapter 16 then Chapter 23 and 24]." (Ezekiel 16:1‑21)

The posts, or "asherah," marked "the high places [Jewish synagogues ‑ see the works of Lightfoot]" for sex degeneracy, in the name of "fruitfulness." "Asherah" is defined as: "a wooden post or tree‑trunk with the branches lopped off...a seemingly indispensable part of the sanctuary in the ancient Canaanitish cult...a symbol of the fruitfulness of nature." (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia)

"Tree Worship," says the same source, is the belief "that trees are inhabited by spirits who exert good or evil influences and must therefore be revered...such a belief existed among the ancient Canaanites and...was adopted by the invading Israelites along with other elements of their religion and culture."

Referring to the "Sacred character of these trees:" "This corresponds to...the Asherah...and to what the prophets tell us of the worship 'upon every high hill and under every leafy tree'...The Deuteronomic law prohibited the Asherah (Deut. 16:21) and ordered the destruction of those already in existence. (Deuteronomy 12:3) But tree‑worship was a custom difficult to eradicate and it has survived in many parts of the world down to the present day." This is followed by the typical cover‑up that it disappeared after the Babylonian Exile "among the Israelites."

But the older source Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905 states: "The extent of its worship [the tree] is indicated also by the denunciations of the Prophets. A favorite phrase of theirs in describing idolatrous [sex] practices as 'upon every hill and under every green tree' (Deuteronomy 12:1; Jeremiah 1:20) ...As has been pointed out, the Prophets were unable completely to suppress tree‑worship, which has survived in Palestine through all religious changes to the present day."

Trees Today

Since the Babylonian Talmudists acquired Palestine in 1948, formal tree planting has gone on at a feverish pace. Groves are being planted in "honor" of various people. It has been reported by Jewish sources that President Kennedy has a grove of 50,000 trees in his honor, around Jerusalem. "Tree Planting to be a Holiday Event" headed the report:

"Jewish people the world over will celebrate the New Year for Trees. Tu B'Shvat...As has been the custom for many years, the Jewish National Fund will observe the holiday by planting trees in Israel." (California Jewish Press, 1/31/58)

In view of the billions upon billions of dollars of taxpayers' money given to "Israel," it is suitable that a forest in honor of the United States Government, "American Freedom Forest," was proposed:

"It is to serve as a living monument to the friendship and close cooperation existing between the citizens and governments of the United States and Israel." (B'nai B'rith Messenger 7/8/60)

Now that the antichrist Talmudists possess Palestine, as predicted by Scripture "Son of man, thy brethren, even thy brethren, the men of thy kindred, and all the house of Israel wholly, are they unto whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Get you far from the Lord: unto to us [Jews] is this land given in possession." (Ezekiel 11:14) There promises to be, if the reports are any indication, more groves in Palestine than Moses and the Prophets ever ordered to be cut down or burned.

The "Sacred" Star of David

Non‑Jews have been drenched with propaganda that the six‑pointed "Star of David" is a sacred symbol of Jewry, dating from David and Solomon, in Biblical times, and signifying the pure "monotheism" of the Jewish religion. In actuality, the six‑pointed star, called "David's Shield," or "Mogen David," was only adopted as a Jewish device in 1873, by the American Jewish Publication Society, it not even being mentioned in rabbinical literature.

The Jewish Encyclopedia states:

"Magen Dawid ('David's shield'): The hexagram formed by the combination of two equilateral triangles; used as the symbol of Judaism. It is placed upon synagogues, sacred vessels, and the like, and was adopted as a device by the American Jewish Publication Society in 1873, the Zionist Congress of Basel, hence by 'Die Welt (Vienna), the official organ of Zionism, and by other bodies. The hebra kaddisha of the Jewish community of Johannesburg South Africa, calls itself 'Hebra Kaddisha zum Rothen Magen David,' following the designation of the 'red cross' societies...

It is noteworthy, moreover, that the shield of David is not mentioned in rabbinical literature. The 'Magen Dawid,' therefore, probably did not originate within Rabbinism, the official and dominated Judaism for more than 2,000 years. Nevertheless, a David's shield has recently been noted on a Jewish tombstone at Tarentum, in Southern Italy, which may date as early as the third century of the common era...

The earliest Jewish literary source which mentions it, the 'Eshkol ha‑Kofer' of the Karaite Judah Hadassi (middle of the 12th century), says, in ch. 242: 'Seven names of angels precede the mezuzah: Michael, Gabriel, etc....

Tetragrammation protect thee! And likewise the sign called 'David's shield' is placed beside the name of each angel.' It was therefore, at this time a sign on amulets.

In the magic papyri of antiquity, pentagrams, together with stars and other signs, are frequently found on amulets bearing the Jewish names of God, 'Sabaoth,' 'Adonia,' 'Eloai,' and used to guard against fever and other diseases...Curiously enough, only the pentacle appears, not the hexagram. In the great magic papyrus at Paris and London there are twenty‑two signs side by side, and a circle with twelve signs, but neither a pentacle nor a hexagram...although there is a triangle, perhaps in place of the latter. In the many illustrations of amulets given by Budge in his 'Egyptian Magic' (London, 1899) not a single pentacle or hexagram appears. The syncretism of Hellenistic, Jewish, and Coptic influences did not therefore, originate the symbol. It is probable that it was the Cabala that derived the symbol from the Templars...The Cabala, in fact, makes use of this sign, arranging the Ten Sefirot, or spheres, in it and placing it on amulets...

The pentagram, called Solomon's seal, is also used as a talisman, and Henry thinks that the Hindus derived it FROM THE SEMITES [just more proof that the Jews know they are not Semites!]...although the name by no means proves the Jewish or Semitic origin of the sign. The Hindus likewise employed the hexagram as a means of protection, and as such it is mentioned in the earliest source, quoted above.

In the synagogues, perhaps, it took the place of the mezuzah, and the name 'shield of David' may have been given it in virtue of its protective powers. The hexagram may have been employed originally also as an architectural ornament on synagogues, as it is, for example, on the cathedrals of Brandenburg and Stendal, and on the Marktkirche at Hanover.

A pentacle in this form, R, is found on the ancient synagogue at Tell Hum. Charles IV, prescribed for the Jews of Prague, in 1854, a red flag with both David's shield and Solomon's seal while the red flag with which the Jews met King Matthias of Hungary in the fifteenth century showed two pentacles with two golden stars...The pentacle, therefore, may also have been used among the Jews. It occurs in a manuscript as early as the year 1073..." (Jewish Encyclopedia, pp. 251‑252)

In Jewish Magic and Superstition A Study in Folk Religion, Joshua Trachtenbert, Behrman's Jewish Book House NY, 1939. "In addition to the written inscription amulets were also often adorned with magical figures. Among these may be singled out the pentagram (popularly identified as the 'Seal of Solomon') and the hexagram.

The hexagram in particular has acquired a special place in Jewish affections, and is regarded as the symbol of Judaism, under the name 'Shield of David.' So strong has the connection between this seal and the Jewish people become that it seems today to have behind it centuries of traditional usage.

IT MAY SURPIRSE SOME CHRISTIANS, TO LEARN THAT ONLY IN THE PAST HUNDRED YEARS OF SO HAS THE MAGEN DAVID (David's Shield) BEEN WIDELY ACCEPTED AND USED BY JEWS AS SYMBOLIC OF THEIR FAITH, IN THE SENSE THAT THE CROSS AND CRESCENT ARE OF CHRISTIANITY AND MOHAMMEDANISM. THE HEXAGRAM, IN FACT, HAS NO DIRECT CONNECTION WITH JUDAISM.

Both these figures are the common property of humankind. The Pythagoreans attributed great mystical significance to them; they played a mystical and magical rle in Peru, Egypt, China, and Japan; they are to be found in Hellenistic magical papyri; the Hindus used the hexagram and pentagram as potent talismans; they occur often in Arabic amulets, and in medieval Christian magical texts; in Germany, where it is called the Drudenfuss, the pentagram may still be seen inscribed on stable‑doors and on beds and cradles as a protection against enchantments. Their magical virtues were known in Jewish circles at an early time; they are to be found often in early post‑Talmudic incantations, and occur fairly often in medieval amulets and mezuzot." (Jewish Magic and Superstition A Study in Folk Religion, Joshua Trachtenbert, Behrman's Jewish Book House NY, 1939, pp. 140‑141)

Jewish Amulets and Magic

The turning‑point between ancient and medieval magic is symbolized by the Testament of Solomon which belongs to the same world of Hellenistic syncretism as the Greek magical papyri and also the same period (A.D. 100‑400), and yet is utterly different. Working with a common stock of traditions and beliefs, though rather more imbued with Judaism, this curious receptacle of current magical lord already showed that bias towards demonology which was to become of such paramount importance to the Jews in medieval times.

In fact, dressed up as an autobiography, it is nothing more nor less than a demonology itself; and although in its own way it is a good deal livelier and more attractive than later specimens of that art, the strange beauty, the magic, which haunts the papyri has vanished like smoke. Based partly on the Old Testament tale of Solomon and later Jewish folk‑lore about the wise king, it tells in the first person the story of how he Temple was built by the aid of demons subdued for that purpose by the arch‑magician of legend.

His power, his glory, and renown; the visit from the Queen from the South, explicitly called a witch; his final downfall into idolatry and consequent loss of power as well as other episodes and anecdotes form the narrative thread on to which, like curiously carved beads, the demons are strung one after the other, to fashion a magical rosary.

The action is set in motion by the vampire‑devil Ornias, battening on the blood of Solomon's favorite slave who was employed on the building of the Temple. The king prayed to God and was answered by the gift of a magic ring brought by Raphael. The stone was engraved with the pentalpha, and the ring had the power to subdue all demons.

Beginning with Ornias, Solomon therefore summoned one after another of the fiends, constrained them to tell him their names, their powers and the particular angel who could thwart their evil designs. Each spirit in turn confessed along these lines, was set to work at the Temple or else imprisoned and thus rendered harmless.

The fifteen greater spirits interrogated derive from Persian, Hellenistic Greek, Jewish sources; they give fairly interesting and detailed accounts of their natures and functions; their personal appearance, hideous, their form and composite, is also described; some of them prophesy future events: the downfall of Solomon, the destruction of the Temple, the coming of Christ; indeed the accuracy of some forecasts fulfilled in his own day was the reason (said Solomon) why he was now communicating the secret wisdom he had learned for the benefit of mankind.

Another transparent piece of propaganda for the Testament was the plausible explanation, given by Ornias, as to how the demons came by their foreknowledge. Nothing could be simpler. They merely mounted up into the heavens and listened to the sentences pronounced on the souls of men; but, having no foothold in those altitudes, they would often fall like lightning to the earth, appearing to men to be shooting stars.

Foremost among them all is the ar‑fiend Beelzeboul, of New Testament fame:

"And I summoned again to stand before me Beelzeboul, the prince of demons, and I sat him down on a raised seat of honour, and said to him: 'Why art thou alone, prince of the demons?' And he said to me: 'Because I alone ma left of the angels of heaven that came down. For I was first angel in the first heaven, being entitled Beelzeboul. And now I control all those who are bound in Tartarus...' I Solomon said unto him: 'Beelzeboul, what is thy employment?' And he answered me: 'I destroy kings. I ally myself with foreign tyrants. And my own demons I set on to men, in order that the latter may believe in them and be lost. And the chosen servants of God, priests and faithful men, I excite unto desires for wicked sins, and evil heresies, and lawless deeds; and they obey me, and I bear them on to destruction. And I inspire men with envy, and murder, and wars and sodomy, and other evil things. And I will destroy the world...' I said to him: 'Tell me by what angel thou art frustrated.' And he answered: 'by the holy and precious name of the Almighty God, called by the Hebrews by a row of number, of which the sum is 644, and among the Greeks it is Emmanuel. And if one of the Romans adjure me by the great name of the power Eleth, I disappear at once.' I Solomon was astounded when I heard this; and I ordered him to saw up Theban marbles. And when he began to saw the marbles, the other demons cried out with a loud voice, howling because of their king Beelzeboul. But I Solomon questioned him, saying: 'If thou wouldst gain a respite, discourse to me about the things in heaven.' And Beelzeboul said: 'Hear, O king, if thou burn gum, and incense, and bulbs of the sea, with nard and saffron, and light seven lamps in an earthquake, thou wilt firmly fix thy house. And if, being pure, thou light them at dawn in the sun alight, then wilt thou see the heavenly dragons, how they wind themselves along and drag the chariot of the sun.' And I Solomon, having heard this, rebuked him, and said: 'silence for the present, and continue to saw marbles as i commanded thee.'" (The Testament of Solomon, F.C. Conybeare, Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol xi, London, 1899, pp. 21ff)

This is the nearest 'Solomon' ever came to the mystic visions of the papyri, considering such knowledge, to judge by his reception of it, to be in some unspecified way unlawful. Actually the Testament was much more interested in identifying the agents of evil and their angelic adversaries than in cosmic dreams. The fundamental optimism of magic is very much to the fore in this text. For Ornias, an incubus of a most sinister sort; Oneskelis, a succubus; the proud and disdainful Asmodeus, who prevents marriages and incites to adultery; Tephras, who brings darkness and sets fire to fields; the seven wicked sisters of the Pleiades; the envious Akephalos; the fearful Obizuth, all head and no limbs, who strangles and slaughters babes and children; all these terrible evil‑doers can be brought to naught by pronouncing the angelic or divine name which confounds them and puts them to flight.

It is the same story with the thirty‑six decani, spirits of the Zodiac, who govern the different parts of the human body, or rather who attack them. For these are the demons of disease, diagnosed in the Testament, which uses the terms of Hippocrates and Galen for the sicknesses, but cites angels' names as antidotes, occasionally though rarely adding something in the nature of magical materia medica:

"The third said: 'I am called Artosael. I do harm to eyes, and grivously injure them. Only let me hear the ords, 'uriel, imprison Aratosael' [sic], at once I retreat.'...The sixth said: 'I am called Sphendonal. I cause tumours of the parotid gland, and inflammation of the tonsils, and tetanic recurvation. If I hear, 'Sabrael, imprison Sphendonal, at once I retreat.'...And the ninth said: ' I am called Kurtal. I send colics in the bowels. I induce pains. If I hear the words, 'Iath, imprison Kurtl,' I at once retreat.'...The twelfth said: 'I am called Saphathoral, and I inspire partisanship in men, and delight in causing them to stumble. If any one will write on paper these names of spirits of the North, Boul, ruler of the spirits of the West. But in view of his later fame, Asiel, one of the magical angelic names in the papyri, deserves a special mention. He is here classed among the fiends, and certainly amongst the most rewarding ones, for he discovers stolen goods and detects thieves; but more important still, he reveals the exact position of treasures hidden underground. He bears a strong resemblance to the metallurgical gods of the Chaldeans, and in view of his subsequent history, that he was a lineal descendant of the midnight sun of the Akkadian cosmos.

Whether this particular surmise is correct or not, Assyrian and Babylonian elements clearly survived in the demons of disease described in the Testament. The Apocrypha, notably Enoch, was responsible for much of the demonology and angelology; the Talmud contributed the story of Ornias and the arts used by the demons to know the future. Egypto‑Hellenic magic supplied information about Onoskelis, Akephalos Daimon, Enepsigos or Hecate and Kunopegos or Poseidon. Beelzeboul and Leontophoron, the demon of Gadara, derived from Jewish mythology.

Gnosticism [originated with the Jews] supplied the term aeon, although probably this was merely borrowed from the papyria; there are also affiliations with Arabic folk‑lore, to judge by similarities with the Koran and the Arabian Nights; unless we are to suppose that these two later works borrowed from the Testament, which, though possible, seems unlikely. But even without postulating Arabic elements, the eclecticism and syncretism of this magical treatise bear striking witness to one of the leading characteristics of the Art; its main importance, however, was the evolution of demonological lore into a recognizable Book of the Spirits, describing their functions and powers and the means to master them.

Such a list was by no means yet a hierarchy, even though Beelzebouls was named as prince, and the decani obviously ranked lower than Ornias and his consorts. It was chiefly owing to the speculations of the neo Platonists that an infernal hierarchy gradually came into being. Porphyry (A.D. 233‑304), who divided spirits simply into good and bad, nevertheless contributed the idea of a special category of fraudulent spirits, in order to meet the difficulty inherent in the assumption that great spirits can be constrained to appear by the will of man.

Iamblichus (died A.D. 333), to whom this difficulty was non‑existent, maintained in The Mysteries that such fraudulent spirits could only ape their betters if there had been some error in the rites; and he developed a complete descending hiearchy of the spirits, in which the good and the evil, the latter not totally black, were classified according to their greater or lesser degree of power and distance from human beings.

In fact Plotinus' notion of the world‑soul streaming down towards the earth and animating the universe was translated by Iamblichus into concrete terms. His pneumatology included the gods, radiating a beneficent light, stable and calm; archangels, powerful and mild; deamons, terrible and stormy, bringing movement and disorder; angels, graceful, charming and calm, only slightly stirred by motion; the princes of the elements, overwhelming in their calm stability; the princes of matter, repulsive, often dangerous, surrounded by tumult, but the dispensers of worldly wealth and powers; the heroes, milder than the demons and yielding to movement; and finally the souls, the weakest and the most easily swayed into motion.

The princes of the elements and the princes of matter resemble in some sort the seven planetary gods and their corresponding demons of the Akkadian cosmos. Iamblichus despite his lofty language was drawn more strongly towards magic than towards mysticism and was more intent on bringing gods and deamons down to us than on rising into the sphere of the gods; he was also interested in communicating with evil spirits as well as with good ones.

Proclus (A.D. 412‑84) concentrated on the elemental aspect introduced by Iamblichus, and divided the daimons into five classes, ruling over fire, air, water, earth and those housing undergound. Psellus, who died in 1106 A.D., adopted this classification, and added the category of Lucifugum, or Fly‑the‑light. Trithem (1462‑1516) in his Liber Octo Quaestionum characterized these spirits in a very vivid way.

The fire‑spirits, dwelling in the upper regions until the Day of Judgment, have no commerce of any kind with men; the air‑spirits, grim and violent, hate human beings and raise storms; the earth‑spirits inhabit woods and groves; some of them are quite friendly to men, but others are the reverse; the water‑spirits are full of wrath and passions; they generally manifest in a female form; the subterranean spirits are the most calicious of all. They attack miners and those digging for treasure; they provoke earthquakes; they are known to have lured men underground; they seize and guard buried treasures; they feign to be the souls of the dead. The Fly‑the‑lights finally are '...a sort wandering in darkness, a mysterious kind of demon, dark through and through, malicious, restless, stormy.' (Liber Octo Quaestionum, J. Tritheim, Oppenheim, 1575; I. iii. verso)

Paracelsus (1493‑1541) in his fascinating monograph, De nymphs, sylphis, pygmeis et salamandris, which was permeated through and through by Germanic folk‑lore, called the elemental spirits 'the flower of the elements,' and denied their possession of a soul.

But this idea, of which Grimmelshausen and later Fontaine made poetical capital in two diametrically opposite ways, was naturally not one which could fruitfully be used by magic, whether black or white. Running parallel with such quasi‑philosophical reflection was the ritual development of the infernal hiearchy initiated in the Testament of Solomon.

There are several allusions to such compilations in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and they were always attributed to Solomon. Tritheim mentioned a Liber Officiorum on the lines of the Testament, including four emperors, many kings, dukes, marquises and counts.

Wierus published under the title Pseudomonarchia Daemonum a cataogue of sixty‑nine devils with their offices and functions. Although the names are dissimilar to those of Recension C of the Testament, they include the kings of the east, south, north and west (Amaymon, Gerson, Zymymar, Goap) and follow the general pattern of that list.

Scot reprinted Wierus in his Discouerie of Witchcraft in 1584; and the French grimoire‑writers nearly all have similar lists. A manuscript in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge (late fifteenth or early sixteenth century), contains a Livre des Esprits, including among the forty‑two demons Orient, king of the east, Paymon of the west (the latter figures in Pseudomonarchia Daemonum in another capacity), Amoymon of the south, and Cham of the north. A manuscript in the British Museum called the Lemegeton or Lesser Key of Solomon has an infernal hierarchy of seventy‑two demons, published by Waite in his Book of Black Magic, which tallies very closely indeed with Pseudomonarchia Daemonum. One way and another therefore the Liber Spirituum of medieval and modern magic connects closely with the Testament of Solomon."

The Jewish Cabala or Kabbalah

The existence of a spirit world, of evil spirits, is mentioned throughout the Bible. Christ drove out possessing spirits. There is one hard and fast rule taught on the subject, however: namely, to leave them alone, do no invoking or communicating with them. It is clear that spirit elements could deceive the finite powers of human beings. "Thou shalt have no other gods before me," is the First Commandment. "And that you shall do no bowing to, or serving them," is the Second Commandment. (Exodus 20:3‑5)

Whereas the Bible represents God as the Supreme Intelligence, Creator and Ruler, the pagan and atheist Jewish concept is pantheism. In other words, there is a great nature essence, out of which individual lives percolate blindly without direction. "Pan" (nature) "theism" (godism) holds that the sum of nature is god. Man becomes the all powerful Luciferian "god."

The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943), as to the "Cabala," states: "Although Palestine was the birthplace of Jewish mysticism, the land where the Cabala was conceived, it was in Babylonia that it attained its greatest importance." It cites "the mystic speculations of the Talmud and the system of the Cabala, originating in the one and reaching its completion in the other." The Jewish Cabala is a library of literature, all on magic, spiritism, and based on sheer panthesim. "Aaron ben Samuel is credited with bringing the mysterious doctrine from Babylonia to Italy about the middle of the Ninth Century, thence it spread to almost all the Christian countries of Europe." (Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 616)

Cabala, also spelled Kabbalah, means "tradition," and it is the tradition of the paganisms of Babylon, Egypt, and the pagan philosophers, enshrined in the Jewish religion.

Cabala, or Cabbala, or Kabala, or Kabbalah

CABAL: (Heb. Qabbalah, cabala). 1. a secret scheme; an intrigue; 2. a secret combination of a few persons; usually evil: v.i. [p.t. and p.p. caballed (‑bald'). p. pr. caballing], to join others secretly in effect some design. Syn., n. faction, conspiracy, coalition, gang.

CABALA (kabd‑ld), n. [Heb. qabbalah. reception: ally]. 1. the abstruse and mystical system of doctrine sacred Hebrew writings; 2. any occult or mystic philosophy.

Also, cabbala; kabala; kabbala. The received or traditional lore, esoteric mystical system of Judaic philosophy that developed at the beginning of the Christian era and reached a peak during the late Middle Ages. The Cabala, originally an oral tradition [just as the Talmud], was based on studies of the Scriptures for occult references to God, the universe, and the creation.

The Sepher Yetzirah ('Book of Creation'), a work on cosmology, was ascribed to the Patriarch Abraham (q.v.) but was probably written between the 3rd and 6th centuries A.D. The most important cabalistic work, the Zohar ('Brightness'; as in Dan. 12:3), was compiled by the Spanish scholar Moses de Leon (fl. 13th cent.) who ascribed it to Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai (fl 2nd cent.). Important contributions to cabalistic doctrine were also made by Rabbi Saadia ben Joseph. (The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943), 892‑942)

The fundamental concept of cabalistic teaching is that all emanates from God. Creation, in the common acceptance of the term, is not recognized, nor is eternal matter. All nature is the self‑development of the Deity. God as the absolute Being is also called Adam Kadmon, 'The First or Ideal Man.' The chief cabalistic writers flourished between the 13th and 16th centuries in Europe and after 1492 in what is now Zefat, Israel. The most eminent were the Spanish scholar Rabbi Moses ben Nahman (1195?‑1270), also known as Ramban, and the Palestinian scholar Isaac ben Solomon Luria (1534‑72). The writings of Luria Formed a basis for the Theology of the Pious Jews of the Hasidim (q.v.), a sect founded in 18th‑century Poland. The most prominent Christian cabalists were the 15th‑century Italian philosopher and theologian Pico della Mirandola (see Pico Della Mirandola) and the 15th‑century. German humanist Johann Reuchlin (q.v.), both of whom found a concept of the Trinity (q.v.) in the Cabala." (The Winston Simplified Dictionary, College Edition, p. 132 and Funk & Waggnals New Encyclopedia, Vol. 4)

One will never understand the Jews or their mindset until they understand the Cabala or Kabbalah or Qabbalah, etc. The Religious Philosophy of the Jews. This is an occult philosophy and science intended for those "who say they are Jews and are not" (Revelation 2:9 and 3:9) to dominate God's domain. They intend to reduce all but their own "Illuminati" or Enlightened Ones, to animal status. One will only understand that if God directs your attention to documented truths. Without the knowledge of God you will not have knowledge of God's enemies.

First seek God and He will direct your path and open the scriptures that cannot be understood without the knowledge of true Judaism, the Kabbalah!, which is an occult philosophy. This is because Webster's defines "OCCULT: 1. not revealed [although Jewish Gnosticism and the Talmud are considered 'revealed tradition (not based on fact)'] Secret 1. Abstruse, Mysterious [as in Freemasonry and Druidism] 3. not able to be seen or detected: concealed; 4. of or relating to supernatural agencies, their effects, and knowledge [gnosis ‑ Greek for knowledge ‑ the root word for Gnosticism].' Basically all of these forms are "Sun Worship" and SUN is a symbol for the "SELF." This "occult" is a Death Cult. Because of their fear of Almighty God who can, and will, inflict death on them, they use the Sun as a symbol of dying at night and rising anew each dawn. It is from this philosophy we have the "doctrine" of the rapture.

From the King James Bible: But if ye shall at all turn from following me...but go and serve other gods, and worship them: Then will I cut off Israel out of the land which I have given them...and they shall say, Why hath the Lord done thus unto this land...and they shall answer, Because they forsook the Lord their God...therefore hath the Lord brought upon them all this evil. (Excerpts from 1 Kings 9:6‑9) But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition [this is the "son of perdition" of 2 Thessalonians 2:3‑4]. For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith and pierced themselves through with many sorrows. (1 Timothy 6:9‑10) therefore thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Behold, I am bringing such evil upon Jerusalem and Judah [The Jews] that whosoever heareth of it, both his ears shall tingle. (2 Kings 21:12) Now therefore, behold, the Lord hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets, and the Lord hath spoken evil concerning thee. (1 Kings 22:23)

A Rosicrucian Crucifixion

The solar crucifixion is an outstanding example of the astronomical knowledge possessed by the so‑called prehistoric world. In Herschel's ground‑plan of the universe in human form, Writes Albert Ross Parsons, 'our solar system is located at the heart of the Divine Man of the skies. Hence, the catastrophe in our solar system, by which the ecliptic was sundered from the celestial equator, was a rupture or piercing of the heart of the Divine Man. The ecliptic and equator no longer coinciding, they formed a cross upon which the Divine Man was transfixed in space. This idea was familiar to the Hindus and to Plato. Hence arose the prehistoric Christianity, the religion of the lamb slain from the foundation of the world, of the Book of Revelation.' (New Light from the Great Pyramid)

Ignoring the story of the crucifixion in its literal sense, the [Jewish] Gnostics considered only its cosmic import. In Rosicrucian mysticism, the Christ Spirit is said to have established a direct link with the earth through the blood which poured from the wounds in the hands, feet, and side of Jesus. Being the ancient symbol of the secret doctrine, the cross represents to the initiated that divine institution which, releasing the heavenly man from his animal part, launches the spiritual nature into the sphere of Reality.

Therefore the cross may be said to be the emblem of philosophic death, and the Mysteries cannot achieve their end until they have caused each of their neophy to pass victoriously through the cycle of suffering, death, and resurrection. The entire procedure is concealed in the symbolism of the grape. As one author has perceived, the agony in the Garden of Gethscmane is analogousto the crushing of the grapes in the wine press. He who comprehends the mystery of the sacramental cup posses the key to human regeneration. Man, crucified, passes through death upon the symbol of life and attains to life upon the symbol of death. The break between the Self and the not‑self is thus complete and the spirit., emeraina from its chrysalis, leaves the empty shell behind as the token of its attainment. The agony of the Savior, consequently, is not the agony of death but the agony of birth. Only in him who has found his life by losing it is the mystery comprehensible." (The Secret Teachings of all Ages, p. 181) You will soon see even more Jewish blasphemies soon. As we present a short outline of their beliefs, the cries of denial, notwithstanding.

Insignia of the Order of the Illuminati (Enlightened) Is the Reverse of the U.S. Seal and Appears on U.S. $1.00 Notes

The insignia of the Order of the Illuminati [the unfinished pyramid, with the all seeing eye] was adopted by Weishaupt at the time he founded the Order, on May 1, 1776. It is that event that is memorialized by the MDCCLXXVI at the base of the pyramid, and not the date of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, as the uninformed have supposed.

The significance of the design is as follows: the pyramid represents the conspiracy for destruction of the Catholic (Universal Christian) Church, and establishment of a "One World," or UN dictatorship, the "secret" of the Order; the eye radiating in all directions, is the "all‑spying eye" that symbolizes the terroristic, Gestapo‑like, espionage agency that Weishaupt set up under the name of "Insinuating Brethren," to guard the "secret" of the Order and to terrorize the populace into acceptance of its rule. This "Ogpu" had its first workout in the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution, which it was instrumental in organizing. It is a source of amazement that the electorate tolerates the continuance of the use of this insignia as part of the Great Seal of the U.S.

"Annuit Coeptis" means "our enterprise (conspiracy) has been crowned with success." Below, "Novus Ordo Seclorum" explains the nature of the enterprise: and it means "a New Social Order," or "New Deal," or "New World Order." It should be noted that this insignia acquired Masonic significance only after the merger of that Order with the Order of Illuminati at the Congress of Wilhelmsbad, in 1782.

Benjamin Franklin, John Adams (Roosevelt kinsman) and Thomas Jefferson, ardent Illuminst, proposed the above as the reverse of the seal, on the face of which was the eagle symbol, to Congress, which adopted it on June 10, 1782. On adoption of the Constitution, Congress decreed, by an Act of September 15, 1789, its retention as seal of the United States.

It is stated however, by the State Department in its latest publication on the subject (2860), that "the reverse had never been cut and used as a seal," and that only the observe bearing the eagle symbol has been used as official seal and coat of arms. It first was published on the left of the reverse of the dollar bills at the beginning of the New Deal, 1933 by order of [Jewish] President F.D. Roosevelt.

What is the meaning of the publication at the outset of the New Deal of this "Gestapo" symbol that had been so carefully suppressed up to that date that few Americans knew of its existence, other than as a Masonic symbol? It can only mean that with the advent of the New Deal the Illuminist‑Socialist‑Communist‑Zionist conspirators, followers of Professor Weishaupt [a Jew], regarded their efforts as beginning to be crowned with success.

In effect this seal proclaims to the One Worlders that the entire power of the U.S. Government is now controlled by the Illuminati's Agentur and is persuaded or forced to adopt policies which further the Secret Plans of the Conspirators to undermine and Destroy it together with the remaining Governments of the so-called "Free World." All existing religions [Except Judaism], etc., so that the Synagogue of Satan will be able to usurp the powers of the first world government to be established and then impose a Luciferian totalitarian dictatorship upon what remains of the Human Race. (Pawns in the Game, William Guy Carr, p. XIII)

Zoroastrianism

Out of Persia was to come one of the highest and most philosophical conceptions of deity before the time of Christ. The Persians started with the same animistic and primitive tendencies as other peoples of their time, about 660 B.C. a man‑child [a Jew] was born in Media, a neighboring state, who was to bring forth a highly enlightened religion.

This was Zarathustra or Zoroaster. (We may well be tolerant of each other's creed; for in every fiath there are excellent moral precepts. Far in the South of Asia, Zoroaster taught this doctrine: 'On commencing a journey, the Faithful should turn his thoughts toward Ormuzd, and confess him, in the purity of his heart, to be King of the World; he should love him, do him nomage, and serve him. He must be upright and charitable, despise the pleasures of the body, and avoid pride and haughtiness, and vice in all its forms, and especially falsehood, one of the basest sins of which man can be guilty.

He must forget injuries and not avenge himself. He must honor the memory of his parents and relatives. At night, before retiring to sleep, he should regorously examine his conscience, and repent of the faults which weakness or ill-fortune had caused him to commit.' He was required to pray for strength to persevere in the Good, and to obtain forgiveness for his errors. It was his duty to confess his faults to a Magus, or a layman renowned for his virtues, or to the Sun.

Fasting and maceration were prohibited; and, on the contrary, it was his duty suitably to nourish the body and to maintain its vigor, that his sould might be strong to resist the Genius of Darkness; that he might more attentively read the Divine Word, and have more coursge to perform noble deeds...

The Deity of the early Hebrews talked to Adam and Eve in the garden of delight, as he walked in it in the cool of the day; he conversed with Kayin; he sat and ate with Abraham in his tent; that patriarch required a visible token, before he would believe in his positive promise; he permitted Abraham to expostulate with him, and to induce him to change his first determination in regard to Sodom; he wrestled with Jacob; he showed Moses his person, though not his face; he dictated the minutest police regulations and the dimensions of the tabernacle and its furnature, to the Israelites; he insisted on and delighted in sacrifices and burnt offerings; he was angry, jealous and revengeful, as well as wavering and irresolute; he allowed Moses to reason him out of his fixed resolution utterly to destroy his people; he commanded the performance of the most shocking and hideous acts of cruelty and barbarity. He hardened the heart of Pharaoh; he repented of the evil that he had said he would do unto the people of Nineveh; and he did it not, to the disgust and anger of Jonah (do you see how the Jews distort everything related in the Bible and lie about our Savior Jesus Christ?)

Such were the popular notions of the Deity; and either the priests had none better, or took little trouble to correct these notions; or the popular intellect was not enough enlarged to enable them to entertain any higher conceptions of the Almighty. But such were not the ideas of the intellectual and enlightened few among the Hebrews. It is certain that they possessed aknowledge of the true nature and attributes of God; as the same class of men did among the other nations - Zoroaster, Menu, Confucius, Socrates, and Plato (all Jews).

But their doctrines on this subject were esoteric; they did not communicate them to the people at large, but only to a favored few (the rabbis); and as they were communicated in Egypt and India, in Persia and Phoenicia, in Greece and Samothrace, in the greater mysteries, to the Initiates...

The Magi of Babylon were expounders of figurative writings, interpreters of nature, and of dreams, astronomers and divines; and from their influences arose among the Jews, after their rescue from captivity, a number of sects, and a new exposition, the mystical interpretation, withall its wild fancies and infinite caprices. The Aions of the Gnostics, the Ideas of Plato, the Angels of the Jews, and the Demons of the Greeks, all correspond to the Ferouers of Zoroaster. A great number of Jewish families remained permanently in their new country; and one of the most celebrated of their schools was at Babylon.

They were soon familiarized with the doctrine of Zoroaster, which itself was more ancient than Kuros. From the system of the Zend-Avesta they borrowed, and subsequently gave large development to, everything that could be reconciled with their own faith; and these additions to the old doctrine were soon spread, by the constant intercourse of commerce, into Syria and Palestine...

The doctrines of Zoroaster came originally from Bactria, an Indian Province of Persis. Naturally, therefore, it would include Hindu or Buddhist elements, as it did. The fundamental idea of Buddhism was, matter subjugating the intelligence,a nd intelligence freeing itself from that slavery. Perhaps something came to Gnosticism from China. 'Before the chaos which preceded the birth of Heaven and Earth,' says Lao-Tseu, 'a single Being existed, immense and silent, immovable and ever active; the mother of the Universe.

I know not its name: but I designate it by the word Rason. Man has his type and model in the Earth; Earth in Heaven; Heaven in Reason; and Reason in Itself." Here again are the Ferouers, the Ideas, the Aions; the Reason or Intelleigence, Silence, Word, and Wisdom of the Gnostics. The dominant system among the Jews after their captivity was that of the Pharoschim or Pharisees.

Whether their name was derived from that of the Parsees, or followers of Zoroaster, or from some other source, it is certain that they had borrowed much of their doctrine from the Persians. Like them they claimed to have the exclusive and mysterious knowledge, unknown to the mass. Like them they taught that a constant war was waged between the Empire of Good and that of Evil.

Like them they attributed the sins and fall of man to the demons and their chief; and like them they admitted a special protection of the righteious by inferior beings, agents of Jehovah. All their doctrines on these subjects were at bottom those of the Holy Books; but singularly developed; and the Orient was evidently the source from which those developments came...

All the philosophers and legislators that made Antiquity illustrious, were pupils of the initiation; and all the beneficent modifications in the religions of the different people instructed by them were owing to their institution and extension of the Mysteries. In the chaos of popular superstitions, those Mysteries alone kept man from lapsing into absolute brutishness.

Zoroaster and Confucius drew their doctrines from the Mysteries. Clemens of Alexandria, speaking of the Great Mysteries, says: "Here ends all instruction. Nature and all things are seen and known." Had moral truths alone been taught the Initiate, the Mysteries could never have deserved nor received the magnificent eulogiums of the most enlightened men of Antiquity, of Pindar, Plutarch, Isocrates, Diodorus, Plato, Euripides, Socrates, Aristophanes, Cicero, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and others; philosophers hostile to the Sacerdotal Spirit, or historians devoted to the investigation of Truth.

No: all the sciences were taught there; and those oral or written traditions briefly communicated, which reached back tot he first age of the world...There is another division of nature, which has in all ages struck all men, and which was not forgotten in the Mysteries; that of Light and Darkness, Day and Night, Good and Evil; which mingle with, and clash against, and pursue or are pursued by each other througout the Universe.

The Great Symbolic Egg distinctly remained the Initiates of this great division of the world. Plutarch, treating of the dogma of a Providence, and of that of the two principles of Light and Darkness, which he regarded as the basis of the Ancient Theology, of the Orgies and the Mysteries, as well among the Greeks as the Barbarians, a doctrine whose origin, according to him, is lost in the night of time, cites, in support his opinion, the famous Mystic Egg of the disciples of Zoroaster and the Initiates in the Mysteries of Mithras...

Zoroaster, like Moses, claimed to have conversed face to face, as man with man, with the Deity; and to have received from Him a system of pure worship, to be communicated only to the virtuous, and those who would devote themselves to the study of Philosophy. His fame spread over the world, and pupils came to himf rom every country. Even Pythagoras was his scholar...And yet Zoroaster added:

"Measure not the journeyings of the Sun, nor attempt to reduce them to rule; for he is carried by the eternal will of the Father, not for your sake. Do not endeavor to understand the impetuous course of the Moon; for she runs evermore under the impulse of necessity; and the progression of the Stars was not generated to serve any purpose of yours."

Ormuzd says to Zoroaster, in the Boundehesch:

"I am he who holds the Star-Spangled Heaven in ethereal space; who makes this sphere, which once was buried in darkness, a flood of light. Through me the Earth became a world firm and lasting; the earth on which walks the Lord of the World. I am he who makes the light of Sun, Moon, Stars pierce the clouds. I make the corn seed, which perishing in the ground sprouts anew...

I created man, whose eye is light, whose life is the breath of his nostrils. I placed within him life's unextinguishable power."...

Ahrim was by some Parsee sects considered older than Ormuzd, as darkness is older than light; he is imagined to have been unknown as a Malevolent Being in the early ages of the world, and the fall of man is attributed in the Boundehesch to an apostate worship of him, from which men were converted by a succession of prophets terminating with Zoroaster. Mithras is not only light, but intelligence; that luminary which, though born in obscurity, will not only dispel darkness but conquer death.

The warfare through which this consummation is to be reached, is mainly carried on through the instrumentality of the "Word," that "ever-living emanation of the Deity, by virtue of which the world exists," and of which the revealed formulas incessantly repeated in the liturgies of the Magi are but the expression. "What shall I do," cried Zoroaster, "O Ormunzd, steeped in brigness, in order to battle with Daroodj-Ahriman, father of the Evil Law; how shall I make men pure and holy?"

Ormuzd answered and said: "Invoke, O Soroaster, the pure law of the Servants of Ormuzd; invoke the Amschaspands who shed abundance throughout the seven Keshwars; invoke the Heaven, Zeruana-Akarana, the birds travailing on high, the swift wind, the Earth; invoke my Spirit, me who am Ahura-Mazda, the purest, strongest, wisest, best of beings; me who have the most majestic body, who through purity am Supreme, whose Soul is the Excellent Word; and ye, all people, invoke me as I have commanded Zoroaster."

Ahura-Mazda himself is the living Word; he is called "First born of all things, express image of the Eternal, very light of very light, the Creator, who by power of the Word which he never ceases to pronounce, made in 365 days the Heaven and the Earth."

The Word is said in the Yashna to have existed before all, and to be itself a Yazata, a personified objecty of prayer. It was revelaed in Serosch, in Homa, and again, under Gushtasp, was manifested in Zoroaster...Much of the primitive Truth was taught to Pythagoras by Zoroaster, who himself received it from the Indians. His disciples rejected the use of Temples, of Altars, and of Statues; and smiled at the folly of those nations who imagined that the Deity sprang from or had any affinity with human nature. The tops of the highest mountains were the places chosen for sacrifices.

Hymns and prayers were their principal worship. The Supreme God, who fills the wide circle of Heaven, was the object of Whom they were addressed. Such is the testimony of Herodotus. Light they considered not so much as an object of worship, as rather the most pure and lively emblem of, and first emanation from, the Eternal God; and thought that man required somehting visible or tangible to exalt his mind to that degree of adoration which is due to the Divine Being...

The Occult Science of the Ancient Magi was concealed under the shadows of the Ancient Mysteris: it is guessed at under the obscurities that cover the pretended crimes of the Templars; and it is found enveloped in enigmas that seem impenetrable, in the Rites of the Highest Masonry. Magism was the Science of Abraham and Orpheus, of Confucius and Zoroaster. It was the dogmas of this Science that were engraven on the tables of stone by Hanoch and Trismegistus. Moses purified and re-veiled them, for that is the meaning of the word reveal.

He covered them with a new veil, when he made of the Holy Kabalah the exclusive heritage of the people of Israel, and the inviolable Secret of its priests. The Mysteries of Thebes and Eleusis preserved among the nations some symbols of it, already altered, and the mysterious key whereof was lost among the instruments of an ever-growing superstition.

Jerusalem, the murderess of her prophets, and so often prostituted to the false gods of the Syrians and Babylonians, had at length in its turn lost the Holy Word, when a Prophet annoucned to the Magi by the consecrated Star of Initiation, came to rend asunder the worn veil of the old Temple, in order to give the Church a new tissue of legends and symbols, that still and ever conceals fromt he Profane, and ever preserves to the Elect the same truths. (Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, pp. 167, 170, 207, 256-258, 373, 403, 424, 611, 613, 617, 839)

He was, according to legend, a wonder‑child, born of an immaculate conception [He was merely another Jewish Messiah, which had been prophesied in the Scriptures], who attained salvation suddenly and preached a religion well suited to the needs of the people and the Iranian plateaus with their tough struggle for survival.

He taught that life was a struggle between the forces of Good and of Evil, the world serving as the battle‑ground on which there could be no neutrals. Each man must choose the side on which he would stand, and in making the choice he must bear in mind the judgment hereafter. There was no room for sentimentality. The choice was hard, and the work was hard as life itself No mercy could be shown the enemy, whether man, beast, or weed. Good works, including irrigation, sowing and reaping, rearing of domestic animals, all were admired and encouraged.

The spirit of good was Ahura Mazda, Lord of Wisdom, with his helper, Mithras, Light. The evil spirit was Aingra Mainyu, or Ahriman, the Lie Demon. The two great spirits had come together for the Creation, Ahura Mazda creating everything except moral and physical evil, which thing were established by Ahriman. Ahura Mazda had six leading attributes: the good mind, or love; the righteous order, or plan of grace; Khshathra, or divine noble government; Armaiti, or holy character, or piety; Haurvatat, or health of mind and body; and Immortality, or life perpetuated in a heaven of good thoughts, words, deeds. Ahura Mazda was supported by Mithras, Light, and hence the veneration of fire as a symbol and the retention of the fire priests. Ahriman gained assistance from the old idols and gods.

Man, as has been said, could not be neutral in the great struggle. The test was the uprightness of his life and the assistance his conduct gave against evil. The emphasis was upon his works. Thus did Zoroaster give for the first time in history an answer to the question, "Why is life?" He said, "To fight for the right." The Zoroastrian believed in a paradise and a hell. The pious Jews after death went to an immortality of holiness in thought, word, and deed ‑ not to a sensual heaven as found in many religions. The impious fell from the Judge's Bridge into an eternal hell of evil thoughts, words, and deeds, and of physical torment.

In the days of the end‑time all the dead would be restored by a Saviour born of the seed of Zoroaster and a virgin who was to conceive in a lake Impregnated with his Semen. The good and the evil would join in a great battle known as "The Affair," from which, after a period of doubt and darkness, Ahura Mazda would emerge victorious. Then all the hills and mountains would melt and pour over the earth in a great flood. Every wicked thing would perish as though scalded, but the righteous would wade through with laughter, as though through a bath of warm milk. The earth would then be a paradise with no mountains or deserts, no savages or wild beasts, where the just would live on forever with joy and gladness in their hearts.

Zoroastrianism was too noble and too advanced for its time. Zoroaster was spurned by his own people [Jews], the Medes, and took his beliefs to the Persians. Here he was not in his life time accepted either, but by 500 B.C. Zoroastrianism had become the leading faith of the Persians. His hymns and fragments of his teachings and sayings were gathered into a book which became the Persian Bible, the Avesta, or Zend‑Avesta. Zoroastrianism led to government in Persia more just than anywhere else in the ancient East [so the Jews say]. The emperors were given a sense of obligation, as witness this quotation from Darius, "Ahura Mazda brought me help because I was not wicked, nor was I a liar, nor was I a tyrant. I have ruled according to righteousness."

Zoroastrianism degenerated in the hands of later generations of Jews to a theological ritual. Mithras grew in importance, and cults devoted to him spread as far west as Rome, some relics of his rites being found even on the Seine. Elaborate purification rites became the vogue ‑ most notable being a purification by a bath from head to foot in cow urine. The dead were thought unholy, and tabu was placed on the touching of a corpse. To this day, where Zoroastrianism survives, bodies cannot be burned or buried, but are left exposed to scavenging vultures.

The most numerous sect of Zoroastrians existent today is the Parsees in India, numbering about eighty‑four thousand. They are descendants of Persian refugees who in the seventh and eighth centuries were permitted to settle in India on condition of laying down their arms, refraining from killing the sacred cow, and adopting a new mode of dress. The basic teachings of monotheism, monogamy, and holiness have never been lost, but have been overlaid by many of the ceremonies and customs of the neighboring Hindus, especially in the case of birth, marriage, death, and holy days. Woman has always been held in high esteem and great honor, this being remarkable in a country like India. Today Parsic women have complete equality of status with men, even in public assemblies.

The religion of the Parsees is a universal monotheism. It imposes love of God, love of truth, and charity in

all its connotations. All must strive to do some good. Their creed includes a belief in the existence of angels

to assist mankind; in the efficacy and necessity of prayer; in the immortality of the soul; in an afterlife of

rewards and punishments. It is a pure religion with no attempt at propitiation of evil forces. Their morality is

summarized in the words "holiness," "pure thought," "good word," and "good deed." The common virtues are extolled

and inculcated. Truth is especially exalted. In the end, man rests his pardon on the mercy of God and his reward

on His bounty.

Although the number of true Zoroastrians today is small, this belief has left its mark on Judaism and Islam,

and through these Mithraism (After the rise of Zoroastrianism; sometimes called the faith of Ormuzd or Mazdaism, Mithras, a Persian God of Light, took his place between Ormuzd and Ahirman or Pluto of the Persians; the eternal Light and the eternal Darkness, to aid, it is said, in the destruction of evil and administration of the world. He was the god of vegetation, the god of generation and increase, and was accepted in the official religion of Persia.

He was also regarded as mediator between humanity and the unknowable God, who reigned in the ether. His cult spread, with the Empire of Persia, throughout Asia Minor, and Babylon was an important center; it grew in strength following the conquests of Alexander. The beginning of its downfall was about 275 A.D., but it still survived in the fifth century.

It was modified in Asia by contact with the Chaldean star-worshippers, who identified Mithras with Shamash God of the Sun, and by the Greeks of Asia, who looked upon him as Helios. it was not until the end of the first century that it gained ground in Rome, where both its politics and philosophy helped its success. Hadrian, however, prohibited these Mysteries in Rome because of the cruel human sacrifices accompanying some of their rites, when future events were divined in the entrails. Nevertheless, they reappeared under Commodus, and spread even to Britain.

Mithraic legend, theology, and symbology have been reconstructed by Franz Cumont in his Textes et monuments figurs relatifs aux mystres de Mithra, 1896. The legend, as shown on these famous Mithraic reliefs, also described by Sainte-Croix, is briefly: Born of a rock, Mithras ate of the fruit of a fig tree and clothed himself with its leaves. The relief shows Mithras's adventures with the sacred bull, created by Ormuzd; he seized the animal by the horns, was carried about until, subduing it, he finally dragged it into a cavern, and by order of the Sun-God sacrificed it.

The central relief representes Mithras with flowing garments and Phrygian cap, slaying the sacred bull; the bull sacrificed to bring forth terrestrial life. The scorpion attacking its genitals was sent by Ahriman fromt he lower world to destroy the generative power, and so prevent fertility; the dog springing towards the wound in the bull's side was venerated by the Persians as Mithras's companion; the serpent is the symbol of the earth made fertile by drinking the blood of the sacrificial bull.

The raven who directs Mithras is the Herald of the Sun-God who ordered the sacrifice; various plants near the bull and heads of wheat symbolise the fruitful result. The torch-bearers represent one in three aspects: the sun at the vernal and autumn equinoxes and the summer solstice, the renewal of nature and its fecundity. The Mithraic Mysteies were celebrated at the winter solstice - 'The day of the Nativity of the Invincible.'

The cave or artificial grotto used in their initiations represented the Universe, that is, the seven planets, twelve signs of the Zodiac, four elements, etc., for the science of the Mysteries had intimate connection with astrology and physics; furhter, the mystic symbolic Egg represented their dualism of Light and Darkness, Good and Evil, Night and Day, negative and positive.

A text of St. Jerome and inscriptions preserve the knowledge of the seven degrees of initiation. The ladder of seven planets represents, they say, the seven stages by which man descended into matter and through which he must return to the ether and illumination. According to Celsus the order of return is: Saturn, Venus, Juipter, Mercury, Mars, Moon, Sun, thus differing from the cabalistic system, which is from Earth to Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Juipter, and Saturn. The Mithraic degrees were: (1) Raven, the servant of the Sun; (2) Occult or veiled; (3) Soldier, the warfare against evil in service of Mithras; (4) Lion, the element of fire; (5) Persian, clothed inAsiatic dress; (6) Heliodromus, courier of the Sun. Pater or father; Patres Sacrorum, directors of the cult.

In the first three degrees they were servants only. In the first an oath of secrecy was taken, preceded by purification and fasts. In the Soldier degree, according to Tertullian, the myste was marked or branded on the forehead with a Tau. In the Lion and persian honey was applied to hands and tongue.

There was also a mystic communion of consecrated bread and water; later wine possibly replaced the soma used in similar rites of Mazdaism. In the higher degrees, among participants, the effects of drinking the sacred wine, the manipulation of the light in the crypt, the administration of the oath, and the repetition of sacred formule all contributed to induce a state of ecstatic exaltation.

Springett, in his Secret Sects of Syria, speaks of lustrations with fire, water, and honey, and after many tests ending with a fast of fifty days' continuance, spent in perpetual silence and solitude. "If the candidate escaped partial or complete insanity, and occurance of great frequency, and surmounted the trials of his fortitude, he was eligible for the superior degrees."

Yarker, in his Arcane Schools, tells us that in some of the Mithraic monuments Mithras appears with a torch in each hand, whilst a flaming sword issues out of his mouth; in others he has a man on eace side, one holding a flaming torch upwards, the other holding it reversed. The latter might represent their principles of Light and Darkness; the flaming sword is also a symbol among modern Rosicrucian and Cabalistic sects, where on the Cabalistic Tree of Life, Adam Kadmon, the Logos, is depicted with the flaming sword issuing out of his mouth; it is the astral light, which can slay or make alive, set in motion by a powerful will and a trained adept controlling it.

In these Mysteries, therefore, we again see the cult of nature and generation applied to the so-called regeneration of man, mental illumination throught he action of the astral light, which in many cases leads to illusion, fanaticism, and at times even madness. (The Trail of the Serpent, by Inquire Within, Miss Stoddard, pp. 16-19)), on Christianity ‑ through the subversion of the Jews. The Jews translated Ahriman into their Satan.

From the Persians they first learned ideas of Heaven and Hell, and of a Judgment Day. Accounts of the Affair color Judaic accounts of the last days in both the Mithraism, and the Talmud, a direct outgrowth of Zoroastrianism, was adapted in large part to Christian teachings and rituals, by the Jews. The Jews translated

Ahriman into their Satan. From the Persians they first learned ideas of Heaven and Hell, and of a Judgment day. Accounts of The Affair color Judaic accounts of the last days in the Talmud. Mithraism, a direct outgrowth of Zoroastrianism, was adapted in large part to Christian teachings and rituals, as we shall see." (Religions of the World, Gerald L. Berry, pp. 36‑39).

MAGI

Priests of ancient Persia, and the cultivators of the wisdom of Zoroaster. They were instituted by Cyrus

when he founded the new Persian empire, and are supposed to have been of the Median race. Schlegel says

(Philosophy of History), "they were not so much a hereditary sacerdotal caste as an order or association, divided into various and successive ranks and grades, such as existed in the mysteries ‑ the grade of apprenticeship ‑

that of mastership; that of perfect mastership."

In short, they were a theolophical college; and either its professors were indifferently "magi," or

magicians, and "wise men," or they were distinguished into two classes by those names. Their name pronounced

"Mogh" by the modern Persians, and "Magh" by that ancients signified "Wise," and such is the interpretation of it

given by the Greek and Roman writers.

Stobaeus expressly calls the science of the magi, the service of the gods, so Plato. According to Ennemoser, "Magiusiah, Madschusie, signified the office and knowledge of the priest, who was called "Mag, Magius, Magiusi," and afterwards magi and "Magician." Brucker maintains that the primitive meaning of the word is "fire worshipper," "worship of the light," an erroneous opinion.

In the modern Persian the word is "Mog," and "Mogbed" signifies high priest. The high priest of the Parsees at Surat, even at the present day, is called, "Mobed."

Others derive the word from "Megh," "Meh‑ab" signifying something which is great and noble, and Zoroaster's disciples were called "Meghestom." Salverte states that these Mobeds are still named in the Pehivi dialect "Magoi."

They were divided into three classes: ‑‑ Those who abstained from all animal food; those who never ate of

the flesh of any tame animals; and those who made no scruple to eat any kind of meat. A belief in the

transmigration of the soul was the foundation of this abstinence.

They professed the science of divination, and for that purpose met together and consulted in their temples.

They professed to make truth the great object of their study; for that alone, they said, can make man like God

"whose body resembles light, as his soul or spirit resembles truth."

They condemned all images, and those who said that the gods are male and female; they had neither temples

nor altars, but worshipped the sky, as a representative of the Deity, on the tops of mountains; they also

sacrificed to the sun, moon, earth, fire, water, and winds, says Herodotus, meaning, no doubt that they adored

the heavenly bodies and the elements.

This was probably before the time of Zoroaster, when the religion of Persia seems to have resembled that of

ancient India. Their hymns is praise of the Most High exceeded, according to Dio Chrysostom, the sublimity of

anything in Homer or Hesiod. They exposed their dead bodies to wild beasts. It is a question "whether the old

Persian doctrine and wisdom or tradition of light did not undergo material alterations in the hands of its Median

restorer, Zoroaster; or whether this doctrine was preserved in all its purity by the order of the magi."

He then remarks that on them devolved the important trust of the monarch's education, which must necessarily

have given them great weight and influence in the state. They were in high credit at the "Persian gates" for that

was the Oriental name given to the capitol of the empire, and the abode of the prince, and they took the most

active part in all the factions that encompassed the throne, or that were formed in the vicinity fraternities and

associations of initiated, formed by the mysteries, had in general but an indirect, though not unimportant

influence on affairs of state; but in the Persian monarchy they acquired a complete political ascendency.

Religion, philosophy, and the sciences were all in their hands, they were the universal physicians who healed the

sick in body and in spirit, and, in strict consistency with that character, ministered to the state, which is

only the man again in a larger sense.

The three grades of the magi alluded to are called by Herber the "disciples," the "professed," and the

"masters." They were originally from Bactria, where they governed a little state by laws of their own choice, and

by their incorporation in the Persian empire, they greatly promoted the consolidation of the conquests of Cyrus.

Their fall dates from the reign of Darius Hystaspes, about 500 B.C., by whom they were fiercely persecuted; this

produced an emigration which extended to Cappadocia on the one hand, and to India on the other, but they were

still of so much consideration at a later period, as to provoke the jealousy of Alexander the Great.

The Mystery Cults: Mithraism

In the Western world from the fifth century B.C. on there was increasing doubt concerning the old gods. The

influx of mystery religions from the East, the Sophist movement, and discovery of natural laws all had their

effect on reducing the importance of the old Olympic Pantheon. New philosophies ‑ those of Epicureans and Stoics particularly ‑ brought new beliefs and new explanations of life. As the old gods carried little moral

effectiveness and promised but little hope for the future, they lost ground before the mystery religions with

their promises of better things to come.

In Greece, the Dionysus and Demeter cults were prominent. In Rome, the Earth Mother Attis or Isis cult had

many followers ‑ traces of Isis worship are found as far west as the Seine River in France. This was the period when the "oracles" flourished, especially the one at Delphi.

According to legends concerning this oracle, there came from "the bowels of the earth" a vapor which emerged through an orifice in the rock floor of the temple to Apollo at Delphi. A priestess inhaled these vapors, passed into a trance, and then forecast the future ‑ usually in some riddling fasting much as would a modern seer at a spiritualistic seance.

One of the most famous answers was given to Croesus, King of Lydia, when he asked the oracle if he should

make war on Persia. The oracle gave answer: "If you do so, you will destroy a mighty empire." Misinterpreting

this answer, Croesus declared war, thereby bringing about the destruction of his own mighty empire.

One of the most significant answers was given to a question as to who was the wisest of the Greeks. The

answer was the single word "Socrates." Socrates, himself a religious man, doubted the validity of the answer and

devoted the rest of his life (unsuccessfully) in the search for a wiser man.

His unshakable conviction was that the human mind by application could determine value, right, virtue,

beauty, and other great ideals. He believed that the state could be improved by cultivating the individual. He

made no attempt to bring forth a new religion, but he became the nucleus of a philosophical school which was to

produce Aristotle and Plato.

Late in life he was tried for corruption of youth and executed. In death he was more powerful than in life,

as the serenity of his end had profound influence on the Greek world and, through it, on modern thought.

The later Greeks, with a developing sense of right and wring, reinterpreted the old gods as moral beings.

Many of the old religious stories became mere folk legends of the people. A belief in a hereafter led to a belief

in a Judgment Day with rewards and punishments.

The old Hades, where souls of all the dead had gone according to ancient myth, became a place of torment for

the wicked guarded by the great mastiff, Cerberus. The initiate and the acceptable ones passed to bliss in the

Elysian Fields, formerly reserved for heroes.

One of the earliest forms, and one of the most popular, arising with belief in a future life was Chthonian

worship. The Chthonians believed that man felt the same wants, pains, and pleasures in the future life as in the

present; that he had the same property rights; that he had the same need for a wife, cook, horse, tools, etc. The

main difference was an increase in his power to do harm.

The eldest son succeeded to be master, priest, and king in his father's household, and on him fell the duty

of burial with appropriate rites. Woe fell on the son who failed in this duty.

Gradually the family became extended to include the clan or tribe. As a man was under the protection of his

gods only "at home," it is easy to understand the terrible fear of banishment shown by the ancients.

Their religion touched neither heart nor conscience, and this explains their moral code. Acts which seem to

us political were to them religious. Every war was a holy war because it was against people with different gods.

There was no moral obligation to captives, who might be sold, enslaved, or slain. Even the early Roman census was

for religious purposes, to ensure that all attended the lustration of atonement for previous shortcomings of the

state.

Many cults arose in Greece and Rome, involving myths and legends of the birth, adventures, death, and

resurrection of a youth representative of the sun, life, or light. Many of the old "heroes" ‑ Bellerophon,

Mercury, Perseus, Theseus, Cephalus, Apollo, Hercules, Osiris ‑ filled the places of chief importance in these

cults. Another group was centered on the prolific Earth Mother, and of these the Isis cult was most far‑flung.

The Romans would have made a cult of Jesus if they could, and they did add much of the ritual of their most

popular cult, Mithraism, to Christianity ‑ mainly through the Roman Catholic Church. As the old cults died out,

that of Mithras gained in importance. Purer and more ethical than other mysteries, it was particularly attractive

to the Roman soldier and the intelligentsia. The cult was introduced to Rome about the middle of the first

century, and flourished throughout the second and third centuries, becoming a serious threat and rival of

Christianity in the whole Western world. Originally a Persian deity [Zoroastrianism], Mithras was supposed to

have been born of a virgin, the birth being witnessed by only a few shepherds.

Ahura Mazda had made him the deity of truth and light, a sun‑god equal in majesty to the Supreme Being

Himself, and his chief supporter in the fight against Ahriman, the spirit of evil. His life reached its climax in

the great bullfight, a struggle against a great bull allegorically representing the forces of darkness. By

slaying the bull and letting its blood, Mithras symbolically crucified the earth.

As Mithraism moved westward it proved a fertile ground for the addition of mystic meaning. Practically all

of the symbolism of Osiris was added to the Mithraic cults, even to the fact that Isis became the virgin mother

of Mithras. The Persian distaste for idols was lost during the western exodus, and we find many idols in the

West. A common element of Mithraism was that its rites were carried on in caves (either natural or artificial).

They believed that on the Day of Judgment all nonbelievers would perish and that the initiate would inherit the world in peace forever. Since Mithras was a sun‑god, Sunday was automatically sacred to him ‑ the "Lord's Day" ‑ long before Christ. On December 25th, just after the winter solstice, there were elaborate rituals and

celebrations. Bells were rung, hymns were sung, candles lit, gifts given, sacraments of bread and water

administered to the initiate. Between December 25th and the spring equinox (Easter, from Estra, the Latin form of

Astarte) came the mystical forty days' search for Osiris, which later was the origin for Christian Lent.

On Black Friday (cf. Good Friday) the taurobolium, or bull‑slaying, was represented. At this festival, the

sacrament often comprised blood drinking. Mithras, worn out by the battle, was symbolically represented by a

stone image lain on a bier as a corpse. He was mourned for in liturgy, and placed in a sacred rock tomb called

"Petra," from which he was removed after three days in a great festival of rejoicing.

Initiation into the Mithraic mystery was an elaborate ritual probably lasting twelve days, as remains of

monuments show twelve episodes. This initiation was no simple process but sometimes involved painful trials by

fire, water, hunger, thirst, cold, scourging, bleeding, branding, and mock menace of death. A sacrament of bread and water was given (water was used before wine in the Christian sacrament). There seems to be no historical

evidence for the tales of fearfulness in these rites or for any licentiousness being involved. There was never

any question of their being both moral and consolatroy.

With these august rituals and promise of immortality, it is easy to understand why this cult spread quickly

throughout Europe. The Mithraists became Christians easily, for whereas Mithras was always soluble into a

mysterious abstraction, Christ was literally humanized; and in religion the concrete always carries more force

than the abstract.

There were many points of similarity in the two religions; and where differences did appear,

the Christian often absorbed the Mithraic ritual. They had the same holy day (Sunday), similar Christmas and

Easter festivals, a similar sacrament in the mass, and many instances of similarity in vocabulary and litany.

Both Mithras and Christ were described variously as "the Way," "the Truth," "the Light," "the Life," "the Word,"

"the Son of God," "the Good Shepherd."

The Christian litany to Jesus could easily be an allegorical litany to the sun‑god. Mithras is often

represented as carrying a lamb on his shoulders, just as Jesus is. Midnight services were found in both

religions. The virgin mother Isis was easily merged with the virgin mother Mary. Petra, the sacred rock of

Mithraism, became Peter, the foundation of the Christian Church. "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build

my church." Matthew 16:18.

Never understanding that Christ was talking of Himself, the Rock. The robe of Mithras, absorbed from the

older Osiris cult, was always described as in one piece representing universal light, and may be the source for

the seamless robe of Christ worn at the time of the Crucifixion. Again they did not understand the Christian

religion, and its source in the Old Testament.

Thus was the way made easier for the spread of Christianity. It had all the beauty of ritual and liturgy of

the ancient cults, but brought a new warmth unknown to the earlier religions. (ibid. pp. 54‑58)

Devil

A name derived from the Greek Diabolos, "slanderer." The name for the supreme spirit of evil, the enemy of

God and man. In primitive religious systems there is no conception of evil, and the gods are neither good nor

bad, as we conceive these terms, but may possess "good" and "bad" attributes at one and the same time. Thus we

have very few traces of beings which are absolutely evil in the older religions, and it may be broadly stated that the conception of Satan as we have it today is almost purely Hebrew and Christian.

In Egypt and Babylon, figures like Apepi and Tiawath, although clearly in the line of evolution of a Satanic

personality, are by no means rulers of the infernal regions. Again the Hades of the Greeks is merely a ruler of the shades of the dead, and not an enemy of Olympus or mankind. It is strange that in Mexico, Mietlantecutli, lord of hell, is a much more directly Satanic figure than any European or Asiatic ruler of the realms of the dead. But in some mythologies there are frequent allusions to monsters who may quite easily have colored our conception of Satan. Such is the Hindu serpent Abi, and the Hebrew Leviathan, the principle of Chaos.

In the Teutonic mythology we have the menacing shape of Loki, originally a god of fire, but afterwards the personification of evil. The conception of Satan, too, appears to have some deeply‑rooted connection penetrated most oriental countries. Thus we find the Tempter in the Old Testament in the guise of a serpent. The serpent of dragon is being generally regarded as the personification of night who swallows the sun and envelopes the world in darkness.

The Hebrew conception of Satan it is thought, arose in the post‑exile period, and exhibits traces of Babylonian, or Assyrian influence. It is not likely that before the captivity any specific doctrine respecting evil spirits was held by the Hebrews. Writing on this subject, Mr. F.T. Hall in his book The Pedigree of the Devil says: ‑‑ "The term 'Satan' and 'Satans' which occur in the Old Testament, are certainly not applicable to the modern conception of Satan as a spirit of evil; although it is not difficult to detect in the Old Hebrew mind a fruitful soil, in which the idea, afterwards evolved, would readily take root.

The original idea of a 'Satan' is that of an 'adversary,' or agent of opposition.' The angel which is said to have withstood Balaam is in the same breath spoken of as 'The angel of the Lord,' and a 'Satan.' When the Philistines under Achish their king were about to commence hostilities against the Israelites under Saul and David and his men were about to march with the Philistines: the latter objected, lest, in the day of battle, David should become a 'Satan' to them, by deserting to the enemy.

When David, in later life, was returning to Jerusalem, after Absalom's rebellion and death; and his lately disaffected subjects were, in turn, making their submission; amongst them came the truculent Shimei: Abishai, David's nephew, one of the fierce sons of Zeruiah, advised that Shimei should be put to death: this granted upon David's feelings, at a time when he was filled with exuberant joy at his own restoration; and he rebuked Abishai as a 'Satan.'

Again Satan is said to have provoked David to number Israel, and at the same time, that 'the Lord moved David to number Israel;' a course strenuously opposed by Joab, another of the sons of Zeruiah. Solomon in his message to Hiram, king of Tyre, congratulated himself on having no 'Satans' and that this peaceful immunity from discord enabled him to build the Temple, which had been forbidden to his warlike father, David. This immunity was not, however, lasting; for Hadad, the Edomite, and Region, of Zobah, became 'Satan's to Solomon, after his profuse luxury had opened the way for corruption and disaffection.

In all these cases, the idea is simply identical with the plain meaning of the word: a Satan is an opponent, an adversary. In the elaborate curse embodied in the 109th Psalm, the writer speaks of his enemies as his 'Satans' and prays that the object of his anathema may have 'Satan' standing at his right hand. The Psalmist himself, in the sequel, fairly assumes the office of his enemy's 'Satan,' by enumerating his crimes and failings, and exposing them in their worst light. In the 71st Psalm, enemies (v. 10) are identified with 'Satans' or adversaries (v. 13).

The only other places in the Old Testament where the word occurs, are in the Book of Job, and the prophecy a distinct personality, and is associated with the sons of God, and in attendance with them before the throne of Jehovah. He is the cynical critic of Job's actions, and in that character he accuses him of insincerity and instability; and receives permission from Jehovah to test the justice of this accusation, by afflicting Job in everything he holds dear.

We have here the spy, the informer, the public prosecutor, the executioner; all embodied in Satan, the adversary: these attributes are not amiable ones, but the writer does not suggest the absolute antagonism between Jehovah and Satan, which is a fundamental dogma of modern Christianity.

In the prophecy of Zechariah, Satan again, with an apparent personality, is represented as standing at the right of Joshua, the high‑priest, to resist him; he seems to be claiming strict justice against one open to accusation; for Joshua is clothed in filthy garments ‑ the type of sin and pollution. Jehovah relents, and mercy triumphs over justice; the filthy garments are taken away, and fair raiment substituted. Even here, the character, of Satan, although hard, is not devoid of virtue, for it evinces a sense of justice."

The Babylonians, among whom the Hebrews dwelt during the Captivity, believed in the existence of vast multitudes of spirits, both good and bad, but there is nothing to show that the Hebrews took over from them any extensive pantheon, either good or evil.

Indeed the Hebrew and Babylonian religions possessed many things in common, and there was no necessity that

the captive Israelites should borrow an animism which they probably already possessed. At the same time it is

likely that they adopted the idea of an evil agency from their captors, and as the genius of their religion was averse to polytheism, the probabilities are that they welded the numerous evil forces of Babylonian into one central figure.

Again, it must have occurred to them that if the world contained an evil principle, it could not possibly emanate from God, whom they regarded as all‑good, and it was probably with the intention of separating all evil from God that the personality of Satan (having regard to the amount of evil in the universe) was invested with such importance.

In later Judaism we find the conception of Satan strongly colored by Persian dualism, and it has been supposed that Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit is the same as Aeshara Daewa of the Ancient Persians. Both "Satan" and "Satans" were mentioned in the Book of Enoch, and in Ecclesiasticus he was identified with the serpent of Genesis, and in the "Book of the Secrets of Enoch" has revolt against God and expulsion from Heaven are described. In the Jewish Targinn, Samael, highest of the angels, merges with Satan into a single personality.

The Satan of the New Testament is merely a reproduction of these later Jewish forms. In Matthew he is alluded to as the "Prince of Demons," and in Ephesians is spoken of as ruling over a world of evil beings who dwell in the lower heavens.

Thus he is prince of the powers of the air. In Revelation the war in Heaven between God and Satan is described, and his imprisonment is foreshadowed after the overthrow of the Beast and the Kings of the earth, when he will be chained in the bottomless pit for one thousand years. After another period of freedom he is finally cast into the lake of brimstone for ever.

According to the orthodox Christian belief of the present day, Satan has been endowed with great powers for the purpose of tempting man to prove his fortitude. In the middle ages, the belief in Satan and Satanic agencies

was overwhelming, and was inherited by Protestantism from Roman Catholicism. This is not the place to enter into

a discussion as to the likelihood of the existence of an evil being, but the great consensus of theological

opinion is in favor of such a theory.

Devil Worship

(1). The worship of Satan or Lucifer. (2). The worship by semi‑civilized or barbarous people; of deities having a demoniac form.

The Worship of Satan or diabolism is spasmodic and occasionally epidemic. It dates from the early days of dualism and perhaps originated in the Persian dual system when the opposing deities Ormuzd and Ahriman symbolized the good and bad principles respectively. Instances of pure Satanism are comparatively rare, and it must not be confounded with the Sabbatic orgies of witchcraft which partake more of the nature of (2), or with the evocation of the Evil One, for the purpose of making a pact with him. Modern groups practicing Satanism are small and obscure, and, unorganized as they are, details concerning them are conspicuous by their absence.

Plentiful details, however, are forthcoming concerning the cultus of Lucifer, but much discrimination is required in dealing with these, the bulk of the literature on the subject being manifestly imaginative and willfully misleading. The members of the church of Lucifer are of two groups, those who regard the deity they adore as the evil principle, thus approximating to the standpoint of the Satanist, and those who look upon him as the true god in opposition to Adonai or Jehovah, whom they regard as an evil deity who has with fiendish ingenuity mistreated the world of man to the detriment of humanity.

Modern diabolic literature is written from the point of view of the Roman Catholic Church, and much may be said for the theory that it was composed to subserve the necessities of that institution. But this cannot be wholly true, as it is a substantial fact that hosts are frequently abstracted from Catholic churches for the purpose of Satanic rite which requires the destruction of the consecrated wafer as a ritual act.

In 1894 a hundred consecrated hosts were stolen from Notre Dame by an old woman under circumstances that clearly proved that the vessels which contained them were not the objects of the theft, and an extra‑ordinary number of such larcencies occurred in all parts of France about the end of last century, no less than thirteen churches in the diocese of Orleans being thus despoiled.

In the diocese of Lyons measures were taken to transform the tabernacles into strong‑boxes, and in eleven of the dioceses similar acts were recorded. In Italy, Rome, Liguria and Solerus suffered, and even in the Island of Mauritius an outrage of peculiar atrocity occurred in 1895.

It has been asserted by many writers such as Archbishop Meurin and Dr. Bataille that Freemasonry is merely a mask for Satanism, that is, that in recent years an organization of which the ordinary mason is ignorant has grown up which has diabolism for its special object. This is asserted is recruited from the higher branches of masonry and initiates women.

Needless to say, the change is indignantly denied by masons, but it must be remembered that the persons who bring it are Catholics, who have a direct interest in humiliating the fraternity. Bataille and Margiotta have it that the order of the Palladium or Sovereign Council of Wisdom, was constituted in France in 1737, and this, they infer, is one and the same as the legendary Palladium of the Templars, better known by the name of Baphomet.

In 1801 one Isaac Long, a Jew, carried the "original image" of Baphomet to Charleston in the United States, and it is alleged that the lodge he founded then became the chief in the Ancient and Accepted Scotch Rite. He was succeeded in due course by Albert Pike, who, it is alleged, extended the Scotch Rite, and shared the Anti‑Catholic Masonic chieftainship with the Italian patriot Mazzini.

This new directory was established, it is asserted, as the new Reformed Palladium Rite or the Reformed Palladium. Assisted by Gallatin Mackey, one Longfellow, Holbrook and a Swiss, Phileas Walder by name, Pike erected the new rite into an occult fraternity with world‑wide powers, and practiced the occult arts so well that we are asked to believe that the head lodge at Charleston was in constant communication with Lucifer!

Dr. Bataille in a wholly ludicrous work Le Diable au XIX Siecle, states among other things that in 1881 his hero "Dr. Hacks" in whom his own personality is but thinly disguised, visited Charleston in March 1881, where he met Albert Pike, Gallatin Mackey and other Satanists.

Mackey showed him his Arcula Mystica in appearance like a liqueur stand, but in reality a diabolical telephone, worked like the Urim and Thummim. Miss Diana Vaughan, once a Palladist, Grand Mistress of the Temple, and Grand Inspectress of the Palladium, was converted to Roman Catholicism, and in Memoirs of an ex‑Palladist, (1895) she has given an exhaustive account of her dealings with the Satanists of Charleston. She claims to be descended from the alchemist Thomas Vaughan, and recounts her adventures with Lucifer. These are so wholly absurd that we must request freedom from the necessity of recounting them.

There is little doubt that Miss Vaughan was either the victim of hallucination or else the instrument of the Roman Catholic Church in its attempts to brand Masonry as a vehicle of Satanism. The publications of Margiotta and Gabriel Pages are equally puerile, and we may conclude that, if Satanism and the worship of Lucifer exits, that the rites of their churches are carried on in such a secret manner, that few, even mystics of experience, can be aware of them.

When applied to the ceremonies of barbarous races, devil‑worship is a misnomer, as the "devils" adored by them are deities in their eyes, and only partake of the diabolic nature in the view of missionaries and others. But inasmuch as the gods possess a demoniac form they may be classed as diabolic. Among these may be enumerated many South American and African tribes. The Uapes of Brazil worship Jurupari, a fiend‑like deity, to whom they consecrate their young men.

His cult is invested with the utmost secrecy. The myth of his birth states that he was born of a virgin who conceived after drinking a draught of chahiri, or native beer. She possessed no sexual parts, and could not give birth to the god until bitten by a fish whilst bathing. When arrived at man's estate Jurupan invited the men of the tribe to a drinking‑bout, but the women refused to provide the liquor, and thus gained his illwill. He devoured the children of the tribe because they had eaten of the uacu tree which was sacred to him. The men, enraged at the loss of their offspring, fell upon him, and cast him into a fire, from the ashes of which grew the parxiuba tree, which the Uapes say is the bones of Jurupari." (An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, by The Citadel Press, Secaucus, NJ)

Magic

Short for "magic art," from Greek magein the science and religion of the priests of Zoroaster; or, according to Skeat, from Greek megas, great, thus signifying the "great" science.

History: The earliest traces of magical practice are found in the European caves of the middle Palaeolithic Age. These belong to the last interglacial period of the Pleistocene period, which has been named the Aurignacian, after the cave‑dwellers of Aurignac, whose skeletons, artifacts and drawings link them with the Bushmen of South Africa.

In the cave of Gargas, near Bagneres de Luchon, occur, in addition to spirited and realistic drawings of animals, numerous imprints of human hands in various stages of mutilation. Some hands had been first smeared with a sticky substance and then pressed on the rock; others had been ehld in position to be dusted round with red ochre, ro black pigment. Most of the imprinted hands have mutilated fingers; in some cases the first and second joints of one or more fingers are wanting; in others the stumps only of all fingers remain.

A close study of the hand imprints makes it evident that they are not to be regarded as those of lepers. There can be little doubt that the joints were removed for a specific purpose, and on this point there is general agreement among anthropologists.

A clue to the mystery is obtained by the magical custom among the Bushmen of similarly removing finger joints. Mr. G.W. Stow in his The Native Races of South Africa makes reference to this strange form of sacrifice. He once came into contact with a number of Bushmen who "had all lost the first joint of the little finger," which had been removed with a "stone knife" with purpose to ensure a safe journey to the spirit world.

Another writer tells of an old Bushman woman whose little fingers of both hands had been mutilated, three joints in all having been removed. She explained that each joint had been sacrificed as a daughter died to express her sorrow. No doubt, however, there was a deeper meaning in the custom than she cared to confess. F. Boas in his Report on the N.W. Tribes of Canada gives evidence of the custom among these peoples.

When frequent deaths resulted fromdisease, the Canadian Indians were wont to sacrifice the joints of their little fingers so as, they explained, "to cut off the deaths." Among the Indian Madigas (Telugu Pariahs) the evil eye is averted by sacrificers who dip their hands in the blood of goats or sheep and impress them on either side of a house door.

This custom is not unknown even to Brahmans. Impressions of hands are also occasionally seen on the walls of Indian Mohammedan mosques. As among the N.W. Canadian tribes, the hand ceremoney is most frequently practixced in India when epidemics make a heavy toll of lives.

The Bushmen also remove finger joints when stricken with sickness. In Austrailia, where during initiation ceremonies the young men have teeth knocked out and bodies scarred, the women of some tribes mutilate the little fingers of daughters with purpose to influence their future careers. Apparently the finger chopping customs of Paleolithic times had a magical significance.

On some of the paintings in the Aurignacian caves appear symbols which suggest the slaying with spears and cutting up of animals. Enigmatical signs are another feature. Of special interest are the figures of animal‑headed demons, some with hands upraised in the Egyptian attitude of adoration, and others apparently dancing like the animal‑headed dancing gods of the Bushmen. In the Marsonlas Palaelithic cave there are semi‑human faces of angry demons with staring eyes and monstrous noses. In the Spanish Cave at Cogul several figures of women wearing half‑length skirts and shoulder shawls, are represented dancing round a nude male.

So closely do these females resemble such as usually appear in bushmen paintings that they might well, but for their location, be credited to this interesting people. Religious dances among the Bushman tribes are associated with marriage, birth and burial ceremonies; they are also performed to exorcise demons in cases of sickness. "Dances are to us what prayers are to you," an elderly bushman once informed a European.

Whether the cave drawings and wood, bone and ivory carvings of the Magdalenian, or late Palaelithic period at the close of the last ice epoch, are of magical significance is a problem on which there is no general agreement. It is significant to find, however, that several carved ornaments bearing animal figures or enigmatical signs are performed as if worn as charms. On a piece of horn found at Lorthet, Hautes Pyrenees, are beautiful incised drawings of reindeer and salmon, above which appear mystical symbols.

An ape‑like demon carved on bone was found at Mas d'Azil: on a reindeer horn from Laugerie Basse a prostrate man with a tail is creeping up on all fours towards a grazing bison. These are some of the instances which lend color to the view that late Palaeolithic art had its origin in magical beliefs and practices, that hunters carved on the handles of weapons and implements or scratched on cave walls, the images of the animals they desired to capture, sometimes with the secured co‑operation of demons, and sometimes with the aid of magical spells.

Coming to historic times we know that the ancient Egyptians possessed a highly‑developed magical system, as did the Babylonians, and other pristine civilizations. Indeed fromt hese the mediaeval European system of magic was finally evolved. Greece and Rome (both of which see) also possessed distinct national systems, which in some measure were branches of their religions; and thus like the Egyptian and Babylonian were preserves of the priesthood.

Magic in early Europe was, of course, merely an appendage of the various religious systems which obtained

throughout that continent; and it was these systems which later generated into witchcraft. But upon the foundation of Christianity, the church soon began to regard the practice of magic as foreign to the spirit of its religion.

Thus the Thirty‑sixth Canon of the Ecumenical Council held at Laodicea in 364 A.D. forbids clerks and priests to become magicians, enchanters, mathematicians, or astrologers. It orders, moreover, that the Church shall expel from its bosom those who employ ligatures or phylacteries, because it says phylacteries are the prisons of the soul.

The Fourth Canon of the Council of Oxia, A.D. 525, prohibited the consultation of sorcerers, augurs, diviners, and divinations made with wood or bread; and the Sixtieth Canon of the Council of Constantinople A.D., 692, excommunicated for a period of six years diviners, and those who had recourse to them.

The prohibition was repeated by the Council of Rome in 721. The Forty‑second Canon of the Council of Tours

in 613 is to the effect that the priests shall teach to the people the inefficacy of magical practices to restore

the health of men or animals, and later Councils practically endorsed the church's earlier views.

It does not appear, however, that what may be called "mediaeval magic," took final and definite shape until

about the twelfth century. Modelled upon the systems in vogue among the Byzantines and Moors [Jews] of Spain,

which were evolved from the Alexandrian system, what might be called the "oriental" type of magic gained fotting

in Europe, and quite superseded the earlier and semi‑barbarian systems in use among the various countries of that continent, most of which, as has been said, were the relics of older pagan practice and ritual. To these relics

clung the witch and the wizard and the professors of lesser magic; whereas among the disciples of the imported

system we find the magician, black and white, the necromancer and the sorcerer.

The manner in which the theosophy and the magic of the East was imported was probably two‑fold; first, there

is good evidence that it was imported into Europe by persons returning from the Crusades; and secondly, we know that in matters of wisdom, byzantium fell heir to Alexandria, and that from Constantinople magic was disseminated throughout Europe, along with other sciences.

It is not necessary to deal in the course of this article with the history of witchcraft and lesser sorcery,

as that has already been done in the article "witichraft;" and we will confine ourselves strictly to the history

of the higher branches of magic.

But it is competent to remark that Europe had largely obtained its pneumotology from the orient through

Christianity, from Jewish sources; and it is an open question how far eastern demonology colored that of the

Catholic Church.

Mediaeval magic of the higher type has practically no landmarks save a series of great names. Its tenets

experienced but little alteration during six centuries. From the eighth to the thirteenth century, there does not

appear to have been much persecution of the professors of magic, but after that period the opinions of the church

undersent a radical change, and the life of the magus was fraught with considerable danger.

However, it is pretty clear that he was not victimized in the same manner as his lesser brethren, the

sorcerers and wizards; but we find Paraceisus consistently baited by the medical profession of his day. Agrippa

constantly persecuted, and even mystics like Boehme imprisoned and ill‑used. It is difficult at this distance to

estimate the enormous vogue that magic experienced, whether for good or evil during the middle ages. Although

severely punished, if discovered or if its professors became sufficiently notorious to court persecution, the

power it seems to have conferred upon them was eagerly sought by scores of people, the majority of whom were

quite unfitted for its practice, and clumsily betrayed themselves into the hands of the authorities. In the

article entitled "Black Magic," we have outlined the history of that lesser magic known as sorcery or "black

magic," and there have shown what persecutions overtook those who practiced it.

As has already been mentioned, the history of higher magic in Europe is a matter of great names, and these

are somewhat few. They do not include alchemists, who are strictly speaking not magicians, as their application

of arcane laws was particular and not universal; but this is not to say that some alchemists were not alwo

magicians.

The two great names which stand out in the history of European magic are those of Paracelsus and Agrippa, who cormulated the science of mediaeval magic in its entirety. They were also the greatest practical magicians of the middle ages, as apart frompure mystics, alchemists and othes, and their thaumaturgic and necromantic experiences were probably never surpassed. With these mediaeval magic comes to a close and the further history of the science in Europe will be found outlined in the division of this article intitled "Modern Magic."

Scientific Theories regarding the Nature of Magic. ‑‑ General agreement as to the proper definition of magic

is wanting, as it depends upon the view taken of religious belief. According to Frazer, magic and religion are

one and the same thing, or are so closely allied as to be almost identical. This may be true of peoples in a

savage or barbarian condition of society, but can scarcely apply to magic and religion as fully fledged, as for

example in mediaeval times, however fundamental may be their original unity.

The objective theory of magic would regard it as entirely distinct from religion, possessed of certain well‑marked attributes, and traceable to mental processes differeing from those from which the religious idea springs. Here and there the two have become fused by the super‑imposition of religious upon magical practice. The objective idea of magic, in short, rests on the belief that it is based on magical laws which are supposed to operate with the regularity of those of natural science.

The subjective view, on the other hand, is that many practices seemingly magical are in reality religious,

and that no rite can be called magical which is not so designated by its celebrant or agent. It has been said

that religion consists of an appeal to the gods, whereas magic is the attempt to force their compliance. Messrs.

Hubert and Mauss believe that magic is essentially traditional.

Holding as they do that the primitive mind is markedly unoriginal, they have satisfied themselves that agic

is therefore an art which does not exhibit any frequent changes amongst primitive folk, and is fixed by its laws.

Religion, they say, is official and organized, magic prohibited and secret. Magical power appears to them to

be determined by the contiguity, similarity and contrast of the object of the act, and the object to be effected.

Mr. Frazer believes all magic to be based on the law of sympathy, that is the assumption that things act on one

another at a distance because of their being secretly linked together by invisible bonds.

He divides sympathetic magic into homeopathic magic and contagious magic. The first is imitative or mimetic,

and may be practiced by itself; but the latter usually necessitates the application of the imitative principle.

Well‑known instances of mimetic magic are the forming of wax figures in the likeness of an enemy, which are

destoryed in the hope that he will perish.

Contagious magic may be instanced by the savage anointing the weapon which caused a wound instead of the wound itself, in the belief that the blood on the weapon continues to feel with the blood on the body. Mr. L.

Marillier divides magic into three classes; the magic of the word or act; the magic of the human being independent of rite or formula; and the magic which demands a human being of special powers and the use of ritual.

Mr. A. Lehmann believes magic to be a practice of superstition,and founds it in illusion. The fault of all

these theories is that they strive alfter too great an exactness, and that they do not allow sufficiently for the

feeling of wonder and awe which is native to the human mind. Indeed they designate this "strained attention." We

may grant that the attention of savages to a magical rite is "strained," so strained is it in some cases that it

terrifies them into insanity; and it would seem therefore as if the limits of "attention" were overpassed, and as

if it shaded into something very much deeper. Moreover it is just possible that in future it may be granted that

so‑called sympathetic magic does not partake of the nature of magic at all, but has greater affinities (owing to

its strictly natural and non‑supernatural character) with pseudo‑science.

Magic is recognized by many savage peoples as a force rather than an art, a thing which impinges upon the

thought of man from outside. It would appear that many barbarian tribes believe in what would seem to be a great

reservoir of magical power, the exact nature of which they are not prepared to specify.

Thus amongst certain American‑Indian tribes we find a force called Orenda or spirit‑force. Amongst the

ancient Peruvians, everything sacred was huaca and possessed of magical power. In Melanesia, we find a force

spoken of called mana, transmissible and contagious, which may be seen in the form of flames or even heard.

The Malays use the owrd kramat to signify the same thing; and the Malagasy the term hasma. Some of the tribes round Lake Tanganyika believe in such a force, which they call ngai, and Australian tribes have many similar terms, such as churinga and boolya. To hark back to America, we find in Mexico the strange creed named nagualism, which partakes of the same conception, everything nagual is magical or possesses an inherent spiritual force of its own.

Theories of the Origin of Magic: Many theories have been advanced regarding the origin of magic, some

authorities believing that it commenced with the idea of personal superiority; others through animistic beliefs,

and still others through such ideas as that physical pains, for which the savage could not account, were supposed

to be inflicted by invisible weapons. This last theory is, of course, in itself, merely animistic.

It does not seem, however, that writers on the subject have given sufficient attention to the great influence exerted on the mind of man by odd or peculiar occurrences. We do not for a moment desire to advance the hypothesis that magic entirely originated from such a source, but we believe that it was a powerful factor in the

growth of magical belief. To which, too, animism and taboo contributed their quota. The cult of the dead too and

their worship would soon become fused with magical practice, and a complete demonology would thus speedily arise.

The Dynamics of Magic: Magical practice is governed by well‑marked laws limited in number. It possesses many classes of practitioner; as, for example, the diviner or augur, whose duties are entirely different from those of the witch‑doctor. Chief among these laws, as has been already hinted, is that of sympathy, which, as has been said, must inevitably be sub‑divided into the laws of similarity, contiguity and antipathy. The law of similarity and homeopathy is again divisible into two sections: (1). The assumption that like produces like, an illustration of which is the destruction of a model in the form of an enemy; and (2). The idea that like cures like, for instance, that the stone called the bloodstone can staunch the flow of bleeding. The law dealing with antipathy rests on the assumption that the application of a certain object or drug expels its contrary. There remains contiguity, which is based on the concept that whatever has once formed part of an object continues to form part of it.

Thus if a magician can obtain a portion of a person's hair, he can work woe upon him through the invisible

bonds which are supposed to extend between him and the hair in the sorcer's possession. It is well‑known that if

the animal familiar of a witch be wounded, that the wound will react in a sympathetic manner on the witch

herself. This is called "repercussion."

Another widespread belief is that if the magician procures the name of a person that he can gain magical

dominion over him. This, of course, arose from the idea that the name of an individual was identical with

himself.

The doctrine of the Incommunicalbe Name [A Jewish Cabbalistic doctrine], the hidden name of the god or magician, is well instanced by many legends in Egyptian history, the deity usually taking extra‑ordinary care to

keep his name secret, in order that no one might gain power over him.

The spell or incanation is connected with this concept, and with these, in a lesser degree, may be associated magical gesture, which is usually introduced for the purpose of accentuating the spoken word. Gesture is often symbolic or sympathetic; it is sometimes the reversal of a religious rite, such as marching against the sun, which is known as walking "widdershins."

The method of pronouncing rites is, too, one of great importance. Archaic or foreign expressions are usually

found in spells ancient and modern; and the tone in which the incantation is spoken, no less than its exactness,

is also important. To secure exactness rhythm was often employed, which had the effect of aiding memory.

The Magician: In early society, the magician, which term includes the shaman, medicine‑man, piage, witch‑

doctor, et cetera, may hold his position by hereditary right; by an accident of birth, as being the seventh son

of a seventh son; to revelation from the gods; or through mere mastery of ritual. In savage life we find the

shaman a good deal of a medium, for instead of summoning the powers of the air at his bidding as did the

magicians of mediaeval days, he seems to find it necessary to throw himself into a state of trance and seek them

in their own sphere.

The magician is also often regarded as possessed by an animal or supernatural being. The duties of the

priest and magician are often combined in primitive society, but it cannot be too strongly asserted that where a

religion has been superseded, the priests of the old cult are, for those who have taken their places, nothing but

magicians. We do not hear much of beneficent magic among savage peoples, and it is only in Europe that White

Magic may be said to have gained any hold.

Mediaeval Definition of Magic: The definitions of magic vouchsafed by the great magicians of mediaeval

and modern times naturally differ greatly from those of anthropologists. For example Eliphas Levi says in his

History of Magic:

"Magic combines in a single science that which is most certain in philosophy with that which is eternal and infallible in religion. It reconciles perfectly and incontestably those two terms so opposed on the first view, faith and reason, science and belief, authority and liberty. It furnishes the human mind with an instrument of philosophical and religious certainty, as exact as mathematics, and even accounting for the infallibility of mathematics themselves...There is an incontenstable truth, and there is an infallible method of knowing that truth; whole those who attain this knowledge and adopt it as a rule of life, can endow their life with a sovereign power, which can make them masters of all inferior things, of wandering spirits, or in other words, arbiters and kings of the world."

Paracelsus says regarding magic:

"The magical is a great hidden wisdom, and reason is a great open folly. No armour shields against magic for it strikes at the inward spirit of life. Of this we may rest assured, that through full and powerful imagination only can we bring the spirit of any man into an image. No conjuration, no rites are needful; circle‑making and the scattering of incense are mere humbug and jugglery.

The human spirit is so great a thing that no man can express it; eternal and unchangeable as God Himslef is

the mind of man; and could we rightly comprehend the mind of man, nothing would be impossible to us upon the

earth. Through faith the imagination is invigorated and completed, for it really happens that every doubt mars

its perfection. Faith must strengthen imagination, for faith establishes the will. Because man did not perfectly

believe and imagine, the result is that arts are uncertain when they might be wholly certain."

Agrippa also regarded magic as the true road to communion with God, thus linking it with mysticism.

Modern Magic: With the death of Agrippa in 1535 the old school of magicians may be said to have ended.

But that is not to say that the traditions of magic were not handed on to others who were equally capable of

preserving them. We must carefully discriminate at this juncture between those practitioners of magic whose minds were illuminated by a high mystical ideal, and persons of doubtful occult position, like the Comte de Saint‑German and others.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century we find many great alchemists in practice, who were also devoted

to the researches of transcendental magic, which they carefully and successfully concealed under the veil of

hermetic experiment. These were Michael Meyer, Campe, Robert Flood, Cosmopolite, D'Espagnet, Samuel Norton, Baron de Beausoleil, and Van Helmont; another illutrious name is also that of Philalethes [all Jews].

The eighteenth century was rich in occult personalities, as for example the alchemist Lascaris Martines de

Pasqually, and Louis de Saint‑Martin who founded the Martinist school, which still exists under the

grandmastership of Papus.

After this magic merges for the moment into mesmerism, and many of the secret magical societies which abounded in Europe about this period practiced animal magnetism as well as astrology, [Jewish] Kabalism and ceremonial magic. Indeed mesmerism powerfully influence mystic life in the time of its chief protagonist, and the mesmerists of the first era are in direct line with the martinist and the mystical magicians of the late

eighteenth century.

Indeed mysticism and magnetism are one and the same thing, in the persons of some of these occultists the

most celebrated of which were Cazotte, Ganneau, Comte, Wronski, Du Potet, Hennequin, Comte d'Ourches, and Baron de Guldenstubbe, and last of the initiates known to us, Eliphas Levi (all of which see).

That Black Magic and sorcery are still practiced is a well‑known fact, which requires no amplification in

this place: but what of that higher magic which has, at least in modern times, attracted so many gifted minds?

We cannot say that the true line of magical adepts ended with Levi, as at no time in the world's history are

these known to the vulgar; but we may be certain that the great art is practiced in secret as sedulously as ever

in the past, and that men of temperament as exalted as in the case of the magicians of older days still privately

pursue that art, which, like its sister religion is none the less celestial because it has been evolved from

lowly origins in the mind of man, whose spirit with the march of time reflects ever more strongly the light of

heavne, as the sea at first dimly reddened by the dawn, at length mirrors the whole splendour of day.

Magic Darts: The Laplanders, who passed at one time for great magicians, were said to launch lead darts,

about a finger‑length, against their absent enemies, believing that with the magic darts they were sending

grevious pains and maladies.

Magical Diagrams: These were geometrical designs, representing the mysteries of deity and cration,

therefore supposed to be of special virtue in rites of evocation and conjuration. The chief of these were the

Triangle, the Doublt Triangle, forming a six‑pointed [Jewish] star and known as the Sign or Seal of Solomon [also known as the Magen Dawid, or Star of David]; the Tetragram a four‑pointed star formed by the interlacement of two pillars; and the Pentagram, a five‑pointed star. These signs were traced on paper or parchment, or engraved on metals and glass and consecrated to their various uses by special rites.

The Triangle was based on the idea of trinity as found in all things, in deity, time and creation. The triangle was generally traced on the ground with the magic sword or rod, as in circles of evocation where the triangle was drawn within it and according to the position of the magician at its point or base so the spirits were conjured from heaven or hell.

The Double Triangle, the Sign of Solomon, symbolic of the Macrocosm, was formed by the interlacement of two

triangles, thus its points constituted the perfect number six. The magicians wore it, bound on their brows and

breasts during the ceremonies and it was engraved on the silver reservior of the magic lamp.

MAGEN DAWID: ("David's shield"): The hexagram formed by the combination of two equilateral triangles; used as the symbol of Judaism. It is placed upon synagogues, sacred vessels, and the like, and was adopted as a device by the American Jewish Publication Society in 1873, the Zionist Congress of Basel, hence by "Die Welt (Vienna), the official organ of Zionism, and by other bodies.

The hebra kaddisha of the Jewish community of Johannesburg, South Africa, calls itself "Hebra Kaddisha zum Rothen Magen David," following the designation of the "red cross" societies. The Jewish view of God, which permitted no images of Him, was and still is opposed to the acceptance of any symbols, and neither the Bible nor the Talmud recognizes their existence. It is noteworthy, moreover, that the shield of David is not mentioned in rabbinical literature.

The "Magen Dawid," therefore, probably did not originate within Rabbinism, the official and dominant Judaism for more than 2,000 years. Nevertheless, a David's shield has recently been noted on a Jewish tombstone at

Tarentum, in southern Italy, which may date as early as the third century of the common era (A.D.)

The earliest Jewish literary source which mentions it, the "Eshkol ha‑Kofer" of the Karaite Judah Hadassi (middle of the 12th century), says, in ch. 242: "Seven names of angels precede the mezuzah: Michael, Gabriel, etc...Tetragrammaton protect thee! And likewise the sign called 'David's shiled' is placed beside the name of each angel." It was therefore, at this time a sign on amulets.

In the magic papyri of antiquity, pentagrams, together with stars and other signs, are frequently found on

amulets bearing the Jewish names of God, "Sabaoth," "Adonai," "Eloai" and used to guard against fever and other

diseases. Curiously enough, only the pentacle appears, not the hexagram.

In the great magic papyrus at Paris and London there are twenty‑two signs side by side, and a circle with twelve signs, but neither a pentacle nor a hexagram, although there is a triangle, perhaps in place of the latter. In the many illustrations of amulets given by Budge in his "Egyptian Magic" (London, 1899) not a single pentacle or hexagram appears. The syncretism of Hellenistic, Jewish, and Coptic influences did not therefore, originate the symbol. It is probable that it was the Cabala that derived the symbol from the Templars.

The Cabala, in fact, makes use of this sign, arranging the Ten Sefirot, or spheres, in it, and placing it on

amulets. The pentagram, called Solomon's seal, is also used as a talisman, and Henry thinks that the Hindus

derived it from the Semites [do you understand this, the Jews are here admitting SEMITES ARE NOT JEWS!], although the name by no means proves the Jewish or Semitic origin of the sign. The Hindus likewise employed the hexagram as a means of protection, and as such it is mentioned in the earliest source, quoted above. In the synagogues, perhaps, it took the place of the mezuzah, and the name "shield of David" may have been given it in virtue of its protective powers.

The hexagram may have been employed originally also as an architectural ornament on synagogues, as it is,

for example, on the cathedrals of Brandenburg and Stendal, and on the Marktkirche at Hanover. A pentacle in this form, is found on the ancient synagogue at Tell Hum. Charles IV, prescribed for the Jews of Prague, in 1854, a

red flag with both David's shield and Solomon's seal, while the red flag with which the Jews met King Matthias of

Hungary in the fifteenth century showed two pentacles with two golden stars.

The pentacle, therefore, may also have been used among the Jews. It occurs in a manuscript as early as the year 1073. "If thou desirest to cause any one to perish, take clay from two river banks and make an image therewith; write upon it the man's name; then take seven stalks from seven date‑trees and make a bow with horsehair (?); set up the image [Magen Dawid] in a convenient place, stretch thy bow, shoot the stalks at it, and with every one say the prescribed words...adding, 'Destroyed be N., son of N.!'"

Gaster explains why these means were thought to be effective. It appears that every angel and demon is bound

to appear and obey when he hears a certain name uttered. Even Hai Gaon says, "Amulets are written, and the divine

name is spoken, in order that angels may help." But a great deal was made to depend upon using the right name at

the right time, a condition likewise frequently insisted on in the Egyptian and Babylonian magical works.

"Practical Cabala," or the art of employing the knowledge of the hidden world in order to attain one's

purpose, is founded upon the mysticism developed in the "Sefer Yezirah" (Book of Creation). According to this

work, God created the world by means of the letters of the alphabet and particularly the most varied ways. If one

learns these combinations and permutations, and applies them at the right time and in the right place, one may

thus easily make himself master of creation, since God Himself not only permits but desires this; for these

formulae all proclaim monotheism. The Egyptians held a similar view. The mystic book "Raziel" (eleventh century),

in so far as it is to be considered here, is also of Oriental origin, and reflects similar views. Instructions

are given for the preparation of amulets; and particular days and hours are indicated as suitable for the

manufacture.

In Europe, Spain comes most prominently into view in the consideration of amulets, that country being a

hotbed of superstition and Cabala. Nahmanides and Adret permit the employment of a metal plate with the image of

a lion as a remedy against a painful cough.

This superstition was a universal one, and is mentioned also by Manasseh ben Israel of Amsterdam

(seventeenth century), who remarks that Leone Soavio, recommended it to Paracelsus as a cure for stomach pain.

Other amulets were written upon parchment, on the skin of a fetus [this is another reason the Jews encourage

abortions, they wish to use the blood of Christian babies to bake their Hamen Ears, and they wish to use the skin

to write amulets on them. Which is supposed to protect them from certain diseases] or of a deer, but were of

avail only when the writer and the chosen time were propitious. Adret also forbids such charms as are clearly

useless.

In Germany, red cords with corals were worn as protection against the evil eye. Christians employed Jews to make amulets for them; for these had the reputation of being "wise folk." Strangely enough, in the later Middle

Ages, Jews attached to their arms, where the phylacteries were applied, amulets containing the names of Christ

and the three holy kings. Insanity or epilepsy was cured by hanging beets around the patient's neck.

People were warned, however, that the preparation of these amulets would irritate demons. Against

miscarriage women carried a stone around the neck, called Knudin, a word evidently derived from the French

enceinte; a hole was pierced through it; it was as large and as heavy as a hen's egg. These stones, which had a

glazed appearance, were found in the fields, and were esteemed of priceless value. A similar purpose was served

in antiquity as well as in the Middle Ages by activities. For lightening labor, both Jewish and Christian women

wore a piece of a man's vest, girdle, or other clothing.

Luther relates that a Jew presented Duke Albert of Saxony with a button, curiously inscribed, which would

protect against cold steel, stabbing, or shooting. The duke made the experiment on the Jew, hanging the button

around his neck and then slashing him with a sword.

The Italian coin, with its abracadabra‑like inscription,

described by Gudemann, was probably of Jewish, and not of Christian, origin. The medallion bears on the one side

the Hebrew transliteration of "Majestas YHWH regis domini mei animum benignum mihi foveat" (May the majesty of

YHWH foster a kindly disposition in my lord the king toward me). Upon the other side is "Majestas YHWH animum mei regis and me inclinet" (May the majesty of YHWH incline the king's soul to me).

The expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 caused the dissemination of the Cabala far and wide through the

East and the West. Their unexampled sufferings served to foster their mystic bent more than ever.

The Holy Land, as far as re‑peopled by Spanish exiles (notably Safed), became the hotbed of the most abstruse secret lore, which favored, among other things, the employment of amulets. From Turkey on the one side and from Italy on the other, the Cabala spread to Poland and lands adjacent; Hasidism arose there and flourishes there today. This mysticism also prepared the ground for amulets, so that there are whole books devoted exclusively to kemi'ot still extant in manuscripts.

This so called "practical Cabala" recommended a number of talismans, a description of which must be omitted here in order to describe a celebrated kemi'a contest of the middle of the eighteenth century. Jonathan

Eibenschutz, remembered by Jews today as an eminent Talmudist prepared a number of amulets. He issued them in Metz, where he was a rabbi, and later in Hamburg, Altona, and Wandsbeck, over the united communities of which he presided as chief rabbi.

He made them for sick children, for expectant mothers, also as remedies against nose‑bleed, epilepsy, and

the evil eye. He furnished one that would banish "croaking demons" from a house; upon digging into the foundations, the demons would then be found in the shape of veritable croaking frogs. To find the body of one drowned, he provided a charm in the shape of a written parchment to be laid on the bank of the river or pond.

He claimed to have been particularly successful with his amulets in helping women in various emergencies;

and statistics were said to support his statements that since he had officiated as rabbi in Hamburg scarcely one

Jewish woman had died in childbirth, while in the year preceding his arrival "God's wrath had raged widely" in

such cases. The congregational Hebrah Kaddisha (burial society) confirmed this claim officially.

All of this became a matter of public discussion when Jacob Emden, then residing in Altona, and Jacob Joshua

Falk, chief rabbi of Frankfort‑on‑the‑Main, both learned and respected men, openly charged Eibenschutz with

invoking as Savior in his amulets the false Messiah, Shabbethai Zebit.

The contest waged furiously; the scholars and communities of Germany, Holland, Italy, Turkey, the Holy Land, Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, and elsewhere took active part in a most vehement discussion. Even the temporal authorities were appealed to by Eibenschutz's opponents, application being made to the City Council of Hamburg, and to the king of Denmark. The charge was based particularly upon five amulets issued by Eibenschutz while officiating in Metz, and which were certified to by the congregational officials, as having been written by him.

It is a curious fact that in all the voluminous discussion, the only point at issue was the employment of

the false Messiah's name in these amulets; not a voice was raised against the folly of amulets in general. The

common impression probably was that they could do no harm and might serve as spiritual stimulants in the way of

the wearer's reassurance and mental comfort. This widespread discussion, however, marks the turning‑point in the history of the medieval faith in amulets; since then it has gradually diminished and may now be said to be little

used.

The Tetragram was symbolic of the four elements and used in the conjuration of the elementary spirits,

sylphs of the air, undines of the water, the fire salamanders and gnomes of the earth. In alchemy it represented

the magical elements, salt, sulphur, mercury and azoth; in mystic philosophy the ideas Spirit, Matter, Motion and

Rest; in hieroglyphs the man, eagle, lion and bull.

The skeleton letters of Jehova; Y‑H‑W‑H, called the Tetragrammation, is the "ineffable word" in Talmudic

Judaism, being used in weird combinations to invoke the demons. Its use is restricted to the inner circle of

Rabbinical potentates.

Rabbi Joshua Trachtenberg, who is listed in Who's Who in America and Who's Who in American Jewry (1938‑9),

in his defensive yet illuminating book, "Jewish Magic and Superstition" (Behrmann's, N.Y. 1939), writing of the

age long reputation of Jews as practitioners of black magic and all occult demonistic rites, states: "THE SOURCES

INDICATE THAT JEWS WERE AT LEAST ACQUAINTED WITH METHODS OF INDUCING DISEASE AND DEATH, OF AROUSING AND KILLING PASSION, OF FORCING PEOPLE TO DO THEIR BIDDING, or employing demons for divinatory and other purposes...We find

accounts of the magician's power to project his soul to far‑distant places, there to perform an errand, and then

return to his comatose body."

There is no kind of breed of occultism which is not included beneath the whited sepulchre of Pharisaic

Talmudic Judaism, and which does not appear in the Talmud and its Cabala.

Always, power is ascribed to spirits, and Man is the creator and chief engineer depending upon his mumbo‑

jumbo "knowledge," hence the word "Gnosis," meaning higher knowledge.

Nor is that all the Jews are sanctioned in doing. They may curse their parents providing they use any term

meaning God except the Y‑H‑W‑H consonants of the word Jehovah, the Tetragrammation, which is reserved for the Big Shots to use in whistling up demons. The word "God" is not supposed to be written or spoken today, and the

California Jewish Voice carried articles in which the word is spelled "G‑D" throughout. Not piety but sheer

superstition governs this.

And one of Christ's major "crimes" was that He pronounced the Name as spelled (Sanh. 55b‑56a) from the

"chief repository of the criminal law of the Talmud" ‑Sanhedrin. In this, it is explained that "Bless" is used

instead of "Curse" in Talmudic double‑talk style.

This style has been necessary until Iron Curtain power could be achieved, to conceal a wholly criminal

religion which is a blasphemy and conspiracy against the rest of the entire human race, but Christianity and its

followers first.

"Sefer Raziel," meaning book of secrets, is "an ancient Cabalistic book." The rule about calling pagan

practices "Jewish" in Talmudic practice, is to attribute them to some old patriarch like Abraham who has been

dead for centuries and is unable to deny the charge. This one is pinned on Noah, Abraham, Shem and so on.

Although it is hinted and denied that the book came from Eliezer ben Judah of Worms (a suitable spot for

Talmuding), the voodoo in it is as old as the pagan "philosophers" sometimes spelled "Foolosophers," Pythagoras, Plato, etc., lovers of the slave state.

"The book contains mystic lore on the Letters of the Alphabet...and various magic receipts and amulets."

(Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, under Sefer Raziel). "From the Talmud...we learn that the Alphabet played an

important role in the creation of the world...Sefer Raziel states that Adam engraved the letters out of the

likeness of the fallen angels (demons) from aleph to Tav. Every angel must appear as soon as his name is

uttered...Bezalel the builder of the Tabernacle in the wilderness, knew how to combine the letters by which

heaven and earth were created (Berechoth 55a)" (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, under Alphabet).

Although the Bible refers to Bezalel only as a workman inspired to serve God in his efforts on the tabernacle, the Talmud makes him a demon evoker, a smarty of whom Moses was jealous. Bible references to Bezalel: Exodus 31:2; 35:30; 36:1‑2; 37:1; 38:22; 1 Chron. 2:20; 2 Chron. 1:5.

"The most important letters of the alphabet are, of course, those which spelt out the TETRAGRAMMATON, or Name of God, 'Y H V' (or W) 'H.' This word is not to be pronounced as written, but must be read as 'Adonai,' 'The

Lord;' and each letter has an especial potency...The belief in the power of the word was common to all the religions of antiquity.

Thus the Platonists had notions of the influence of Anagrams made out of the names of

persons...In the Talmud...there are many passages to indicate the rabbis were familiar with the various methods

of permutation of the Letters of the alphabet...The first was that of codes (Note: the Atbash code of using the

last letter for the first, etc., is described)...the second...was the anagram, in which the letters of a word were reshuffled to form a new word. The third was Gematria, based on the numerical value of the letters. The fourth was Notarikon, which took each letter of a given word as the initial of another word, and thus interpreted it in mystic fashion." And the Cabalists' special alphabet is diagrammed (Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, under Alphabet).

Sefer Yetzirah, or Book of Creation, is another voodoo Cabalistic compilation frankly emanating from

Chaldea, or Babylon. To quote the Jewish Encyclopedia under "Cabala:" the belief in the magic power of the

letters of the Tetragrammaton and other names of the Deity...seems to have originated in Chaldea...the theurgic

Cabala...under the name of Sefer (or 'Hilkot') Yezirah, induced Babylonian rabbis of the fourth century to

'create a calf by magic' (Sanh. 65b, 67b).

The Pentagram, the sign of the Microcosm, was held to be the most powerful means of conjuration in any rite.

It may represent evil as well as good, for while with one point in the ascendant it was the sign of Christ, with

two points in the ascendant it was the sign of Satan.

By the use of the pentagram in these positions the powers of light or darkness were evoked. The pentagram

was said to be the star which led the Magi to the manger where the infant Christ was laid.

The preparation and consecration of this sign for use in magical rites is prescribed with great detail. It might be composed of seven metals, the ideal form for its expression; or traced in pure gold upon white marble, never before used for any purpose.

It might also be drawn with vermilion upon lambskin without a blemish prepared under the auspices of the

Sun. The sign was next consecrated with the four elements; breathed on five times; dried by the smoke of five

perfumes, incense, myrrh, aloes, sulphur and camphor. The names of five genii were breathed above it, and then

the sign was placed successively at the north, south, east and west and centre of the astronomical cross

pronouncing the letters of the sacred tetragram and various Kabalistic names.

It was believed to be of great efficacy in terrifying phantoms if engraved upon glass, and the magicians

traced it on their doorsteps to prevent evil spirits from entering and the good from departing. This symbol has

been used by all secret and occult societies, by the Rosicrucians, the Illuminati, down to the Freemasons of

today. Modern Occultists translate the meaning of the pentagram as symbolic of the human soul and its relation to God.

The symbol is placed with one point in the ascendant. That point represents the Great Spirit, God. A line

drawn from there to the left‑hand angle at base is the descent of spirit into matter in its lowest form, whence

it ascends to right‑hand angle typifying matter in its highest form, the brain of man.

From here a line is drawn across the figure to left angle representing man's development in intellect, and

progress in material civilization, the point of danger, from which all nations have fallen into moral corruption,

signified by the descent of the line to right angle at base. But the soul of man being derived from God cannot

remain at this point, but must struggle upward, as is symbolized by the line reaching again to the apex, God,

whence it issued.

Magical Instruments and Accessories: ‑‑ In magical rites these were considered of the utmost importance.

Indispensable to the efficacy of the ceremonies were the altar, the chalice, the tripod, the censer; the lamp,

rod, sword, and magic fork or trident; the sacred fire and consecrated oils; the incense and the candles.

The altar might be of wood or stone, but if of the latter, then of stone that has never been worked or hewn

or even touched by the hammer. The chalice might be of different metals, symbolic of the object of the rites.

Where the purpose was evil, a black chalice was used as in the profane masses of sorcerers and witches. In some

talismans the chalice is engraved as a symbol of the moon. The tripod and its triangular stand was also made in

symbolic metals. The censor might be of bronze, but preferably of silver.

In the construction of the lamp, gold, silver, brass and iron must be used, iron for the pedestal, brass for

the mirror, silver for the reservoir and at the apex a golden triangle. Various symbols were traced upon it,

including an androgynous figure about the pedestal, a serpent devouring its own tail, and the Sign of Solomon.

The rod must be specially fashioned of certain woods and then consecrated to its magical uses. A perfectly

straight branch of almond or hazel was to be chosen. This was cut before the tree blossomed, and cut with a

golden sickle [this is the origin of the sickle displayed on the Communist Russian flag. Along with the five‑

pointed Jewish star] in the early dawn.

Throughout its length must be run a long needle of magnetized iron; at one end there should be affixed a

triangular prism, to the other, one of black resin, and rings of copper and zinc bound about it. At the new moon

it must be consecrated by a magician who already possesses a consecrated rod.

The secret of the construction and consecration of magical rods was jealously guarded by all magicians and

the rod itself was jealously guarded by all magicians and the rod itself was displayed as little as possible,

being usually concealed in the flowing sleeve of the magician's robe.

The sword must be wright of unalloyed steel, with copper handle in the form of a crucifix. Mystical signs

were engraved on guard and blade and its consecration took place on a Sunday in full rays of the sun, when the

sword was thrust into a sacred fire of cypress and laurel, then moistened with the blood of a snake, polished,

and next, together with branches of vervain, swathed in silk. The sword was generally used in the service of

Black Magic.

The magic fork or trident used in necromancy was also fashioned of hazel or almond, cut from the tree at one

blow with an unused knife, from whose blade must be fashioned the three prongs. Witches and sorceresses are

usually depicted using the trident in their infernal rites.

Every pagan trick of dethroning God and enthroning individual spirits is employed by the Cabalists [Magicians], "Casting of Lots, NECROMANCY, Exorcism...Bibliomancy, and the mysticism of numbers and letters were developed into complete systems. Hence the cabalistic doctrine of the heavenly alphabet, whose signs are the constellations and the stars. Thus Astrology was legitimized, and bibliomancy found its justification in the assumption that the sacred Hebrew letters are not merely signs for things, but implements of divine powers by means of which nature may be subjugated." (by Man), says the Jewish Encyclopedia, under Cabala, p. 479.

But the bloody business of making circles to circumscribe the spirits, of gouging out cocks' eyes, skinning lambs and throwing the blood around to weird incantations to bring up the spectres of the departed, as forbidden by Scripture, is hidden as an "esoteric" or secret lore entrusted to the Baal Shems, etc. Hassidism (also spelled Chassidism) specializes on Cabala. About half of all Jews were Cabalists at the end of the 19th century, we are

told.

Copied from hand to hand, cabalistic manuscripts, nevertheless, reach museums. One enlightening book is by

a Cambridge professor, E.M. Butler, "Ritual Magic" Cambridge University Press, 1949.

The vase scholarship, the documentation on this subject, are presented in a light hearted style not unmixed

with awareness of the perils, the ghastly viciousness of the occult "arts" which translations of the museum

manuscripts must convey to any sane reader.

Christ referred to the world red power rising over the seventh and last world government as "BABYLON the

GREAT, the MOTHER OF HARLOTS and ABOMINATIONS of the EARTH" (Rev. 17)

So reference is made to a branch of this demon magic in the Butler book as belonging to a much earlier age:

to the world of the Akkadian‑Chaldean (Babylonian) inscriptions and of the Graeco‑Egyptian papyri animated by the belief that the gods could and would support the magician in his dealings with the demons if properly invoked; and that by the use of certain mysterious and ineffable names as well as other spells, they could be forced to do so even against their will.

From the earliest times this extraordinary power was recognized as prone to abuse in the hands of "black" magicians, but the Art itself was not only respectable, it was a high and holy one. Christianity altered all that, anathematizing magic.

The fire was lit with charcoal on which were cast branches of trees, symbolic of the end desired. In Black

Magic these generally consisted of cypress, alderwood, broken crucifixes and desecrated hosts. The oil for

anointing was compounded of myrrh, cinnamon, galingale and purest oil of Olive.

Unguents were used by sorcerers and witches, who smeared their brows, breasts and wrists with a mixture

composed of human fat and blood of corpses, combined with aconite, belladonna and poisonous fungi, thinking

thereby to make themselves invisible.

Incense might be of any odoriferous woods and herbs, such as cedar, rose, citron, aloes, cinnamon, sandal,

reduced to a fine powder, together with incense and storax. In Black Magic, alum, sulphur and assafoetida were

used as incense.

The candles, belonging solely to practices of Black Magic were moulded from human fat and set in

candlesticks of ebony carved in the form of a crescent. Bowls also were used in these ceremonies, fashioned of

different metals, their shape symbolic of the heavens. In necromantic rites skulls of criminals were used,

generally to hold the blood of some victim or sacrifice.

Magical Numbers: Certain numbers and their combinations were held to be of magical power, by virtue of their representation of divine and creative mysteries.

The doctrines of Pythagoras [a Jew] furnished the basis for much of this belief. According to his theory

numbers contained the elements of all things, of the natural and spiritual worlds and of the sciences. The real

numerals of the universe are the primaries one to ten and in their combination the reason of all else may be

found.

To the Pythagoreans One represented unity, therefore God; Two was duality, the Devil; Four was sacred and

holy, the number on which they swore their most solemn oaths; Five was their symbol of marriage. They also

attributed certain numbers to the gods, planets and elements; one represented the Sun, two the Moon; while five was fire, six the earth, eight the air, and twelve water.

Cornelius Agrippa in his work Occult Philosophy published in 1533, discourses upon numbers as those

characters by whose proportion all thing were formed. He enumerates the virtues of numerals as displayed in

nature, instancing the herb cinquefoil, which by the power of the number five exorcises devils, allays fever and

forms an antidote to poisons. Also the virtue of seven as in the power of the seventh son to cure king's evil.

The Sun, A Universal Deity

The adoration of the sun was one of the earliest and most natural forms of religious expression. Complex

modern theologies are merely involvements and amplifications of this simple aboriginal belief.

The primitive mind, recognizing the beneficent power of the solar orb, adored it as the proxy of the Supreme

Deity. Concerning the origin of sun worship, Albert Pike makes the following concise statement in his Morals and

Dogma: "To them [aboriginal peoples] he [the sun] was the innate fire of bodies, the fire of Nature.

Author of Life, heat, and ignition, he was to them the efficient cause of all generation, for without him there was no movement, no existence, no form. He was to them immense, indivisible, imperishable, and everywhere present. It was their need of light, and of his creative energy, that was felt by all men; and nothing was more fearful to them than his absence. His beneficent influences caused his identification with the Principle of Good; and the Brahma of the Hindus, and Mithras of the Persians and Atom, Amun, Phtha, and Osiris of the Egyptians, the Bel of

the Chaledens, the Adonai of the Phoenicians, the Adonis and Apollo of the Greeks, became but personifications of

the Sun, the regenerating Principle, image of that fecundity which perpetuates and rejuvenates the world's existence."

Among all the nations of antiquity, altars, mounds, and temples were dedicated to the worship of the orb of day. The ruins of these sacred places yet remain, notable among them being the pyramids of Yucatan and Egypt, the snake mounds of the American Indians, the Zikkurats of Babylon and Chaldea, the round towers of Ireland, and the massive rings of uncut stone in Britain and Normandy. The Tower of Babel, which, according to the Scriptures, was built so that man might reach up to God, was probably an astronomical observatory [when one makes a study of The

Tower of Babel, they find that instead of an observatory, it was government system].

Many early priests and prophets, both pagan and Christian, were versed in astronomy and astrology; their

writings are best understood when read in the light of these ancient sciences. With the growth of man's knowledge

of the constitution and periodicity of the heavenly bodies, astronomical principles and terminology were introduced into his religious systems.

The tutelary gods were given planetary thrones, the celestial bodies being named after the deities assigned

to them. The fixed stars were divided into constellations, and through these constellations wandered the sun and

its planets, the latter with their accompanying satellites.

The Solar Trinity

The sun, as supreme among the celestial bodies visible to the astronomers of antiquity, was assigned to the

highest of the gods and became symbolic of the supreme authority of the Creator Himself. From a deep philosophic

consideration of the powers and principles of the sun has come the concept of the Trinity as it is understood to

the world today.

The tenet of a Triune Divinity is not peculiar to Christian or Mosaic theology, but forms a conspicuous part

of the dogma of the greatest religions of both ancient and modern times.

The Persians, Hindus, Babylonians, and Egyptians had their Trinities. In every instance these represented

the threefold form of on Supreme Intelligence. In modern Masonry, the Deity is symbolized by an equilateral

triangle, its three sides representing the primary manifestations of the Eternal One who is Himself represented as a tiny flame, called by the Hebrews Yod (`). Jakob Bohme, the Teutonic mystic, calls the Trinity The Three Witnesses, by means of which the Invisible is made known to the visible, tangible universe.

The origin of the Trinity is obvious to anyone who will observe the daily manifestations of the sun. This

orb, being the symbol of all Light, has three distinct phases: rising, midday, and setting. The philosophers

therefore divided the life of all things into three distinct parts: growth, maturity, and decay. Between the

twilight of dawn and the twilight of evening is the high noon of resplendent glory.

God the Father, the Creator of the world, is symbolized by the dawn. His color is blue, because the sun

rising in the morning is veiled in blue mist. God the Son, the Illuminating One sent to bear witness of His

Father before all worlds, is the celestial globe at noonday, radiant and magnificent, the maned Lion of Judah,

the Golden‑haired Savior of the World. Yellow is His color and His power is without end. God the Holy Ghost is

the sunset phase, when the orb of the day, robed in flaming red, rests for a moment upon the horizon line and

then vanishes into the darkness of the night to wander in the lower worlds and later rise again triumphant from

the embrace of darkness.

To the Egyptians the sun was the symbol of immortality, for, while it died each night, it rose again with

each ensuing dawn. Not only has the sun this diurnal activity, but it also has its annual pilgrimage, during

which time it passes successively through the twelve celestial house of the heavens, remaining in each for thirty

days. Added to these it has a third path of travel, which is called the precession of the equinoxes, in which it

retrogrades around the zodiac through the twelve signs at the rate of one degree every seventy‑two years.

Concerning the annual passage of the sun through the twelve houses of the heavens, Robert Hewitt Brown, 32o,

makes the following statement: "The Sun, as he pursued his way among these 'living creatures' of the zodiac, was

said, in allegorical language, either to assume the nature of or to triumph over the sign he entered. The sun thus became a Bull in Taurus, and was worshipped as such by the Egyptians under the name of Apis, and by the Assyrians as Bel, Baal, or Bul. In Leo the sun became a Lion‑slayer, Hercules, and Archer in Sagittarius. In Pisces, the Fishes, he was a fish, Dagon, or Vishnu, the fish‑god of the Philistines and Hindoos."

A careful analysis of the religious systems of pagandom uncovers much evidence of the fact that its priests served the solar energy and that their Supreme Deity was in every case this Divine Light personified. Godfrey Higgins, after thirty years of inquiry into the origin of religious beliefs, is of the opinion that "All the Gods of antiquity, resolved themselves into the solar fire, sometimes itself as God, or sometimes an emblem or shekinah of that higher principle, known by the name of the creative Being or God."

The Egyptian priests in many of their ceremonies wrote the skins of lions, which were symbols of the solar orb, owing to the fact that the sun is exalted, dignified, and most fortunately placed in the constellation of Leo, which he rules and which was at one time the keystone of the celestial arch. Again, Hercules is the Solar Deity, for as this mighty hunter performed his twelve labors, so the sun, in traversing the twelve houses of the zodiacal band, performs during his pilgrimage twelve essential and benevolent labors for the human race and for Nature in general. Hercules, like the Egyptian priests, wore the skin of a lion for a girdle.

Remember that every moral characteristic of man finds its prototype among creatures of lower intelligence; that the cruel foulness of the hyena, the savage rapacity of the wolf, the merciless rage of the tiger, the crafty treachery of the panther, are found among mankind, and ought to excite no other emotion, when found in the man, than when found in the beast. Why should the true man be angry with the geese that hiss, the peacocks that strut, the asses that bray, and the apes that imitate and chatter, although they wear the human form?

At the sphere of the Sun, you are in the region of Light ...The Jewish word for gold, Zahab, also means Light, of which the Sun is to the Earth the great source. So, in the great Oriental allegory of the Jews, the River Pison compasses the land of Gold or Light; and the River Gihon the land of Ethiopia or Darkness.

What light is, we no more know than the ancients did. According to the modern hypothesis, it is not composed

of luminous particles shot out from the sun with immense velocity; but that body only impresses, on the ether

which fills all space, a powerful vibratory movement that extends, in the form of luminous waves, beyond the most

distant planets, supplying them with light and heat.

To the ancients, it was an outflowing from the Deity. To us, as to them, it is the apt symbol of truth and

knowledge. To us, also, the upward journey of the soul through the Spheres is symbolical; but we are as little

informed as they whence the soul comes, where it has its origin, and whither it goes after death. They endeavored

to have some belief and faith, some creed, upon those points.

At the present day, men are satisfied to think nothing in regard to all that, and only to believe that the soul is a something separate from the body and out‑living it, but whether existing before it, neither to inquire nor care. No one asks whether it emanates from the Deity, or is created out of nothing, or is generated like the body, and the issue of the souls of the father and the mother.

Let us not smile, therefore, at the ideas of the ancients, until we have a better belief; but accept their symbols as meaning that the soul is of a Divine nature, originating in a sphere nearer the Deity, and returning to that when freed from the enthrallment of the body; and that it can only return there when purified of all the sordidness and sin which have, as it were, become part of its substance, by its connection with the body.

It is not strange, that thousands of years ago, men worship the Sun, and that today that worship continues

among the Jews. Originally they looked beyond the orb to the invisible God, of whom the Sun's light, seemingly

identical with generation and life, was the manifestation and outflowing.

Long before the Chaldean shepherds watched it on their plains, it came up regularly, as it now does, in the

morning, like a god, and again sank like a king retiring, in the west, to return again in due time in the same

array of majesty.

We worship Immutability. It was that steadfast, immutable character of the Sun that the men of Baalbec

worshipped. His light‑giving and live‑giving powers were secondary attributes. The one grand idea that compelled

worship was the characteristic of God which they saw reflected in his light, and fancied they saw in its

originality the changelessness of Deity. He had seen thrones crumble, earthquakes shake the world and hurl down mountains. Beyond Olympus, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, he had gone daily to his abode, and had come daily again in the morning to behold the temples they built to his worship.

They personified him as Brahma, Amun, Osiris, Bel, Adonis, Malkarth, Mithras, and Apollo; and the nations

that did so grew old and died. Moss grew on the capitals of the great columns of his temples, and he shone on the

moss. Grain by grain the dust of his temples crumbled and fell, and was borne off on the wind, and still he shone

on crumbling column and architrave.

The roof fell crashing on the pavement, and he shone in on the Holy of Holies with unchanging rays. It was not strange that men worshipped the Sun. The word Khairum or Khurum is a compound one. Gesenius renders Khurum by the word noble or free‑born: Khur meaning white, noble. It also means the opening of a window, the socket of the eye. Khri also means white, or an opening; and Khris, the orb of the Sun, in Job Viii.13 and x.7. Krishna is the Hindu Sun‑God. Khur, the Parsi word, is the literal name of the Sun.

From Kur or Khur, the Sun, comes Khora, a name of Lower Egypt. The sun, Bryant says in his Mythology, was

called Kur; and Plutarch says that the Persians called the Sun Kuros. Kurios, Lord, in Greek, like Adonai, Lord,

in Phoenician and Hebrew, was applied to the Sun. Many places were sacred to the Sun, and called Kura, Kuria,

Kuropolis, Kurene, Kureschata, Kuresta, and Corusia in Scythia.

The Egyptian Deity called by the Greeks "Horus," was Her‑Ra. or Har‑oeris, Hor or Har, the Sun. Hari is a

Hindu name of the Sun. Ari‑al, Ar‑es, Ar, Aryaman, Areimonios, the Ar meaning Fire or Flame, are of the same

kindred. Hermes or Har‑mes, (Aram, Remus, Haram, Harameias), was Kadmos, the Divine Light or Wisdom. Mar‑kuri, says Movers, is Mar, the Sun.

To the Jews, Aoor, is Light, Fire, or the Sun. Cyrus, said Ctesias, was so named from Kuros, the Sun. Kuris,

Hesychius says, was Adonis. Apollo, the Sun‑god, was called Kurraios, from Kurra, a city in Phocis. The people of

Kurene, originally Ethiopians or Cuthites, worshipped the Sun under the title of Achoor and Achor.

We know, through a precise testimony in the ancient annals of Tsur, that the principal festivity of Mal‑

karth, the incarnation of the Sun at the Winter Solstice, held at Tsur, was called his rebirth or his awakening,

and that it was celebrated by means of a pyre, on which the god was supposed to regain, through the aid of fire,

a new life.

This festival was celebrated in the month Peritius (Barith), the second day of which corresponded to the

25th of December. Khur‑um, King of Tyre, Movers says, first performed this ceremony. These facts we learn from

Josephus, Servius on the Aeneid, and the Dionysiacs of Nonnus; and through a coincidence that cannot be

fortuitous, the same day was at Rome the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the festal day of the invincible Sun. Under

this title, Hercules, Haracles, was worshipped at Tsur.

Thus, while the temple was beginning erected, the death and resurrection of a Sun‑God was annually

represented at Tsur, by Solomon's ally, at the winter solstice, by the pyre of Mal‑karth, the Tsurian Haracles.

(An Encyclopheic outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy, Manly P. Hall)

The Qabbalah, Cabala, Kabbalah,

The Secret Doctrine of the Jews

Albert Pike, quoting from Transcendental Magic, thus sums up the importance of Qabbalism as a key to Masonic

esotericism:

"One is filled with admiration, on penetrating into the Sanctuary of the Kabalah, at seeing a doctrine so logical, so simple, and at the same time so absolute. The necessary union of ideas and signs, the consecration of the most fundamental realities by the primitive characters; the Trinity of Words, Letters, and Numbers; a philosophy simple as the alphabet, profound and infinite as the Word; theorems more complete and luminus than those of Pythagotras; theology summed up by counting on one's fingers; an Infinite which can be held in the hollow of an infant's hand; ten ciphers and twenty‑two letters, a triangle, a square, and a circle, these are the elements of the Kabalah. These are the elementary principles of the written Word, reflection of that spoken Word that created the world!" (Morals and Dogma)

Hebrew theology was divided into three distinct parts. The first was the law, the second was the soul of the

law, and the third was to soul of the soul of the law. The law was taught to all the children of the Jews; the

Mishnah, or the soul of the law, was revealed to the ribbins and teachers; but the Qabbalah, the soul of the soul

of the law, was cunningly concealed, and only the highest initiates among the Jews were instructed in its secret

principles.

According to certain Jewish mystics, Moses ascended Mount Sinai three times, remaining the presence of God

forty days each time. During the first forty days the tables of the written law were delivered to the prophet;

during the second forty days he received the soul of the law; and during the last forty days God instructed him

in the mysteries of the Qabbalah, the soul of the soul of the law. Moses concealed in the first four books of the

Pentateuch the secret instructions that God had given him, and for centuries students therein the secret doctrine

of Israel.

As the spiritual nature of man is concealed in his physical body, so the unwritten law, the Mishnah and the

Qabbalah, is concealed within the written teachings of the Moasic code. Qabbalah means the secret or hidden

tradition, the unwritten law, and according to an early Rabbi, it was delivered to man in order that through the

aid of its abstruse principles he might learn to understand the mystery of both the universe about him and the

universe within him.

The origin of Qabbalism is a legitimate subject for controversy. Early initiates of the Qabbalistic

Mysteries believed that its principles were first taught by God to a school of His angels before the fall of man.

The angels later communicated the secrets to Adam, so that through the knowledge gained from an understanding of its principles fallen humanity might regain its lost estate. The Angel Razielk was dispatched from heaven to

instruct Adam in the mysteries of the Qabbalah. Different angels were employed to initiate the succeeding patriarches in this difficult science. Tophiel was the teacher of Shem, Raphale of Isaac, Metatron of Moses, and

Michael of David. (See Faiths of the World) Christian D. Ginsburg has written: "From Adam it passed over to Noah,

and then to Abraham, the friend of God, who emigrated with it to Egypt, where the patriarch allowed a portion of

this mysterious doctrine to ooze out.

It was in this way that the Egyptians obtained some knowledge of it, and the other Eastern nations could

introduce it into their philosophical systems. Moses, who was learned in all the wisdom of Egypt, was first

initiated into it in the land of his birth, but became most proficient in it during his wanderings in the wilderness, when he not only devoted to it the leisure hours of the whole forty years, but received lessons in it from one of the angels...Moses also initiated the seventy Elders into the secrets of this doctrine and they again transmitted them from hand to hand. Of all who formed the unbroken line of tradition, David and Solomon were most initiated into the Kabbalah." (See the Kabbalah).

According to Eliphas Levi, the three greatest books of Qabbalism are the Sepher Yetzirah, The Book of Formation; the Sepher ha Zohar, The Book of Splendor; and the Apocalypse, The Book of Revelation. The dates of

the writing of these books are by no means thoroughly established. Qabbalists declare that the Sepher Yetzirah

was written by Abraham. Although it is by far the oldest of the Qabbalist books, it was probably from the pen of

the Rabbi Akiba, A.D. 120.

The Sepher ha Zohar presumably was written by Simeon ben Jochai, a disciple of Akiba. Rabbi Simeon was

sentenced to death about A.D. 161 by Lucius Verus, co‑regent of the Emperor Marc Aurelius Antoninus. He escaped with his son and, hiding in a cave, transcribed the manuscript of the Zohar with the assistance of Elias, who

appeared to them at intervals. Simeon was twelve years in the cave, during which time he evolved the complicated

symbolism of the "Greater Face" and the "Lesser Face."

While discoursing with disciples Rabbi Simeon expired, and the "Lamp of Israel" was extinguished. His death

and burial were accompanied by many supernatural phenomena. The legend goes on to relate that the secret

doctrines of Qabbalism had been in existence since the beginning of the world, but that Rabbi Simeon was the

first man permitted to reduce them to writing. Twelve hundred years later the books which he had compiled were

discovered and published for the benefit of humanity by Moses de Leon. The probability is that Moses de Leon

himself compiled the Zohar about A.D. 1305, drawing his material from the unwritten secrets of earlier Jewish

mystics. The Apocalypse, accredited to St. John the Divine, is also of uncertain date, and the identity of its

author has never been satisfactorily proved.

Because of its brevity and because it is the key to Qabbalistic thought, the Sepher Yetzirah is reproduced

in full in this chapter. So far as is among many nations it was customary to spread the arms in prayer has influenced the symbolism of the cross, which, because of its shape, has come to be regarded as emblematic of the human body. The four major divisions of the human structure, bones, muscles, nerves, and arteries, are considered to have contributed to the symbolism of the cross. This is especially due to the fact that the spinal nerves cross at the base of the spine, and is a reminder that "Our Lord was crucified also in Egypt."

Man has four vehicles (or mediums) of expression by means of which the spiritual Ego contacts the external

universe: the physical nature, the vital nature, the emotional nature, and the mental nature. Each of these

partakes in principle of one of the primary elements, and the four creatures assigned to them by the Qabbalists

caused the cross to be symbolic of the compound nature of man.

The Crucifixion, A Comic Allegory

Saviors unnumbered have died for the sins of man and by the hands of man, and through their deaths have

interceded in heaven for the souls of their executioners. The martyrdom of the God‑Man and the redemption of the

world through His blood has been an essential tenant of many great religions.

Nearly all these stories can be traced to sun worship, for the glorious orb of day is the Savior who dies

annually for every creature within his universe, but year after year rises again victorious from the tomb of

winter. Without doubt the doctrines of the Quabbalah is based upon the secret traditions of the Ancient Wisdom;

it is a constant reminder that the divine nature of man is perpetually crucified upon the animal organism.

Certain of the pagan Mysteries included in the ceremony of initiation the crucifixion of the candidate upon

a claimed that Apollonius of Tyana (the Anti‑christ) was initiated into the Arcanum of Egypt in the Great

Pyramid, where he hung upon a cross until unconscious and was then laid in the tomb (the coffer) for three days.

While his body was unconscious, his soul was thought to pass into the realms of the immortals (the place of

death).

After it had vanquished death (by recognizing that life is eternal) it returned again to the body, which then rose from the coffer, after which he was hailed as a brother by the priests, who believed that he had returned from the land of the dead. This concept was, in substance, the teaching of the Mysteries.

The Crucified Saviors

The list of the deathless mortals who suffered for man that he might receive the boon of eternal life is an

imposing one. Among those connected historically or allegorically with a crucifixion are Prometheus, Adonis,

Apollo, Arys, Bacchus, Buddha, Christna, Horus, Indra, Ixion, Mithras, Osiris, Pythagoras, Quetzalcoatl,

Semiramis, and Jupiter.

According to the fragmentary accounts extant, all these heroes gave their lives to the service of humanity

and, with one or two exceptions, died as martyrs for the cause of human progress. In many mysterious ways the

manner of their death has been designedly concealed, but it is possible that most of them were crucified upon a

cross or a tree.

The first friend of man, the immortal Prometheus, was crucified on the pinnacle of Mount Caucasus, and a

vulture was placed over his liver to torment him throughout eternity by clawing and rending his flesh with its talons. Prometheus disobeyed the edict of Zeus by bringing fire and immortality to man, so for man he suffered until the coming of Hercules released him from his ages of torment.

Concerning the crucifixion of the Persian Mithras, J.P. Lundy has written:

"Dupuis tells us that Mithra was put to death by crucifixion, and rose again on the 25th of March. In the Persian Mysteries the body of a young man, apparently dead, was exhibited, which was feigned to be restored to life. By his sufferings he was believed to have worked their salvation, and on this account he was called their Savior.

His priests watched his tomb to the midnight of the vigil of the 25th of March, with loud cries, and in darkness; when all at once the light burst forth from all parts, the priests cried, Rejoice, Osacred initiated, your God is risen. His death his pains, and sufferings, have worked your salvation." (Monumental Christianity)

In some cases, as in that of the Buddha, the crucifixion mythos must be taken in an allegorical rather than

a literal sense, for the manner of his death has been recorded by his own disciples in the Book of the Great

Decease. However, the mere fact that the symbolic reference to death upon a tree has been associated with these heroes is sufficient to prove the universality of the crucifixion story.

The East Indian equivalent of Christ is the immortal Christna, who, sitting in the forest playing his flute,

charmed the birds and beasts by his music. It is supposed that this divinely inspired Savior of humanity was

crucified upon a tree by his enemies, but great care has been taken to destroy any evidence pointing in that

direction.

Louis Jacolliot, in his book The Bible in India, thus describes the death of Christna:

"Christna understood that the hour had come for him to quit the earth, and return to the bosom of him who had sent him. Forbidding his disciples to follow him, he went, one day, to make his ablutions on the banks of the Ganges ...Ariving at the sacred river, he plunged himself three times therein, then, kneeling, and looking to heaven, he prayed, expecting death.

In this position he was pierced with arrows by one of those whose crimes he had unveiled, and who, hearing of his journey to the Ganges, had, with a strong troop, followed with the design of assassinating him...The body of the God‑man was suspended to the branches of a tree by his murderer, that it might become the prey of vultures.

News of the death having spread, the people came in a crowd conducted by Ardjouna, the dearest of the disciples of Christna, to recover his sacred remains. But the mortal frame of the redeemer had disappeared, no doubt it had regained the celestial abodes...and the tree to which it had been attached had become suddenly covered with great red flowers and diffused around it the sweetest perfume. "Other accounts of the death of Christna declare that he was tied to a cross‑shaped tree before the arrows were aimed at him."

The existence in Moor's The Hindu Pantheon of a plate of Christina with nail wounds in his hands and feet, and a plate in Inman's Ancient Faiths showing an Oriental deity with what might well be a nail hole in one of his feet, should be sufficient motive for further investigation of this subject by those of unbiased minds. Concerning the startling discoveries which can be made along these lines, J.P. Lundy in his Monumental Christianity presents the following information: "Where did the Persians get their notion of this prophecy as thus interpreted respecting Christ, and His saving mercy and love displayed on the cross? Both by symbol and actual crucifix we see it on all their monuments.

If it came from India, how did it get there, except from the one common and original center of all primitive and pure religion? There is a most extraordinary plate, illustrative of the whole subject, which representation I believe to be anterior to Christianity. It is copied from Moor's Hindu Pantheon, not as a curiosity, but as a most singular monument of the crucifixion. I do not venture to give it a name, other than that of a crucifixion in space...Can it be the Victim‑Man, or the Priest and Victim both in one, of the Hindu mythology, who offered himself a sacrifice before the worlds were? Can it be Plato's second God who impressed himself on the universe in the form of the cross?"

Or is it his divine man who would be scourged, tormented, fettered, have his eyes burnt out; and lastly,

having suffered all manner of evils, would be crucified? Plato learned his theology in Egypt and the East, and

must have known of the crucifixion of Krishna, Buddha, Mithra [et al]. At any rate, the religion of India had its

mythical crucified victim long anterior to Chrislanteans established themselves in Egypt, where they became its

first "divine" rulers. Nearly all the great cosmological myths forming the foundation of the various sacred books

of the world are based upon the Atlantean Mystery rituals.

The Myth of The Dying God

The myth of Tammuz and Ishtar is one of the earliest examples of the dying‑god allegory, probably antedating

4000 B.C. (See Babylonia and Assyria by Lewis Spence). The imperfect condition of the tablets upon which the

legends are inscribed makes it impossible to secure more than a fragmentary account of the Tammuz rites.

Being the esoteric god of the sun, Tammuz did not occupy a position among the first deities venerated by the

Babylonians, who for lack of deeper knowledge looked upon him as a god of agriculture or a vegetation spirit.

Originally he was described as being one of the guardians of the gates of the underworld. Like many other Savior‑

gods, he is referred to as a "shepherd" or "the lord of the shepherd seat."

Tammuz occupies the remarkable position of son and husband of Ishtar, the Babylonian and Assyrian Mother‑

goddess, Ishtar, to whom the planet Venus was sacred, was the most widely venerated deity of the Babylonian and

Assyrian pantheon. [DO YOU SEE HOW LONG THE ANTI‑CHRISTS HAVE BEEN WORKING, TRYING THE DESTROY THE MESSAGE OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST. THOUSANDS OF YEARS BEFORE HIS BIRTH, SATAN WAS AT WORK TRYING TO DESTROY MAN'S BELIEF IN GOD AND CHRIST, BEFORE JESUS WAS BORN]

She was probably identical with Ashetroth, Astarte, and Aphrodite. The story of her descent into the underworld in search, presumably for the sacred elixir which alone could restore Tammuz to life, is the key to the ritual of her Mysteries. Tammuz, whose annual festival took place just before the summer solstice, died in midsummer in the ancient month which bore his name, and was mourned with elaborate ceremonies.

The manner of his death is unknown, but some of the accusations made against Ishtar by Izdubar (Nimrod)

would indicate that she, indirectly at least, had contributed to his demise. The resurrection of Tammuz was the

occasion of great rejoicing, at which time he was hailed as a "redeemer" of his people.

With outspread wings, Ishtar, the daughter of Sin (the Moon), sweeps downward to the gates of death. The

house of darkness, the dwelling of the god Irkalla, is described as "the place of no return." It is without

light; the nourishment of those who dwell therein is dust and their food is mud.

Over the bolts on the door of the house of Irkalla is scattered dust, and the keepers of the house are

covered with feathers like birds. Ishtar demands that the keepers open the gates, declaring that if they do not

she will shatter the doorposts and strike the hinges and raise up dead devourers of the living. The guardians of

the gates beg her to be patient while they go to the queen of Hades, from whom they secure permission to admit

Ishtar, but only in the same manner as all others came to this dreary house. Ishtar thereupon descends through

the seven gates which lead downward into the depths of the underworld.

At the first gate the great crown is removed from her head, at the second gate the earrings from her ears,

at the third gate the necklace from her neck, at the fourth gate the ornaments from her breast, at the fifth gate

the girdle from her waist, at the sixth gate the bracelets from her hands and feet, and at the seventh gate the

covering cloak of her body. Ishtar remonstrates as each successive article of apparel is taken from her, but the

guardian tells her that this is the experience of all who enter the somber domain of death. Enraged upon

beholding Ishtar, the Mistress of Hades inflicts upon her all manner of disease and imprisons her in the

underworld.

As Ishtar represents the spirit of fertility, her loss prevents the ripening of the crops and the maturing

of all life upon the earth. In this respect the story parallels the legend of Persephone. The gods, realizing

that the loss of Ishtar is disorganizing all Nature, send a messenger to the underworld and demand her release.

The Mistress of Hades is forced to comply, and the water of life is poured over Ishtar. Thus cured of the

infirmities inflicted on her, she retraces her way upward through the seven gates, at each of which she is

reinvested with the article of apparel which the guardians had removed (See The Chaldean Account of Genesis). No

record exists that Ishtar secured the water of life which would have wrought the resurrection of Tammuz.

The myth of Ishtar symbolizes the descent of the human spirit through the seven worlds, or spheres of the

sacred planets, until finally, deprived of its spiritual adornments, it incarnates in the physical body, Hades,

where the mistress of that body heaps every form of sorrow and misery upon the imprisoned consciousness. The

waters of life, the secret doctrine, cure the diseases of ignorance; and the spirit, ascending again to its

divine source, regains its God‑given adornments as it passes upward through the rings of the planets.

Another Mystery ritual among the Babylonians and Assyrians was that of Merodach and the Dragon. Merodach, the creator of the inferior universe, slays a horrible monster and out of her body forms the universe. Here is the probable source of the so‑called Christian allegory of St. George and the Dragon.

The Mysteries of Adonis, or Adoni, were celebrated annually in many parts of Egypt, Phoenicia and Biblos.

The name Adonis, or Adoni, means "Lord" and was a designation applied to the sun and has been borrowed by the Jews as the exoteric name of their god [here we can see that the Jews god, is not the God of the Bible]. Smyrna,

mother of Adonis, was turned into a tree by the gods and after a time the bark burst open and the infant Savior

issued forth.

According to one account, he was liberated by a wild boar which split the wood of the maternal tree with its

tusks. Adonis was born at midnight of the 24th of December, and through his unhappy death a Mystery rite was established that wrought the salvation of his people.

In the Jewish month of Tammuz (another name for this deity), he was gored to death by a wild boar sent by

the god Ars (Mars). The Adoniasmos was the ceremony of lamenting the premature death of the murdered god.

In Ezekiel viii.14, it is written that women were weeping for Tammuz (Adonis) at the north gate of the Lord's House in Jerusalem. Sir James George Frazer cites Jerome thus: "He tells us that Bethlehem, the traditionary birthplace of the Lord, was shaded by a grove of that still older Syrian Lord, Adonis, and that where the infant Jesus had wept, the lover of Venus was bewailed." (See The Golden Bough).

The effigy of a wild boar is said to have been set over one of the gates of Jerusalem in honor of Adonis (Tammuz), and his rites celebrated in the grotto of the Nativity at Bethlehem. Adonis as the "gored" (or "god")

man is one of the keys to Sir Francis Bacon's use of the "wild boar" in his cryptic symbolism.

Adonis was originally an androgynous deity, who represented the solar power which in the winter was

destroyed by the evil principle of cold, the boar. After three days (months) in the tomb, Adonis rose triumphant

on the 25th day of March, amidst the acclamation of his priests and followers, "He is risen!" Adonis was born out

of a myrrh tree. Myrrh, the symbol of death because of its connection with the process of embalming, was one of

the gifts brought by the three Magi to the manger of Jesus [however the Scriptures plainly show that the so‑called Magi DID NOT come to the manger, they came to the "HOUSE" where Jesus lived about two years after His

birth!].

In the Mysteries of Adonis the neophyte passed through the symbolic death of the god and, "raised" by the

priests, entered into the blessed state of redemption made possible by the sufferings of Adonis. Nearly all

authors believe Adonis to have been originally a vegetation god directly connected with the growth and maturing

of flowers.

Then we are told, Solomon, the Spirit of Universal Illumination, mental, spiritual, moral, and physical, is

personified in the king of an earthly nation. While a great ruler by that name may have built a temple, he who

considers the story solely from its historical angle will never clear away the rubbish that covers the secret

vaults.

The rubbish is interpolated matter in the form of superficial symbols, allegories, and degrees which have no

legitimate part in the original Freemasonic Mysteries. Concerning the loss of the true esoteric key to Masonic

secrets, Albert Pike writes:

"No one journeys now 'from the high place of Cabaon to the threshing floor of Ornan the Yebusite,' nor has seen, 'his Master, clothed in blue and gold;' nor are apprentices and Fellowcrafts any longer paid at their respective Columns; nor is the Master's working tool the Tracing Board, nor does he use in his work 'Chalk, Charcoal, and an Earthen Vessel,' nor does the Apprentice, becoming a Fellow Craft, pass from the square to the compass; for the meanings of these phrases as symbols have long been lost."

According to the ancient Jewish Rabbins, Solomon was an initiate of the Mystery schools and the temple which

he built was actually a house of initiation containing a mass of pagan philosophic and phallic emblems. The

pomegranates, the palm‑headed columns, the pillars before the door, the Babylonian cherubim, and the arrangement of the chambers and draperies all indicate the temple to have been pattered after the sanctuaries of Egypt and Atlantis. Isaac Myer, in The Qabbalah, makes the following observation: "The pseudo‑Clement of Rome, writes: 'God made man male and female. The male is Christ; the female, the Church.' The Qabbalists called the Holy Spirit, the mother, and the Church of Israel, the Daughter.

Solomon engraved on the walls of his Temple, liknesses of the male and female principles, to adumbrate this

mystery; such, it is said, were the figures of the cherubim. This was, however, not in obedience to the words of

the Thorah. They were symbolical of the Upper, the spiritual, the former or maker, positive or male, and the

Lower, the passive, the negative or female, formed or made by the first." AS YOU CAN SEE, THE JEWS NEVER MISS AN OPPORTUNITY TO BLASPHEME ALMIGHTY GOD AND THE LORD JESUS CHRIST.

Masonry came to Northern Africa and Asia Minor from the lost continent of Atlantis, not under its present

name but rather under the general designation Sun and Fire Worship. The ancient Mysteries did not cease to exist

when Christianity became the world's most powerful religion. Great Pan did not die! Freemasonry is the proof of

his survival.

The pre‑Christian Mysteries simply assumed the symbolism of the new faith, perpetuating through its emblems and allegories the same truths which had been the property of the wise since the beginning of the world. There is no true explanation, therefore, for Christian symbols save that which is concealed within pagan philosophy. Without the mysterious keys carried by the hierophants of the Egyptian, Brahmin, and Persian cults the gates of Wisdom cannot be opened. Consider with reverent spirit, therefore, the sublime allegory of the Temple and its Builders, realizing that beneath its literal interpretation lies hidden a Royal Secret.

Albert Pike said:

"Humanity has never really had but one religion and one worship. This universal light has had its uncertain mirages, its deceitful reflections, and its shadows; but always after the nights of error, we see it reappear, one and pure like the Sun.

The magnificences of worship are the life of religion, and if Christ wishes poor ministers, His Sovereign

Divinity does not wish paltry altars. Some Protestants have not comprehended that worship is a teaching, and that

we must not create in the imagination of the multitude a mean or miserable God. Those oratories that resemble

poorly‑furnished offices or inns, and those worthy ministers clad like notaries or lawyer's clerks, do they not

necessarily cause religion to be regarded as a mere puritanic formality, and God as a Justice of the Peace?

We scoff at the Augurs. It is so easy to scoff, and so difficult well to comprehend. Did the Deity leave the

whole world without Light for two score centuries, to illuminate only a little corner of Palestine and a brutal,

ignorant, and ungrateful people? Why always calumniate God and the Sanctuary? Were there never any others than

rogues among the priests?

Could no honest and sincere men be found among the Hierophants of Ceres or Diana, of Dionusos or Apollo, of Hermes or Mithras? Were these, then, all deceived, like the rest? Who, then, constantly deceived them, without betraying themselves, during a series of centuries? For the cheats are not immortal! Arago said, that outside of the pure mathematics, he who utters the word "impossible," is wanting in prudence and good sense.

The true name of Satan, the Kabalists say, is that of Yahveh reversed; for Satan is not a black god, but the

negation of God. The Devil is the personification of Atheism or Idolatry.

For the Initiates, this is not a Person, but a Force, created for good, but which may serve for evil. It is

the instrument of Liberty or Free Will. They represent this Force, which presides over the physical generation,

under the mythological and horned form of the God Pan; thence came the he‑goat of the Sabbat, brother of the

Ancient Serpent, and the Light‑bearer or Phosphor, of which the poets have made the false Lucifer of the legend."

(Morals and Dogma)

As you can clearly see, Albert Pike, has shown that Masonry is the worship of Lucifer or Satan. That Satan

is the Light‑bearer, not Christ. That Christ is the brother of the Ancient Serpent, and that Satan was created

for good, but could be used for evil!

According to the Talmudic legends, Solomon understood the mysteries of the Qabbalah. He was also an

alchemist and a necromancer, being able to control the demons, and from them and other inhabitants of the

invisible worlds he secured much of his wisdom. In his translation of Clavicula Salomonis, or The Key of Solomon

the King, a work presumably setting forth the magical secrets gathered by Solomon and used by him in the

conjuration of spirits and which, according to Frank C. Higgins, contains many sidelights on Masonic ititiatory

rituals, S.L. MacGregor‑Mathers recognizes the probability that King Solomon was a magician in the fullest sense

of that word. "I see no reason to doubt," the affairs, "the tradition which assigns the authorship of the 'Key'

to King Solomon, for among others Josephus, the Jewish historian, especially mentions the magical works

attributed to that monarch; this is confirmed by many Eastern traditions, and his magical skill is frequently

mentioned in the Arabian Nights."

Concerning Solomon's supernatural powers, Josephus writes in his Eighth Book of the antiquities of the Jews:

"Now the sagacity and wisdom which God had bestowed on Solomon was so great the he exceeded the ancients, in so much that he was no way inferior to the Egyptians, who are said to have been beyond all men in understanding...

God also enabled him to learn that skill which expelled demons, which is a science useful and sanative to him.

He composed such incantations also by which distempers are alleviated. And he left behind him the manner of using

exorcisms, by which they drive away demons, so that they never return; and this method of cure is of great force

unto this day."

The medieval alchemists were convinced that King Solomon understood the secret processes of Hermes by means of which it was possible to multiply metals. Dr. Bacstrom writes that the Universal Spirit (CHiram) assisted King Solomon to build his temple, because Solomon being wise in the wisdom of alchemy knew how to control this

incorporeal essence and, setting it to work for him, caused the invisible universe to supply him with vast amounts of gold and silver which most people believed were mined by natural methods.

The mysteries of the Islamic faith are now in the keeping of the dervishes, men who, renouncing worldliness, have withstood the test of a thousand and one days of temptation. Jelal‑ud‑din, the great Persian Sufic poet and philosopher, is accredited with having founded the Order of Mevlevi, or the "dancing dervishes," whose movements exoterically signify the motions of the celestial bodies and esoterically result in the establishment of a rhythm which stimulates the centers of the spiritual consciousness within the dancer's body.

"According to the mystical canon, there are always on earth a certain number of holy men who are admitted to

intimate communion with the Deity. The one who occupies the highest position among his contemporaries is called the 'Axis' (Qutb) or 'Pole' of his time...Subordinate to the Qutb are two holy beings who bear the title of 'The

Faithful Ones,' and are assigned places on his right and left respective. Below these is a quarteette of 'Intermediate Ones' (Evtad); and on successively lower planes are five 'Lights' (Envar), and sevne 'Very Good' (Akhyar). The next rank is filled by forty 'Absent Ones' (Rijal‑i‑ghaib), also termed 'Martyrs' (Shuheda). When an 'Axis' quits this earthly existence, he is succeeded by the 'Faithful One' who has occupied the place at his right hand...For to these holy men, who also bear the collective titles of 'Lords of Souls,' and 'Directors,' is committed a spiritual supremacy over mankind far exceeding the temporal authority of earthly rulers." (See Mysticism and Magic in Turkey, by L.M.J. Garnett).

The Axis is a mysterious individual who, unknown and unsuspected, mingles with mankind and who, according to

tradition, has his favorite seat upon the roof of the Caaba. J.P. Brown, in The Dervishes, gives a description of

these "Master Souls."

Freemasonrys Priceless Heritage

The sanctum sanctorum of Freemasonry is ornamented with the [Jewish] gnostic jewels of a thousand ages; its

rituals ring with the divinely inspired words of seers and sages. A hundred religions have brought their gifts of

wisdom to its altar; arts and sciences unnumbered have contributed to its symbolism. Freemasonry is a world‑wide

university, teaching the liberal arts and sciences of the soul to all who will hearken to its words.

Its chairs are seats of learning and its pillars uphold an arch of universal education. Its trestleboards are inscribed with the eternal verities of all ages and upon those who comprehend its sacred depths has dawned the realization that within the Freemasonic Mysteries lie hidden the long‑lost arena sought by all peoples since the genesis of human reason.

The philosophic power of Freemasonry lies in its symbols, its priceless heritage from the Mystery schools of

antiquity. In a letter to Robert Freke Gould, Albert Pike wrote: "It began to shape itself to my intellectual

vision into something more imposing and majestic, solemnly mysterious and grand. It seemed to me like the

Pyramids in their loneliness, in whose yet undiscovered chambers may be hidden, for the enlightenment of coming

generations, the sacred books of the Egyptisans, so long lost to the world; like the Sphynx half buried in the

desert.

In its symbolism, which and its spirit of brotherhood are its essence, Freemasonry is more ancient than any

of the world's living religions. It has the symbols and doctrines which, older than himself, Zarathustra

inculcated; and it seemed to me a spectacle sublime, yet pitiful, the ancient Faith of our ancestors holding out

to the world its symbols once so eloquent, and mutely and in vain asking for an interpreter. And so I came at

last to see that the true greatness and majesty of Freemasonry consist in its proprietorship of these and its

other symbols; and that its symbolism is its soul."

Though the temples of Thebes and Karnak be now but majestic heaps of broken and time‑battered stone, the

spirit of Egyptian philosophy still marches triumphant through the centuries. Though the rock‑hewn sanctuaries of the ancient Brahmins be now deserted and their carvings crumbled into dust, still the wisdom of the Vedas

endures.

Though the oracles be silenced and the House of the Mysteries be now but rows of ghostly columns, still

shines the spiritual glory of Hellas with luster undiminished. Though Zoroaster, Hermes, Pythagoras, Plato and Aristole are now but dim memories in a world once rocked by the transcendency of their intellectual genius, still in the mystic temple of Freemasonry these god‑men live again in their words and symbols; and the candidate passing through the initiations, feels himself face to face with the illumined hierophants of days long past.

Enters The Druids

According to James Gardner, there were usually two Arch‑Druids in Britain, on residing on the Isle of

Anglesea and the other on the Isle of Man. Presumably there were others in Gaul. These dignitaries generally

carried golden scepters and were crowned with wreaths of oak leaves, symbolic of their authority. The younger

members of the Druidic Order were clean‑shaven and modestly dressed but the more aged had long gray beards and wore magnificent golden ornaments.

The educational system of the Druids in Britain was superior to that of their colleagues on the Continent,

and consequently many of the Gallic youths were sent to the Druidic colleges in Britain for their philosophical

instruction and training.

Eliphas Levi states that the Druids lived in strict abstinence, studied the natural sciences, preserved the

deepest secrecy, and admitted new members only after long probationary periods. Many of the priests of the order

lived in buildings not unlike the monasteries of the modern world. They were associated in groups like ascetics

of the Far East.

Although celibacy was not demanded of them, few married. Many of the Druids retired from the world and lived as recluses in caves, in rough‑stone houses or in little shacks built in the depths of a forest. Here they prayed

and meditated, emerging only to perform their religious duties.

James Freeman Clarke, in his Ten Great Religions, describe the beliefs of the Druids as follows:

"The Druids believed in three worlds and in transmigration from one to the other: In a world above this, in which happiness predominated; a world below, of misery; and this present state. This transmigration was to punish and reward and also to purify the soul.

In the present world, said they, Good and Evil are so exactly balanced that man has the utmost freedom and

is able to choose or reject either. The Welsh Triads tell us there are three objects of metemphychosis: to collect into the soul the properties of all being, to acquire a knowledge of all things, and to get power to conquer evil. There are also, they say, three kinds of knowledge: knowledge of the nature of each thing, of its cause, and its influence. There are three things which continually grow less: darkness, falsehood, and death. There are three which constantly increase: light, life, and truth."

Like nearly all schools of the Mysteries, the teachings of the Druids were divided into two distinct sections. The simpler, a moral code was taught to all the people, while the deeper, esoteric doctrine was given only to initiated priests. To be admitted to the order, a candidate was required to be of good family and of high moral character. No important secrets were intrusted to him until he had been tempted in many ways and his strength of character severely tried.

The Druids taught the people of Britain and Gaul concerning the immortality of the soul. They believed in

transmigration and apparently in reincarnation. They borrowed in one life, promising to pay back in the next.

They believed in a purgatorial type of hell where they would be purged of their sins, afterward passing on to the

happiness of unity with the gods. The Druids taught that all men would be saved, but that some must return to

earth many times to learn the lessons of human life and to overcome the inherent evil of their own natures.

Before a candidate was intrusted with the secret doctrines of the Druids, he was bound with a vow of

secrecy. These doctrines were imparted only in the depths of forests and in the darkness of caves. In these

places, far from the haunts of men, the neophyte was instructed concerning the creation of the universe, the

personalities of the gods, the laws of Nature, the secrets of occult medicine, the mysteries of the celestial

bodies, and the rudiments of magic and sorcery.

The Druids had a great number of feast days. The new and full moon and the sixth day of the moon were sacred

periods. it is believed that initiations took place only at the two solstices and the two equinoxes. At dawn of

the 25th day of December, the birth of the Sun God was celebrated.

The secret teachings of the Druids are said by some to be tinctured with Pythagorean philosophy. The Druids

had a Madonna, or Virgin Mother, with a Child in her arms, who was sacred to their Mysteries; and their Sun God

was resurrected at the time of the year corresponding to that at which modern Christians celebrate Easter.

Both the cross and the serpent were sacred to the Druids, who made the former by cutting off all the

branches of an oak tree and fastening one of them to the main trunk in the form of the letter T. This oaken cross

became symbolic of their superior Deity. They also worshiped the sun, moon, and stars. The moon received their special veneration. Caesar stated that Mercury was one of the chief deities of the Gauls.

The Druids are believed to have worshiped Mercury under the similtude of a stone cube. They also had great

veneration for the Nature spirits (faries, gnomes, and undines), little creatures of the forests and rivers to

whom many offerings were made. Describing the temples of the Druids, Charles Heckethorn, in The Secret Societies

of All Ages & Countries, says:

"Their temples wherein the sacred fire was preserved were generally situate on eminences and in dense groves of oak, and assumed various forms, circular, because a circle was the emblem of the universe; oval, in allusion to the mundane egg, from which issued, according to the traditions of many nations, the universe, or, according to others, our first parents; serpentine, because a serpent was the symbol of Hu, the Druidic Osiris; cruciform, because a cross is an emblem of regeneration; or winged, to represent the motion of the Divine Spirit...

Their chief deities were reducible to two, a male and female, the great father and mother, Hu and Ceridwen,

distinguished by the same characteristics as belong to Osiris and Isis, Bacchus and Ceres, or any other supreme

god and goddess representing the two principles of all Being."

Godfrey Higgins states that Hu, the Mighty, regarded as the first settler of Britain, came from a place

which the Welsh Triads call the Summer Country, the present site of Constantinople. Albert Pike says that the

Lost Word of Masonry is concealed in the name of the Druid god Hu. The meager information extant concerning the secret initiations of the Druids indicates a decided similarity between their Mystery school and the schools of

Greece and Egypt. Hu, the Sun God, was murdered and, after a number of strange ordeals and mystic rituals, was

restored to life.

There were three degrees of the Drudic Mysteries, but few successfully passed them all. The candidate was

buried in a coffin, as symbolic of the death of the Sun God. The supreme test, however, was being sent out to sea

in an open boat. While undergoing this ordeal, many lost their lives. Taliesin, an ancient scholar, who passed

through the Mysteries, describes the initiation of the open boat in Faber's Pagan Idolatry.

The few who passed this third degree were said to have been "born again," and were instructed in the secret and hidden truths which the Druid priests had preserved from antiquity. From these initiates were choses many of the dignitaries of the British religious and political world. (For further details, see Faber's Pagan Idolatry, Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma, and Godfrey Higgins' Celtic Druids).

The Rites of Mithras

When the Persian Mysteries immigrated into Southern Europe, they were quickly assimilated by the Latin mind.

The cult grew rapidly, especially among the Roman soldiery, and during the Roman wars of conquest the teachings were carried by the legionnaires to nearly all parts of Europe. So powerful did the cult of Mithras become that at least one Roman Emperor was initiated into the order, which met in caverns under the city of Rome.

Concerning the spread of this Mystery school through different parts of Europe, C.W. King, in his Gnostics and Their Remains, says:

"Mithraic bas‑reliefs cut on the faces of rocks or on stone tablets still about in the countries formerly the western provinces of the Roman Empire; many exist in Germany, still more in France, and in this island (Britain) they have often been discovered on the line of the Picts' Wall and the noted one at Bath."

Alexander Wilder, in his Philosophy and Ethics of the Zoroasters, states that Mithras is the Zend title for

the sun, and he is supposed to dwell within that shining orb. Mithras has a male and a female aspect, though not

himself androgynous. As Mithras, he is the lord of the sun, powerful and radiant and most magnificent of the Yazatas (Izads, or Genii, of the sun). As Mithra, this deity represents the feminine principle; the mundane universe is recognized as her symbol. She represents Nature as receptive and terrestrial, and as fruitful only when bathed in the glory of the solar orb. The Mithraic cult is a simplification of the more elaborate teachings of Zarathustra (Zoroaster), the Jewish Persian fire magician.

According to the Persians, there coexisted in eternity two principles. The first of these, Ahura‑Mazda, or

Ormuzd, as the Spirit of Good. From Ormuzd came forth a number of hierarchies of good and beautiful spirits

(angels and archangels). The second of these eternally existing principles was called Ahriman. He was also a pure

and beautiful spirit, but he later rebelled against Ormuzd, being jealous of his power.

This did not occur, however, until after Ormuzd had created light, for previously Ahriman had not been conscious of the existence of Ormuzd. Because of his jealousy and rebellion, Ahriman became the Spirit of Evil. From himself he individualized a host of destructive creatures to injure Ormuzd. When Ormuzd created the earth, Ahriman entered into its grosser elements. Whenever Ormuzd did a good deed, Ahriman placed the principle of evil within it. At last when Ormuzd

created the human race, Ahriman became incarnate in the lower nature of man so that in each personality the

Spirit of Good and the Spirit of Evil struggle for control.

For 3000 years Ormuzd ruled the celestial worlds with light and goodness. Then he created man. For another

3000 years he ruled man with wisdom and integrity. Then the power of Ahriman began, and the struggle for the soul

of man continued through the next period of 3000 years. During the fourth period of 3,000 years, the power of

Ahriman will be destroyed.

Good will return to the world again, evil and death will be vanquished, and at last the Spirit of Evil will

bow humbly before the throne of Ormuzd. While Ormuzd and Ahriman are struggling for control of the human soul and for supremacy in Nature, Mithras, God of Intelligence, stands as mediator between the two. Many authors have

noted the similarity between mercury and Mithras. As the chemical mercury acts as a solvent (according to

alchemists), so Mithras seeks to harmonize the two celestial opposites.

There are many points of resemblance between Christianity and the cult of Mithras. Due mainly through the efforts of the Jews to destroy Christianity, by placing false doctrines in Christian teachings. Another of the

reasons for this probably is that the Persian mystics invaded Italy during the first century after Christ and the

early history of both cults was closely interwoven.

The Encyclopedia Britannica makes the following statement concerning the Mithraic and Christian Mysteries:

"The fraternal and democratic spirit of the first communities, and their humble origin; the identification of the object of adoration with light and the sun; the legends of the shepherds with their gifts and adoration, the flood, and the ark; the representation in art of the fiery chariot, the drawing of water from the rock; the use of bell and candle, holy water and the communion; the sanctification

of Sunday and of the 25th of December; the insistence on moral conduct, the emphasis placed on abstinence and

self‑control; the doctrine of heaven and hell, of primitive revelation, of the mediation of the Logos emanating

from the divine, the atoning sacrifice, the constant warfare between good and evil and the final triumph of the former, the immortality of the soul, the last judgment, the resurrection of the flesh and the fiery destruction of the universe, [these] are some of the resemblances which, whether real or only apparent, enabled Mithraism to prolong its resistance to Christianity."

The rites of Mithras were preformed in caves. Porphyry, in his Cave of the Nymphs, states that Zarathustra

(Zoroaster) was the first to consecrate a cave to the worship of God, because a cavern was symbolic of the earth, or the lower world of darkness. John P. Lundy, in his Monumental Christianity, describes the cave of Mithras as

follows: "But this cave was adorned with the signs of the zodiac, Cancer and Capricorn. The summer and winter

solstices were chiefly conspicuous, as the gates of souls descending into this life, or passing out of it in their ascent to the Gods; Cancer being the gate of descent, and Capricorn of ascent. These are the two avenues of the immortals passing up and down from earth to heaven, and from heaven to earth."

The so‑called chair of St. Peter, in Rome, was believed to have been used in one of the pagan Mysteries, possibly that of Mithras, in whose subterranean grottoes the votaries of the Christian Mysteries met in the early

days of their faith. In Anacalypsis, Godfrey Higgins writes that in 1662, while cleaning this sacred chair of

Bar‑Jonas, the Twelve Labors of Hercules were discovered upon it, and that later the French discovered upon the

same chair the Mohammedan confession of faith, written in Arabic. Initiation into the rites of Mithras, like

initiation into many other ancient schools of philosophy, apparently consisted of three important degrees.

Preparation for these degrees consisted of self‑purification, the building up of the intellectual powers, and the control of the animal nature. In the first degree the candidate was given a crown upon the point of a sword and instructed in the mysteries of Mithras' hidden power. Probably he was taught that the golden crown represented

his own spiritual nature, which must be objectified and unfolded before he could truly glorify Mithras; for

Mithras was his own soul, standing as mediator between Ormuzd, his spirit, and Ahriman, his animal nature.

In the second degree he was given the armor of intelligence and purity and sent into the darkness of subterranean pits of light the beasts of lust, passion, and degeneracy. In the third degree he was given a cape, upon which were drawn or woven the signs of the zodiac and other astronomical symbols. After his initiations were over, he was hailed as one who had risen from the dead, was instructed in the secret teachings of the Persian mystics, and became a full‑fledged member of the order.

Candidates who successfully passed the Mithraic initiations were called Lions and were marked upon their

foreheads with the Egyptian cross. Mithras himself is often pictured with the head of a lion and two pairs of wings. Throughout the entire ritual were repeated references to the birth of Mithras as the Sun God, his sacrifice for man, his death that men might have eternal life, and lastly, his resurrection and the saving of all humanity by his intercession before the throne of Ormuzd. (See Heckethorn).

While the cult of Mithras did not reach the philosophic heights attained by Zarathustra, its effect upon the civilization of the Western World was far‑reaching, for at one time nearly all Europe was converted to its doctrines. Rome, in her intercourse with other nations, inoculated them with her religious principles; and many later institutions have exhibited Mitratic culture.

The reference to the Master Mason's degree have a strong Mithraic tinge and may easily have originated from this cult. A ladder of seven rungs appears in the Mithraic initiation. Faber is of the opinion that this ladder was originally a pyramid of seven steps. It is possible that the Masonic ladder with seven rungs had its origin in this Mithraic symbol.

Women were never permitted to enter the Mithraic Order, but children of the male sex were initiates long before they reached maturity. The refusal to permit women to join the Masonic Order may be based on the esoteric reason given in the secret instructions of the Mithraics.

This cult is another excellent example of those secret societies whose legends are largely symbolic representations of the sun and his journey through the houses of the heavens. Mithras, rising from a stone, is

merely the sun rising over the horizon, or, as the ancients supposed, out of the horizon, at the vernal equinox.

John O'Neill disputes the theory that Mithras was intended as a solar deity. In The Night of the Gods he

writes: "The Avestan Mithra, the yazata of light, has '10,000 yes, high, with full knowledge (perethuvacdayana),

strong, sleepless and ever awake (jaghaurvaunghem).' The supreme god Ahur Mazda also has one Eye or else it is

said that 'with his eyes, the sun, moon and stars, he sees everything.'

The theory that Mitra was originally a title of the supreme heavens‑god, putting the sun out of court, is the only one that answers all requirements. It will be evident that here we have origins in abundance for the Freemason's Eye and 'its nunquarn dormio.'" The reader must not confuse the Persian Mithra with the Vedic Mitra. According to Alexander Wilder, "The Mitraic rites superseded the Mysteries of Bacchus, and became the foundation of the Gnostic system, which for many centuries prevailed in Asia, Egypt, and even the remote West."

Episodes From American History

Many times the question has been asked, Was Francis Bacon's vision of the "New Atlantis" a prophetic dream

of the great civilization which was so soon to rise upon the soil of the New World? It is believed by many that

the secret societies of Europe conspired to establish upon the American continent a new nation...Two incidents in

the early history of the United States evidence the influence of that silent body which has so long guided the

destinies of peoples and religions. By them nations are created as vehicles for the promulgation of ideals, and

while nations are true to these ideals they survive; when they vary from them they vanish like the Atlantis of

old which had ceased to "know the gods."

In his little treatise, Our Flag, Robert Allen Campbell revives the details of an obscure, but most important, episode of American history, the designing of the Colonial flag of 1775. The account involves a mysterious man concerning whom no information is available other than that he was on familiar terms with both General George Washington and Dr. Benjamin Franklin.

The following description of him is take from Campbell's treatise:

"Little seems to have been known concerning this old gentleman; and in the materials from which this account is compiled his name is not even once mentioned, for he is uniformly spoken of or referred to as 'the Professor.' He was evidently far beyond his threescore and ten years; and he often referred to historical events of more than a century previous just as if he had been a living witness of their occurrence; still he was erect, vigorous and active, hale, hearty, and clear‑minded, as strong and energetic every way as in the prime of his life.

He was tall, of fine figure, perfect easy, and very dignified in his manners; being at once courteous, gracious and commanding. He was, for those times and considering the customs of the Colonists, very peculiar in his method of living; for he ate no flesh, fowl or fish; he never used for food any 'green thing,' any root or anything unripe; he drank no liquor, wine or ale; but confined his diet to cereals and their products, fruits that were ripened on the stem in the sun, nuts, mild tea and the sweets of honey, sugar or molasses.

He was well educated, highly cultivated, of extensive as we; as varied information, and very studious. He spent considerable of his time in the patient and persistent conning of a number of very rare old books and ancient manuscripts which he seemed to be deciphering, translating or rewriting. These books and manuscripts together with his own writings, he never showed to anyone; and he did not even mention them in his conversations with the family except in the most casual way; and he always locked them up carefully in a large, old‑fashioned, cubically shaped, iron‑bound, heavy oaken chest, whenever he left his room, even for his meals.

He took long and frequent walks alone, sat on the brows of the neighboring hills, or mused in the midst of the green and flower‑gemmed meadows. He was fairly liberal, but in no way lavish, in spending his money, with which he was well supplied. He was a quiet, though a very genial and very interesting, member of the family; and was seemingly at home upon any and every topic coming up in conversation. He was, in short, one whom everyone would notice and respect, whom few would feel well acquainted with, and whom no one would presume to question concerning himself, as to whether he came, why he tarried, or whither he journeyed."

By something more than a mere coincidence the committee and pointed by the Colonial Congress to design a flag accepted an invitation to be guests, while in Cambridge, of the same family with which the Professor was staying. It was here that General Washington joined them for the purpose of deciding upon a fitting emblem.

By the signs which passed between them it was evident that both General Washington and Doctor Franklin recognized the Professor, and by unanimous approval he was invited to become an active member of the committee. During the proceedings which followed, the Professor was treated with the most profound respect and all of his suggestions immediately acted upon.

He submitted a pattern which he considered symbolically appropriate for the new flag, and this was unhesitatingly accepted by the other six members of the committee, who voted that the arrangement suggested by the Professor be forthwith adopted. After the episode of the flag the Professor quietly vanished, and nothing further is known concerning him.

Did General Washington and Doctor Franklin recognize the Professor as an emissary of the Mystery school

which has so long controlled the political destinies of this planet? Benjamin Franklin was a philosopher and a

Freemason, possibly a Rosicrucian initiate. He and the Marquis de Lafayette, also a man of mystery, comprised two of the most important in the formation of circumstances that culminated in the establishment of the original thirteen American colonies as a free and independent nation.

Doctor Franklin's philosophic attainments are well attested in Poor Richard's Almanac, published by him for many years under the name of Richard Saunders. His

interest in the cause of Freemasonry is also shown by his republication of Anerson's constitutions of Freemason

his rare and much disputed work on the subject. It was during the evening of July 4, 1776, that the second of the

mysterious episodes occurred. In the old State House in Philadelphia a group of men were gathered for the

momentous task of severing the last tie between the old country and the new.

It was a grave moment and not a few of those present feared that their lives would be forfeit for their audacity. In the midst of the debate a fierce voice rang out. The debaters stopped and turned to look upon the stranger. Who was this man who had suddenly appeared in their midst and transfixed them with his oratory? They had never seen him before, none knew when he had entered, but his tall full and pale face filled them with awe. His voice ringing with a zeal, the stranger stirred them to their very souls. His closing words rang through the building: "God has given America to be free."

As the stranger sank into a chair exhausted, a wild enthusiasm burst forth. Name after name was placed upon

the parchment the Declaration of Independence was signed. But where was the man who had precipitated the

accomplishment of this immortal task, he had lifted for a moment the veil from the eyes of the assembly and

revealed to them a part at least of the great purpose for which the new nation was conceived? He had disappeared,

nor was he ever seen again or his identity established. This episode parallels others of a similar kind recorded

by ancient historians attending the founding of every new nation. Are they coincidences, or do they demonstrate

that the divine wisdom of the ancient Mysteries is present in the world, serving mankind as it did of old?"

The Cabala and God

The Cabala is the bone and blood of Talmudic Judaism, which is itself pagan from start to finish. It uses the "whited sepulchre" of the Old Testament to cover its negation of every moral law of God in the Old Testament as it promotes practice of all the occult demonistic abominations excoriated by the Old Testament.

The Cabala has two aspects: theoretical and practical, or "theurgic" (wonder‑working). The "god" of the

Cabala is "the En Sof," says the Jewish Encyclopedia, "is the starting point of all cabalistic speculations. "God

is the infinite, unlimited being, to whom one neither can nor may attribute any attributes whatever." (Cabala, p.

472, Jewish Encyclopedia)

Practical Cabala

Every pagan trick of dethroning God and enthroning individual spirits is employed by the Jewish Cabalists.

"Casting of Lots, Necromancy, Exorcism...Bibliomancy, and the mysticism of numbers and letters were developed

into complete systems. Hence the cabalistic doctrine of the heavenly alphabet, whose signs are the constellations

and the stars.

Thus Astrology was legitimized, and Bibliomancy found its justification in the assumption that the sacred

Hebrew letters are not merely signs for things, but implements of divine powers by means of which nature may be subjugated" [by Man], says the Jewish Encyclopedia, under "Cabala," page 479.

"GLORIFICATION OF MAN"

The same Encyclopedia notes that Jews were attracted by its glorification of man, its doctrine of immortality...the Zohar declared him to be the lord of Creation. Indeed, according to the Zohar...man influences the ideal world of the Sephirot...although the Sephirot expect everything from the En Sof, the En Sof is the mass called "God," a mindless self‑percolating essence, unknowing and unknowable.

The Darwinian theory of evolution, like the Spinoza theory of "immanence," pantheism, are similar Cabalistic

ideas in new word form. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, will tell you how when the Dutch began to call the theories of Spinoza by their right name ‑ Atheism ‑ his own Cabala teachers who were members of the Beth Din (Talmud law court) quickly excommunicated him to prevent more unpopularity from fastening upon the already

unpopular Jewish community.

But, ever since, he has borne in Judaism the title of "Blessed Spinoza." All that he did was to voice the cabala, a foundation of the basically atheistic "Jewish" Babylonian Talmudic religion. Karl Marx, himself the son of a Jewish Rabbi, called the "En Sof" by a still fancier name, "dialectical materialism," the mindless bashing of germ to fish to mammal to ape to man, with the Jewish‑spawned Marxist revolution as its crown and triumph.

"And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." (Genesis 6:1‑5)

"And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children.' And Semjz, who was their leader, said unto them: 'I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone will have to pay the penalty of a great sin.' And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.'

Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And these are the names of their leaders: Smazz, their leader, Arkba, Rml, Kkab, Tml, Rml, Dnl, Ezql, Barqjl, Asl, Armrs, Batrl, Annl, Zaql, Samspl, Satarl, Trl, Jmjl, Saril. These are their chiefs of tens.

And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, The giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood.

Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones. And Azzl taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals (of the earth) and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all coloring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways.

Semjz taught enchantments, and root‑cuttings, 'Armrs the resolving of enchantments, Barqjl (taught) astrology, Kkabl the constellations, Ezql the knowledge of the clouds, (Araqil the sings of the earth, Shamsil the signs of the sun), and Saril the course of the moon." (The Book of Enoch, ed. and tr. Charles, Oxford, 1912, pp. 13‑20 [chapters 6‑9])

These two important passages, the first giving rise to the second, were responsible for one of the myths of the origin of the Kabbala (Cabala). Although betrayed to men, and then guiltily abused, the occult knowledge which the fallen angels communicated was divine wisdom, which according to the Kabbalists and had been hidden in

veiled language in the books of the Old Testament. It could be rediscovered by symbolical interpretation; and

this was one of the methods employed in searching out the secrets of the scriptures.

The Babylonian Talmud, however, set a different myth in circulation, which freed the occult knowledge sought for from the taint of spiritual sin adhering to the first. According to this tradition, Jahweh had communicated the secret doctrine to Moses on Mount Sinai for the elect only. The seventy elders had been initiated into it, and thereafter it was handed down orally from father to son. It was also committed to writing in cipher in the Pentateuch, hidden in the words themselves, where the Kabbalists have sought and are still seeking divine and ineffable wisdom.

This was also partially revealed in the Sepher Jezirah (the Book of the Origin) and the Zohar (Light, Brilliance). These are works of abstruse, mystical and theosophical speculations, which probably entered Jewish thought during the Babylonian captivity; and since they did not harmonize with the doctrines of the Old Testament, the Kabbalists set themselves to discover the hidden meaning which, as Zohar plainly hinted, underlay the ostensible one. Apart from symbolical interpretations, three chief cryptogrammic methods were used.

The first, called Gematria, was based on the fact that every one of the twenty‑two letters of the Hebrew

alphabet has a numerical value. One word could therefore be substituted for another, provided that the numerical

total was the same; and as the Hebrew alphabet has no vowels, the results admitted of great variations. By

Gematria, the sentence in Genesis xviii.2: 'And behold three men,' yields: 'These are Michael, Gabriel and

Raphael.'

The second method, Notarikon, formed sentences from words, by taking every letter in a given word as the

initial letter of another; or conversely formed new words from the initial or final letter of every word in a sentence. Thus 'Aieth Gadol Leolam Adonai' (Adonai will be great to eternity) produced the magico‑mystical name for God, AGLA, which haunts the ritual texts. Very much in evidence too is the Schemhamphoras, the seventy‑two

divine or angelic names. These are arrived at by observation of the fact that verses 19, 20 and 21 of Exodus xiv each consisted of exactly seventy‑two letters. This arrested Kabbalistic attention; and as verse 19 contained the words: 'The angel of the Lord,' the assumption that angelic names were hidden in the text amounted almost to a certainty.

By writing the three verses one below the other (the first from left to right, the second from right to left, and the third from left to right again) seventy‑two vertical rows of three consonants each were formed, and these were converted into names by interpolating vowels and adding the suffixes ‑al, ‑el or‑jah. Thus VHV becomes Evhuiah; SJT Sitael; MHS Mahasiah, and so on.

There was also a highly complicated method of almost infinite permutations and combinations called Temura,

by means of which the Kabbalists broke down the cipher messages of Jahweh which refused to yield to Gematria or

Notarikon; for ciphers were suspected everywhere in the sacred scriptures; and indeed at one time the belief was

rife that the whole of the Old Testament was a combination of divine and hidden names. The discovery and use of these names of power formed what has been called the practical Kabbala, a veritable storehouse for magicians."

The Kabbalah The Blood and Bone of Judaism

The Jews False Teachings About God

‑‑‑‑‑‑‑

By the Rev. Christian D. Ginsburg, LL.D. (Read 19th October, 1863)

A system of religious philosophy, or more properly of theosophy, which has not only exercised for hundreds

of years an extraordinary influence on the mental development of the Jews, but has captivated the minds of some of the greatest thinkers of Christendom in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, claims the greatest attention of both the philosopher and the theologian.

When it is added that among its captives were Raymond Lully, the celebrated scholastic, metaphysician and chemist (died 1315); John Reuchlin, the renowned scholar and reviver of oriental literature in Europe (born 1455, died 1522); John Picus di Mirandola, the famous philosopher and classical scholar (1463‑149); Cornelius Henry Agrippa, the distinguished philosopher, divine and physician (1486‑1535); John Baptist von Helmont, a remarkable chemist and physician (1577‑1644); as well as our own countrymen Robet Fludd, the famous physician and philosopher (1574‑1637), and Dr. Henry More (1614‑1687); and that these men, after restlessly searching for a scientific system which should disclose to them "the deepest depths" of the Divine nature, and show them the real tie which binds all things together, found the cravings of their minds satisfied by this theosophy, the claims of

the Kabbalah (Cabala) on the attention of students in literature and philosophy will readily be admitted.

The claims of the Kabbalah, however, are not restricted to the literary man and the philosopher: the poet

too will find in it ample materials for the exercise of his lofty genius.

How can it be otherwise with a theosophy which, we are assured, was born of God in Paradise, was nursed and

reared by the choicest of the angelic hosts in heaven, and only held converse with the holiest of man's children

upon earth. Listen to the story of its birth, growth and maturity, as told by its followers.

The Kaballah Was First Taught By God

The Kabbalah was first taught by God Himself to a select company of angels, who formed a theosophic school

in Paradise. After the fall the angels most graciously communicated this heavenly doctrine to the disobedient

children of earth, to furnish the protoplasts with the means f returning to their pristine nobility and felicity. From Adam it passed over to Noah, and then to Abraham, the friend of God, who emigrated with it to Egypt, where the patriarch allowed a portion of this mysterious doctrine to ooze out. It was in this way that the Egyptians obtained some knowledge of it, and the other Eastern nations could introduce it into their philosophical systems. Moses, who was learned in all the wisdom of Egypt, was first initiated into it in the land of his birth, but become most proficient in it during his wanderings in the wilderness, when he not only devoted to it the leisure hours of the whole forty years, but received lessons in it from the one of the angels.

We will pause here and relate what the Scriptures relates about the life of Moses:

"And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren. And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand. And when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews strove together: and he said to him that did the wrong. Wherefore mitest thou thy fellow? And he said, Who made the a prince and a judge over us? intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said, Surely this thing is known. Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian: and he sat down by a well. Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock. And when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that ye are come so soon to day? And they said, An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock. And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread. And Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter. And she bare him a son, and he called his name Gershom: for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land." (Exodus 2:11‑21)

The Book of Jasher relates the following:

"At that time the war and the siege were against Cush, Moses fled from Egypt from Pharaoh who sought to kill him for having slain the Egyptian. And Moses was eighteen years old when he fled from Egypt from the presence of Pharaoh, and he fled and escaped to the camp of Kikianus, which at that time was besieging Cush. And Moses was nine years in the camp of Kikianus king of Cush, all the time that they were besieging Cush, and Moses went out and came in with them. And the kind and princes and all the fighting men loved Moses, for he was great and worthy, his stature was like a noble lion, his face was like the sun, and his strength was like that of a lion, and he was counsellor to the king. And at the end of nine years, Kikianus was seized with a mortal disease, and his illness prevailed over him, and he died on the seventh day. So his servants embalmed him and carried him and buried him opposite the city gate to the north of the land of Egypt... Now therefore let us go and make a king over us, and let us remain in the siege until the city is delivered up to us. And they wished to choose on that day a man for king from the army of Kikianus, and they found no object of their choice like Moses to reign over them. And they hastened and stripped off each man his garments and cast them upon the ground, and they made a great heap and placed Moses thereon..." (Jasher 72:21‑35)

Then we find how Moses happened to be at the well:

"So Moses went forth from the land of Cush, and went home and ceased to reign over Cush, and Moses was sixty‑six years old when he went out of the land of Cush, for the thing was from the Lord, for the period had arrived which he had appointed in the days of old, to bring forth Israel from the affliction of the children of Ham. So Moses went to Midian, for he was afraid to return to Egypt on account of Pharaoh, and he went and sat at a well of water in Midian. And the seven daughters of Reuel the Midianite went out to feed their father's flock. And they came to the well and drew water to water their father's flock. So the shepherds of Midian came and drove them away, and Moses rose up and helped them and watered the flock. And they came home to their father Reuel, and told him what Moses did for them. And they said, An Egyptian man has delivered us from the hands of the shepherds, he drew up water for us and watered the flock. And Reuel said to his daughters, And where is he? wherefore have you left the man? And Reuel sent for him and fetched him an brought him home, and he ate bread with him...and he gave him his daughter Ziporah for a wife." (Jasher 77:12‑

51)

So we can clearly see that the Kabbalah (Cabala) is a lie from the very beginning. However, continuing on:

By the aid of this mysterious science the lawgiver was enabled to solve the difficulties which arose during his

management of the Israelites, in spite of the pilgrimages, wars and the frequent miseries of the nation.

He covertly laid down the principles of this secret doctrine in the first four books of the Pentateuch, but

withheld them from Deuteronomy. This constitutes the former the man, and the latter the woman. Moses also

initiated the seventy elders into the secrets of this doctrine, and they again transmitted them from hand to hand. Of all who formed the unbroken line of tradition, David and Solomon were most initiated into the Kabbalah. No one, however, dared to write it down, till Simon ben Jochai, who lived at the time of the destruction of the second Temple. Having been condemned to death by Titus, Rabbi Simon managed to escape with his son and concealed

himself in a cavern where he remained for twelve years. Here, in this subterranean abode, he occupied himself

entirely with the contemplation of the sublime Kabbalah, and was constantly visited by the Prophet Elasis, who

disclosed to him some of its secrets which were still concealed from the theosophical Rabbi.

"Put not your trust in princes, nor in the son of man, in whom there is no help. His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; in that very day his thoughts perish." (Psalm 146:3‑4)

Here, too, his disciples resorted to be initiated by their master into these divine mysteries; and here, Simon ben Jochai expired with this heavenly doctrine in his mouth, whilst discoursing on it to his disciples. Scarcely had his spirit departed, when a dazzling light filled the cavern, so that no one could look at the Rabbi; whilst a burning fire appeared outside, forming as it were a sentinel at the entrance of the cave, and denying admittance to the neighbours. It was not till the light inside, and the fire outside, had disappeared, that the disciples perceived that the lamp of Israel was extinguished. As they were preparing for his obsequious, a voice was heard from heaven, saying, "Come ye to the marriage of Simon b. Jochai, he is entering into peace, and shall rest in his chamber!"

"And Jesus answering said...For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven." (Mark 12:23‑24)

"And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage: But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage." (Luke 20:34‑35)

A flame preceded the coffin, which seemed enveloped by, and burning like fire. And when the remains were deposited in the tomb, another voice was heard from heaven, saying, "This is he who caused the earth to quake, and the kingdoms to shake!"

Here the Jews claim the rabbi has the power of God:

"God is jealous, and the Lord revengeth; the Lord revengeth, and is furious...The mountains quake at him, and the hills melt, and the earth is burned at his presence, yea, the world, and all that dwell therein. Who can stand before his indignation? and who can abide in the fierceness of his anger? his fury is poured out like fire, and the rocks are thrown down by him." (Nahum 1:2‑6)

But God tells us, that the Jews are Lucifer, the Devil and Satan's children, when He tells us:

"Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at they coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations...How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God [Israelites]: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, IS THIS THE MAN THAT MADE THE EARTH TO TREMBLE [Quake], THAT DID SHAKE KINGDOMS." (Isaiah 14:9‑16)

His son, R. Eliezer, and his secretary, R. Abba, as well as his disciples, then collated R. Simon b. Jochai's treatises, and out of these composed the celebrated work called Sohar i.e., Splendour, which is the grand storehouse of Kabbalism.

From what has been said, it will be seen that the followers of this secret doctrine claim for it a pre‑Adamite existence, and maintain that, ever since the creation of the first man, it has been received uninterruptedly from the hands of the patriarchs, the prophets, etc. It is for this reason that it is called Kabbalah (Cabala) [from to receive] which primarily denotes reception, and then a doctrine received by oral tradition.

The Kabbalah is also called by some Secret Wisdom, because it was only handed down by tradition through the initiated, and is indicated in the Hebrew Scriptures by signs which are hidden and unintelligible to those who have not been instructed in its mysteries. From the initial letters of this name, this theosophic system is also denominated Grace.

Vague and indefinite as this name may seem to the uninitiated, inasmuch as it conveys no idea whatever of the peculiar doctrines of the system, but simply indicates the manner in which they have been transmitted, it is nevertheless the classical and acknowledged appellation of this theosophy. The difference between the word Kabbalah (reception) and the cognate term Massorah (tradition, from to transmit) which denotes the traditionally transmitted various readings of the Hebrew Scriptures, is, that the former expresses the act of receiving, which in this technical sense could only be on the part of one who has reached a certain period of life, as well as a certain state of sanctity, implying also a degree of secrecy; whilst the latter signifies the act of giving over, surrendering, without premising any peculiar age, stage of holiness, or degree of secrecy.

The name, therefore, tells us no more than that this theosophy has been received traditionally. To ascertain its

tenets we must analyze the system itself or the books which propound it; and to this task we now betake

ourselves.

The Cardinal Doctrines

of The Kabbalah (Cabala)

The cardinal doctrines of the Kabbalah are mainly designed to solve the grand problems about (1) the nature

of the Supreme Being, (2) The cosmogony, (3) The creation of angels and man, (4) The destiny of man and the universe, and (5) To point out the import of the Revealed Law. Assenting and consenting to the declarations of

the Hebrew Scriptures about the unit of God (Exod. 20:3; Deut. 4:35‑39; 6:4; 32:39), his incorporation (Exod.

20:4; Deut. 4:15; Psalm 14:18), eternity (Exod. 3:14; Deut. 32:40; Isa. 41:4; 43:10; 44:6; 48:12), immutability

(Mal. 3:6), perfection (Deut. 32:4; 2 Sam. 22:31; Job 38:16; Psalm 18:31), infinite goodness (Exod. 34:6; Psalm

25:10; 33:5; 100:5; 145:9), the creation of the world in time according to God's free will (Gen. 1:1), the moral

government of the universe and special providence, and to the creation of man in the image of God (Gen. 1:27),

the Kabbalah seeks to explain the transition from the infinite to the finite; the procedure of multifariousness

from an absolute unity, and of matter from a pure intelligence; the operation of pure intelligence upon matter, in spite of the infinite gulf between them; the relationship of the Creator to the creature, so as to be able to exercise supervision and providence.

It, moreover, endeavors to show how it is that the Bible gives names and assigns attributes and a form to so

spiritual a Being; how the existence of evil is compatible with the infinite goodness of God, and what is the

Divine intention about this creation.

In our analysis of the Kabbalistic doctrines on these grand problems, we shall follow the order in which

they have been enumerated, and accordingly begin with the lcubrations on the Supreme Being and the Emanations.

The Sephiroth

1). The Supreme Being and the doctrine and classification of the Emanations, or Sephiroth.

Being boundless in his nature, which necessarily implies that hie is an absolute unity and inscrutable, and that there is nothing without him, or that the rπv is in him, God is called En Soph == πeipo Endless, Boundless. In this boundlessness, or as the En Soph, he cannot be comprehended by the intellect, nor described in words, for there is nothing which can grasp and depict him to us, and as such he is, in a certain sense, NOT EXISTENCE, because, as far as our minds are concerned, that which is perfectly incomprehensible does not exits.

To make his existence perceptible, and to render himself comprehensible, the En Soph, or the Boundless, had to become active and creative. But the En Soph cannot be the direct creator, for he has neither will, intention, desire, thought, language, nor action, as these properties imply limit and belong to finite beings, whereas the En Soph is boundless. Besides, the imperfect and circumscribed nature of the creation precludes the idea that the world was created or even designed by him, WHO CAN HAVE NO WILL NOR PRODUCE ANYTHING but what is like himself, boundless and perfect.

On the other hand, again, the beautiful design displayed in the mechanism, the regular order manifested in the preservation, destruction, and renewal of things, forbid us to regard this world as the offspring of chance, and constrain us to recognize therein an intelligent design. We are, therefore, compelled to view the En Soph as the creator of the world in an indirect manner.

Now, the medium by which the En Soph made his existence known in the creation of the world are ten Sephiroth or intelligences, which emanated from the Boundless One in the following manner: At first the En Soph, or the Aged of the Aged or the Holy Aged, as he is alternately called, sent forth from his infinite light one spiritual substance or intelligence. This first Sephira, which existed in the En Soph from all eternity, and became a reality by a mere act, has no less than seven appellations.

It is called ‑‑

(1) The Crown, because it occupies the highest position;

(2) The Aged, because it is the oldest or the first emanation, and this name must not be confounded with the Aged of the Aged, which as we have seen, is the appellation of the En Soph;

(3) The Primordial Point, or the Smooth Point, because, as the Sohar tells us,

"When the Concealed of the Concealed wished to reveal himself, he first made a single point: the Infinite was entirely unknown, and diffused no light before this luminous point violently broke through into vision;" (Sohar, 1, 15a).

(4) The White Head;

(5) The Long Face, Macroprosopon, because the whole ten Sephiroth represent the Primordial or the Heavenly Man, of which the first Sephira is the head;

(6) The Inscrutable Height, because it is the highest of all the Sephiroth proceeding immediately from the En Soph. Hence, on the passage

"Go forth, O ye daughters of Zion, and behold the King of Peace with the Crown!" (Song of Solomon 3:2)

The Sohar remarks, "But who can behold the King of Peace, seeing that He is incomprehensible, even to the heavenly hosts? But he who sees the Crown sees the glory of the King of Peace." (Sohar 2. 100b). And

(7) It is expressed in the Bible by the Divine name Ehejeh, or I Am (Exod. 3:4), because it is absolute being, representing the Infinite as distinguished from the finite, and in the angelic order, by the celestial beasts of Ezekiel, called Chajoth.

The first Sephira contained the other nine Sephiroth, and gave rise to them in the following order: At first a masculine or active potency, designated Wisdom, proceeded from it. This Sephira, which among the divine names is represented by Jah (Isa. 26:4), and among the angelic hosts by Ophanim (Wheels), sent forth an opposite, i.e., feminine or passive, potency, denominated Intelligence, which is represented by the divine name Jehovah, and angelic name Arelim, and it is from a union of those two Sephiroth, which are also called Father and Mother, that the remaining seven Sephiroth proceeded.

Or, as the Sohar (3, 290a) expresses it, "When the Holy Aged, the Concealed of all Concealed, assumed a

form, he produced everything in the form of male and female, as the things could not continue in any other form.

Hence Wisdom, which is the beginning of development, when it proceeded from the Holy Aged, emanated in male and female, for Wisdom expanded, and Intelligence proceeded from it, and thus obtained male and female vis., Wisdom, the father, and Intelligence, the mother, from whose union the other pairs of Sephiroth successively emanated." These two opposite potencies vis., Wisdom and Intelligence are joined together by the first potency, the Crown; thus yielding the first triad of the Sephiroth.

From the junction of the foregoing opposites emanated again the masculine or active potency, denominated

Mercy or Love, also called Greatness, the fourth Sephira, which among the divine names is represented by El, and

among the angelic hosts by Chashmalin (com. Ezek. 1:4).

From this again emanated the feminine or passive potency, Justice, also called Judicial Power, the fifth

Sephira, which is represented by the divine name Eloha, and among the angels by Seraphim (Isa. 6:6); and from

this again the uniting potency, Beauty or Mildness, the sixth Sephira, represented by the divine name Elohim, and

among the angels by Shinanim (Psalm 68:18).

Since without this union the existence of things would not be possible, inasmuch as mercy not tempered with

justice, and justice not tempered with mercy would be unendurable: and thus the second trinity of the Sephiroth

is obtained.

The medium of union of the second trinity, i.e., Beauty, the sixth Sephira, beamed forth the masculine or active potency, Firmness, the seventh Sephira, corresponding to the divine name Jehovah Sabaoth, and among the angels to Tarshishim (Dan. 10:6); this again gave rise to the feminine or passive potency, Splendour, the eighth Sephira, to which answer the divine name Elohim Sabaoth, and among the angels Benei Elohim (Gen. 6:4); and from it again, emanated Foundation or the Basis, the ninth Sephira, represented by the divine name El Chai, and among the angelic hosts by Ishim (Psalm 104:4), which is the uniting point between these two opposites, thus yielding the third trinity of Sephiroth. From the ninth Sephira, the Basis of all, emanated the tenth, called Kingdom, and Shechinah, which is represented by the divine name Adonai, and among the angelic hosts by Cherubim. The table on the opposite page exhibits the different names of the Sephiroth, together with the several names of God and the angels, which correspond to them.

From this representation of each triad, as consisting of a threefold principle, viz., the two opposites, masculine and feminine, and the uniting principle, the development of the Sephiroth, and of life generally, is symbolically called the Balance, because the two opposite sexes, are compared with the two opposite scales, and the uniting Sephira is compared with the beam which joins the scales, and indicates its equipoise.

Before we enter into further particulars about the nature, operation, and classification of these Sephiroth,

we shall give the Sohar's speculations about the Supreme Being, and its account of the origin of the Sephiroth,

and their relationship to the Deity.

The prophet Elias having learned in the heavenly college the profound mystery and true import of the words in Isa. 40:25‑26, "To whom will ye like me, and shall I be equal? saith the Holy One. Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things," revealed to R. Simon b. Jochai that God in his absolute nature is unknown and incomprehensible, and hence, in a certain sense, non‑existent; that this Who (unknown subject) had to become active and creative, to demonstrate his existence, and that it is only by these works of creation that he made himself known to us.

It is therefore the combination of the unknown Who with these visible works that showed him to be God (which is produced by transposed, i.e., and united with). Or, as it is in the language of the Kabbalah; "Before he gave any shape to this world, before he produced any form, he was alone, without a form and resemblance to anything else. Who then can comprehend him how he was before the creation, since he was formless?

Hence it is forbidden to represent him by any form, similitude, or even by his sacred name, by a single letter or a single point; and to this the words 'Ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the Lord spake unto you (Deut. 4:15) i.e., ye have not seen anything which you could

represent by any form or likeness refer.

But after he created the form of the Heavenly Man, he used it as a chariot wherein to descend, and wishes to be called by this form, which is the sacred name Jehovah. He wishes to be known by his attributes, and each attribute separately; and therefore had himself called the God of Mercy, the God of Justice, Almighty, God of Sabaoth, and the Being. He wishes thereby to make known his nature, and that we should see how his mercy and compassion extend both to the world and to all operations.

For if he had not poured out his light upon all his creatures, how could we ever have known him? How could the words be fulfilled, 'The whole earth is full of his glory' (Isa. 6:3)? Woe be to him who compares him with his own attributes! or still worse with the son of man whose foundation is in the dust, who vanishes and is no more! Hence, the form in which we delineate him simply describes each time his dominion over a certain attribute, or over the creatures generally.

We cannot understand more of his nature than the attribute expresses. Hence, when he is divested of all these things, he has neither any attribute nor any similitude or form. The form in which he is generally depicted is to be compared to a very expansive sea; for the waters of the sea are in themselves without a limit or form, and it is only when they spread themselves upon the earth that they assume a form.

We can now make the following calculation: the sources of the sea's water and the water stream proceeding there from to spread itself are two. A great reservoir is then formed, just as if a huge hollow had been dug; this reservoir is called sea, and is the third. The unfathomable deep divides itself into seven streams, resembling seven long vessels. The source, the water stream, the sea and the seven streams make together ten. And when the master breaks the vessels which he has made, the waters return to the source, and then only remain the pieces of these vessels, dried up and without any water.

It is in this way that the Cause of Causes gave rise to the ten Sephiroth. The Crown is the source from which streams forth an infinite light: hence the name En Soph == infinite, by which the highest cause is designated: for it then had neither form nor shape, and there is neither any means whereby to comprehend it, nor a way by which to now it.

Hence it is written, 'Seek not out the things that are too ard for thee, neither search the things that are above they trength.' (Ecclus. 3:21). He then made a vessel, as small as a point, like the latter, which is filled from this source (i.e., the En Soph). This is the source of wisdom, wisdom itself, after which the Supreme Cause is called 'wise God.' Upon this he made a large vessel like a sea, which is called Intelligence: hence the name 'intelligent God.' It must, however, be remarked that God is wise, and through himself, for wisdom does not derive its name through itself, but through the wise one who fills it with the light which flows from him, just as intelligence is not comprehended through itself, but through him who is intelligent and fills it with his own substance. God needs only to withdraw himself and it would be dried up.

This is also the meaning of the words, 'the waters have disappeared from the sea, and the bed is dry and parched up.' (Job 14:11). The sea is finally divided into seven streams, and the seven costly vessels are produced, which are called Greatness, Judicial Strength, Beauty, Firmness, Splendour, Foundation, and Kingdom. Therefore is he called the Great or the Merciful, the Mighty, the Glorious, the God of victory, the Creator, to whom all praise is due, and the Foundation of all things. Upon the last attribute all the others are based a well as the world. Finally, he is also the King of the universe, for everything is in his power; he can diminish the number of the vessels, and increase in them the light which streams from them, or reduce it, just as it pleases him." (Sohar, i, 42b, 43a)

In another place again the same authority gives the following description of the Deity and the emanation of the Sephiroth. "The Aged of the Aged, the Unknown of the Unknown, has a form and yet HAS NO FORM. HE HAS A FORM WHEREBY THE UNIVERSE IS PRESERVED, AND YET HAS NO FORM, BECAUSE HE [God] CANNOT BE COMPREHENDED.

When he first assumed the form [of the first Sephira], he caused nine splendid lights to emanate from it, which, shining through it, diffused a bright light in all directions. Imagine an elevated light sending forth its rays in all directions. Now if we approach it to examine the rays, we understand no more than that they emanate from the said

light. So is the Holy Aged an absolute light, but in himself concealed and incomprehensible. We can only comprehend him through those luminous emanations which again are partly visible and partly concealed. These

constitute the sacred name of God." (Idra Suta, Sohar, iii, 288a). Four things must be born in mind with regard

to the Sephiroth.

(1). That they were not created by, but emanated (from, the En Soph; the difference between creation and emanation being, that in the former a diminution of strength takes place, whilst in the latter this is not the case.

(2). That they form among themselves, and with the En Soph, a strict unity, and simply represent different aspects of one and the same being, just as the different rays which proceed from the light, and which appear different things to the eye, form only different manifestations of one and the same light.

(3). That since they simply differ from each other as the different colors of the same light, all the ten emanations alike partake of the perfections of the En Soph; and

(4). That, as emanations from the Infinite, the Sephiroth are infinite and perfect like the En Soph, and yet constitute the first finite things. They are infinite and perfect when the En Soph imparts his fulness to them, so that in this respect these ten Sephiroth exactly correspond to the double nature of Christ, his finite and imperfect human nature and his infinite and perfect divine nature.

In their totality and unity These ten Sephiroth are not only denominated the world of Sephiroth and the world of Emanations, but represent and are called the Primordial or Archetypal Man, and the Heavenly Man. In the future, the Crown is the head; Wisdom, the brains; and Intelligence, which united the two and produces the first triad, is the heart or the understanding, thus forming the head.

The fourth and fifth Sephiroth, i.e., Mercy and Justice, are the two arms of the Lord, the former the right arm and the latter the left, one distributing life and the other death. And the sixth Sephira, Beauty, which united these two opposites and produces the second triad, is the chest; whilst the seventh and eighth Sephiroth, i.e., Firmness and Splendour, of the third triad, are the two legs; and Foundation, the ninth Sephira, represents the genital organs, since it denotes the basis and source of all things.

Thus it is said, "Every thing will return to its origin just as it proceeded from it. All marrow, all sap,

and all power are congregated in this spot. Hence all powers which exist originate through the genital organs."

(Sohar, iii, 296a).

Kingdom, the tenth Sephira, represents the harmony of the whole Archetypal Man. The following is the

archetypal figure of the then Sephiroth.

The Sephiroth The Heavenly Man

Of the World of Emanations

It is this form which the prophet Ezekiel saw in the mysterious chariot, and of which the earthly man is a

faint copy. Moreover, these Sephiroth, as we have already remarked, created the world and all things therein

according to their own archetype or in the likeness and similitude of the Heavenly Man or the World of

Emanations.

But, before we propound the Kabbalistic doctrine of the creation of the world, it is necessary to describe a

second mode in which the trinity of triads in the Sephiroth is represented, and to mention the appellations and

offices of the respective triads.

The Triads; Intellecutal World;

Sensuous World; Material World

Now in looking at the Sephiroth which constitute the first triad, it will be seen that they represent the intellect; hence this triad is called the Intellectual World. The second triad, again, represents moral qualities; hence it is designated the moral or Sensuous World: whilst the third Triad represents power and stability, and hence is designated the Material World.

These three aspects in which the En Soph manifested himself are called the Faces (and the two words are

identical, the former being pure Aramaic, and the latter from the Greek).

In the arrangement of this trinity of triads, so as to produce what is called the Kabbalistic tree, denominated the Tree of Life, or simply the Tree, the first triad is placed above, the second and third are placed below, in such a manner that the three masculine Sephiroth are on the right, the three feminine on the left, whilst the four uniting Sephiroth occupy the centre.

The three Sephiroth on the right, representing the principle of mercy, are called the Pillar of Mercy; the three on the left, representing the principle of rigor, are denominated the Pillar of Judgment; whilst the four Sephiroth in the centre, representing mildness, are called the Middle Pillar. Each Sephira composing this trinity of triads is, as it were, a trinity in itself.

(1). It has it own absolute character;

(2) It receives from above; and

(3). It communicates to what is below it.

Hence the remark, "Just as the Sacred Aged is represented by the number three, so are all the other light (Sephiroth) of a three fold nature." (Sohar, iii, 288b).

Within this trinity in each unit and trinity of triads there is a trinity of units, which must be explained before we can propound the Kabbalistic view of the cosmogony.

We have seen that three of the Sephiroth constitute uniting links between three pairs of opposites, and by this means produce three triads, respectively denominated the Intellectual World, the Sensuous or Moral World, and the Material World, and that these three uniting Sephiroth, together with the one which unites the whole into a common unity, form what is called the Middle Pillar of the Kabbalistic tree.

Now from the important position they thus occupy, these Sephiroth are synecdochically used to represent the worlds which by their uniting potency they respectively yield. Hence the Sephira, Crown, from which the Sephiroth, Wisdom and Intelligence, emanated, and by which they are also united, thus yielding the Intellectual World, is by itself used to designate the Intellectual World.

Its own names, however, are not changed in this capacity, and it still continues to be designated by the several appellations mentioned in the description of the first Sephira. The sixth Sephira, called Beauty, which unites Sephiroth IV (Love) and V (Justice), thus yielding the Sensuous World, is by itself used to denote the Sensuous World, and in this capacity is called the Sacred King, or simply the King; whilst the Sephira called Kingdom, which unites the whole Sephiroth, is here used to represent the Material World, instead of the ninth Sephira, called Foundation, and is in this capacity denominated the Queen or the Matron. Thus we obtain within the trinity of triads a higher trinity of units, viz., the Crown, Beauty, and Kingdom, which represents the potencies of all the Sephiroth.

2). The Creation or the Kabbalistic Cosmogony.

Having arrived at the highest trinity which comprises all the Sephiroth, and which consists of the Crown, the King, and the Queen, we shall be able to enter into the cosmogony of the Kabbalah. Now, IT IS NOT THE EN SOPH WHO CREATED THE WORLD, BUT THIS TRINITY, AS REPRESENTED IN THE COMBINATION OF THE SEPHIROTH; OR RATHER THE CREATION HAS ARISEN FROM THE CONJUNCTION OF THE EMANATIONS. THE WORLD WAS BORN FROM THE UNION OF THE CROWNED KING AND QUEEN; OR, ACCORDING TO THE LANGUAGE OF THE KABBALAH, THESE OPPOSITE SEXES OF ROYALTY, WHO EMANATED FROM THE EN SOPH, PRODUCED THE UNIVERSE IN THEIR OWN IMAGE. WORLDS, WE ARE TOLD, WERE INDEED CREATED BEFORE EVER THE KING AND QUEEN OR THE SEPHIROTH GAVE BIRTH TO THE PRESENT STATE OF THINGS, BUT THEY COULD NOT CONTINUE, AND

NECESSARILY PERISHED, BECAUSE THE EN SOPH HAD NOT YET ASSUMED THIS HUMAN FORM IN ITS COMPLETENESS, which not only implies a moral and intellectual nature, but, as conditions of development, procreation, and continuance, also comprises sexual opposites. This creation, which aborted and which has been succeeded by the present order of things, is indicated in Gen xxxvi, 41‑40. THE KINGS OF EDOM, OR THE OLD KINGS AS THEY ARE ALSO DENOMINATED, WHO ARE HERE SAID TO HAVE REIGNED BEFORE THE MONARCHS OF ISRAEL, AND ARE MENTIONED AS HAVING DIED ONE AFTER THE OTHER, ARE THOSE PRIMORDIAL WORLDS WHICH WERE SUCCESSIVELY CONVULSED AND DESTROYED; whilst the sovereigns of

Israel denote the King and Queen who emanated from the En Soph, and who have give birth to and perpetuate the

present world.

Thus we are told: "Before the Aged of the Aged, the Concealed of the Concealed, expanded into the form of King, the Crown of Crowns [i.e., the first Sephira], there was neither beginning nor end. He hewed and incised forms and figures into it [i.e., the crown] in the following manner: He spread before him a cover, and carved therein kingd [i.e., worlds], and marked out their limits and forms, but they could not preserve themselves. Therefore it is written, 'THESE ARE THE KINGS THAT REIGNED IN THE LAND OF EDOM BEFORE THERE REIGNED ANY KING OVER THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL.' (Gen. xxxvi, 31). This refers to the primordial kings and primordial Israel. All these were imperfect: he therefore removed them and let them vanish, till he finally descended himself to this cover

and assumed a form." (Idra Rabba, Sohar, iii, 148a).

The notion, however, that worlds were created and destroyed prior to the present creation, was propounded in

the Midrash long before the existence of the Kabbalah. Thus on the verse, "And God saw everything that he had

made, and behold it was very good." (Gen. i, 31), R. Abahu submits from this we see that the Holy One, blessed be

he, had successively created and destroyed sundry worlds before he created the present world, and when he created

the present world he said, this pleases me, the previous ones did not please me. (Bereshith Rabba, section or

Parsha ix).

This important fact that worlds were created and destroyed prior to the present creation is again and again

reiterated in the Sohar. These worlds are compared with sparks which fly out from a red hot iron beaten by a hammer, and which are extinguished according to the distance they are removed from the burning mass. "There were old worlds," the Sohar tells us, "which perished as soon as they came into existence: were formless, and they

were called sparks.

Thus the smith, when hammering the iron, lets the sparks fly in all directions. These sparks are the primordial worlds, which could not continue, because the Sacred Aged had not as yet assumed his form [of opposite sexes the King and Queen], and the master was not yet at his work." (Idra Suta, Sohar, iii, 292b).

But since nothing can be annihilated ‑‑ "Nothing perisheth in this world, not even the breath which issues

from the mouth, for this, like everything else, has its place and destination, and the Holy One, blessed be his name! turns it into his service;" (Sohar, ii, 110b) ‑‑ these worlds could not be absolutely destroyed. Hence when the question is asked ‑‑ 'Why were these primordial worlds destroyed?' the reply is given: ‑‑ "Because the Man, represented by the ten Sephiroth, was not as yet. The human form contains everything, and as it did not as yet

exist, the worlds were destroyed."

It is added, "Still when it is said that they perished, it is only meant thereby that they lacked the true form, till the human form came into being, in which all things are comprised, and which also contains all those forms. Hence, though the Scripture ascribes death to the kings of Edom, it only denotes a sinking down from their dignity, i.e., the worlds up to that time did not answer to the Divine idea, since they had not as yet the perfect form of which they were capable." (Idra Rabba, Sohar, iii, 135b)

The Jews Believe

God Is Both King and Queen!

It was therefore after the destruction of previous worlds, and after the En Soph or the Boundless assumed the Sephiric form, that the present world was created. "The Holy One, blessed be he, created and destroyed several orlds before the present one was made, and when this last work was nigh completion, all the things of this world, all the creatures of the universe, in whatever age they were to exist, before ever they entered into this world, were present before God in their true form. Thus are the words of Ecclesiastes to be understood 'What was, shall be, and what has been done, shall be done.'" (Sohar, iii, 61b).

"The lower world is made after the pattern of the upper world; every thing which exists in the upper world is to be found as it were in a copy upon earth; still the whole is one." (Sohar ii, 20a)

THIS WORLD, however, IS NOT A CREATION EX NIHILO, BUT IS SIMPLY AN IMMANENT OFFSPRING AND THE IMAGE OF THE KING AND QUEEN, or, in other words, a farther expansion or evolution of the Sephiroth which are the emanations of the En Soph. This is expressed in the Sohar in the following passage: "The indivisible point [the Absolute], who has no limit, and who cannot be comprehended because of his purity and brightness, expanded from without, and formed a brightness which served as a covering to the indivisible point, yet it too could not be viewed in consequence of its immeasurable light. It too expanded from without, and this expansion was its garment. Thus everything originated through a constant upheaving agitation, and thus finally the world originated." (Sohar, i, 20a)

The universe therefore is an immanent emanation from the Sephiroth, and reveals and makes visible the Boundless and the concealed of the concealed. And though it exhibits the Deity in less splendor than its parents the Sephiroth, because it is further removed from the primordial source of light, yet, as it is God manifested, all the multifarious forms in the world point out the unity which they represent; and nothing in it can be destroyed, but everything must return to the source whence it emanated. Hence it is said that "all things of which this world consists, spirit as well as body, will return to their principal, and the root from which they

proceeded." (Sohar, ii, 218b).

"He is the beginning and end of all the degrees in the creation. All these degrees are stamped with his seal, and HE CANNOT BE OTHERWISE DESCRIBED THAN BY THE UNITY. HE IS ONE, notwithstanding, THE INNUMERABLE FORMS WHICH ARE IN HIM." (ibid. i, 21a)

The Jews Believe In More Than Thirty Gods!

Now THESE SEPHIROTH, or THE WORLD OF EMANATIONS, or the ATZILATIC WORLD, GAVE BIRTH TO THREE WORLDS IN THE FOLLOWING ORDER: FROM THE CONJUNCTION [copulation] OF THE KING AND QUEEN, or THE BRIATIC WORLD, ALSO CALLED

THE THRONE, WHICH IS THE ABODE OF PURE SPIRITS, AND WHICH, LIKE ITS PARENTS, CONSISTS OF TEN SEPHIROTH, or EMANATIONS.

The Briatic World, again, gave rise to, (2). The Word of Formation, or the Jetziratic World, which is the habitation of the angels, and also consists of ten Sephiroth; whilst the Jetziratic World, again, sent forth. (3). The World of Action, or the Assiatic World, also called the World of Keliphoth, which contains the Spheres and matter, and is the residence of the Prince of Darkness and his legions. Or, as the Sohar describes it: After the Sephiroth, and for THEIR use, God made the Throne (i.e., the world of Creation), with four legs and six steps, thus making ten (i.e., the decade of Sephiroth which each world has)...For this Throne and its service he formed the ten Angelic hosts (i.e., the World of Formation), Malachim, Arelim, Chajoth, Ophanim, Chashmalim, Elim, Elohim, Benei Elohim, Ishim, and Seraphim, and for their service, again, he made Samal and his legions (i.e., the World of Action), who are, as it were, the clouds upon which the angels ride in their descent on the earth, and serve, as it were, for their horses. Hence it is written: 'Behold the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt.'" (Isa. xix, 1) (Sohar ii, 43a).

THERE ARE, therefore, FOUR WORLDS, each of which has a separate Sephiric system, consisting of a decade of

emanations.

(1). The Atzilatic World, called alternately the World of Emanations, the Image (== with prefixed), and the Heavenly Man, which, by virtue of its being a direct emanation from God and most intimately allied with the Deity, is perfect and immutable.

(2). The Briatic World, called the World of Creation and the Throne which is the immediate emanation of the former, and whose ten Sephiroth, being further removed from the En Soph, are of a more limited and circumscribed potency, through the substances they comprise are of the purest nature and without any admixture of matter.

(3). The Jetziratic World, called the World of Formation and the World of Angels, which proceeded from the former world, and whose ten Sephiroth, though of a still less refined substance than the former, because further removed from the primordial source, are still without matter. It is in this angelic world where those intelligent and incorporeal beings reside, who are wrapped in a luminous garment, and who assume a sensuous form when they appear to man. And;

(4). The Assiatic World, called the World of Action and the World of Matter which emanated from the preceding world, the ten Sephiroth of which are made up of the grosser elements of all the former three worlds, and which has sunk down in consequence of its materiality and heaviness. It substances consist of matter limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms. It is subject to constant changes, generations, and corruptions, and is the abode of the Evil Spirit.

Before leaving this doctrine about the creation of the relationship of the Supreme Being to the universe, we must reiterate two things.

(1). Though the trinity of the Sephiroth gave birth to the universe, or, in other words, is an evolution of the emanations, and is thus a further expansion of the Deity itself, it must not be supposed that the Kabbalists believe in a Trinity in our sense of the word. Their view on this subject will best be understood from the following remark in the Sohar:

"Whoso wishes to have an insight into the sacred unity, let him consider a flame rising from a burning coal or a burning lamp. He will see first a twofold light, a bright white and a black or blue light; the white light is above, and ascends in a direct light, whilst the blue or dark light is below, and seems as the chair of the former, yet both are so intimately connected together that they constitute only one flame. The seat, however, formed by the blue or dark light, is again connected with the burning matter which is under it again. The white light never changes its colour, it always remains white; but various shades are observed in the lower light, whilst the lowest light, moreover, takes two directions, above it is connected with the white light, and below with the burning matter. Now this is constantly consuming itself, and perpetually ascends to the upper light, and thus everything merges into a single unity (Sohar, i, 51a).

(2). THE CREATION, OR THE UNIVERSE, IS SIMPLY THE GARMENT OF GOD WOVEN FROM THE DEITY'S OWN SUBSTANCE; or, AS SPINOZA EXPRESSES IT, GOD IS THE IMMANENT BASIS OF THE UNIVERSE. For although, to reveal himself to us, the Concealed of all the Concealed sent forth THE TEN EMANATIONS CALLED THE FORM OF GOD, FORM OF THE HEAVENLY MAN, yet since even this luminous form was too dazzling for our vision, it had to assume another form, or had to put on another garment which consists of the universe. THE UNIVERSE, therefore, or THE VISIBLE WORLD, is a further expansion of THE DIVINE SUBSTANCE, and is CALLED THE KABBALAH "THE GARMENT OF GOD."

Thus we are told, "when the Concealed of all the Concealed wanted to reveal himself, he first made a point [i.e., the first Sephira], shaped it into a sacred form [i.e., the totality of the Sephiroth], and covered it with a rich and splendid garment that is the world." (Sohar, i, 2a)

(3). The Creation of Angels and Men.

The different worlds which successively emanated from the En Soph and from each other, and which sustain the

relaitonship to the Deity of first, second, third, and fourth generations, are, with the exception of the first (i.e., the World of Emanations), inhabited by spiritual beings of various grades.

"God animated every part of the firmament with a separate spirit, and forthwith all the heavenly hosts were before him. This is meant by the Psalmist, when he says (Ps. xxxiii, 6), 'By the breath of his mouth were made all their hosts.'" (Sohar, iii, 68a).

These angels consist of two kinds, good and bad; they have their respective princes, and occupy the three habitable worlds in the following order. As has already been remarked, the first world, or the Archetypal Man, in whose image everything is formed, is occupied by no one else. The angel Metatron occupies the second or the Briatic World, which is the first habitable world; he alone constitutes the world of pure spirits. He is the garment of the visible manifestation of the Deity; his name is numerically equivalent to that of the Lord. (Sohar, iii, 231a).

He governs the visible world, preserves the unity, harmony, and the revolutions of all the spheres, planets and heavenly bodies, and is the Captain of the myriads of the angelic hosts who people the second habitable or the Jetziratic World, and who are divided into ten ranks, answering to the ten Sephiroth. EACH OF THESE ANGELS IS SET OVER A DIFFERENT PART OF THE UNIVERSE. ONE HAS THE CONTROL OF ONE SPHERE, ANOTHER OF ANOTHER HEAVENLY BODY; ONE ANGEL HAS CHARGE OF THE SUN, ANOTHER OF THE MOON, ANOTHER OF THE EARTH, ANOTHER OF THE SEA, ANOTHER OF THE FIRE, ANOTHER OF THE WIND, ANOTHER OF THE LIGHT, ANOTHER OF THE SEASONS, etc.,; and the question, however, about the doctrine of the Trinity in other passages of the Sohar will be discussed more amply in the sequel, where we shall point out the relation of the Kabbalah to Christianity.

The Kabbalistic description of Metatron is taken from the Jewish angelogy of a much older date than this theosophy. Thus Ben Asai and Ben Soma already regard the divine voice, as Metatron. (Beresh. Rab., Parsha v).

He is called the Great Teacher, the Teacher of Teachers, and it is for this reason that Enoch, who walked in close communion with God, and taught mankind by his holy example, is said by the Chaldee paraphrase of Jonathan b. Uzziel, to 'have received the name Metatron, the Great Teacher' after he was transplanted. (Gen. v, 24). metatron, moreover, is the Presence Angel, the Angel of the Lord that was sent to go before Israel (Exod. xxiii, 21); he is the visible manifestation of the Deity, for in him is the name of the Lord, i.e., his name and that of the Deity are identical, inasmuch as they are of the same numerical value (viz.: and are the same according to the exegetical rule called Gematria, 10 + 4 + 300 = 314; 50 + 6 + 200 + 9 + 9 + 40 = 314. See Rashi on Exod. xxiii, 21, and Sanhedrin 38b) So exalted is Metatron's position in the ancient Jewish angelology, that we are told that when Elisha b. Abnja, also called Acher, saw this angel who occupies the first position after the Deity, he exclaimed, 'Peradventure, but far be it, THERE ARE TWO SUPREME POWERS' (Talmud, Chagiga, 15a). The etymology is greatly disputed; but there is no doubt that it is to be derived from metator, messenger, outrider, way maker, as has been shown by Elias Levita, and is maintained by Cassel (Ersch und Gruber's Encyklopdie, section ii, vol. xxvii, s.v.; Juden, p. 40, note 84).

Sachs (beitrge zur Sprachund Alterthumsforschung, vol. i, Berlin 1852, p. 108) rightly remarks that this etymology is fixed by the passage from siphra, quoted in kaphter‑Va‑Pherach, c. x, p. 34b the finger of God was the messenger or guide to Moses, and showed him all the land of Israel. The termination has been appended to obtain the same numerical value. The derivation of it from the angel is immediately under the divine throne, which is maintained by Frank (Kabbala, p. 43), Graetz (Gnosticismus, p. 44) and others, has been shown by Frankel (Zeitschrift, 1846 vol. iii, p. 113), and Cassel (Ersch und Gruber's Encyklop. section ii, vol. xxvii, p. 41), to be both contrary to the form of the word and to the description of Metatron. THESE ANGELS DERIVE THEIR NAMES FROM THE HEAVENLY BODIES THEY RESPECTIVELY GUARD. Hence one is called Venus, one Mars, one the substance of Heaven, one the angel of light, and another the angel of fire (Comp. Sohar i, 42, etc.). The demons, constituting the second class of angels, which are the grossest and most deficient of all forms, and are the shells of being, inhabit the third habitable or Assiatic World.

They, too, form ten degrees, answering to the decade of Sephiroth, in which darkness and impurity increase with the descent of each degree. Thus the two first degrees are nothing more than the absence of all visible form and organization, which the Mosaic cosmology describes in the words before the hexahemeron, and which the Septuagint renders.

The third degree is the abode of the darkness which the book of Genesis describes as having in the beginning covered the face of the earth. Whereupon follow seven infernal halls == Hells, occupied by the demons, which are the incarnation of all human vices, and which torture those poor deluded beings who suffered themselves to be led astray in this world. These seven infernal halls are subdivided into endless compartments, as to afford a separate chamber of torture for every species of sin.

The prince of this region of darkness, who is called Satan in the Bible, is denominated by the Kabbalah, Samal == angel of poison or of death. HE IS THE SAME EVIL SPIRIT, SATAN, THE SERPENT, WHO SEDUCED EVE. He has a wife, called the Harlot or the Woman of Whoredom, but they are both generally represented as united in the one name of the Beast. Comp. Sohar, ii, 255‑259, with i, 35b).

The whole universe, however, was incomplete, and did not receive its finishing stroke till man was formed, who is the acme of the creation, and the microcosm uniting in himself the totality of beings. "THE HEAVENLY ADAM (i.e., the ten Sephiroth, who emanated from the highest primordial obscurity (i.e., the En Soph), created the EARTHLY ADAM." (Sohar, ii, 70b).

"Man is both the import and the highest degree of creation, for which reason he was formed on the sixth day. As soon as man was created, everything was complete, including the upper and nether worlds, for everything is comprised in man. He unites in himself all forms." (Sohar, iii, 48a)

Man was created with faculties and features far transcending those of the angels. The bodies of the protoplasts were not of that gross matter which constitutes our bodies. ADAM AND EVE, BEFORE THE FALL, WERE WRAPPED IN THAT LUMINOUS ETHEREAL SUBSTANCE IN WHICH THE CELESTIAL SPIRITS ARE CLAD, AND WHICH IS NEITHER SUBJECT TO WANT NOR TO SENSUAL DESIRES. They were envied by the angels of the highest rank. The fall, however, changed it all, as we are told in the following passage: "When Adam dwelled in the garden of Eden, he was dressed in the celestial garment, which is a garment of heavenly light. But when he was expelled from the garden of Eden, and became subject to the wants of this world, what is written? 'The Lord God made coats of skins unto Adam and to

his wife, and clothed them' (Gen. iii, 21); for prior to this they had garments of light, light of that light which was used in the garden of Eden." (Sohar, ii, 229b).

The garments of skin, therefore, mean our present body, which was given to our first parents in order to adapt them to the changes which the fall introduced. But even in the present form, the righteous are above the angels, and every man is still the microcosm, and every member of his body corresponds to a constituent part of the visible universe.

"What is man? Is he simply skin, flesh, bones, and veins? No! That which constitutes the real man is the soul, and those things which are called the skin, the flesh, the bones, and the veins, all these are merely a garment, they are simply the clothes of the man, but not the man himself. When man departs, he puts off these garments wherewith the son of man is clothed. Yet are all these bones and sinews formed in the secret of the highest wisdom, after the heavenly image. The skin represents the firmament, which extends everywhere, and covers everything like a garment, as it is written, 'Who strethcest out the heavens like a curtain.' (Psalm clv, 2)...

The flesh represents the deteriorated part of the world...the bones and the veins represent the heavenly chariot, the inner powers, the servants of God...But these are the outer garments, for in the inward part is the deep mystery of the heavenly man. Everything here below, as above, is mysterious. Therefore it is written: 'God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him' (Gen. i, 27); repeating the word God twice, one for the man and the other for the woman. The mystery of the earthly man is after the mystery of the Heavenly man. And just as we see in the firmament above, covering all things, different signs which are formed of the stars and planets, and which contain secret things and profound mysteries, studied by those who are wise and expert in these signs; so there are in the skin, which is the cover of the body of the son of man, and which is like the sky that covers all things, signs and features which are the stars and planets of the skin, indicating secret things and profound mysteries, whereby the wise are attracted, who understand to read the mysteries in the human face." (Sohar, ii, 76a).

He is still the presence of God upon earth, and the very form of the body depicts the Tetragrammation, the

most sacred name Jehovah.

Thus the head is the form of the arms and the shoulders are like the breast represents the Sephiroth from which it emanates, EVERY SOUL HAS TEN POTENCIES, WHICH ARE SUBDIVIDED INTO A TRINITY OF TRIADS, AND RESPECTIVELY REPRESENTED BY (1) The Spirit, which is the highest degree of being, and which both corresponds to and is operated upon by The Crown, representing the highest triad, in the Sephiroth, called the Intellectual World; (2) The Soul, which is the seat of good and evil, as well as the moral qualities, and which both corresponds to and is operated upon by Beauty, representing the second triad in the Sephiroth, called the Moral World; and (3) The Cruder Spirit, which is immediately connected with the body, is the direct cause of its lower functions, instincts, and animal life, and which both corresponds to and is operated upon by Foundation, representing the third triad in the Sephiroth, called the Material World.

In its original state each soul is androgynous, and is separated into male and female when it descends on earth to be borne in a human body. We have seen that the souls of the righteous, in the world of spirits, are superior in dignity to the heavenly powers and the ministering angels. It might, therefore, be asked why do these souls leave such as abode of bliss, and come into this vale of tears to dwell in tabernacles of clay? The only reply to be given is that these happy souls have no choice in the matter. Indeed we are told that the soul, before assuming a human body, addresses God: "Lord of the Universe! I am happy in this world, and do not wish to go into another world, where I shall be a bond‑maid, and be exposed to all kinds of pollutions." (Sohar, ii, 96)

And can you wonder at this pitiful ejaculation? Should your philanthropic feelings and your convictions that

our heavenly Father ordains all things for the good of his children, impel you to ask that an explanation of this

mystery might graciously be vouchsafed to you in order to temper your compassion and calm your faith, then take

this parable.

"A SON WAS BORN TO A KING; HE SENDS HIM TO THE COUNTRY, THERE TO BE NURSED AND BROUGHT UP TILL HE IS GROWN UP, AND INSTRUCTED IN THE CEREMONIES AND USAGES OF THE ROYAL PALACE. WHEN THE KING HEARS THAT THE EDUCATION OF

HIS SON IS FINISHED, WHAT DOES HIS FATHERLY LOVE IMPEL HIM TO DO? FOR HIS SON'S SAKE HE SENDS FOR THE QUEEN HIS MOTHER, CONDUCTS HIM INTO THE PALACE AND MAKES MERRY WITH HIM ALL DAY.

Thus the Holy One, blessed be he, has a son with the Queen [Here the Jews are saying it is alright for a man to make love with his own mother!]: this is the heavenly and sacred soul. He sends him into the country, that is into this world, therein to grow up and to learn the customs of the court. When the King hears that this his son has grown up in the country, and that it is time to bring him into the palace, what does his love for his son impel him to do? He sends, for his sake, for the Queen and conducts him to the palace." (Sohar, i, 215b).

As has already been remarked, the human soul, before it descends into the world, is androgynous, or in other words, consists of two component parts, each of which comprises all the elements of our spiritual nature.

Thus the Sohar tells us: "Each soul and spirit, prior to its entering into this world, consists of a male and female united into one being. When it descends on this earth the two parts separate and animate two different bodies. At the time of marriage, the Holy One, blessed be he, who knows all souls and spirits, unites them again as they were before, and they again constitute one body and one soul, forming as it were the right and left of one individual; therefore 'There is nothing new under the sun." (Ecl. i, 9).

This union, however, is influenced by the deeds of the man and by the ways in which he walks. The soul carries her knowledge with her to the earth, so that "everything which she learns here below she knew already, before she entered into this world." (ibid. iii, 61b)

Since the form of the body as well as the soul, is made after the image of the Heavenly Man, a figure of the forth‑coming body which is to clothe the newly descending soul, is sent down from the celestial regions, to hover over the couch of the husband and wife when they copulate, in order that the conception may be formed according to this model.

"At connubial intercourse on earth, the Holy One, blessed be he, sends a human form which bears the impress of the divine stamp. This form is present at intercourse, and if we were permitted to see it we should perceive over our heads an image resembling a human face; and it is in this image that we are formed. As long as this image is not sent by God and does not descend and hover over our heads, there can be no conception, for it is written: 'And God created man in his own image.' (Gen. i, 27).

This image receives us when we enter the world, it develops itself with us when we grow, and accompanies us when we depart this life; as it is written: 'Surely, man walked in an image' (Psalm xxxvii, 5): and this image is from heaven. When the souls are to leave their heavenly abode, each soul separately appears before the Holy King, dressed in a sublime form, with the features in which it is to appear in this world. It is from this sublime form that the image proceeds. It is the third after the soul, and precedes it on the earth; it is present at the conception, and there is no conception in the world where this image is not present." (Sohar, iii, 104a‑b).

All human countenances are divisible into the four primordial types of faces, which appeared at the mysterious chariot throne in the vision of the prophet Ezekiel, viz., the face of man, of the lion, the ox and the eagle. Our faces resemble these more or less according to the rank which our souls occupy in the intellectual or moral dominion.

"And physiognomy does not consist in the external lineaments, but in the features which are mysteriously drawn in us. The features in the face change according to the form which is peculiar to the inward face of the spirit. It is the spirit which produces all those physiognomical peculiarities known to the wise; and it is only through the spirit that the features have any meaning. All those spirits and souls which proceed from Eden (i.e., the highest wisdom) have a peculiar form, which is reflected in the face." (Sohar, ii, 73b).

The face thus lighted up by the peculiar spirit inhabiting the body, in the mirror of the soul; and the formation of the head indicates the character and temper of the man. An arched forehead is a sign of a cheerful and profound spirit, as well as of a distinguished intellect; a broad but flat forehead indicates foolishness and silliness; whilst a forehead which is flat, compressed on the sides and spiral, betokens narrowness of mind and vanity. (Comp. Sohar, ii, 71b, 75a)

As a necessary condition of free existence and of moral being, the souls are endowed by the Deity, from the very beginning, with the power of adhering in close proximity to the primordial source of infinite light from the very beginning, with the power of adhering in close proximity to the primordial source of infinite light from which they emanated, and of alienating themselves from that source and pursuing an independent and opposite course.

Hence, Simon ben Jochai said, "If the Holy One, blessed be he, had not put within us both the good and the evil desire, which are denominated light and darkness, the created man would have neither virtue nor vice. For this reason it is written: ‑‑'Behold, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil.' (Deut. xxx, 15). To this the disciples replied, Wherefore is all this? Would it not be better if reward and punishment had not existed at all, since in that case man would have been incapable of sinning and of doing evil. He rejoined, It was meet and right that he should be created as he was created, because the Law was created for him, wherein are written punishments for the wicked and rewards for the righteous; and there would not have been any reward for the righteous and punishment for the wicked but for created man." (Sohar i, 23a).

So complete is their independence, that souls, even in their pre‑existent state, can and do choose which way they intend to pursue.

"All souls which are not guiltless in this world, have already alienated themselves in heaven from the Holy One, blessed be he; they have thrown themselves into an abyss at their very existence, and have anticipated the time when they are to descend on earth...Thus were the souls before they came into this world." (ibid. iii, 61b).

(4). The Destiny of Man and the Universe.

As the En Soph constituted man the microcosm, and as the Deity is reflected in this epitome of the universe more than in any component part of the creation, all things visible and invisible are designed to aid him in passing through his probationary state here below, in gathering that experience for which his soul has been sent down, and in returning in a pure state to that source of light from which his soul emanated. This destiny of man i.e., the reunion with the Deity from which he emanated, is the constant desire both of God and man, and is an essential principle of the soul, underlying its very essence. Discarding that blind power from our nature, WHICH GOVERNS OUR ANIMAL LIFE [This is where Darwin got the idea for the origin of the species], which never quits this earth, and which therefore plays no part in our spiritual being, the soul possesses two kinds of powers and two sorts of feelings.

It has the faculty for that extraordinary prophetical knowledge, which was vouchsafed to Moses in an exceptional manner, called the Luminous Mirror (speculator), and the ordinary knowledge termed the Non‑Luminous Mirror, respectively represented in the earthly Paradise by the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil; and it possesses the higher feeling of love and the lower feeling of fear. Now the full fruition of that higher knowledge and of that loftier feeling of love can only be reaped when the soul returns to the Infinite Source of Light, and is wrapped in that luminous garment which the protoplasts forfeited throughout the fall.

Thus we are told,

"Come and see when the soul reaches that place which is called the Treasury of Life, she enjoys a bright and luminous mirror, which receives its light from the highest heaven. The soul could not bear this light but for the luminous mantle which she put on. For just as the soul, when sent to this earth, puts on an earthly garment to preserve herself here, so she receives above a shining garment, in order to be able to look without injury into the mirror whose light proceeds from the Lord of Light.

Moses too could not approach to look into that higher light which he saw, without putting on such an ethereal garment: as it is written: 'And Moses went into the midst of the cloud.' (Exod. xxiv, 18), which is to be translated by means of the cloud wherewith he wrapped himself as if dressed in a garment. At that time Moses almost discarded the whole of his earthly nature; as it is written, 'And Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty night' (ibid); and he thus approached that dark cloud where God is enthroned. In this wise the departed spirits of the righteous dress themselves in the upper regions in luminous garments, to be able to endure that light which streams from the Lord of Light." (Sohar, i, 65b, 66a)

The two feelings of love and fear are designed to aid the soul in achieving her high destiny, when she shall no more look through the dark glass, but see face to face in the presence of the Luminous Mirror, by permeating all acts of obedience and divine worship. And though perfect love, which is serving God purely out of love, like that higher knowledge, is to be man's destiny in heaven, yet the soul may attain some of it on earth, and endeavour to serve God out of love and not from fear, as thereby she will have an antepast on earth of its union with the Deity, which is to be so rapturous and indissoluble in heaven.

"Yet is the service which arises from fear not to be depreciated, for fear leads to love. it is true that he who obeys God out of love has attained to the highest degree, and already belongs to the saints of the world to come, but it must not be supposed that to worship God out of fear is no worship. Such a service has also its merit, though in this case the union of the soul with the Deity is slight.

There is only one degree which is higher than fear: it is love. In love is the mystery of the divine unity. It is love which unites the higher and lower degrees together; it elevates everything to that position where everything must be one. This is also the mystery of the words, 'Hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one God.'" (Sohar, ii, 216a)

The Kabbalists and The Ten Sephira

Hence it is that these two principles play so important a part in the devotions and contemplations of the Kabbalists.

Love is made to correspond to Mercy, the fourth Sephira, whilst Fear is made to answer to Rigor, the fifth Sephira; and it is asserted that when these two principles are thoroughly combined by the righteous in their divine worship and acts of obedience, the name Jehovah, which comprises these two principles, and which is now rent in twain by the preponderance of sin and disobedience, will be re‑united.

Then, and then only will all the souls return to the bosom of the Father of our spirits; then will the

restitution of all things take place, and the earth shall be covered with the knowledge of God even as the waters

cover the sea. This is the reason why the Kabbalists utter the following prayer prior to the performance of any

of the commandments: "For the re‑union of the Holy One, blessed be his name, and his Shechinah, I do this in love

and fear and love, for the union of the name into a perfect harmony! I pronounce this in the name of all Israel!"

In order to represent this union to the senses the words Fear and Love, are divided, and so placed above

each other that they may be read either across or down. When thus fulfilling the commandments the pious not only

enjoy a prelibation of that sublime light which shines in heaven, and which will serve them as a garment when

they enter into the other world and appear before the Holy One (Sohar, ii, 299b), but become on earth already the

habitation of the Sephiroth, and each saint has that Sephira incarnate in him which corresponds to the virtue he most cultivates, or to the feature most predominant in his character.

Among the patriarchs, therefore, who were the most exalted in piety, we find that Love, the fourth Sephira,

was incarnate in Abraham; Rigor, the fifth Sephira, in Isaac; Mildness, the sixth Sephira, in Jacob; Firmness,

the seventh Sephira, in Moses; Splendour, the eighty Sephira, in Aaron; Foundation, the ninth Sephira, in Joseph; and Kingdom, the tenth Sephira, was incarnate in David. Hence all the righteous who constitute the emanations, of the ten Sephiroth are divided into three classes corresponding to the three principles or Pillars exhibited in the Kabbalistic Tree, viz.: (1). The Pillar of Mercy, represented by the Patriarch Abraham (Comp. Micah, vii, 20;) (2). The Pillar of Justice, represented by Isaac (Comp. Gen. xxxi, 42); and (3) The Middle Pillar,

represented by Jacob (comp. Micha vii, 20), which is the connecting or uniting principle. (Sohar, i, 146a; 148b).

It is for this reason that the patriarchs are denominated the Chariot‑throne of the Lord. Thus it is said: "All the prophets looked into the Non‑Luminous Mirror, whilst our teacher, Moses, looked into the Luminous Mirror." (Jebamoth, 49b). and again: "Also the divine service which is engendered by fear and not by love, has its merit." (Jerusalem Berachoth, 44; Babylon Sota, 22a).

But since nothing can be annihilated "Nothing perisheth in this world, not even the breath which issues from the mouth, for this, like everything else, has its place and destination, and the Holy One, blessed be his name! turns it into his service;" (Sohar, ii, 110b) these worlds could not be absolutely destroyed. Hence when the question is asked; 'Why were these primordial worlds destroyed?' the reply is given: "Because the Man, represented by the ten Sephiroth, was not as yet. The human form contains everything, and as it did not as yet exist, the worlds were destroyed."

It is added, "Still when it is said that they perished, it is only meant thereby that they lacked the true form, till the human form came into being, in which all things are comprised, and which also contains all those forms. Hence, though the Scripture ascribes death to the kings of Edom, it only denotes a sinking down from their dignity, i.e., the worlds up to that time did not answer to the Divine idea, since they had not as yet the perfect form of which they were capable." (Idra Rabba, Sohar, iii, 135b)

The Heavens and The Earth

Created by Letters!

Hence the admonition: "He who has to start on a journey very early, should rise at daybreak, look carefully towards the east, and he will perceive certain signs resembling letters which pierce through the sky and appear above the horizon. THESE SHINING FORMS ARE those of THE LETTERS WHEREWITH GOD CREATED HEAVEN AND EARTH..." (Sohar, ii, 130b)

Now since IT IS AN ABSOLUTE CONDITION OF THE SOUL TO RETURN TO THE INFINITE SOURCE FROM WHICH IT EMANATED, AFTER DEVELOPING ALL THOSE PERFECTIONS, THE GERMS OF WHICH ARE ETERNALLY IMPLANTED IN IT; and SINCE SOME SOULS DO NOT AT ONCE DEVELOP THESE FRUITS OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, WHICH PRECLUDES THEIR IMMEDIATE REUNION WITH THEIR PRIMORDIAL SOURCE, ANOTHER TERM OF LIFE IS VOUCHSAFED TO THEM [This is where the idea of reincarnation came from. It's just another Jewish subterfuge to destroy some unsuspecting persons' faith], so that they may be able to cultivate those virtues which they stifled in their former bodily life, and without which it is impossible for them to

return to their heavenly home. HENCE, IF THE SOUL, IN ITS FIRST ASSUMING A HUMAN BODY AND SOJOURN ON EARTH, FAILS TO ACQUIRE THAT EXPERIENCE FOR WHICH IT DESCENDS FROM HEAVEN, AND BECOMES CONTAMINATED BY THAT WHICH IS POLLUTING, IT MUST RE‑INHABIT A BODY AGAIN AND AGAIN TILL IT IS ABLE TO ASCEND IN A PURIFIED STATE THROUGH REPEATED TRIALS.

Thus we are told that, "All souls are subject to transmigration, and men do not know the ways of the Holy

One, blessed be he; they do not know that they are brought before the tribunal, both before they enter into this world and after they quit it, THEY ARE IGNORANT OF THE MANY TRANSMIGRATIONS AND SECRET PROBATIONS WHICH THEY HAVE TO UNDERGO, AND OF THE NUMBER OF SOULS AND SPIRITS WHICH ENTER INTO THIS WORLD, AND DO NOT RETURN TO THE PALACE OF THE HEAVENLY KING. MEN DO NOT KNOW HOW THE SOULS REVOLVE LIKE A STONE WHICH IS THROWN FROM A SLING; as it is written: 'And the souls of thine enemies them shall he sling out, as out of the middle of a sling.' (1 Sam. xxv, 29). But the time is at hand when these mysteries will be disclosed." (Sohar, ii, 99b)

Here we can see how the Jews, again and again distort the Word of God and teach men lies and falsehoods: "And as IT IS APPOINTED UNTO MEN ONCE TO DIE, BUT AFTER THIS THE JUDGMENT." (Heb. 9:27)

THE TRANSMIGRATION OF THE SOUL INTO ANOTHER BODY, however, IS RESTRICTED TO THREE TIMES; and if two souls in their third residence in human bodies are still too weak to resist all earthly trammels and to acquire the necessary experience, they are both united and sent into one body, so that they may be able conjointly to learn that which they were too feeble to do separately.

It sometimes, however, happens that it is the singleness and isolation of the soul which is the source of her weakness, and she requires help to pass through her probation. In that case she chooses for a companion a soul which has more strength and better fortune. The stronger of the two then becomes as it were the mother; she carries the sickly one in her bosom, and nurses her from her own substance, just as a woman nurses her child.

Such an association is therefore called pregnancy, because the stronger soul gives as it were life and substance to the weaker companion. According to Josephus, the doctrine of the transmigration of souls into other bodies, was also held by the Pharisees (comp. Antiq. xviii, 1, 3: de Bell. Jud. ii, 8, 14), restricting, however, the metempsychosis to the righteous.

And though the Midrashim and the Talmud are silent about it, yet from Saada's vituperations against it (Emunoth ve‑Deoth, vi, 7; viii, 3) there is no doubt that this doctrine was held among some Jews in the ninth century of the present era. At all events it is perfectly certain that the karaite Jews firmly believed in it ever since the seventh century. (Comp. Frankel, Monatschrift, x, 177, etc.). St. Jerome assures us that it was also propounded among the early Christians as an esoteric and traditional doctrine which was entrusted to the select few (abscondite quasi in foveis viperarum versari et quasi haereditario malo serpere in paucis. Comp. epist. ad Demedriadem); and Origen was convinced that it was only by means of this doctrine that certain Scriptural narratives, such as the struggle of Jacob with Esau before their birth, the reference about Jeremiah when still in his mother's womb, and many others, can possibly be explained. With which the history of the

creation begins, and which is also the first letter in the word blessing.

Even the archangel of wickedness, or the venomous beast, or Samel, as he is called, will be restored to his angelic nature and name, inasmuch as he too, like all other beings, proceeded from the same infinite source of all things. The first part of his name, which signifies venom, will then be dropped, and he will retain the second part, which is the common name of all the angels.

This, however, will only take place at the advent of Messiah. But his coming is retarded by the very few new

souls which enter into the world; as many of the old souls which have already inhabited bodies have to re‑enter those bodies which are now born, in consequence of having polluted themselves in their previous bodily existence, and THE SOUL OF THE MESSIAH, WHICH, LIKE OTHER SOULS, HAS ITS PRE‑EXISTENCE IN THE WORLD OF THE SEPHIROTH, CANNOT BE BORN TILL ALL HUMAN SOULS HAVE PASSED THROUGH THEIR PERIOD OF PROBATION ON THIS EARTH, BECAUSE IT IS TO BE THE LAST BORN ONE AT THE END OF DAYS.

Reincarnation, or transmigration of souls, is a doctrine of the Cabala Generally. Failing to wash off the demons of the hands may turn one into a river, says the Jewish Encyclopedia under "Transmigration of Souls." The theory is the cause of much degradation in Hinduism. In the Cabala, each soul corresponds to a part of the body of the Adam Kadmon universe, some being "lower' organs, some "higher." The "dibbuk" or possessing spirit who can only be expelled by a "BaalShem" wonder‑worker came into the Jewish press in 1955 when the dibbuk was alleged to have been seen leaving the body of its unwilling host. The Jewish press all carried the report.

"Zoharic elements...crept into the liturgy of the 16th and 17th centuries...the characteristic features of which were the representation of the highest thoughts by human emblems and human passions, and the use of Erotic terminology to illustrate the relations between man and God, RELIGION BEING IDENTICAL WITH LOVE... sensuous pleasures, and especially intoxication, typify the highest degree of divine love as ecstatic contemplation, while the wine‑room represents merely the state through which the human qualities merge or are exalted into those of the Deity." (Jewish Encyclopedia)

There is nothing now there that the pagans who consulted the oracles, and indulged in booze and sex degeneracies, to worship the old sex‑gods who were the deities of all pagan civilizations, did not have centuries and centuries ago. No wonder the unsparing denunciations of the Prophets have to be "allegorized" away into nothing!

But the Word of God states that Christ: "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that HE MIGHT BE THE FIRSTBORN AMONG MANY BRETHREN." (Romans 8:29)

Thus, again and again the Jews are shown to be liars. Making the words of Christ ever more true when He said: "Ye [Jews] are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, AND ABODE NOT IN THE TRUTH, BECAUSE THERE IS NO TRUTH IN HIM. WHEN HE SPEAKETH A LIE, HE SPEAKETH OF HIS OWN: FOR HE IS A LIAR, AND THE FATHER OF IT." (John 8:44)

Returning to the Kabbalah. Then the great Jubilee year will commence, when the whole pleroma of souls, cleaned and purified shall return into the bosom of the Infinite Source; and they shall be in "the Palace which is situate in the secret and most elevated part of heaven, and which is called the Palace of Love." There the profoundest mysteries are; there dwells the Heavenly King, blessed be he, with the holy souls, and is united with them by a loving kiss. (Sohar, ii, 97a). "this kiss is the union of the soul with the substance from which it emanated." (Sohar i, 168a).

Then hell shall disappear; there shall be no more punishment, nor temptation, nor sin: life will be an everlasting feast, a Sabbath without end. Then all souls will be united with the Highest Soul, and supplement each other in the Holy of Holies of the Seven Halls.

Everything will then return to unity and perfection, every thing will be united into one idea, which shall

be over, and fill the whole universe. The basis of this idea, however (i.e., the light which is concealed in it),

will never be fathomed or comprehended; only the idea itself which emanates from it shall be comprehended. In

that state the creature will not be distinguished from the Creator, the same idea will illuminate both.

Then the soul will rule the universe like God, and what she shall command he will execute. (Sohar, i, 45a

and b). (5). The Kabbalistic view of the Old Testament, and its relation to Christianity. We have already seen

that the Kabbalah claims a pre‑Adamite existence, and asserts that its mysteries are covertly conveyed in the

first four books of the Pentateuch.

Those of us who read the Books of Moses, and cannot discover in them any of the above‑mentioned doctrines,

will naturally ask for the principles of exegesis whereby these secrets are deduced from or rather introduced

into the text. These principles are laid down in the following declaration: ‑‑"If the Law simply consisted of

ordinary expressions and narratives, e.gr., the words of Esau, Hagar, Laban, the ass of Balaam, or of Balaam

himself, why should it be called the Law of truth, the perfect Law, the true witness of God? Each word contains a sublime source, each narrative points not only to the single instance in question, but also to generals." (Sohar,

iii, 149b)

The notion that the creation is a blessing, and that this is indicated in the first letter, is already propounded in the Midrash, as may be seen from the following remark. The reason why the Law begins with Beth, the second letter of the Alphabet, and not with Aleph, the first letter, is that the former is the first letter in the word blessing, while the latter is the first letter in the word accursed. (Midrash Rabba, sec. i).

"Woe be to the son of man who says that the Tora (Pentateuch) contains common sayings and ordinary

narratives. For, if this were the case, we might in the present day compose a code of doctrines from profane

writings which should excite greater respect. If the Law contains ordinary matter, then there are nobler

sentiments in profane codes. Let us go and make a selection from them, and we shall be able to compile a far

superior code.

But every word of the Law has a sublime sense and a heavenly mystery...Now the spiritual angels had to put

on an earthly garment when they descended to this earth; and if they had not put on such a garment, they could

neither have remained nor be understood on the earth. And just as it was with the angels so it is with the Law.

When it descended on earth, the Law had to put on an earthly garment to be understood by us, and the narratives

are its garment. There are some who think that this garment is the real Law, and not the spirit which it clothed,

but these have no portion in the world to come; and it is for this reason that David prayed, 'Open thou mine eyes

that I may behold the wondrous things out of the Law.' (Psalm cxix, 18). What is under the garment of the Law?

There is the garment which everyone can see; and there are foolish people who, when they see a well‑dressed man,

think of nothing more worthy that this beautiful garment, and take it for the body, whilst the worth of the body

itself consists in the soul. The Law too has a body: this is the commandments, which are called the body of the

Law.

This body is clothed in garments, which are the ordinary narratives. The fools of this world look at nothing

else by this garment, which consists of the narratives in the Law; they do not know any more, and do not

understand what is beneath this garment. But those who have more understanding do not look at the garment but at

the body beneath it (i.e., the moral); whilst the wisest, the servants of the Heavenly King, those who dwelt at

Mount Sinai, look at nothing else but the soul (i.e., the secret doctrine), which is the root of all the real

Law, and these are destined in the world to come to behold the Soul of this Soul (i.e., the Deity), which

breathes in the Law." (Sohar iii, 152a).

The opinion that the mysteries of the Kabbalah are to be found in the garment of the Pentateuch is still

more systematically propounded in the following parable. "Like a beautiful woman, concealed in the interior of

her palace, who when her friend and beloved passes by, opens for a moment a secret window and is seen by him

alone, and then withdraws herself immediately and disappears for a long time, so the doctrine only shows herself to the chosen (i.e., to him who is devoted to her with body and soul); and even to him not always in the same manner. At first she simply beckons at the passer‑by with her hand, and it generally depends upon his

understanding this gentle hint.

This is the interpretation known by the name. Afterwards she approaches him a little closer, lisps him a few words, but her form is still covered with a thick veil, which his looks cannot penetrate. This is the so called.

She then converses with him with her face covered by a thin veil; this is the enigmatic language. After having

thus become accustomed to her society, she at last shews herself face to face and entrusts him with the innermost

secrets of her heart. This is the secret of the Law.

He who is thus far initiated in the mysteries of the Tora will understand that all those profound secrets

are based upon the simply literal sense, and are in harmony with it; and from this literal sense not a single

iota is to be taken and nothing to be added to it." (Sohar ii, 99).

This fourfold sense is gradually disclosed to the initiated in the mysteries of the Kabbalah by the application of definite hermeneutical rules, which chiefly affect the letters composing the words. The most prominent of these canons are:

1). Every letter of a word is reduced to its numerical value and the word is explained by another of the same quantity. Thus from the words "Lo! three men stood by him" (Gen. xviii, 2), it is deduced that these three angels were Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, because and lo! three men, and these are Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, are of the same numerical value, as will be seen from the following reduction to their numerical value of both these phrases. 5 + 300 + 300 + 5 + 50 + 5 + 6 == 701 30 + 1 + 20 + 10 + 40 + 6 + 30 + 1 + 30 + 1 + 10 + 200 + 2 + 3 + 30 + 1 + 80 + 200 + 6 == 701 This rule is a metathesis of a Greek word, in the sense of numbers as represented by letters.

2). Every letter of a word is taken as an initial or abbreviation of a word. Thus every letter of the first word in Genesis, is made the initial of a word, and we obtain, in the beginning God saw that Israel would accept the Law. This rule is denominated, from notarius, a shorthand writer, one who among the Romans belonged to that class of writers who abbreviated and used single letters to signify whole words.

3). The initial and final letters of several words are respectively formed into separate words. Thus from the beginnings and ends of the words who shall go up for us to heaven? (Deut. xxx, 12) are obtained circumcision and Jehovah, and inferred that God ordained circumcision as the way to heaven.

4). Two words occurring in the same verse are joined together and made into one. Thus who and these are made into God by transposing. (Vide supra, p. 192) 5).

The words of those verses which are regarded as containing a peculiar recondite meaning are ranged in

squares in such a manner as to be read either vertically or boustrophedonally, beginning at the right or left

hand. Again the words of several verses are placed over each other, and the letters which stand under each other

are formed into new words. As to the relation of the Kabbalah to Christianity, it is maintained that this

theosophy propounds the doctrine of the trinity and the sufferings of Messiah. How far this is true may be

ascertained from the following passages.

"We have already remarked in several places that the daily liturgical declaration about the divine unity is

that which is indicated in the Bible (Deut. vi, 43), where Jehovah occurs first, then Elohenu, and then again

Jehovah, which three together constitute a unity, and for this reason he [i.e., Jehovah] is in the said place.

But there are three names, and how can they be one? And although we read one, are they really one? Now this

revealed by the vision of the Holy Ghost, and when the eyes are closed we get to know that the three are only

one.

This is also the mystery of the voice. The voice is only one, and yet it consists of three elements, fire

[i.e., warmth], air [i.e., breath], and water i.e., humidity], yet are all these one in the mystery of the voice,

and can only be one, three forms which are one. And this is indicated by the voice which man raises [i.e., at

prayer], thereby to comprehend spiritually the most perfect unity of the En Soph for the finite, since all the

three [i.e., Jehovah, Elohenu, Jehovah] are read with the same loud voice, which comprises in itself a trinity.

And this is the daily confession of the divine unity which, as a mystery, is revealed by the Holy ghost. This

unity has been explained in different ways, yet he who understands it in this way is right, and he who

understands it in another way is also right. The idea of unity, however formed by us here below, from the mystery

of the audible voice which is one, explains the thing." (Sohar ii, 43b).

On another occasion we are informed that R. Eleazar, whilst sitting with his father R. Simeon, was anxious

to know how the two names, Jehovah and Elohim, can be interchanged, seeing that the one denotes mercy and the

other judgment. Before giving the discussion between the father and the son, it is necessary to remark that

whenever the two divine names, Adonai and Jehovah, immediately follow each other, Jehovah is pointed and read Elohim. The reason of this, as it is generally supposed, is to avoid the repetition of Adonai, Adonai, since the

Tetragrammation is otherwise always pointed and read. The Kabbalah, however, as we shall see, discovers in it a

recondite meaning.

"R. Eleazar, when sitting before his father R. Simeon, said to him, we have been taught that whenever Elohim

sometimes be put for Jehovah, as is the case in those passages wherein Adonai and Jehovah stand together (Comp. Gen. xv, 8; Ezek. ii, 4, etc.), seeing that the latter denotes mercy in all the passages in which it occurs? To

which he replied, Thus it is said in the Scripture, 'Know therefore this day and consider it in thine heart, that

Jehovah is Elohim' (Deut. iv, 19); and again it is written 'Jehovah is Elohim' (ibid. ver. 35). Whereupon he

[i.e., the son] said, I know this forsooth, that justice is sometimes tempered with mercy and mercy with justice.

Quoth he [i.e., the father], Come and see that it is so; Jehovah indeed does signify mercy whenever it occurs,

but when through sin mercy is changed into justice, then it is written Jehovah, but read Elohim. Now come and see

the mystery of the word [i.e., Jehovah]. There are three degrees, and each degree exists by itself [i.e., in the

Deity], although the three together constitute one, they are closely united into one and are inseparable from

each other." (Sohar iii, 65a)

We shall only give one more passage bearing on the subject of the Trinity. "He who reads the word One [i.e.,

in the declaration of the divine unity] must pronounce the Aleph quickly, shorten its sound a little, and not

pause at all by this letter, and he who obeys this, his life will be lengthened. Whereupon they [i.e., the

disciples] said to him [i.e., to R. Ilai], he [i.e., R. Simeon] has said, There are two, and one is connected

with them, and they are three; but in being three they are one. He said to them, those two names, Jehovah

Jehovah, are in the declaration 'Hear O Israel' (Deut. vi, 4), and Elohenu, between them, is united with them as

the third, and this is the conclusion which is sealed with the impression of Truth. But when these three combined

into a unity, they are one in a single unity." (Sohar iii, 262a).

Indeed one Codex of the Sohar had the following remark on the words "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts"

(Isa. iv, 3); the first holy refers to the Holy Father; the second to the Holy Son; and the third to the Holy

Ghost. This passage, however, is omitted from the present recessions of the Sohar. Some Jewish writers have felt

these passages to be so favorable to the doctrine of the Trinity, that they insist upon their being interpolations into the Sohar, whilst other have tried to explain them as referring to the Sephiroth. As to the atonement of the Messiah for the sins of the people, this is not only propounded in the Sohar, but is given as the explanation of the fifty‑third chapter of Isaiah.

"When the righteous are visited with sufferings and afflictions to atone for the sins of the world, it is

that they might atone for all the sins of this generation. How is this proved? By all the members of the body.

'When all members suffer, one member is afflicted in order that all may recover. And which of them? The arm. The

arm is beaten, the blood is taken from it, and then the recovery of all the members of the body is secured. So it

is with the children of the world: they are members of another. When the Holy One, blessed be he, wishes the

recovery of the world, he afflicts one righteous from their midst, and for his sake all are healed.

How is this shown? it is written: 'He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our

iniquities...and with his stripes we are healed.' (Isa. liii, 5). 'With his stripes,' i.e., healed, as by the

wound of bleeding an arm, and with this wound we are healed, i.e., it was a healing to each one of us as members

of the body." (Sohar iii, 218a)

Spirits Hover About The World

To the same effect is the following passage. "Those souls which tarry in the nether garden of Eden hover

about the world, and when they see suffering or patient martyrs and those who suffer for the unity of God, they

return and mention it to the Messiah. When they tell the Messiah of the afflictions of Israel in exile, and that

the sinners among them do not reflect in order to know their Lord, he raises his voice and weeps because of those

sinners, as it is written, 'he is wounded for our transgressions.' (Isa. liii, 5).

Whereupon those souls return and take their place. In the garden of Eden there is one place which is called

the palace of the sick. The Messiah goes into this palace and invokes all the sufferings, pain, and afflictions

of Israel to come upon him, and they all come upon him. Now if he did not remove them thus and take them upon

himself, no man could endure the sufferings of Israel, due as punishment for transgressing the Law; as it is

written: 'Surely he hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows, etc. (Isa. liii, 4, with Rom. xii, 3‑4).

When the children of Israel were in the Holy Land they removed all those sufferings and afflictions from the

world by their prayers and sacrifices, but now the Messiah removes them from the world." (Sohar ii, 212b)

That these opinions favor, to a certain extent, the doctrines of the Trinity and the Atonement, though not

in the orthodox sense, is not only admitted by many of the Jewish literati who are adverse to the Kabbalah, but

by some of its friends. Indeed, the very fact that so large a number of Kabbalists have from time to time

embraced the Christian faith would of itself show that there must be some sort of affinity between the tenets of

the respective systems. Some of these converts occupied the highest position in the Synagogue, both as pious Jews

and literary men. We need only specify Paul Ricci, physician to the Emperor Maximilian I; Julius Conrad Otto,

author of The Unveiled Secrets, consisting of extracts from the Talmud and the Sohar, to prove the validity of

the Christian doctrine (Nrenberg, 1805); John Stephen Rittengal, grandson of the celebrated Don Isaac Abravanel,

and translator of The Book Jetzira, or of Creation, into Latin (Amsterdam, 1642); and Jacob Frank, the great

apostle of the Kabbalah in the eighteenth century, whose example in professing Christianity was followed by

several thousands of his disciples.

The testimony of these distinguished Kabbalists, which they give in their elaborate works, about the

affinity of some of the doctrines of this theosophy with those of Christianity, is by no means to be slighted;

and this is fully corroborated by the celebrated Leo di Modena, who, as an orthodox Jew, went so far as to

question whether God will ever forgive those who printed the Kabbalistic works.

The use made by some well‑meaning Christians of the above‑named Kabbalistic canons of interpretation, in

controversies with Jews, to prove that the doctrines of Christianity are concealed under the letter of the Old

Testament, will now be deprecated by every one who has any regard for the laws of language. As a literary

curiosity, however, we shall give one or two specimens. No less a person than the celebrated Reuchlin would have

it that the doctrine of the Trinity is to be found in the first verse of Genesis. He submits, if the Hebrew word,

which is translated created, be examined, and if each of the three letters composing this word be taken as the

initial of a separate word, we obtain the expressions Son, Spirit, Father, according to Rule 2 (p. 229).

Upon the same principle this crudite scholar deduces the first two persons in the Trinity from the words:‑‑

"the stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner" (Psalm cxviii, 22), by dividing the

three letters composing the word stone, into Father, Son (Comp. De Verbo mirifico, Basel, 1494). In more recent

times we find it maintained that the 'righteousness' spoken of in Daniel ix, 24, means the Anointed of Jehovah,

because the original phrase is by Gematria, == numerical value, (which is Rule 1, given above, p. 229). So

pleased is the author with this discovery, that he takes great care to remark: ‑‑ "It is a proof which I believe

has hitherto escaped the notice of interpreters." Such proofs, however, of the Messiaship of Christ bring no

honor to our religion; and in the present day argue badly both against him who adduces them and against him who

is convinced by them.

Origin of the Kabbalah

We now proceed to trace the date and origin of the Kabbalah. Taking the ex parte statement for what it is

worth, viz., that this secret doctrine is of a pre‑Adamite date, and that God himself propounded it to the angels

in Paradise, we shall have to examine the age of the oldest documents which embody its tenets, and compare these

doctrines with other systems, in order to ascertain the real date and origin of this theosophy.

But before this is done, it will be necessary to summarize, as briefly as possible, those doctrines which

are peculiar to the Kabbalah, or which it expounds and elaborates in an especial manner, and which constitute it

a separate system within the precincts of Judaism.

The doctrines, the beliefs of the Jews are as follows: ‑‑

1). God is boundless in his nature. HE [God] HAS NEITHER WILL, INTENTION, DESIRE, THOUGHT, LANGUAGE, NOR ACTION. HE cannot be grasped and depicted; and, for this reason, IS CALLED EN SOPH, and as such HE IS IN A CERTAIN SENSE NOT EXISTENT.

2). HE [God] IS NOT THE DIRECT CREATOR OF THE UNIVERSE, SINCE HE COULD NOT WILL THE CREATION; and since a creation proceeding directly from him would have to be as boundless and as perfect as he is himself.

3). He at first sent forth ten emanations, or Sephiroth, which are begotten, not made, and which are both infinite and finite.

4). From these Sephiroth, which are the Archetypal Man, the different worlds gradually and successively evolved. These evolutionary worlds are the brightness and the express image of their progenitors, the Sephiroth, which uphold all things.

5). These emanations, or Sephiroth, gave rise to or created in their own image all human souls. These souls are pre‑existent, they occupy a special hall in the upper world of spirits, and there already decide whether they will pursue a good or bad course in their temporary sojourn in the human body, which is also fashioned according to the Archetypal image.

6). No one has seen the En Soph at any time. It is the Sephiroth, in whom the En Soph is incarnate, who have revealed themselves to us, and to whom the anthropomorphisms of Scripture and the Hagada refer.

Thus when it is said, "God spake, descended upon earth, ascended into heaven, smelled the sweet smell of

sacrifices, repented in his heart, was angry," etc., or when the Hagadic works describe the body and the mansions

of the Deity, etc., all this does not refer to the En Soph, but to these intermediate beings.

7). It is an absolute condition of the soul to return to the Infinite Source whence it emanated, after developing all those perfections the germs of which are indelibly inherent in it. If it fails to develop these germs, it must migrate into another body, and in case it is still too weak to acquire the virtues for which it is sent to this earth, it is united to another and a stronger soul, which, occupying the same human body with it, aids its weaker companion in obtaining the object for which it came down from the world of spirits.

8). When all the pre‑existent souls shall have passed their probationary period here below, the restitution of all things will take place; SATAN WILL BE RESTORED TO AN ANGEL OF LIGHT, hell will disappear, and all souls will return into the bosom of the Deity whence they emanated. The creature shall not then be distinguished from the Creator. Like God, THE SOUL WILL RULE THE UNIVERSE: SHE SHALL COMMAND, AND GOD [Will] OBEY.

With these cardinal doctrines before us we shall now be able to examine the validity of the Kabbalists' claims to the books which, according to them, propound their doctrines and determine the origin of this theosophy. Their works are (1). The Book of Creation; (2) The Sohar; and (3). The Commentary of the Ten Sephiroth. As the Book of Creation is acknowledged by all parties to be the oldest, we shall examine it first.

1). The Book of Creation of Jetzira.

This marvellous and famous document pretends to be a monologue of the patriarch Abraham, and premises that

the contemplations it contains are those which led the father of the Hebrews [Here the Jews inadvertently admit

that they are not the children of Abraham!] to abandon the worship of the stars and to embrace the faith of the

true God. Hence the remark of the celebrated philosopher, R. Jehudah Ha‑levi (born about 1086): ‑‑ "The Book of

the Creation, which belongs to our father Abraham... demonstrates the existence of the Deity and the Divine Unity, by things which are on the one hand manifold and multifarious, whilst on the other hand they converge and

harmonize; and this harmony can only proceed from One who originated it." (Khozari iv. 25).

The whole Treatise consists of six Perakim or chapters, subdivided into thirty‑three very brief Mishnas or

sections, as follows. The first chapter has twelve sections, the second has five, the third five, the fourth

four, the fifth three, and the sixth four sections. The doctrines which it propounds are delivered in the style

of aphorisms or theorems, and, pretending to be the dictates of Abraham, are laid down very dogmatically, in a

manner becoming the authority of this patriarch.

As has already been intimated, the design of this treatise is to exhibit a system whereby the universe may

be viewed methodically in connection with the truths given in the Bible, thus showing, from the gradual and

systematic development of the creation, and from the harmony which prevails in all its multitudinous component

parts, that One God produced it all, and that He is over all. The order in which God gave rise to this creation

out of nothing, and the harmony which pervades all the constituent parts of the universe are shown by the analogy

which subsists between the visible things and the signs of thought, or the means whereby wisdom is expressed and

perpetuated among men.

Since the letters have no absolute value, nor can they be used as mere forms, but serve as the medium

between essence and form, and like words, assume the relation of form to the real essence, and of essence to the

embryo and unexpressed thought, great value is attached to these letters, and to the combinations and analogies

of which they are capable. The patriarch Abraham, therefore, employs the double value of the twenty‑two letters of the Hebrew alphabet [It is for this reason that the Book of Jetzira is also called the Letters or alphabet of

the Patriarch Abraham]; he uses them, both in their phonetic nature and in their sacred character, as expressing the divine truths of the Scriptures.

But, since the Hebrew alphabet is also used as numerals, which are represented by the fundamental number ten, and since the vowels of the language are also ten in number, this decade is added to the twenty‑two letters, and these two kinds of signs, i.e., the twenty‑two letters of the alphabet and the ten fundamental numbers, are designated the thirty‑two ways of secret wisdom; and the treatise opens with the declaration: "By thirty‑two

paths of secret wisdom, the Eternal, the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel, the living God, the King of the Universe, the Merciful and Gracious, the High and Exalted God, HE WHO INHABITETH ETERNITY, Glorious and Holy is

His name, HATH CREATED THE WORLD BY MEANS OF NUMBERS, PHONETIC LANGUAGE, AND WRITING." (Sepher Jetzira, Chapter 1; Mishna 1).

First of all comes the fundamental number ten. This decade is divided into a tetrade and hexade, and thereby

is shown the gradual development of the world out of nothing. At first there existed nothing except the Divine

Substance, with the creative idea and the articulate creative word as the Spirit or the Holy Spirit, which is one

with the Divine Substance and indivisible. Hence, the Spirit of the living God stands at the head of all things

and is represented by the number one.

"One is the spirit of the living God, blessed be His name, who liveth for ever! voice, spirit, and word,

this is the Holy ghost." (Chapter 1, Mishna ix)

From this spirit the whole universe proceeded in gradual and successive emanations, in the following order.

The creative air, represented by number two, emanated from the Spirit. "In it He engraved the twenty‑two

letters." The water again, represented by the number three, proceeded from the air. "In it He engraved darkness

and emptiness, slime and dung." Whilst the ether or fire, represented by the number four, emanated from the

water. "In it He engraved the throne of His glory, the Ophanim, the Seraphim, the sacred animals, and the

ministering angels, and from these three he formed His habitation; as it is written: 'He maketh the wind his

messengers, flaming fire his servants." (Cap. i. Mish. ix, x). These intermediate members between the Creator and

the created world sustain a passive and created relationship to God, and an acting and creating relationship to the world; so that God is neither in immediate connection with the created and material universe, nor is His creative fiat hindered by matter.

Then comes the hexade, each unit of which represents space in the six directions, or the four corners of the

world, east, west, north, and south, as well as height and depth which emanated from the ether, and in the centre

of which is the Holy Temple supporting the whole. The position of the decade is therefore as follows: ‑‑(1)

Spirit; (2) Air; (3) Water; (4) Ether or Fire; (5) Height; (6) North; (7) West; Holy Temple. (8) East; (9) South;

and (10) Depth. These constitute the primordial ten, from which the whole universe proceeded.

And lastly follow "THE TWENTY‑TWO LETTERS, BY MEANS OF WHICH GOD, having, drawn, hewn, and weighed them, and having variously changed and put them together, FORMED THE SOULS OF EVERYTHING THAT HAS BEEN MADE, AND THAT SHALL BE MADE." (Chapter ii, Mishna ii).

These twenty‑two letters of the alphabet and are then divided into three groups, consisting respectively of,

(1). The three mothers, or fundamental letters, (2) Seven double and (3) Twelve simple consonants, to deduce

there from a triad of elements, a heptade of opposites, and a duodecimo of simple things, in the following

manner.

1). THREE MOTHERS, ALEPH, MEM, SHIN.

The above‑named three primordial elements, viz., ether, water and air, which were as yet partially ideal and

ethereal, became more concrete and palpable in the course of emanation. Thus the fire developed itself into the

earth, embracing sea and land, whilst the elementary air became the atmospheric air. These constitute the three

fundamental types of the universe.

The three primordial elements also thickened still more in another direction, and gave birth to a new order

of creatures, which constitute the course of the year and the temperatures.

From the ether developed itself heat, from the water emanated cold, and from the air proceeded the mild

temperature which shows itself in the rain or wet. These constitute the fundamental points of the year.

Whereupon the three primordial elements developed themselves in another direction again, and gave rise to the

human organism.

The ether sent forth the human head, which is the seat of intelligence; the water gave rise to the body, or

the abdominal system; wilst the air, which is the central element, developed itself into the genital organ. These

three domains, viz., the macrocosm, the revolution of time, and the microcosm, which proceeded from the three

primordial elements, are exhibited by the three letters Aleph, Mem and Shin. Hence it is said that by means of

these three letters, which, both in their phonetic and sacred character, represent the elements, inasmuch as a

gentle aspirate, and as the initial of air, symbolizes the Air; as a labial or mute, and as the initial of water,

represents the Water: whilst, as a sibilant, and as the last letter of fire, typifies the Fire (Chapter iii,

Mishna iii): ‑‑ God created

In the World ‑‑ The Fire, Water, Air.

In Man ‑‑ the Head, Body, Breast.

In the Year ‑‑ Heat, Cold, Wet.

2). Seven double consonants ‑‑ Beth, Gimel, Daleth, Caph, Pe, Resh, Tau.

The three dominions proceeding from the triad of the primordial elements which emanated from the unity

continued to develop themselves still further. In the macrocosm were developed the seven planets, in time the

seven days, an din the microcosm the seven sensuous faculties.

These are represented by the seven double consonants of the alphabet. Hence it is said that by means of

these seven letters, which are called double because they have a double pronunciation, being sometimes aspirated

and sometimes not, according to their being with or without the Dagesh, God created: ‑‑

In the World ‑‑ Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon.

In Man ‑‑ Wisdom, Riches, Dominion, Life, Favour, Progeny, Peace.

In the Year ‑‑ Sabbath, Thursday, Tuesday, Sunday, Friday, Wednesday, Monday.

Owing to the opposite == double pronunciation of these seven letters, being hard and soft, they are also the

symbols of the seven opposites in which human life moves, viz., wisdom and ignorance, riches and poverty,

fruitfulness and barrenness, life and death, liberty and bondage, peace and war, beauty and deformity.

Moreover, they correspond to the seven ends, above and below, east and west, north and south, and the Holy

Place in the centre, which supports them; and with them God formed the seven heavens, the seven earths or

countries, the seven weeks from the feast of Passover to Pentecost. (Chapter iii, Mishna, i‑v; cap. iv, Mishna,

i‑iii).

3). Twelve simple consonants.

The three dominions then respectively developed themselves into twelve parts, the macrocosm into the twelve signs of the Zodiac, time into twelve months, and the microcosm into twelve active organs. This is shown by the twelve simple consonants of the alphabet. Thus it is declared, that by means of the twelve letters, God created

the twelve signs of the Zodiac, viz.: ‑‑

In the World ‑‑ Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces.

In Man ‑‑ The organs of Sight, Hearing, Smelling, Talking, Taste, Copulating, Dealing, Walking, Thinking,

Anger, laughter, Sleeping.

In the Year ‑‑ The twelve months, viz., Nisan, Jiar, Sivan, Tamus, Ab, Elul, Tishri, Cheshvan, Kislev,

Tebet, Shebat, Adar. (Comp. Chapter v, Mishna i).

The three dominions continued gradually to develop into that infinite variety of objects which is perceptible in each. This infinite variety, proceeding from the combination of a few, is propounded by means of the great diversity of combinations and permutations of which the whole alphabet is capable.

These letters small in number, being only twenty‑two, by their power of combination and transposition, field

and endless number of words and figures, and thus become the types of all the varied phenomena in the creation.

"Just as the twenty‑two letters yield two hundred and thirty‑one types by combining Aleph with all the

letters, and all the letters with Alph; Beth, with all the letters, and all the letters with Beth, so all the

formations and all that is spoken proceed from one name." (Chapter ii, Mishna, iv).

Accordingly, the material form of the spirit, represented by the twenty‑two letters of the alphabet, is the

form of all existing beings. Apart from the three dominions, the macrocosm, time, and microcosm, it is only the

Infinite who can be perceived, and of whom this triad testifies; for which reason it is denominated "the three

true witnesses."

Each of this triad, notwithstanding its multifariousness, constitutes a system, having its own centre and

dominion. Just as God is the centre of the universe, the heavenly dragon is the centre of the macrocosm; the

foundation of the year is the revolution of the Zodiac; whilst the centre of the microcosm is the heart. The

first is like a king on his throne, the second is like a king living among his subjects, and the third is like a

king in war.

The reason why the heart of man is like a monarch in the midst of war is, that the twelve principal

organs of the human body "are arrayed against each other in battle array; three serve love, three hatred, three

engender life, and three death. The three engendering love are the heart, the ears and the mouth; the three for

enmity are the liver, the gall and the tongue; but God, the faithful King, rules over all the three systems. One

[i.e., god] is over the three, the three are over the seven, the seven over the twelve, and all are internally

connected with each other." (Chapter vi, Mishna iii).

Thus the whole creation is one connected whole; it is like a pyramid pointed at the top, which was its

beginning, and exceedingly broad in its basis, which is its fullest development in all its multitudinous

component parts. Throughout the whole are perceptible two opposites, with a reconciling medium. Thus, in the

macrocosm, "the ethereal fire is above, the water below, and the air is between these hostile elements to

reconcile them." (Chapter vi, Mishnai). the same is the case in the heaven, earth and the atmosphere, as well as

in the microcosm. But all the opposites in the cosmic, telluric and organic spheres, as well as in the moral

world, are designed to balance each other.

"God has placed in all things one to oppose the other; good to oppose evil, good proceeding from good, and

evil from evil; good purifies evil, and evil purifies good; good is in store for the good, and evil is reserved

for the evil." (Chapter vi, Mishna ii).

From this analysis of its contents it will be seen that the Book Jetzira, which the Kabbalists claim as their oldest document, has really nothing in common with the cardinal doctrines of the Kabbalah. There is not a single word in it bearing on the En Soph, the Archetypal Man, the speculations about the being and nature of the Deity, and the Sephiroth, which constitute the essence of the Kabbalah. Even its treatment of the ten digits, as part of the thirty‑two ways of wisdom whereby God created the universe, which has undoubtedly suggested to the authors of the Kabbalah the idea of the ten Sephikroth, is quite different from the mode in which the Kabbalistic Sephiroth are depicted, as may be seen from a most cursory comparison of the respective diagrams which we have

given to illustrate the plans of the two systems.

Besides the language of the Book Jetzira and the train of ideas therein enunciated, as the erudite Zunz

rightly remarks, shew that this treatise belongs to the Geonim period, i.e., about the ninth century of the

Christian era, when it first became known.

The fabrication of this pseudograph was evidently suggested by the fact that the Talmud mentions some

treatises on the Creation, denominated and (Sanhedrin 65b; 67b) which "R. Chanina and R. Oshaja studied every

Friday, whereby they produced a calf three years old and ate it; and whereby R. Joshua ben Chananja declared he

could take fruit and instantly produce the trees which belong to them. (Jerusalem Sanhedrin cap. vii. ad

finem.).

Indeed Dr. Chwolson of Petersburg has shown in his treatise "on the Remnants of the ancient Babylonian

Literature in Arabic translations," that the ancient Babylonians laid it down as a maxim that if a man were

minutely and carefully to observe the process of nature, he would be able to imitate nature and produce sundry

creatures. He would not only be able to create plants and metals, but even living beings.

These artificial productions the Babylonians call productions or formations. Gutami, the author of the

Agricultura Nabat, who lived about 1400 B.C. devoted a long chapter to the doctrine of artificial productions.

The ancient sorcerer Ankebuta declares, in his work on artificial productions, that he created a man, and shows

how he did it; but he confesses that the human being was without language and reason, that he could not eat, but

simply opened and closed his eyes.

This and many other fragments adds R ‑‑, from whose communication we quote, show that there were many works in Babylon which treated on the artificial productions of plants, metals, and living beings, and that the Book Jetzira, mentioned in the Talmud, was most probably such a Babylonian document.

As the document on creation, mentioned in the Talmud, was lost in the course of time, the author of the

Treatise which we have analyzed tried to supply the loss, and hence not only called his production by the ancient

name the Book of Creation, but ascribed it to the patriarch Abraham. The perusal, however, of a single page of

this book will convince any impartial reader that it has as little in common with the magic work mentioned in the

Talmud or with the ancient Babylonian works which treat of human creations, as with the speculations about the

being and nature of the Deity, the En Soph and the Sephiroth, which are the essence of the Kabbalah.

For those who would like to prosecute the study of the metaphysical Book Jetzira, we must mention that this

Treatise was first published in a Latin translation by Postellus, Paris, 1552. It was then published in the

original with five commentaries, viz., the spurious one of Saadia Gaon, one by Moses Nachmanides, one by Eleazer

Worms, one by Abraham b. David, and one by Moses Botarel. Mantua, 1565. Another Latin version is given in Job. Pistorii artis cabalistical semptorum, 1587, Tom. 1, p. 869 seq., which is ascribed to Reuchlin and Paul Ricci;

and a third Latin translation, with notes and the Hebrew text, was published by Rittangel, Amsterdam, 1662. The

Book is also published with a German translation and notes, by John Freidrich v. Meyer, Leipzig, 1830. As useful

helps to the understanding of this difficult Book we may mention The Kusari of R. Jehudah ha‑levi, with Cassel's

German version and learned annotations, part iv. chap 25, p. 344, etc. Having shown that the Book Jetzira,

claimed by the Kabbalists as their first and oldest code of doctrines, has no affinity with the real tenets of

the Kabbalah, we have no to examine: ‑‑

The Sohar

2). The Book Sohar.

Before we enter into an examination concerning the date and authorship of this renowned code of the

Kabbalistic doctrines, it will be necessary to describe the component parts of the Sohar. It seems that the

proper Sohar, which is a commentary on the five Books of Moses, according tot he division into Sabbatic sections,

was originally called the Midrash or Exposition, Let there be Light, from the words in Gen. i, 4; because the

real Midrash begins with the exposition of this verse. The name Sohar, i.e., Light Splendour, was given to it

afterwards, either because this document begins with the theme light, or because the word Sohar frequently occurs

on the first page.

It is referred to by the name of the Book Sohar in the component parts of the treatise itself. (Comp. The

Faithful Shepherd, Sohar, iii, 153b). The Sohar is also called Midrash of R. Simon b. Jochai, because this Rabbi

is its reputed author.

The Sohar was first published by the Padova and Jacob b. Naphtali, 3 vols. Mautna, 1558‑1560, with an

Introduction by Is. de Lattes. Interspersed throughout the Sohar, either as parts of the text with special

titles, or in separate columns with distinct superscriptions, are the following dissertations, which we detail

according to the order of the pages on which they respectively commence.

1). Tosephta and Mathanithan and, or Small Additional Pieces which are given in vol. i, 31b; 32b; 37a; 51b; 59a; 60b; 62; 98b; 121a; 122, 123b; 147; 151a; 152a; 232; 233b; 234a; vol. ii, 4, 27b; 28a; 68b; 135b; vol. iii,

29b; 30a; 54b; 55.

They briefly discuss, by way of supplement, the various topics of the Kabbalah, such as the Sephiroth, the

emanation of the primordial light, etc., and address themselves in apostrophes to the initiated in these

mysteries, calling their attention to some doctrine or explanation.

2). Hechaloth or The Mansions and Abodes forming part of the text vol. i, 38a ‑45b; vol. ii, 245a ‑ 269a.

This portion of the Sohar describes the topographical structure of Paradise and Hell. The mansions or

palaces, which are seven in number, were at first the habitation of the earthly Adam, but, after the fall of the

protoplasts, were rearranged to be the abode of the beautified saints, who for this reason have the enjoyment

both of this world and the world to come. The seven words in Gen. i, 2 are explained to describe these seven

mansions. Sohar, i, 45a, describes the seven Hells. In some Codices, however, this description of the Infernal

Regions is given vol. ii, 202b.

3). Sithre Tora, or The Mysteries of the Pentateuch, given in separate columns, and at the bottom of pages as follows. Vol. i, 74b; 75a; 76b ‑ 77a; 78a ‑81b; 97a‑102a; 107b ‑ 111a; 146b ‑ 149b; 151a; 152b; 154b‑157b; 161b ‑ 162b; 165; vol. ii, 146a.

It discusses the divers topics of the Kabbalah, such as the evolution of the Sephiroth, the emanation of the

primordial light, etc.

4). Midrash Ha‑Neelam, or The Hidden Midrash, occupies parallel columns with the text in vol. i, 97a ‑ 140a, and endeavors more to explain passages of Scripture mystically, by way of Remasim and Gematrias, and allegorically, than to propound the doctrines of the Kabbalah.

Thus Abraham's prayer for Sodom and Gomorrah is explained as an intercession by the congregated souls of the saints in behalf of the sinners about to be punished. (Sohar i, 104b). Lot's two daughters are the two proclivities in man, good and evil. (ibid. 110) Besides this mystical interpretation wherein the Kabbalistic rules of exegesis are largely applied, the distinguishing feature of this portion of the Sohar is its discussion on the properties and destiny of the soul, which constitute an essential doctrine of the Kabbalah.

5). Raja Mehemna, or the Faithful Shepherd. This portion of the Sohar is given in the second and third volumes, in parallel columns with the text; and when it is too disproportioned for columns, is given at the bottom or in separate pages, as follows. Vol. ii, 25; 40; 59b; 91b ‑ 93a; 134b; 157b ‑ 159a; 187b ‑188a; vol. iii, 3a 4b; 20a; 24b; 27; 28a ‑ 29a; 33a ‑ 34a; 42a; 44a; 63; 67b ‑ 68a; 81b ‑ 83b; 85b ‑86a; 88b ‑90a; 92b‑93a; 97a‑101a; 103b ‑104a; 108b ‑ 111b; 121b ‑ 126a; 145a ‑ 146b; 152b ‑ 153b; 174a ‑ 175a; 178b ‑ 179b; 180a; 215a ‑ 239a; 242a ‑ 258a; 263a ‑ 264a; 270b ‑ 283a.

It derives its name from the fact that it records the discussions which Moses the Faithful Shepherd held in

conference with the prophet Elias, and with R. Simon b. Jochai, the celebrated master of the Kabbalistic school,

who is called the Sacred Light. The chief object of this portion is to show the profound and allegorical import

of the Mosaic commandments and prohibitions, as well as of the Rabbinic injunctions and religious practices which

obtained in the course of time. At the dialogue which Moses the lawgiver holds with R. Simon b. Jochai the

Kabbalistic lawgiver, not only is the prophet Elias present, but Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Aaron, David, Solomon,

and God himself make their appearance; THE DISCIPLES OF R. SIMON ARE FREQUENTLY IN ECSTASIES WHEN THEY HOLD CONVERSE WITH THESE ILLUSTRIOUS PATRIARCHS AND KINGS OF BYGONE DAYS.

6). Raze Derazin, or the Secret of Secrets, Original Secrets, is given in vol. ii, 70a ‑ 75a.

And is especially devoted to the physiognomy of the Kabbalah, and the connection of the soul with the body,

based upon the advice of Jethro to his son‑in‑law Moses "and thou shalt look into the face." (Exod. xviii, 21).

7). Saba Demishpatim, or the Discourse of the Aged in Mishpatim, given in vol. ii, 94a ‑ 114a.

The Aged is the prophet Elias, who holds converse with R. Simon b. Jochai about the doctrine of

metempsychosis, and the discussion is attached tot he Sabbatic section called i.e., Exod. xxi, 1 ‑ xxiv, 18,

because the Kabbalah takes this word to signify punishments of souls, and finds its psychology in this section. So enraptured were the disciples when their master, the Sacred Light, discoursed with Moses on this subject, that they knew not whether it was day or night, or whether they were in the body or out of the body. (Sohar ii, 105b).

"For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no

marvel; FOR SATAN HIMSELF IS TRANSFORMED INTO AN ANGEL OF LIGHT. Therefore it is no great thing if HIS ministers also be transformed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works." (2 Cor. 11:13‑15)

8). Siphra Detzniutha, or the Book of Secrets or Mysteries, given in vol. ii, 176b ‑ 178b.

It is divided into five sections, and is chiefly occupied with the discussing the questions involved in the

creation, the transition from the infinite to the finite, from absolute unity to multifariousness, from pure

intelligence to matter, the double principle of masculine and feminine, expressed in the Tetragrammaton, the

andrgynous protoplast, the Demonology concealed in the letters of Scripture, as seen in Gen. vi, 2; Josh. ii, 1;

1 Kings viii, 3‑16; the mysteries contained in Isa. i, 4, and the doctrine of the Sephiroth concealed in Gen. i;

etc., as well as with showing the import of the letters composing the Tetragrammation which were the principal

agents in the creation. This portion of the Sohar has been translated into Latin by Rosenroth in the second

volume of his Kabbala Denudata, Frankfort‑on‑the‑Maine, 1684.

9). Idra Rabba, or the Great Assembly is given in vol. iii, 127b ‑ 145b.

And derives its name from the fact that it purports to give the discourses which R. Simon b. Jochai

delivered to his disciples who congregated around him in large numbers. Upon the summons of the Sacred Light, his

disciples assembled to listen to the secrets and enigmas contained in the Book of Mysteries.

HENCE IT IS CHIEFLY OCCUPIED WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE FORM AND VARIOUS MEMBERS OF THE DEITY, A DISQUISITION ON THE RELATION OF THE DEITY, IN HIS TWO ASPECTS OF THE AGED AND THE YOUNG, TO THE CREATION AND THE UNIVERSE, as well as on the diverse gigantic members of the Deity, such as the head, the beard, the eyes, the nose, etc.; a

dissertation on pneumatology, demonology, etc. it concludes with telling us that three of the disciples died

during these discussions. This portion too is given in a Latin translation in the second volume of Rosenroth's

Kabbala Denudata.

10). Januka, or the Discourse of the Young Man, is given in vol. iii, 186a ‑ 19a, and forms part of the text of the Sohar on the Sabbatic section called Balak, i.e., Numb. xxii, 2 ‑ xxv, 9.

It derives its name from the fact that the discourses therein recorded were delivered by a young man, under

the following circumstances: ‑‑ R. Isaac and R. Jehudah, two of R. Simon b. Jochai's disciples, when on a

journey, and passing through the village where the widow of R. Hamnuna Saba resided, visited this venerable

woman. She asked her son, the young hero of this discourse, who had just returned from school, to go to these two Rabbins to receive their benediction; but the youth would not approach them because he recognized, from the smell of their garments, that they had omitted reciting on that day the prescribed declaration about the unity of the Deity. When at meals this wonderful Januka gave them sundry discourses on the mysterious import of the washing of hands, based on Exod. xxx, 20, on the grace recited at meals, on the Shechinah, on the angel who redeemed Jacob (Gen. xlviii, 16), etc., which elicited the declaration from the Rabbins that "this youth is not the child of human parents"; and when hearing all this, R. Simon b. Jochai coincided in the opinion, that "this youth is of superhuman origin."

11). Idra Suta or the Small Assembly, is given in vol. iii, 287b ‑ 296b.

And derives its name from the fact that many of the disciples of R. Simon b. Jochai had died during the

course of these Kabbalistic revelations, and that this portion of the Sohar contains the discourses which the

Sacred Light delivered before his death to the small assembly of six pupils, who still survived and congregated

to listen to the profound mysteries. It is to a great extent a recapitulation of the Idra Rabba, occupying itself

with speculations about the Sephiroth, THE DEITY IN HIS THREE ASPECTS, or principles which successively developed themselves from each other, viz., the en Soph, or the boundless in his absolute nature, the Macroprosopon, or the Boundless as manifested in the first emanation, and the Microprosopon, the other nine emanations; the abortive creations, etc., and concludes with recording the death of Simon b. Jochai, the Sacred Light and the medium through whom God revealed the contents of the Sohar. The Idra Suta has been translated into Latin by Rosenroth in the second volume of his Kabbala Denudata.

From this brief analysis of its component parts and contents, it will be seen that the Sohar does not

propound a regular kabbalistic system, but promiscuously and reiteratedly dilates upon the diverse doctrines of

this theosophy, as indicated in the forms and ornaments of the Hebrew alphabet, in the vowel points and accents,

in the Divine names and the letters of which they are composed, in the narratives of the Bible, and in the

traditional and national stories. Hence the Sohar is more a collection of homilies or rhapsodies on Kabbalistic

subjects than treatises on the Kabbalah.

It is for this very reason that it became the treasury of the Kabbalah to the followers of this theosophy.

Its diversity became its charm. The long conversations between its reputed author, R. Simon b. Jochai, and Moses, the great lawgiver and true shepherd, which it records; the short and pathetic prayers inserted therein; the religious anecdotes; the attractive spiritual explanations of scripture passages, appealing to the hearts and wants of men; the description of the Deity and of the Sephiroth under tender forms of human relationships,

comprehensible to the finite mind, such as father, mother, primeval man, matron, bride, white head, the great and

small face, the luminous mirror, the higher heaven, the higher earth, etc., which it gives on every page, made

the sohar a welcome text‑book for the students of the Kabbalah, who, by its vivid descriptions of divine love,

could lose themselves in rapturous embraces with the Deity.

The Sohar pretends to be a revelation from God, communicated through R. Simon b. Jochai, who flourished about A.D. 70‑110, to his select disciples. We are told that "when they assembled to compose the Sohar,

permission was granted to the prophet Elias, to all the members of the celestial college, to all angels, spirits,

and superior souls, to assist them; and the ten spiritual substances [i.e., Sephiroty] were charged to disclose

to them their profound mysteries, which were reserved for the days of the Messiah."

On the approach of death, R. Simon b. Jochai assembled the small number of his disciples and friends,

amongst whom was his son, R. Eleazar, to communicate to them his last doctrines, "when he ordered as follows ‑ R.

Aba shall write, R. Eleazar, my son propound, and let my other associates quietly think about it." (Idra Suta,

Sohar iii, 287b).

It is upon the strength of these declarations, as well as upon the repeated representation of R. Simon b.

Jochai as speaking and teaching throughout this production, that the Sohar is ascribed to this Rabbi on its very title‑page, and that not only Jews, for centuries, but such distinguished Christian scholars as Lightfoot, Gill,

Bartolocci, Pfeifer, Knorr von Rosenroth, Molitor, etc., have maintained this opinion.

A careful examination, however, of the following internal and external evidence will show that this

Thesaurus of the Kabbalah is the production of the thirteenth century.

1). The Sohar most fulsomely praises its own author, calls him the Sacred Light, and exalt him above Moses, "the true Shepherd.

"I testify by the sacred heavens and the sacred earth that I now see what no son of man has seen since Moses

ascended the second time on Mount Sinai, for I see my face shining as brilliantly as the light of the sun when it

descends as a healing for the world; as it is written, 'to you who fear my name shall shine the Sun of

Righteousness with a healing in his wings.' (Malachi iii, 20; iv, 2). Yea, more, I know that my face is shining,

but Moses did not know it nor understand it; for it is written (Exod. xxxiv, 29), 'Moses wist not that the skin

of his face shone.'" (Sohar iii, 132b; 144a).

The disciples deify R. Simon in the Sohar, declaring that the verse, "all thy males shall appear before the

Lord God" (Exod. xxiii, 17), refers to R. Simon b. Jochai, who is the Lord, and before whom all men must appear

(Sohar ii, 38a).

2). The sohar quotes and mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points (i, 16b; 24b; ii, 116a; iii, 65a), which were introduced for the first time by R. Mocha of Palestine, A.D. 570, to facilitate the reading of the Scriptures for his students.

3). The sohar Faithful Shepherd, (on section iii, 82b), has literally borrowed two verses from the celebrated Hymn of Ibn Gebiro, who was born about A.D. 1021 and died in 1070. This Hymn which is entitled The Royal Diadem, is a beautiful and pathetic composition, embodying the cosmic views of Aristotle, and forms part of the Jewish service for the evening preceding the Great Day of Atonement to the present day.

4). The Sohar (i, 18b, 23a) quotes and explains the interchange, on the outside of the Mezuza, of the words

Jehovah our God is Jehovah for Kuzu Bemuchzaz Kuzu, by substituting for each letter its immediate predecessor

in the alphabet, which was transplanted from France into Spain in the thirteenth century.

5). The Sohar (iii, 232b) uses the expression Esnoga, which is a Portuguese corruption of synagogue, and explains it in a Kabbalistic manner as a compound of two Hebrew words, i.e., Es == and Noga == brilliant light.

6). The Sohar (ii, 32a) mentions the Crusades, the momentary taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders from the

Infidels, and the retaking of it by the Saracens.

"Woe to the time wherein Ishmael [see how the Jews lie again and again ‑ it was Abraham who received the

commandment to circumcise his male children ‑ not Ishmael!] saw the world, and received the sign of circumcision! What did the Holy One, blessed be his name? He excluded the descendants of Ishmael, i.e., the Mohommedans, from the congregation in heaven, but gave them a portion on earth in the Holy Land, because of the sign of the covenant which they possess. The Mahommedans are, therefore, destined to rule for a time over the Holy Land; and they will prevent the Israelites from returning to it, till the merit of the Mahommedans is accomplished. At that time the descendants of Ishmael will be the occasion of terrible wars in the world, and the children of Edom, i.e., the Christians [Here again they lie and say Christians are Edomites, when the Scriptures along with the Jews own writings show it is the Jews who are the Edomites not the Christians], will gather together against them and do battle with them, some at sea and some on land, and some in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, and the victory will now be on the one side and then on the other, but the Holy Land will not remain in the hands of the

Christians." (Sohar ii, 32a)

7). The Sohar records events which transpired A.D. 1264.

Thus on Num. xxiv, 17, which the Sohar explains as referring to the time preceding the advent of Messiah, it

remarks, "the Holy One, blessed be he, is prepared to rebuild Jerusalem. Previous to the rebuilding thereof he

will cause to appear, a wonderful and splendid star, which will shine seventy days. It will first be seen on

Friday, Elul == July 25th, and disappear on Saturday or Friday evening at the end of seventy days. On the day

preceding [its disappearance, i.e., October 2nd] when it will still be seen in the city of Rome, on that self‑

same day three high walls of that city of Rome and the great palace will fall, and the pontiff ruler of the city

will die." (Sohar iii, 212b).

The comet here spoken of appeared over Rome, July 25th, 1264, and was visible till October 2nd, which are

literally the seventy days mentioned in the Sohar. Moreover, July 25th, when the comment first appeared actually happened on a Friday; on the day of its disappearance, October 2nd, the sovereign pontiff of Rome, Urban IV, died at Perugia, when it was believed that the appearance of the comment was the omen of his death, and the great and strong palace Vincimento, fell on the self‑same day, October 2nd, into the hand of the insurrectionists.

8). The Sohar, in assigning a reason why its contents were not revealed before, says that the "time in which R.

Simon ben Jochai lived was peculiarly worthy and glorious, and that it is near the advent of the Messiah," for which cause this revelation was reserved till the days of R. Simon, to be communicated through him.

Yet, speaking elsewhere of the advent of the Messiah, the Sohar, instead of placing it in the second century

when this Rabbi lived, forgets itself and says: ‑‑"When the sixtieth or the sixty‑sixth year shall have passed

over the threshold of the sixth millennium [A.M. 5060‑66 == A.D. 1300‑1306] the Messiah will appear" (Sohar i,

116a; 117b; Comp. also iii, 252a); thus showing that the author lived in the thirteenth century of the Christian

era. In perfect harmony with this is the fact that: ‑‑

9). The doctrine of the En Soph, and the Sephiroth, as well as the metempsychosisian retribution were not known

before the thirteenth century...

"With the assistance of this mysterious science a man could master all the spirits that flit like shadows

through the universe: could obtain the services of the angels, perform the most astounding deeds. Such was the

meaning attached to this science and the awe which the Kabbalist inspired was far superior to that which the

wizard or magician inspired. For the Kabbalist owed his power to the knowledge which was vouchsafed to him

through the study of sacred writings, whilst the wizard or magician was suspected of some unholy compact with the

Master of Darkness. This at once shows that even in the darkest ages of superstition and blind belief, Kabbala

was never associated with evil purposes, nor the Kabbalist with some mysterious dark power. He was credited with

having penetrated the mysteries of this world by almost a special grace of God; through some holy agency the veil

that covers everything had been lifted for him." (Origin of the Kabbala, M. Gaster, Ramsgate, 1894, p. 15)

The line drawn here between the white Kabbalist and the black magician is as arbitrary as all attempted

classifications of magic under rubrics are doomed to be; white and black are continually mingling and fertilizing

each other; and the ineffable names of the Kabbala were used and misused by the magical confraternity quite as

profusely as those of the divinities of Egypt, Greece and Christendom. The holier the names, the more powerful

they were supposed to be; and even the divine appellations of the Kabbalistic Sephiroth did not escape magical

pollution.

This fundamental doctrine of the emanations of God from Ain (En) Soph (the Illimitable One) through Kether,

the Crown; Binah, Understanding; Chokmah, Wisdom; Geburah, Strength; Chesed, Pity; Hod, Greatness; Netzach,

Victory; Jesod, Foundation; Malkuth, Kingdom, supplied Jewish mystics with food for enraptured contemplation and their philosophers with matter for abstruse speculations. But it also ministered to the insatiable demand for names of power inherent in the very nature of magic.

By connecting a particular name for God with each of His emanations (JAH, JEHOVAH, EL, ELOHIM, JEHOD, ELOHA, SABAOTH, SHADAI, ADONAI), it delivered these sacred symbols into the hands of sorcerers; and most eagerly of course was grasped the one about which there seemed to be the most mystery. A great and almost impenetrable mystery had indeed gradually grown up round the name which there seemed to be the most mystery. A great and almost impenetrable mystery had indeed gradually grown up round the name which to us seems the most familiar of all, even though its pronunciation has shifted in our own day: Jehovah or Jahweh. Represented by the letters JHVH (Yod He Vau He), it seems at first to have been openly spoken.

But a time came when, possibly owing to the mystery‑mongering about divine names in Egypt and Babylonia, the Hebrew priests refrained from pronouncing it, and substituted Adonai (Lord) when they read the sacred texts out loud. The Jewish people followed their lead; and, because of the absence of vowels from the Hebrew alphabet, the original pronunciation was finally forgotten and not rediscovered until A.D. 300 or there abouts. It was the Kabbalists who emphasized the mystery surrounding the letters JHVH by referring to the name they represented as the 'word of four letters,' Tetragrammation, and this caught on like wild‑fire in the magical texts. Few indeed an far between are those modern rituals in which that awe‑inspiring name does not occupy the place of honor.

It is not one of the many bizarre appellations to be found in the Sword of Moses, which may have been pre‑

Kabbalistic in origin; but this text nevertheless illustrates particularly vividly the strange hold which cipher‑

language has always had over the Jewish mind, and which has rendered the obscurity and complexity of magical

names still more hopeless to disentangle. There are well over a hundred and forty divine or angelic ineffable

names in this treatise; but the majority, according to Gaster, defy transliteration.

The following passages, however, throw some light on the mental gymnastics involved in composing them: "...

and these are the Ineffable names and their surnames: Spirit Piskonnit, kunya, X; Atimon, kunya, X; Piskon (?),

Hugron, kunya, X; Sanigron, kunya, X; Msi, Kunya, X; Mokon, kunya, X; Astm, kunya, X; Sktm, kunya, X; Ihoaiel,

kunya, X; Iofiel, kunya, X; Ssnialiah, kunya, X; Kngiela, kunya, X; Zabdiel, kunya, X. I conjure thee with these

fourteen names, by which all the secrets and mysteries and signs are sealed and accomplished, and which are the

foundations of heaven and earth. (Kunya is the surname; X stands for names which have not been transliterated).

I further call thee with the greatest of thy Names, the pleasant and beloved one, which is the same as that

of thy Master, save one letter, with which He created and formed everything, and which He placed as a seal upon

all the work of His hand; and this is its equivalent ‑‑ X, and the other in the language of purity (permutations

of the letters Yod, He) is read so ‑‑ X. I conjure thee with the right hand of sanctity and with His beloved

Name, in whose honour everything has been created, and all are terror‑struck by His mighty arm, and all the sons

of the internal heavenly cohort tremble and shake of His fear, which is X, and its equivalent by means of JHVH is

X...in the name X, Lord, most high and holy, in the name of the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel's battalions; in

the name of the holy living Creatures, and in the name of the Wheels of the Chariot, and in the name of the river

of fire, Ih, Ziin, and all His ministers, and in the name of IH, Ziin, Sabaoth, Z, El Z, Shaddai Z, X revealed

Himself on Mount Sinai in the glory of His majesty." (The Sword of Moses, Gaster, p. 49‑50f)

These names were held to be omnipotent over both good spirits and evil ones; and to be exceedingly terrible:

"And if you should refuse me, I will hand you over to the Lord God and to his Ineffable name, whose wrath and

anger and fire are kindled, who honours his creatures with one letter of his name, and is called X; so that if

you refuse he will destroy you , and you will not be found when searched after." (Ibid. p. 30; an invocation to

Azliel, Arel, Ta'aniel, Tafel, Yofiel Mittron, Yadiel, Ra'asiel, Haniel, Haniel, Asrael, Yisriel, A'shael,

Amuhael, Asrael, the lords of the 'Sord.')

"With these Names, terrible and mighty, which darken the sun, and obscure the moon, and turn the sea, and

break the rocks, and extinguished the light I conjure you, spirits, and...Shiddim, and Satanism, that you depart

and disappear from N, son of N." (Ibid. p. 51)

The affiliations between Kabbalism and Gnosticism are notoriously very close, for indeed the Gnosis not only

derived from but also entered into every contemporary doctrine and religious or mystical system. As regards the

Ineffable Name, it out‑clamored (as was its custom) even the Kabbala: "If anyone knows that Name when he goes out of the material body, neither smoke nor darkness, neither Archon, angel, or archangel, would be able to hurt the soul which knows that Name. And if it be spoken by anyone going out from the world and said to the fire, it will

be extinguished; and to the darkness, it will disappear; and if it be said to the demons and to the satellites of

the external darkness, to its Archons, and to its lords and powers, they will all perish, and their flame will

burn them so that they exclaim: 'Thou are holy, Thou art holy, the Holy of all the Holy.' And if that Name is

said to the judges of the wicked, and to their lords and all their powers, and to Barbelo and the invisible God,

and to the three Gods of triple power, as soon as that Name is uttered in those regions they will fall one upon

the other, so that being destroyed they perish and exclaim: 'Light of all the Lights, who art in the infinite

lights, have mercy upon us and purify us." (Ibid. p. 14)

Magicians did rather more than borrow ineffable names from the Kabbala. The Zohar first became known in

Europe in the thirteenth century, when a poor Jew, Moses Leon, brought it to Spain. From then onwards Kabbalism

has never ceased to exert an incalculable influence upon occultists of every description. The Kabbalistic tree,

which give the Sephiroth in a tabular form, and the doctrine that the invisible can be known by analogy from the visible ('as below, so above') have led to abysmally abstruse speculations, to the most extravagant flights of

fancy and to the most fine‑spun theories; for the obscurity of the language of Zohar as well as the pantheism

underlying the doctrine of the emanations have had an almost intoxicating effect on the minds of mystics,

mystagogues and magicians, as the language of Eliphas Lvi, who was a combination of all three, amply testifies:

"On penetrating into the sanctuary of the Kabbalah one is seized with admiration in the presence of a doctrine so

logical, so simple and at the same time so absolute.

The essential union of ideas and signs; the consecration of the most fundamental realities by primitive characters; the trinity of words, letters and numbers; a philosophy simple as the alphabet, profound and infinite as the Word; theorems more complete and luminous than those of Pythagoras; a theology which may be summed up on

the fingers; an infinite which can be held in the hollow of an infant's hand; ten figures and twenty‑two letters,

a triangle, a square and a circle: such are the elements of the Kabbalah. Such also are the component principles

of the written Word, reflection of that spoken Word which created the world! All truly dogmatic religions have

issued from the Kabbalah and return therein. Whatsoever is grand or scientific in the religious dreams of the

illuminated, of Jacob Bhme, Swedenborg, Saint‑Martin and the rest, is borrowed from the Kabbalah; all Masonic

Associations owe to it their secrets and their symbols. The Kabbalah alone consecrates the alliance of universal

reason and the Divine Word; it establishes, by the counterpoise of two forces in apparent opposition, the eternal balance of being; it alone reconciles reason with faith, power with liberty, science with mystery: it has the

keys of the present, past and future!" (Transcendental Magic, E. Lvi, tr. Waite, London, n.d., pp. 24f)

The hoary (though mythical) antiquity of the Kabbala, fathered on the fallen angels and also on Moses, was

another reason which recommended it to magicians; for magic, always conscious of a remote and glorious golden

age, seeks in the distant past and its memorials for the secrets of knowledge, wisdom and power. This is why

magical rituals have been ascribed, from time immemorial, to sages as far removed in time as was compatible with

the survival of their memory.

In the fifteenth century books of magical secrets and ritual processes were attributed to Adam (Sepher

Raziel), Abel, Noah, Joseph, Moses, Solomon, Reuben, Enoch, Zoroaster, Hermes Trismegistus, Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Virgil and Mahomet, to mention only the most outstanding and popular. This custom has persisted until today, and moved Waite to scholarly but uncritical wrath: "Back‑dating and imputed authorship are the two crying sins of magical hand‑books...There never was a literature so founded on forgery as that of Magic... Knavish methods...have ruled the manufacture of most magical books...A literature which has done nothing but ascribe falsely..." (The Book of Black Magic, A.E. Waite, London, 1898, Passim).

These false assumptions and antedatings, if they are symptoms of the fundamental delusiveness of magic, also

witness to its reverence for age, authority and tradition. The individual claims are invalid; but the antiquity

of magic and its supremacy in ancient times are matters of historical fact. Venerable indeed as well as many and

diverse were the strands woven into the rope with which medieval and modern magicians hoped to draw into their

sphere the unknown powers around them; deities and demons from Babylon, Egypt, Persia, Palestine and Greece;

magic names spoken in the dawn of time in languages now dead and gone; others taken from a ghost‑speech which had never exited in reality; ritual processes enacted through countless ages and fixed in high perfection before the birth of Christ; pagan practices; Eastern mysticism; Hebrew folk‑lore; Christian theology; apocalyptic angelology and demonology; Kabbalistic symbolism; neo‑Platonic philosophy.

All this (not to mention the considerable part played by astrology in the rituals of magic nor the presence

of ritual elements in the experiments of alchemy) was assimilated well or ill, partially or totally misunderstood, mangled, mutilated, corrupted, but still there in the quasi‑modern rituals which have found their

way into print.

Superficially considered, these appear to be a mass of unintelligible nonsense which it would be a waste of

time to examine closely. But a patient scrutiny reveals much of great interest buried underneath the rubbish on

the top.

A philosophy underlies the rituals; and beneath these mounds of folly are remnants of ancient civilizations.

Satanism

In the records of antiquity the result and not the origin meets the gaze; but the relationship of cause and

effect seems undeniable. The necromantic scene in the Epic of Gilgamish undoubtedly gives the impression of being based on ritual ceremonies (notably burial rites) witnessed by the poet, and so does the raising of Darius in The Persians; whereas Homer's description deems rather to have been inspired by legend or hearsay. The love‑charms in Virgil's Pharmaceutria were deliberately chosen for their poetical quality, and Lucan's hair‑raising account of

the rites of Erichtho illustrates the propensity of ritual to produce fiction, consummated in Apuleius' Golden

Ass. A less conscious and more organic development can be traced in the influence of the katabasis on the descent

of Aeneas into the Underworld in the wake of many an actor‑hero in kingship and fertility‑rites; and Dante's

Divine Comedy is a poet's vision and interpretation of the journey through the nether and upper regions

constantly undertaken by magicians in legend because they had done so in the rites. These two examples show the creative energy in ceremonial magic transformed into peerless poetry; but the question still remains as to

whether any comparable process has occurred in more recent times.

Shakespeare's Ariel and Milton's Azael derive from magical texts and it is just possible that the

demonologies which were such a marked feature of these manuals from The Testament of Solomon downwards

contributed the notion of a pandemonium to Milton, who crystallized the floating conceptions generated by the

rituals into a superb pageantry of evil. But this is speculation and does not admit of proof. One is on firmer

ground with the Greek magical papyri which show spontaneous development into poetry in many of the texts, a process also visible in some of Anti‑Scot's rituals, in which magic for magic's sake lords it over practical

considerations, and poetry is achieved.

This however is in the framework of the ceremony itself, as are also the epic elements discernible in The

Testament of Solomon, which elaborated the legend of the demons building of the Temple and contributed some items to it, verging on the territory of folk‑lore. The introductions to the Key of Solomon also used and added

something to the mythical matter about the wise king, and the first part of the Lemegeton could be described as

an amplification and elaboration of the legend of the brazen vessel.

'Fosts's Magi has epic streaks in it also; the planetary spirits as well as the presumed author and Mephisto

give autogiographical details, which are also present in the Black Raven; while the pygmies in Magia and Luridan

in Anti‑Scot show affiliations with folk‑lore. In all these case the rituals owe far more to legend than they add

to it, and are hardly more than signs and tokens of a persistent magical tradition associated with certain well‑

known names.

Rather less hidebound is The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage as delivered by Abraham the Jew

unto his son Lamech A.D. 1458. This mid‑fifteenth‑century text, originally written in Hebrew and translated from

French into English by Mathers, has a long autobiographical introduction describing how the writer became possessed of the secrets communicated in the manuscript.

Having received instruction in the Kabbala from his father Simon, Abraham set out at the age of twenty when

Simon died upon a voyage of discovery into the mysteries of the Lord. He went first to Mayence, where for ten

years he sat at the feet of a Jew called Moses, only to come to the conclusion that his arts were infidel and

idolatrous, whether deriving from Egyptian, Median, Persian, or Arabian sources. On February 13, 1397 he

therefore embarked for Egypt and spent two years in Constantinople, learning the sacred wisdom of Abramelin and copying out his secret books.

On the way home he visited the magicians in all the cities he passed through and was disillusioned or

disgusted with nearly all, notably with the wizard whom he found in Prague; "...a wicked man named Antony, who in

truth showed me wonderful and supernatural things, but the infamous wretch avowed to me, that he had made a pact with the demon, and had given himself over to him in body and in soul, while the deceitful Leviathan had promised him forty years of life to do his pleasure. Unto this day they do sing in the streets of the terrible end which

befell him, for his body was found dragged through the streets and his head without any tongue therein lying in a

drain." (C.J.S. Thomson, The Mysteries and Secrets of Magic, London, 1927, pp. 221f).

Traditional beliefs about the terrible doom of black magicians were drawn into the autobiographical

framework of the handbook, which was obviously designed to procure credence for the secrets and a market for the

wars after the fashion of magical texts.

Nevertheless in this instance, and sometimes in others too, story‑telling for its own sake won a temporary

if precarious victory over utilitarian aims; so that this introduction forms a halfway‑house between ritual

proper and a novel about magic. A further step forwards, although one that can hardly be called an aesthetic

progress, is to be found in the German Wagnerbook of 1593. This self‑styled sequel to the Faustbook is one of the

many dead‑sea fruits of legend, being a most uninspired imitation of the original (shorn of all its potential

greatness and of its tragic emotion) but doggedly determined to go one better than its model as far as

sensationalism was concerned.

In pursuance of that end no less than twenty‑five chief devils visit Wagner in state, whereas Faust had

received only eight (Belial, Lucifer, Beelzeub, Asteroth, Satanas, Anubis, Dythicanus and Drachus). The author of

the Wagnerbook who was well up in contemporary magical handbooks and used the liberally took his twenty‑five fiends bodily from Wierus' Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, using the descriptions he found there, although condensing them somewhat. Diminished as to numbers but otherwise unchanged, this unattractive crew now lumbered into a work of fiction, and though they do not exactly adorn it, one feels that they have chosen an appropriate milieu for their ungainly gyrations.

Nevertheless they knew an hour of greater glory in the Faustian Sea‑Spirit and in the chivalrous rite of

Anti‑Scot. They also exercised the imagination of the English author who produced an independent Wagnerbook in 1594 called The Second Report of Doctor John Faustus.

This is as unlike its German counterpart as chalk is different from cheese, being a work of pure imagination

bordering throughout on pure nonsense, with flashes of wit, poetry and fancy, metaphysical arguments, chivalrous

combats and a good deal of irresponsible skylarking.

The author knew Scot's Discouerie of Witchcraft and drew on T.R.'s translation of the Pseudomonarchia for an

infernal manifestation which occurred while Wagner was musing on the possibility of summoning up the departed

spirit of his sometime master Faust: "Sodainly the air began to receive an alteration and change with a thick

foggy mist, as if it would have shut up the desired day from man's view, the winds raged, the thunder lifted up

his voice above the common strain, hail and rain immediately following, and all these but the ordinary presages of an appearing sprit...Sodianly (for always such haps are sodain) the doors flew open as if they would have fled from flying, and in all pomp entered as it were the prologue of a comedy, a fellow so short and little, as if he

should be of one year, and yet not so briefs as ill favoured, in his hands a club, on his head a crown of laurel,

riding upon a low mule, his name was Gomory, a strong and mighty duke, the ruler of six and twenty legions, and

next in bravery appeared Volac a great governour, in the shape like a boy with wings like an angel of Hell

seeming to be of old rusty iron, riding upon a dragon with four heads, in his hands he held a flaming torch to

give light to the after commers and beholders; next after him appeared Asmody a king mighty and puissaunt, ragged

and bristled like a bore on foot, bearing a banner or lance. After him issued Lucifer the king of the Orient,

with the four monarches of his dominions, betwixt them were two mighty spaniels which drew in a fiery cart,

Doctor John Faustus..." (W.J. Thoms, Early English Prose Romances, London, 1858, III, pp. 319f).

Three of the fiends in the Pseudomonarchia, of which only Volac at all resembles 'Solomon's' portrait, amble

past in this vision, rather more nimbly than in the Wagnerbook, though less dramatically than in Sea‑Spirit and far less impressively than in Anti‑Scot's invocation of Paymon, Bathin and Parma. But the author had not yet done with the Discovery of Witchcraft. He based his exuberant description of the 'lamentable history of the death of sundry Students of Wittenberg' on the invocation of the five infernal kings of the North, given in Scot's

fifteenth book.

What is more he did the thing in style. Hearing that Wagner had left Wittenberg, seven reckless scholars

determined to use the books he had left behind in order to do some conjuring on their own account: "And then down

they get into a black court, and having lighted tapers, having injuriously framed all the circles, squares,

triangles, etc., and apparelled with all the conjuring robes that the art requireth, there they begin in a most

dreadful confusion of hellish syllables to inform the fiend, and after these words followed (as there needs must

such things follow after such words) a terrible roar, and then so bright a smothering thick fiery fume ascended

out of the earth as if it would have made an eternal night, then a vehement flame followed, which with continual

motion ran about the brims of the circle, until as weary it left moving...then from beneath was heard most

lamentable outcries, from above huge trembling, thunder, and round about nothing but fear and death in a thousand

terrible divers shapes...then round about was sound alarms with drums, and onset with trumpets, as if there all

the world had conflicted, then the flame which all this while ran about the circle became a body, but such a

body, as if it had been but a picture would have madded anyone. At whose sight they wholly overcome with deadly

fear forgot the use of the pantacles or any such gear, but even submitted themselves to the small mercy of the

fiend, who with great violence, rent them, and tore them most lamentabley."

After a fearful, although illusory, conflagration, friends broke in to try to save the conjurers, and found,

"...a round plot of some one hundred feet any way from the centre, there found they the religious circles, there

the strange characters, names of angels, a thousand crosses, there found they the five crosshilted daggers for

the five kings of hell, there many a strong bulwark builded with rows of crosses, there found they the surpluses,

the stoles, pall, mitres, holy water pots broken, their periapts, seals, signs of the angels of the seven dayes,

with infinite like trash and damnable roguery the fruits of the devils rank fansie.

But the most lamentable sight of all, the seven scholars utterly torn in pieces, their blood having changed

the color of the ground into a dark crimson, all their bodies as black as any coal, as if they had been scorched

with a material fire, their flesh violently torn from their bones..." (Thomas, op. cit., III, pp. 370. Cf. above,

p. 236)

The CHAD GADYAH, or HAD Gadyah, is a Passover song which ends: "the Most Holy, blessed be He, destroyed the angel of death that slew the slaughterer that killed the ox that drank the water that quenched the fire, that

burned the stick that beat the dog that bit the cat that ate the kid which my father bought for two zuzim." Chad

Gadyah is "The Only Kid," namely the Talmudic gang. The Jewish Encyclopedia is more veiled about its meaning than

is the book by Rabbi Morris S. Lazaron (Bloch Publishing Co. The Jewish Book Concern, 1928) called: "ASK the

RABBI, 2000 Questions and Answers About the Jew." "What is the sequence in the song, 'The Only Kid' supposed to symbolize?" (Question on p. 23, answered on p. 141) "Answers: The rise and fall of great nations, each of whom

destroys another until only Israel is left."

And this exactly matches Daniel's prophetic description of the seventh world government, the fourth after

Nebuchadnezzar's (Medo‑Persian, Greek, Roman, Red): "the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse form all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces." (Dan. 7:23)

Few Christians realize that the very practices of Paganism and Magic for which the Prophet Isaiah denounced the Jews about 698 B.C. are in use today in the "synagogue of Satan." In that 65th chapter, Isaiah promised the Messiah, Christ, as "a seed out of Jacob" (Israel, as the Lord called Him) "and out of Judah an inheritor of my

mountains" (nations) "...But ye [the ancestors of the Jews, whom Christ was talking to when He told them of the

sins of their fathers] are they...that prepare a table fore that troop (of demons) and that furnish the DRINK

OFFERING unto that number. Therefore...ye shall leave your name [Jew] for a curse unto my chosen [the Jews would falsely claim to be God's Israel Children, so the rest of the world would think it was His children who were the

evil ones]: for the Lord God shall slay thee [See the Book of Obadiah and others], and call his servants

[Israelites] by another name [Christians]." (Isa. 65:9, 11, 15).

Lingering in cemeteries to invoke [by methods as shown above and others not shown] the dead and eating

swine's flesh which was sacred to the sex‑goddess Astarte, are further abominations named earlier in the same

chapter. And His servants HAVE NOT BEEN CALLED "Israelites" since the "Inheritor," Christ came to earth in a

flesh body nearly 700 years later. Rabbi Trachtenberg said:

"On Saturday evening, during the HABDALAH ceremony which marks the beginning of the new week, another libation was offered to the spirits, as part of the ritual. Some of the wine was poured upon the ground 'as a

good omen for the entire week to symbolize good fortune and blessing.'"

Rabbi Trachtenberg then proceeds to debunk the pretense that this had any religious significance, then

states: "Moses Mat in the 16th century wrote that the practice is intended to 'give their portion to the company

of Korah,' namely, to the power of evil. And that portion was not inconsiderable. As one rabbi in Silesia

remarked, 'If I had the wine that is poured upon the ground in Austria during HABDALAH it would suffice to quench

my thirst for a whole year!'

This custom of pouring out some wine over which a blessing has been recited, which appears again in the

wedding ceremony, may have been considered by some people not as an offering to the spirits, but as a means of

driving them off." (Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 167)

Just preceding this, Rabbi Trachtenberg covers various food offerings to demons such as leaving a loaf of

bread and cup of wine "left standing overnight," which to quote, is categorized "as 'setting a table for the

demons.' Yet it continued to be done, sometimes with the frank admission that 'it extends fullness of blessing

over the entire week.' During the Passover Seder a cup of wine is filled expressly for the Prophet Elijah, who is

believed to visit every Jewish home on that occasion, and the door is opened for him to enter, this time the

offering is to a good spirit, rather than an evil one. But during the same service there is a late custom, which

arose in German‑Jewish circles, to pour out a drop of wine at the mention of each of the ten plagues, to placate

the evil spirits, who may be impelled by the reference to so many disasters to visit some of them upon the

celebrants.

Israel Isserlein's biographer wrote of him, 'He always spilled some of the water from his cup before

drinking,' thus observing a UNIVERSAL JEWISH CUSTOM going back to Talmudic times. The explanation then given was that the water might have been contaminated by a demon, but obviously merely spilling some of it doesn't purify it all. The intention was to induce the demon to neutralize the possible ill effect of the water by making him

[the demon] a LIBATION." (ibid. pp. 166‑167).

Rabbi Trachtenberg cites the power of the KAPPARAH rites in Judaism. In the first editions of the Shulhan

Aruch, the accepted code of Judaism compiled by Joseph Caro, his reference to Tashlik being a "silly custom" was

deleted "under the influence of the 16th century Polish annotator, Moses Isserles...The various features of the

ceremony accentuate its superstitious and even Magical Character. Fowl are closely associated with the spirits in

Jewish and non‑Jewish lore, and are the commonest oblation to them...The cock is employed to represent a man, the hen, a woman, in many magic rites.

The circles which are described about the head of the individual, and the numbers three and seven, are well‑

known magical elements. The words which effectuate the substitution have all the earmarks of a typical

incantation. In the earlier texts the words 'this is my atonement' are not present; they were added so that the

initials of the Hebrew terms might form the word HATACH, 'which is the name of the angel appointed over this.'"

Note: The planetary nature of these signs is clearly indicated in especial manifested with the exorcist,

character of a mythical nature pointing back to Hermes and Mercury. He is of course of particular interest on

account of Shakespeare's treatment of the spirits in The Tempest. Both have at least the quality "mercurial" in

common.

As his planet is Mercury in Magia, he is naturally associated with thieving; and the treasures he procures

consist of vanished, ill‑gotten and accursed goods. Like Hermes, the messenger of the gods, he wanders widely

over crags and dales; and like quicksilver he is difficult to constrain, hates to be tied and therefore dislikes

pacts. Shakespeare's Ariel also fretted against the bonds which bound him to Prospero. Ariel will give large

sums to avoid making pacts, and will do so three times running to the same person.

On the fourth occasion, however, he presents his bill. The signatory can obtain one of Ariel's small

servants as a familiar spirit. If they are banned into a monstrance which has held the body of the Lord and stood

upon an altar, the constraint thus exercised is very severe, and Ariel will pay huge sums to redeem them. Like

the fiends who confided in "Solomon" how he might get the better of them, Ariel, and indeed all the other

Electors, confessed under pressure. But Ariel was the most expansive and also something of a braggart. Among

other claims he declared that he had been so powerful during the Fall as to keep Adam and Eve for a full quarter

of an hour under the curse of God, and they had only been released by the Stake of Agla. "Faust" immediately

forced the informative fiend to reveal this potent formula. Too late now the latter repented of his blabbing. For

the Stake of Agla deprived not only Ariel but all hellish spirits of power and drove them whither the magician

would.

This curious anecdote about the Fall may be a piece of Kabbalistic or Talmudic lore, dragged in her for the

sake of the formula. In a later portion of the manual a definitely Rabbinical element is present in the

description of the snake‑daimon Bazarachiel. In Bereshith Rabbah, the erstwhile archangel Sammael, chief of the

Satans who had rebelled against the creation of man, determined to bring about the fall of Adam. He selected the serpent as the most suitable agent and took complete possession of his body, as an evil spirit take possession of

a demoniac.

In this way he deceived Eve. In Magia Naturalis et Innaturalis the great white snake Bazarachiel, co‑lord

with the serpent Jazariel of the tribal spirits of the dead, and invoked for necromantic purposes, appears in the

body of the snake which Satan borrowed to tempt Eve. This snake made the first pact with the devil, and the

spirit of Bazarachiel still informs it, the greatest of all secrets and mysteries of God. Bazarachiel therefore

is not a mere snake, but one of the most powerful spirits known to man. To subdue him with the sword of the

spirit is to become omniscient, the master of all spirits and of all hidden treasure.

The reference to the tribal spirits of the departed shows that this flotsam of Jewish folk‑lore was entangled with ancient beliefs in ancestor‑worship, leading to necromancy and ghost‑lore generally. And to the same hoary magical substratum of Magia belongs the notion of the propitiation of the subterranean gods underlying the processes given for summoning up the pygmies, who are here listed with the earth‑spirits. This operation (for the two methods given are almost identical) was either modelled on an anecdote in Grimm's Deutsche Sagen (1816‑1818) or taken from Prtorius, Grimm's seventeenth‑century source, or from some cognate and perhaps more detailed

description.

It is impregnated with the folk‑fancies which permeated Paracelsus' monograph De Nymphis, Sylphis, Pygmeis

et Salamandris, and is indeed refreshing to meet after wading one's weary way through the magical morass to meet after wading one's weary way through the magical morass.

Turn to the Jewish Encyclopedia to their article on "Pharisees" you will see that when the God of

Intelligence, the "anthropomorphic" God, was eliminated from the Bible by the Pharisees, "these used...the

ANGELOLOGY and DEMONOLOGY of the Pharisees...with the help of the Ma'aseh Bereshit and Ma'asheh Mercabah" (voodoo rites to see the Sun god, Mithra or Metatron, and learn the past and future) "not only to amplify the Biblical account, but to remove from the Bible anthropomorphisms and similarly obnoxious verbiage concerning the Deity by referring them to angelic and intermediary powers (for instance Genesis 1:20)..."

In other words, the old mass of spirit or substance of which the universe is composed, god of the Pagans,

called pantheism, or god as the sum‑of‑nature, left spirits or "gods" of every phase of nature to be invoked by

the Big‑Shots, MAN. Above is just one of the "angels" or gods invoked thru the KAPPARAH rites.

"There was at Nuremberg a man called Paul Creuz who made use of a wonderful conjuration. On a certain spot

he placed a little table which was quite new, and a white cloth on it with two little bowls of milk, two little

saucers of honey, two little plates and nine little knives. Then he took a black pullet and slaughtered it in

such a way over a kitchen brazier that the blood mingled with the food. After that, he threw one half to the east

and the other to the west. He then went and hid behind a big tree and saw that two little dwarfs who had come up

out of the ground had seated themselves at the table and had eaten over the precious incense‑burner which he had

also placed there. Then he put questions to them to which they replied; and after several occasions they became

so familiar with him, that they lived like guests in his house." (J. Grimm, Deutsche Sagen, Berlin, 1816, I, p.

48)

The process proper to the invocation of the many and various spirits of the hierarchy, and these innumerable

operations do indeed make hard and heavy reading, monotonous, repetitive and crammed full with ugly barbarous

names.

The demons are summoned in a loud voice, while the Cabalist faces east, by the ten holy names of the

Sephiroth, their numbers and angels, more or less as given in Schemhamphoras; then by hell, hell‑fire and the

torments and martyrdoms of hell; by Behemoth and Leviathan; by the Furies; by Cerberus; by the judges of the

Underworld; by the four rivers of Hades; by the six authors of all evil (Acteus, Magelesius, Ormenus, Lycas,

Nicon, Mimon) [The Greek Telechines or Alastores].

They are enjoined to appear without servants, storms or thunder, peacefully and gently, in a friendly human

form; to lay their fingers on the book and pentacels and, in a loud voice, to repeat after the Cabalist the oath

of allegiance without lies or deception. After having been shown a formula called the Stake of the All‑Highest,

and bound three times (each of them again individually by name) by the Trinity and the archangels, they are then

materialized by the incense and take the oath: "We, Lucifer, and all before mentioned and following spirits,

swear to you N...that we will faithfully perform everything written in this book; also never to do you any harm,

either to your body our your soul, and to execute everything immediately and without refusing...as truly as we believe that we may still attain to grace." (J. Scheible, Faust's Magia, pp. 31f)

By such rituals the Cabalist [Jewish rabbi] hopes to receive:

1). First Lucifer you shall procure me two tons of Gold.

2). Said gold shall be valid everywhere, and all those to whom I give it shall use it to their advantage.

3). Said gold shall not be false, nor of any Material that can be cheapened or disappear or turn into coal or

anything of that kind; but it shall be of a Metal which has been used by human hands and is valid in all

places and countries.

4). All treasures shall be at my disposal, so that I have not to fetch them myself; but you shall procure them

for me without any help or trouble on my part wherever I may want them.

5). You shall injure neither my body nor my limbs, nor attack my health; but maintain it without any human

debility whatsoever until I have completed my allotted span.

6). You must be not only quick as the thoughts of man to transport me from one place to another, however far they may lie apart, but you must also make me acquainted with the language of every country, so that I can speak

it perfectly, and further return me uninjured to my starting‑place when I have sufficiently enjoyed myself.

7). You must procure me a ring, so that as soon as I put it on my finger I may become invisible and invincible.

8). You must tach me how to procure the Universal Medicine and also its right use and power and also the weights, how much to give to any one person; this you must bell me and show me.

9). You must agree and promise to comply carefully with all these points; and if you neglect even the slightest,

or are negligent in any way, then you shall have no peace from this Book all your days, nor shall any peace

be granted you in all eternity. (Scheible, Das Kloster, II, p. 887ff)

To continue with Rabbi Trachtenberg's data on this: "The belief that evil spirits roost on roofs occurs

often (the Talmud places them under the eaves)...In view of this requirement that the entrails be thrown on a

roof acquires special significance. Thus analyzed there can be little doubt of the true meaning of the rite,

which is still observed today. It is probably the most blatantly superstitious practice to have entered Jewish

religious usage, for where the significance of other such practices has long since been lost sight of, the

purpose of this is too apparent to escape the dullest wits." (ibid. pp. 164‑165)

Not unrelated is the rite of TASHLIK, observed on the first day of Rosh Hashonah, this ceremony represents

merely the latest version of a complex of superstitious practices centering about the belief in the existence of

spirits in bodies of water, in later times TASHLIK was postponed if the first day of the New Year fell on a

Sabbath on the ground that carrying bread was a violation of the Sabbath rules.

The various excuse explanations (as usual used as the whited sepulchre for the stark PAGANISM of Pharisaism)

are covered by Trachtenberg, and then: "These explanations only too patently evade the main issue, the bread offering to the spirits...Under Kabbalistic influence an attempt was made to limit the rite to shaking one's

clothes at the river‑side..." (ibid. p. 166)

And, as stated elsewhere, herein, a picture appears in the Jewish Encyclopedia showing Jews with bags of

bread at the river‑side performing the Tashlik ceremony of appeasing the demons of the water. And on this basis,

that demons live in water, the whole book of YADAYIM is based in the Talmud. Yadayim means "hands" and getting

the demons off into water from the hands is the Talmudist's job, not cleanliness. That is why Christ would have

none of the Pharisee hand‑washing voodoo in His life, because of which the Pharisees upbraided Him mercilessly.

One of the most characteristic and least charming of the Talmudic customs is the gesture "to fig." This is

cited as one of the, "most widely used anti‑demonic devices...It is made by closing the fist and inserting the

thumb between the two fingers. Its particularly obnoxious character...derives from the fact that it is meant as

an obscene representation of the sexual act. Menasseh ben Israel was correct both in his explanation of the

intent of this gesture, and his association of it with the Talmudic recommendation that to protect oneself

against the EVIL EYE one should place his right thumb in his left fist and his left thumb in his right fist...'

When a man encloses his thumb in his fist he simulates a pregnant woman, and they, the spirits, do not harm him.'

People who employed this gesture were warned that it infuriates the demons at the same time that it renders them harmless; therefore a weak person, 'especially one who is dangerously ill,' should forbear to use it, for the

spirits may subsequently take vengeance on him.

Variations on this theme were also employed: For safety on a journey one should place the little finger of

the right hand in the left fist and recite a charm formula. The fingers were used as PHALLIC symbols to the same

end, and we learn that a witch is transfixed when one raises his index finger and thumb and recites the name

'Uriel' seven times, or that an 'evil impulse' may be vanquished by pressing the thumbs on the ground, repeating 'Pipi' nine times and spitting." (ibid. p. 162)

In all cases, the documentation of Rabbi Trachtenberg is monumental.

In the Kitzur or abbreviated edition of the Shulhan Aruch, which boils down the Talmud laws or Mishnaim, to

expedite knowing which shoe to put on in the morning to keep the demons in line, etc., it requires three chapters

to tell the modern Jew how to behave in that beloved subject‑the privy. Says Rabbi Trachtenberg: "In Talmudic

times it was customary to rattle nuts in a jar to scare away the demons that frequent privies..." and he cites

other devices. The TALMUD never leaves this subject for long. Discussing it is like whiffing the choicest

perfume, apparently.

In the endless discussion of it in the Talmud book of Berekoth, is this about a great Talmudic pillar in

Babylonia: "Before Raba became head of the Academy, the daughter of Rabbi Hisda used to rattle a nut in a brass

dish, to frighten away the EVIL SPIRITS. After he became head, she made a window for him, in the wall of the

house, through which she could put her hand, and put her hand on his head, as a protection. After becoming head

of the Academy, he was more exposed to danger from evil spirits." (folio 62a, p. 389 of the Soncino Translation)

Whether to wipe with the right or left hand occupies the preceding passage, and why Rabbi Kahana hid under

"Rab's" bed: "He heard him chatting with his wife and joking and doing what he required. He said to him: One

would think that Abba's mouth had never sipped the dish before! He said to him: Kahana, are you here? Go out,

because it is rude. He replied: It is a matter of Torah, and I require to learn." (61b‑62a).

That IS the idea of "TORAH" to the Babylonian Talmudist, or Pharisee, sex and filth‑worship.

Of the hordes of demons the Jew who would win out must use and dismiss, none is more prominent that LILITH.

Lilith is jealous of lying‑in mothers and their new‑born babies. Her main job is spawning demons it would seem.

Rabbi Trachtenberg repeats the Talmudic tale that "when Adam was parted from Eve, he had relations with female

demons who bore him demonic offspring." He was at this for 130 years, we are told.

Trachtenberg said: "As a result of the legend of Adam's relations with LILIT (Note: just another spelling,

as is usual with Talmudic words)...the LILITS were most frequently singled out as the demons who embrace sleeping men and cause them to have nocturnal emissions which are the seed of a hybrid progeny...As the demon whose special prey is lying‑in women, it was found necessary to adopt an extensive series of protective measures against her...We seem to have here a union of the night demon with the spirit that presides over pregnancy, influenced no doubt by the character of the BABYLONIAN LAMASSU, and the lamiae and striga of Greek and Roman

folklore." (ibid. p. 37)

Talmudism and The Dead

"Obviously the spirits can help as well as harm the living...An observant visitor to the tomb of Simon bar

Yohai, for instance, at Meron, Palestine, will discern a host of written entreaties for the saint's aid (Note:

the "saint" was a second century Talmudic voodoo‑worker associated with the Zohar, principal multi‑volumed work

of the Cabala [Kabbala], more sexy, if possible, than even the Talmud). And, the ancient practice of visiting the

cemetery to entreat the offices of deceased relatives or scholars persisted...In addition to such individual

visits, there grew up the custom of the entire congregation repairing to the cemetery annually on several

occasions, such as the seven 'rain fasts,' and on TISHA 'B'AB...and on the eves of New Year and the Day of

Atonement, 'that the dead may beseech mercy on our behalf.'" (ibid. p. 64)

The Jewish Encyclopedia under "Cemetery" refers to the custom of visiting the cemetery to consult the

spirits, and cites Niddah 17a, There "spending a night in a graveyard in order that a spirit of uncleanness may

rest upon him, to enable him to foretell the future" is mentioned with the warning that "in consequence he might sometimes be exposed to danger." (ibid. p. 113, Soncino Edition, Niddah).

Reference to this practice is also made in Sanhedrein 65b. That cemeteries are infested with spirits,

demons, etc., is the general idea: "The custom of washing the hands after a funeral is very widespread...Efforts

were made to find a Biblical precedent for this act, but...there was a general admission that it was done 'to

dispel the spirits of uncleanness' which cling to one's person, these being 'the demons that follow them home.'"

(Jewish Magic and Superstition, Rabbi Trachtenberg, p. 179)

It has been noted that the Jews were drizzling water on their hands after a funeral, and, on inquiring the

reason for this were told it was a Jewish custom after funerals.



Reference Materials